Venoms obtained from Apis mellifera (honey bee) and related species. They contain various enzymes, polypeptide toxins, and other substances, some of which are allergenic or immunogenic or both. These venoms were formerly used in rheumatism to stimulate the pituitary-adrenal system.
Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.
Basic polypeptide from the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). It contains 26 amino acids, has cytolytic properties, causes contracture of muscle, releases histamine, and disrupts surface tension, probably due to lysis of cell and mitochondrial membranes.
Venoms from snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae or pit vipers, found mostly in the Americas. They include the rattlesnake, cottonmouth, fer-de-lance, bushmaster, and American copperhead. Their venoms contain nontoxic proteins, cardio-, hemo-, cyto-, and neurotoxins, and many enzymes, especially phospholipases A. Many of the toxins have been characterized.
Poisonous animal secretions forming fluid mixtures of many different enzymes, toxins, and other substances. These substances are produced in specialized glands and secreted through specialized delivery systems (nematocysts, spines, fangs, etc.) for disabling prey or predator.
Venoms produced by the wasp (Vespid) family of stinging insects, including hornets; the venoms contain enzymes, biogenic amines, histamine releasing factors, kinins, toxic polypeptides, etc., and are similar to bee venoms.
Venoms from snakes of the genus Naja (family Elapidae). They contain many specific proteins that have cytotoxic, hemolytic, neurotoxic, and other properties. Like other elapid venoms, they are rich in enzymes. They include cobramines and cobralysins.
Phospholipases that hydrolyze the acyl group attached to the 2-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.
Venoms from SNAKES of the viperid family. They tend to be less toxic than elapid or hydrophid venoms and act mainly on the vascular system, interfering with coagulation and capillary membrane integrity and are highly cytotoxic. They contain large amounts of several enzymes, other factors, and some toxins.
Phospholipases that hydrolyze one of the acyl groups of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates.
Venoms from snakes of the family Elapidae, including cobras, kraits, mambas, coral, tiger, and Australian snakes. The venoms contain polypeptide toxins of various kinds, cytolytic, hemolytic, and neurotoxic factors, but fewer enzymes than viper or crotalid venoms. Many of the toxins have been characterized.
Venoms of arthropods of the order Araneida of the ARACHNIDA. The venoms usually contain several protein fractions, including ENZYMES, hemolytic, neurolytic, and other TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL.
A subcategory of secreted phospholipases A2 with specificity for PHOSPHATIDYLETHANOLAMINES and PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE. It occurs as a component of VENOMS and as a mammalian secretory phospholipase A2. The creation of this group is based upon similarities in the structural determinants of the enzymes including a long amino-terminal domain, a conserved group III-specific domain, and a long carboxyl-terminal domain.
A highly neurotoxic polypeptide from the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). It consists of 18 amino acids with two disulfide bridges and causes hyperexcitability resulting in convulsions and respiratory paralysis.
Venoms from animals of the phylum Arthropoda. Those most investigated are from scorpions and spiders of the class Arachnidae and from ant, bee, and wasp families of the Insecta order Hymenoptera. The venoms contain protein toxins, enzymes, and other bioactive substances and may be lethal to man.
Venoms from animals of the order Scorpionida of the class Arachnida. They contain neuro- and hemotoxins, enzymes, and various other factors that may release acetylcholine and catecholamines from nerve endings. Of the several protein toxins that have been characterized, most are immunogenic.
Bites and stings inflicted by insects.
Immunosuppression by the administration of increasing doses of antigen. Though the exact mechanism is not clear, the therapy results in an increase in serum levels of allergen-specific IMMUNOGLOBULIN G, suppression of specific IgE, and an increase in suppressor T-cell activity.
Designated locations along nerves or organ meridians for inserting acupuncture needles.
An extensive order of highly specialized insects including bees, wasps, and ants.
A genus of poisonous snakes of the VIPERIDAE family. About 50 species are known and all are found in tropical America and southern South America. Bothrops atrox is the fer-de-lance and B. jararaca is the jararaca. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336)
Antisera used to counteract poisoning by animal VENOMS, especially SNAKE VENOMS.
Venoms produced by FISHES, including SHARKS and sting rays, usually delivered by spines. They contain various substances, including very labile toxins that affect the HEART specifically and all MUSCLES generally.
Venoms from the superfamily Formicoidea, Ants. They may contain protein factors and toxins, histamine, enzymes, and alkaloids and are often allergenic or immunogenic.
Solutions or mixtures of toxic and nontoxic substances elaborated by snake (Ophidia) salivary glands for the purpose of killing prey or disabling predators and delivered by grooved or hollow fangs. They usually contain enzymes, toxins, and other factors.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates. EC 3.1.-.
A family of extremely venomous snakes, comprising coral snakes, cobras, mambas, kraits, and sea snakes. They are widely distributed, being found in the southern United States, South America, Africa, southern Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands. The elapids include three subfamilies: Elapinae, Hydrophiinae, and Lauticaudinae. Like the viperids, they have venom fangs in the front part of the upper jaw. The mambas of Africa are the most dangerous of all snakes by virtue of their size, speed, and highly toxic venom. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p329-33)
An acute hypersensitivity reaction due to exposure to a previously encountered ANTIGEN. The reaction may include rapidly progressing URTICARIA, respiratory distress, vascular collapse, systemic SHOCK, and death.
An enzyme that catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-linkages between N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine and D-glucuronate residues in hyaluronate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) There has been use as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to limit NEOPLASM METASTASIS.
Venoms from mollusks, including CONUS and OCTOPUS species. The venoms contain proteins, enzymes, choline derivatives, slow-reacting substances, and several characterized polypeptide toxins that affect the nervous system. Mollusk venoms include cephalotoxin, venerupin, maculotoxin, surugatoxin, conotoxins, and murexine.

IL-10-induced anergy in peripheral T cell and reactivation by microenvironmental cytokines: two key steps in specific immunotherapy. (1/345)

Specific immunotherapy (SIT) is widely used for treatment of allergic diseases and could potentially be applied in other immunological disorders. Induction of specific unresponsiveness (anergy) in peripheral T cells and recovery by cytokines from the tissue microenvironment represent two key steps in SIT with whole allergen or antigenic T cell peptides (PIT). The anergy is directed against the T cell epitopes of the respective antigen and characterized by suppressed proliferative and cytokine responses. It is initiated by autocrine action of IL-10, which is increasingly produced by the antigen-specific T cells. Later in therapy, B cells and monocytes also produce IL-10. The anergic T cells can be reactivated by different cytokines. Whereas IL-15 and IL-2 generate Th1 cytokine profile and an IgG4 antibody response, IL-4 reactivates a Th2 cytokine pattern and IgE antibodies. Increased IL-10 suppresses IgE and enhances IgG4 synthesis, resulting in a decreased antigen-specific IgE:IgG4 ratio, as observed normally in patients after SIT or PIT. The same state of anergy against the major bee venom allergen, phospholipase A2, can be observed in subjects naturally anergized after multiple bee stings. Together, these data demonstrate the pivotal role of autocrine IL-10 in induction of specific T cell anergy and the important participation of the cytokine microenvironment in SIT. Furthermore, knowledge of the mechanisms explaining reasons for success or failure of SIT may enable possible predictive measures of the treatment.  (+info)

Lipolytic modification of LDL by phospholipase A2 induces particle aggregation in the absence and fusion in the presence of heparin. (2/345)

One of the first events in atherogenesis is modification of low density lipoprotein (LDL) particles in the arterial wall with ensuing formation of aggregated and fused lipid droplets. The accumulating particles are relatively depleted in phosphatidylcholine (PC). Recently, secretory phospholipase A2 (PLA2), an enzyme capable of hydrolyzing LDL PC into fatty acid and lysoPC molecules, has been found in atherosclerotic arteries. There is also evidence that both LDL and PLA2 bind to the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains of extracellular proteoglycans in the arterial wall. Here we studied the effect of heparin GAG on the lipolytic modification of LDL by PLA2. Untreated LDL, heparin-treated LDL, and heparin-bound LDL were lipolyzed with bee venom PLA2. In the presence of albumin, lipolysis resulted in aggregation in all 3 preparations of the LDL particles. Lipolysis of untreated LDL did not result in aggregation if albumin was absent from the reaction medium, and the lipolytic products accumulated in the particles rendering them negatively charged. However, heparin-treated and heparin-bound lipolyzed LDL particles aggregated even in the absence of albumin. Importantly, in the presence of albumin, some of the heparin-treated and heparin-bound lipolyzed LDL particles fused, the proportion of fused particles being substantially greater when LDL was bound to heparin during lipolysis. In summary, lipolysis of LDL PC by PLA2 under physiological conditions, which allow transfer of the lipolytic degradation products to albumin, leads to fusion of LDL particles in the presence, but not in the absence, of heparin. Thus, it is possible that within the GAG meshwork of the arterial intima, PLA2-induced modification of LDL is one source of the lipid droplets during atherogenesis.  (+info)

Update on the status of Africanized honey bees in the western states. (3/345)

The Africanized honey bee (AHB), Apis mellifera scutella--perhaps better known as the "killer bee"--has arrived in the western United States and in southern California, following a nearly 50-year north-ward migration across South and Central America. First detected near Hidalgo, Texas in October 1993, the bees continue to advance 100 to 300 miles per year by colonizing existing hives or forming new hives in the wild. Although the AHB's "killer" reputation has been greatly exaggerated, the presence of AHBs will increase the chances of people being stung.  (+info)

Mass envenomations by honey bees and wasps. (4/345)

Stinging events involving honey bees and wasps are rare; most deaths or clinically important incidents involve very few stings (< 10) and anaphylactic shock. However, mass stinging events can prove life-threatening via the toxic action of the venom when injected in large amounts. With the advent of the Africanized honey bee in the southwestern United States and its potential for further spread, mass envenomation incidents will increase. Here we review the literature on mass stinging events involving honey bees and wasps (i.e., yellowjackets, wasps, and hornets). Despite different venom composition in the two insect groups, both may cause systemic damage and involve hemolysis, rhabdomyolysis, and acute renal failure. Victim death may occur due to renal failure or cardiac complications. With supportive care, however, most victims should be able to survive attacks from hundreds of wasps or approximately 1000 honey bees.  (+info)

Ultraviolet Raman examination of the environmental dependence of bombolitin I and bombolitin III secondary structure. (5/345)

Bombolitin I and III (BI and BIII) are small amphiphilic peptides isolated from bumblebee venom. Although they exist in predominately nonhelical conformations in dilute aqueous solutions, we demonstrate, using UV Raman spectroscopy, that they become predominately alpha-helical in solution at pH > 10, in high ionic strength solutions, and in the presence of trifluoroethanol (TFE) and dodecylphosphocholine (DPC) micelles. In this paper, we examine the effects of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions that control folding of BI and BIII by systematically monitoring their secondary structures as a function of solution conditions. We determine the BI and BIII secondary structure contents by using the quantitative UV Raman methodology of Chi et al. (1998. Biochemistry. 37:2854-2864). Our findings suggest that the alpha-helix turn in BIII at neutral pH is stabilized by a salt bridge between residues Asp2 and Lys5. This initial alpha-helical turn results in different BI and BIII alpha-helical folding mechanisms observed in high pH and high salt concentrations: BIII folds from its single alpha-helix turn close to its N-terminal, whereas the BI alpha-helix probably nucleates within the C-terminal half. We also used quasielastic light scattering to demonstrate that the BI and BIII alpha-helix formation in 0.2 M Ca(ClO4)2 is accompanied by formation of trimers and hexamers, respectively.  (+info)

On the diversity and heterogeneity of H-2(d)-restricted determinants and T cell epitopes from the major bee venom allergen. (6/345)

One of the main limitations of using synthetic peptides for immunotherapy in allergic patients is the difficulty to delineate the immunodominant T cell epitopes which are necessarily dependent on HLA molecules. We have thus addressed the question of the role of MHC II molecules in immunodominant epitopes selection in the particular case of the major bee venom allergen (API m1). To exhaustively and easily explore it, we used BALB/c mice whose H-2 haplotype is associated with high IgE and IgG responses to API m1. By means of extensive sets of synthetic peptides, we investigated the specificity of polyclonal T cells and monoclonal hybridomas from mice immunized with API m1 and delineated four immunodominant regions, restricted to either the I-E(d) or the I-A(d) molecule. All the peptides were also tested for their capacity to bind to immunopurified MHC II molecules. Eight determinants of high affinity were identified. They clustered into three distinct regions and were largely overlapping. They included all the immunodominant epitopes, but half of them were not capable of stimulating T cells. Strikingly, interacting surfaces with either the TCR or MHC II molecule greatly differed from one determinant to another. In one case, we observed that flanking regions exerted a particular action on T cell stimulation which prevented the fine epitope localization. Our results underline the diversity and complexity of MHC II-restricted determinants and T cell epitopes from the major bee venom allergen, even in a single haplotype. These data also participate in the development of alternative approaches to conventional immunotherapy.  (+info)

Secreted phospholipases A(2), a new class of HIV inhibitors that block virus entry into host cells. (7/345)

Mammalian and venom secreted phospholipases A(2) (sPLA(2)s) have been associated with a variety of biological effects. Here we show that several sPLA(2)s protect human primary blood leukocytes from the replication of various macrophage and T cell-tropic HIV-1 strains. Inhibition by sPLA(2)s results neither from a virucidal effect nor from a cytotoxic effect on host cells, but it involves a more specific mechanism. sPLA(2)s have no effect on virus binding to cells nor on syncytia formation, but they prevent the intracellular release of the viral capsid protein, suggesting that sPLA(2)s block viral entry into cells before virion uncoating and independently of the coreceptor usage. Various inhibitors and catalytic products of sPLA(2) have no effect on HIV-1 infection, suggesting that sPLA(2) catalytic activity is not involved in the antiviral effect. Instead, the antiviral activity appears to involve a specific interaction of sPLA(2)s to host cells. Indeed, of 11 sPLA(2)s from venom and mammalian tissues assayed, 4 venom sPLA(2)s were found to be very potent HIV-1 inhibitors (ID(50) < 1 nM) and also to bind specifically to host cells with high affinities (K(0.5) < 1 nM). Although mammalian pancreatic group IB and inflammatory-type group IIA sPLA(2)s were inactive against HIV-1 replication, our results could be of physiological interest, as novel sPLA(2)s are being characterized in humans.  (+info)

A novel Fab-based antivenom for the treatment of mass bee attacks. (8/345)

The frequency of mass bee attacks has dramatically increased in the Americas following the introduction and spread of the aggressive Africanized 'killer' bee (Apis mellifera scutellata). As yet no specific therapy is available, which led us to develop an ovine Fab-based antivenom as a potential new treatment. Sera from sheep immunized against the venom contained high levels of specific antibodies, as demonstrated by ELISA and by small-scale affinity chromatography, against both whole (A. m. mellifera) venom and purified melittin. A nerve muscle preparation was used to show the myotoxic effects of the venom and neutralization by the antivenom. Antivenom neutralizing ability was also demonstrated using assays for venom phospholipase A2 and in vivo activities. Venom from both European and Africanized bees appeared identical when analyzed by acid-urea gel electrophoresis. This antivenom may therefore provide the first specific therapy for the treatment of mass envenomation by either European or Africanized 'killer' bees.  (+info)

Bee venom is a poisonous substance that a honeybee (Apis mellifera) injects into the skin of a person or animal when it stings. It's produced in the venom gland and stored in the venom sac of the bee. Bee venom is a complex mixture of proteins, peptides, and other compounds. The main active components of bee venom include melittin, apamin, and phospholipase A2.

Melittin is a toxic peptide that causes pain, redness, and swelling at the site of the sting. It also has hemolytic (red blood cell-destroying) properties. Apamin is a neurotoxin that can affect the nervous system and cause neurological symptoms in severe cases. Phospholipase A2 is an enzyme that can damage cell membranes and contribute to the inflammatory response.

Bee venom has been used in traditional medicine for centuries, particularly in China and other parts of Asia. It's believed to have anti-inflammatory, analgesic (pain-relieving), and immunomodulatory effects. Some studies suggest that bee venom may have therapeutic potential for a variety of medical conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and chronic pain. However, more research is needed to confirm these findings and to determine the safety and efficacy of bee venom therapy.

It's important to note that bee stings can cause severe allergic reactions (anaphylaxis) in some people, which can be life-threatening. If you experience symptoms such as difficulty breathing, rapid heartbeat, or hives after being stung by a bee, seek medical attention immediately.

"Bees" are not a medical term, as they refer to various flying insects belonging to the Apidae family in the Apoidea superfamily. They are known for their role in pollination and honey production. If you're looking for medical definitions or information, please provide relevant terms.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Melitten" does not appear to be a recognized medical term or condition. It is possible that there may be a spelling mistake or typo in the term you are looking for. Please double-check the spelling and try again, or provide more context so I can try to help you find the information you're looking for.

Crotalid venoms are the toxic secretions produced by the members of the Crotalinae subfamily, also known as pit vipers. This group includes rattlesnakes, cottonmouths (or water moccasins), and copperheads, which are native to the Americas, as well as Old World vipers found in Asia and Europe, such as gaboon vipers and saw-scaled vipers.

Crotalid venoms are complex mixtures of various bioactive molecules, including enzymes, proteins, peptides, and other low molecular weight components. They typically contain a variety of pharmacologically active components, such as hemotoxic and neurotoxic agents, which can cause extensive local tissue damage, coagulopathy, cardiovascular dysfunction, and neuromuscular disorders in the victim.

The composition of crotalid venoms can vary significantly between different species and even among individual specimens within the same species. This variability is influenced by factors such as geographic location, age, sex, diet, and environmental conditions. As a result, the clinical manifestations of crotalid envenomation can be highly variable, ranging from mild local reactions to severe systemic effects that may require intensive medical treatment and supportive care.

Crotalid venoms have been the subject of extensive research in recent years due to their potential therapeutic applications. For example, certain components of crotalid venoms have shown promise as drugs for treating various medical conditions, such as cardiovascular diseases, pain, and inflammation. However, further studies are needed to fully understand the mechanisms of action of these venom components and to develop safe and effective therapies based on them.

Venom is a complex mixture of toxic compounds produced by certain animals, such as snakes, spiders, scorpions, and marine creatures like cone snails and stonefish. These toxic substances are specifically designed to cause damage to the tissues or interfere with the normal physiological processes of other organisms, which can lead to harmful or even lethal effects.

Venoms typically contain a variety of components, including enzymes, peptides, proteins, and small molecules, each with specific functions that contribute to the overall toxicity of the mixture. Some of these components may cause localized damage, such as tissue necrosis or inflammation, while others can have systemic effects, impacting various organs and bodily functions.

The study of venoms, known as toxinology, has important implications for understanding the evolution of animal behavior, developing new therapeutics, and advancing medical treatments for envenomation (the process of being poisoned by venom). Additionally, venoms have been used in traditional medicine for centuries, and ongoing research continues to uncover novel compounds with potential applications in modern pharmacology.

Wasp venoms are complex mixtures of bioactive molecules produced by wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) to defend themselves and paralyze prey. The main components include:

1. Phospholipases A2 (PLA2): Enzymes that can cause pain, inflammation, and damage to cell membranes.
2. Hyaluronidase: An enzyme that helps spread the venom by breaking down connective tissues.
3. Proteases: Enzymes that break down proteins and contribute to tissue damage and inflammation.
4. Antigen 5: A major allergen that can cause severe allergic reactions (anaphylaxis) in sensitive individuals.
5. Mastoparan: A peptide that induces histamine release, leading to localized inflammation and pain.
6. Neurotoxins: Some wasp venoms contain neurotoxins that can cause paralysis or neurological symptoms.

The composition of wasp venoms may vary among species, and individual sensitivity to the components can result in different reactions ranging from localized pain, swelling, and redness to systemic allergic responses.

Cobra venoms are a type of snake venom that is produced by cobras, which are members of the genus Naja in the family Elapidae. These venoms are complex mixtures of proteins and other molecules that have evolved to help the snake immobilize and digest its prey.

Cobra venoms typically contain a variety of toxic components, including neurotoxins, hemotoxins, and cytotoxins. Neurotoxins target the nervous system and can cause paralysis and respiratory failure. Hemotoxins damage blood vessels and tissues, leading to internal bleeding and organ damage. Cytotoxins destroy cells and can cause tissue necrosis.

The specific composition of cobra venoms can vary widely between different species of cobras, as well as between individual snakes of the same species. Some cobras have venoms that are primarily neurotoxic, while others have venoms that are more hemotoxic or cytotoxic. The potency and effects of cobra venoms can also be influenced by factors such as the age and size of the snake, as well as the temperature and pH of the environment.

Cobra bites can be extremely dangerous and even fatal to humans, depending on the species of cobra, the amount of venom injected, and the location of the bite. Immediate medical attention is required in the event of a cobra bite, including the administration of antivenom therapy to neutralize the effects of the venom.

Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is a type of enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of the sn-2 ester bond in glycerophospholipids, releasing free fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid, and lysophospholipids. These products are important precursors for the biosynthesis of various signaling molecules, including eicosanoids, platelet-activating factor (PAF), and lipoxins, which play crucial roles in inflammation, immunity, and other cellular processes.

Phospholipases A2 are classified into several groups based on their structure, mechanism of action, and cellular localization. The secreted PLA2s (sPLA2s) are found in extracellular fluids and are characterized by a low molecular weight, while the calcium-dependent cytosolic PLA2s (cPLA2s) are larger proteins that reside within cells.

Abnormal regulation or activity of Phospholipase A2 has been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as inflammation, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. Therefore, understanding the biology and function of these enzymes is essential for developing novel therapeutic strategies to target these disorders.

"Viper venoms" refer to the toxic secretions produced by members of the Viperidae family of snakes, which include pit vipers (such as rattlesnakes, copperheads, and cottonmouths) and true vipers (like adders, vipers, and gaboon vipers). These venoms are complex mixtures of proteins, enzymes, and other bioactive molecules that can cause a wide range of symptoms in prey or predators, including local tissue damage, pain, swelling, bleeding, and potentially life-threatening systemic effects such as coagulopathy, cardiovascular shock, and respiratory failure.

The composition of viper venoms varies widely between different species and even among individuals within the same species. However, many viper venoms contain a variety of enzymes (such as phospholipases A2, metalloproteinases, and serine proteases) that can cause tissue damage and disrupt vital physiological processes in the victim. Additionally, some viper venoms contain neurotoxins that can affect the nervous system and cause paralysis or other neurological symptoms.

Understanding the composition and mechanisms of action of viper venoms is important for developing effective treatments for venomous snakebites, as well as for gaining insights into the evolution and ecology of these fascinating and diverse creatures.

Phospholipases A are a group of enzymes that hydrolyze phospholipids into fatty acids and lysophospholipids by cleaving the ester bond at the sn-1 or sn-2 position of the glycerol backbone. There are three main types of Phospholipases A:

* Phospholipase A1 (PLA1): This enzyme specifically hydrolyzes the ester bond at the sn-1 position, releasing a free fatty acid and a lysophospholipid.
* Phospholipase A2 (PLA2): This enzyme specifically hydrolyzes the ester bond at the sn-2 position, releasing a free fatty acid (often arachidonic acid, which is a precursor for eicosanoids) and a lysophospholipid.
* Phospholipase A/B (PLA/B): This enzyme has both PLA1 and PLA2 activity and can hydrolyze the ester bond at either the sn-1 or sn-2 position.

Phospholipases A play important roles in various biological processes, including cell signaling, membrane remodeling, and host defense. They are also involved in several diseases, such as atherosclerosis, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer.

Elapid venoms are the toxic secretions produced by elapid snakes, a family of venomous snakes that includes cobras, mambas, kraits, and coral snakes. These venoms are primarily composed of neurotoxins, which can cause paralysis and respiratory failure in prey or predators.

Elapid venoms work by targeting the nervous system, disrupting communication between the brain and muscles. This results in muscle weakness, paralysis, and eventually respiratory failure if left untreated. Some elapid venoms also contain hemotoxins, which can cause tissue damage, bleeding, and other systemic effects.

The severity of envenomation by an elapid snake depends on several factors, including the species of snake, the amount of venom injected, the location of the bite, and the size and health of the victim. Prompt medical treatment is essential in cases of elapid envenomation, as the effects of the venom can progress rapidly and lead to serious complications or death if left untreated.

Spider venoms are complex mixtures of bioactive compounds produced by the specialized glands of spiders. These venoms are primarily used for prey immobilization and defense. They contain a variety of molecules such as neurotoxins, proteases, peptides, and other biologically active substances. Different spider species have unique venom compositions, which can cause different reactions when they bite or come into contact with humans or other animals. Some spider venoms can cause mild symptoms like pain and swelling, while others can lead to more severe reactions such as tissue necrosis or even death in extreme cases.

Group III Phospholipases A2 (PLA2) are a subclass of the PLA2 family, which are enzymes that hydrolyze the sn-2 ester bond of glycerophospholipids to release free fatty acids and lysophospholipids. Specifically, Group III PLA2s are secreted enzymes that require calcium ions for their activity and are further divided into subgroups based on their structure and function. They play important roles in various biological processes, including inflammation, host defense, and lipid metabolism.

Group III PLA2s have been implicated in several pathological conditions, such as atherosclerosis, arthritis, and neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, they are considered potential therapeutic targets for these disorders. However, further research is needed to fully understand their functions and regulatory mechanisms.

Apamin is a neurotoxin found in the venom of the honeybee (Apis mellifera). It is a small peptide consisting of 18 amino acids and has a molecular weight of approximately 2000 daltons. Apamin is known to selectively block certain types of calcium-activated potassium channels, which are involved in the regulation of neuronal excitability. It has been used in scientific research to study the role of these ion channels in various physiological processes.

Clinically, apamin has been investigated for its potential therapeutic effects in a variety of neurological disorders, such as epilepsy and Parkinson's disease. However, its use as a therapeutic agent is not yet approved by regulatory agencies due to the lack of sufficient clinical evidence and concerns about its potential toxicity.

Arthropod venoms are toxic secretions produced by the venom glands of various arthropods, such as spiders, scorpions, insects, and marine invertebrates. These venoms typically contain a complex mixture of bioactive molecules, including peptides, proteins, enzymes, and small molecules, which can cause a range of symptoms and effects in humans and other animals.

The specific composition of arthropod venoms varies widely depending on the species and can be tailored to serve various functions, such as prey immobilization, defense, or predation. Some arthropod venoms contain neurotoxins that can disrupt nerve function and cause paralysis, while others may contain cytotoxins that damage tissues or hemotoxins that affect the blood and cardiovascular system.

Arthropod venoms have been studied for their potential therapeutic applications, as some of their bioactive components have shown promise in treating various medical conditions, including pain, inflammation, and neurological disorders. However, it is important to note that arthropod venoms can also cause severe allergic reactions and other adverse effects in susceptible individuals, making it essential to exercise caution when handling or coming into contact with venomous arthropods.

Scorpion venoms are complex mixtures of neurotoxins, enzymes, and other bioactive molecules that are produced by the venom glands of scorpions. These venoms are primarily used for prey immobilization and defense. The neurotoxins found in scorpion venoms can cause a variety of symptoms in humans, including pain, swelling, numbness, and in severe cases, respiratory failure and death.

Scorpion venoms are being studied for their potential medical applications, such as in the development of new pain medications and insecticides. Additionally, some components of scorpion venom have been found to have antimicrobial properties and may be useful in the development of new antibiotics.

Insect bites and stings refer to the penetration of the skin by insects, such as mosquitoes, fleas, ticks, or bees, often resulting in localized symptoms including redness, swelling, itching, and pain. The reaction can vary depending on the individual's sensitivity and the type of insect. In some cases, systemic reactions like anaphylaxis may occur, which requires immediate medical attention. Treatment typically involves relieving symptoms with topical creams, antihistamines, or in severe cases, epinephrine. Prevention measures include using insect repellent and protective clothing.

Desensitization, Immunologic is a medical procedure that aims to decrease the immune system's response to an allergen. This is achieved through the controlled exposure of the patient to gradually increasing amounts of the allergen, ultimately leading to a reduction in the severity of allergic reactions upon subsequent exposures. The process typically involves administering carefully measured and incrementally larger doses of the allergen, either orally, sublingually (under the tongue), or by injection, under medical supervision. Over time, this repeated exposure can help the immune system become less sensitive to the allergen, thereby alleviating allergic symptoms.

The specific desensitization protocol and administration method may vary depending on the type of allergen and individual patient factors. Immunologic desensitization is most commonly used for environmental allergens like pollen, dust mites, or pet dander, as well as insect venoms such as bee or wasp stings. It is important to note that this procedure should only be performed under the close supervision of a qualified healthcare professional, as there are potential risks involved, including anaphylaxis (a severe and life-threatening allergic reaction).

Acupuncture points, also known as "acupoints," are specific locations on the body that are used in acupuncture therapy. These points are believed to correspond to underlying pathways, or meridians, through which vital energy, or "qi" (pronounced "chee"), flows.

Acupuncture points are typically found along these meridians and are thought to have specific therapeutic properties. According to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory, stimulating these points with needles, heat, pressure, or electrical impulses can help restore the balance of qi and promote healing in the body.

There are over 360 acupuncture points identified in TCM, each with its own name, location, and set of indications for use. Modern research has attempted to identify the anatomical structures underlying these points, with some studies suggesting that they may correspond to nerve bundles, blood vessels, or other physiological features. However, the exact mechanisms by which acupuncture works remain a topic of ongoing scientific investigation and debate.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hymenoptera" is not a medical term. It is a scientific classification in biology, specifically referring to an order of insects that includes sawflies, bees, ants, and wasps. These insects are characterized by having two pairs of membranous wings (except for some species that have only one pair or are wingless) and a slender waist. Some people may have allergic reactions to the venom of stinging Hymenoptera, such as bees and wasps, which can cause medical issues. However, "Hymenoptera" itself is not a medical term.

"Bothrops" is a genus of venomous snakes commonly known as lancehead vipers, found primarily in Central and South America. The name "Bothrops" comes from the Greek words "bothros," meaning pit, and "ops," meaning face, referring to the deep pits on the sides of their heads that help them detect heat and locate prey. These snakes are known for their aggressive behavior and potent venom, which can cause severe pain, swelling, tissue damage, and potentially life-threatening systemic effects if left untreated.

The genus "Bothrops" includes over 30 species of pit vipers, many of which are considered medically important due to their ability to inflict serious envenomations in humans. Some notable examples include Bothrops asper (the terciopelo or fer-de-lance), Bothrops atrox (the common lancehead), and Bothrops jararaca (the jararaca).

If you encounter a snake of this genus, it is essential to seek medical attention immediately if bitten, as the venom can cause significant harm if not treated promptly.

Antivenins, also known as antivenoms, are medications created specifically to counteract venomous bites or stings from various creatures such as snakes, spiders, scorpions, and marine animals. They contain antibodies that bind to and neutralize the toxic proteins present in venom. Antivenins are usually made by immunizing large animals (like horses) with small amounts of venom over time, which prompts the animal's immune system to produce antibodies against the venom. The antibody-rich serum is then collected from the immunized animal and purified for use as an antivenin.

When administered to a victim who has been envenomated, antivenins work by binding to the venom molecules, preventing them from causing further damage to the body's tissues and organs. This helps minimize the severity of symptoms and can save lives in life-threatening situations. It is essential to seek immediate medical attention if bitten or stung by a venomous creature, as antivenins should be administered as soon as possible for optimal effectiveness.

Fish venoms are toxic substances produced by some species of fish, primarily found in their spines, fins, or skin. These venoms are used for defense against predators and can cause painful injuries to humans who come into contact with them. The venomous fishes belong to various taxonomic groups, including catfishes (order Siluriformes), stingrays (superorder Batoidea), scorpionfishes (family Scorpaenidae), weevers (family Trachinidae), and stonefishes (family Synanceiidae).

The composition of fish venoms varies among species, but they typically contain a mixture of proteins, enzymes, and small molecules that can induce local and systemic effects. Local reactions usually involve pain, swelling, and redness at the site of the injury, while systemic symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, difficulty breathing, paralysis, or even death in severe cases.

Immediate medical attention is required for fish venom injuries to manage pain, prevent infection, and treat potential systemic effects. Treatment usually involves removing any remaining venomous spines or fragments, immersing the wound in hot water (>45°C/113°F) to denature the proteins in the venom, and administering appropriate analgesics, antibiotics, and supportive care as needed.

Ant venoms are toxic secretions produced by various species of ants as a defense mechanism against predators and to incapacitate their prey. The composition of ant venoms varies among different species, but they typically contain a mixture of alkaloids, peptides, and proteins that can cause a range of symptoms in humans, from mild irritation and pain to severe allergic reactions.

The venom of some ant species, such as the fire ants (Solenopsis spp.), contains alkaloids that can cause painful pustules and itching, while the venom of other species, like the bulldog ants (Myrmecia spp.), contains proteins that can induce severe allergic reactions and even anaphylactic shock in sensitive individuals.

Understanding the composition and effects of ant venoms is important for developing effective treatments for ant stings and for studying their potential therapeutic applications, such as using ant venom components in pain management or as leads for new drug development.

Snake venoms are complex mixtures of bioactive compounds produced by specialized glands in snakes. They primarily consist of proteins and peptides, including enzymes, neurotoxins, hemotoxins, cytotoxins, and cardiotoxins. These toxins can cause a variety of pharmacological effects on the victim's body, such as disruption of the nervous system, blood coagulation, muscle function, and cell membrane integrity, ultimately leading to tissue damage and potentially death. The composition of snake venoms varies widely among different species, making each species' venom unique in its toxicity profile.

Phospholipases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phospholipids, which are major components of cell membranes. Phospholipases cleave specific ester bonds in phospholipids, releasing free fatty acids and other lipophilic molecules. Based on the site of action, phospholipases are classified into four types:

1. Phospholipase A1 (PLA1): This enzyme hydrolyzes the ester bond at the sn-1 position of a glycerophospholipid, releasing a free fatty acid and a lysophospholipid.
2. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2): PLA2 cleaves the ester bond at the sn-2 position of a glycerophospholipid, releasing a free fatty acid (often arachidonic acid) and a lysophospholipid. Arachidonic acid is a precursor for eicosanoids, which are signaling molecules involved in inflammation and other physiological processes.
3. Phospholipase C (PLC): PLC hydrolyzes the phosphodiester bond in the headgroup of a glycerophospholipid, releasing diacylglycerol (DAG) and a soluble head group, such as inositol trisphosphate (IP3). DAG acts as a secondary messenger in intracellular signaling pathways, while IP3 mediates the release of calcium ions from intracellular stores.
4. Phospholipase D (PLD): PLD cleaves the phosphoester bond between the headgroup and the glycerol moiety of a glycerophospholipid, releasing phosphatidic acid (PA) and a free head group. PA is an important signaling molecule involved in various cellular processes, including membrane trafficking, cytoskeletal reorganization, and cell survival.

Phospholipases have diverse roles in normal physiology and pathophysiological conditions, such as inflammation, immunity, and neurotransmission. Dysregulation of phospholipase activity can contribute to the development of various diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurological disorders.

Elapidae is a family of venomous snakes, also known as elapids. This family includes many well-known species such as cobras, mambas, death adders, and sea snakes. Elapids are characterized by their fixed fangs, which are located at the front of the upper jaw and deliver venom through a hollow canal. The venom of these snakes is typically neurotoxic, causing paralysis and respiratory failure in prey or attackers.

Elapids are found throughout the world, with the greatest diversity occurring in tropical regions. They vary widely in size, from small species like the death adders that measure only a few inches long, to large species like the king cobra, which can reach lengths of up to 18 feet (5.5 meters).

Elapids are generally shy and avoid confrontations with humans whenever possible. However, they will defend themselves aggressively if threatened or cornered. Bites from elapid snakes can be medically significant and may require antivenom treatment.

Anaphylaxis is a severe, life-threatening systemic allergic reaction that occurs suddenly after exposure to an allergen (a substance that triggers an allergic reaction) to which the person has previously been sensitized. The symptoms of anaphylaxis include rapid onset of symptoms such as itching, hives, swelling of the throat and tongue, difficulty breathing, wheezing, cough, chest tightness, rapid heartbeat, hypotension (low blood pressure), shock, and in severe cases, loss of consciousness and death. Anaphylaxis is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment with epinephrine (adrenaline) and other supportive measures to stabilize the patient's condition.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hyaluronoglucosaminidase" appears to be a made-up term or a typographical error. The correct term related to hyaluronic acid metabolism is "hyaluronidase," which is an enzyme that degrades hyaluronic acid, a component of the extracellular matrix in various tissues. If you meant to ask about this enzyme or its functions, I'd be happy to provide more information on that. However, if "Hyaluronoglucosaminidase" is intended to represent another medical term, could you please clarify so I can provide an accurate and helpful response?

Mollusk venoms are toxic substances produced by certain species of mollusks, a group of marine animals that includes snails, slugs, clams, octopuses, and squids. These venoms are primarily used for defense against predators or for hunting prey. They can contain a variety of bioactive molecules, such as proteins, peptides, and neurotoxins, which can cause a range of effects on the victim's body, from mild irritation to paralysis and death.

One well-known example of a mollusk venom is that of the cone snail, which uses its venom to capture prey. The venom of some cone snails contains compounds called conotoxins, which are highly selective for specific ion channels in the nervous system and can cause paralysis or death in their victims. These conotoxins have been studied for their potential therapeutic applications, such as pain relief and treatment for neurological disorders.

It's important to note that while some mollusk venoms can be dangerous or even deadly to humans, most species of mollusks are not harmful to people. However, it's always a good idea to exercise caution when handling any marine animals, as even non-venomous species can cause injury with their sharp shells or other structures.

... most toxic polypeptides in bee venom are melittin, apamin, and MCD peptide. Melittin is the main toxin of bee venom, and it ... Habermann, E. (28 July 1972). "Bee and Wasp Venoms". Science. 177 (4046): 314-322. Bibcode:1972Sci...177..314H. doi:10.1126/ ... He has categorized a variety of wasps, bees, and ants into pain level 2, including yellowjackets, the Asiatic honey bee, the ... the urban digger bee, and most small bees. The duration of the pain of insect stings categorized into Pain Level 1 generally is ...
... or bee venom is the venom produced by the honey bee. It is a cytotoxic and hemotoxic bitter colorless liquid ... Bee venom is a complex mixture of proteins and smaller molecules. The main component is melittin, which amounts to 52% of venom ... He was unable to "find a clean, i.e., a non-TCPM based, randomized, placebo-controlled study of bee venom in humans for the ... Small molecules in bee venom include histamine (0.1-1%), dopamine and noradrenaline. Mark Crislip, a practicing infectious ...
Bee venom therapy has been used in traditional medicine for treating various disorders, although its non-specific toxicity has ... Melittin is the main compound in bee venom, accounting for the potential lethality of a bee sting, which causes an anaphylactic ... venom. Melittin is a basic peptide consisting of 26 amino acids. The principal function of melittin as a component of bee venom ... However, in honey bees, melittin is not only expressed in the venom gland, but also in other tissues when infected with ...
... but few studies have been done to investigate the constituents of fish venom. Even fewer studies have been done to create ... Few of these venoms have been studied. They are a yet-to-be tapped resource for bioprospecting to find drugs with medical uses ... For defense it can shoot venom from each or all of these spines. Each spine is like a hypodermic needle, delivering the venom ... The stonefish has control over whether to shoot its venom, and does so when provoked or frightened. The venom results in severe ...
Few of these venoms have been studied. They are a yet to be tapped resource for bioprospecting to find drugs with medical uses ... For defence, it can shoot venom from each or all of these spines. Each spine is like a hypodermic needle, delivering the venom ... Venomous fish carry their venom in venom glands and use various delivery systems, such as spines or sharp fins, barbs or spikes ... The stonefish has control over whether to shoot its venom, and does so when provoked or frightened. The venom results in severe ...
The worker dies after the sting becomes lodged and is subsequently torn loose from the bee's abdomen. The honey bee's venom, ... Western honey bee visiting flowers A colony of giant honey bees (A. dorsata) on their comb Western honey bee Western honey bee ... There has been speculation as to honey bee consciousness. While honey bees lack the parts of the brain that a human being uses ... Honey bees represent only a small fraction of the roughly 20,000 known species of bees. The best known honey bee is the western ...
Snake venom may have originated with duplication of genes that had been expressed in the salivary glands of ancestors. Venom is ... The venoms of vipers and bees contain phospholipases; viper venoms often also contain trypsin-like serine proteases. ... Cytotoxins, which kill individual cells and are found in the apitoxin of honey bees and the venom of black widow spiders. Venom ... to deliver venom, while scorpions and stinging insects inject venom with a sting. In bees and wasps, the stinger is a modified ...
Bioavailability measurements have been conducted for several snake venoms. For example, cobra venom has been found to have a ... It has been found that some three-fingered toxins from mamba venom interact synergistically with each other. The molecular ... Some venoms cannot induce the immune system enough on its own or the combination of two or more venoms result in a better ... The venom is first detoxified to prevent too much damage and death. This is mostly done by complexing the venom with an ...
It has also been found in several snake venoms. In the peripheral and central neurons, neurotrophins are important regulators ... It has been proposed that DHEA may have been the ancestral ligand of the Trk receptors early on in the evolution of the nervous ... Exercise has been shown to increase the amount of BDNF and therefore serve as a vehicle for neuroplasticity. Neurotrophin-3, or ... Neurotrophins in the CNS have also been shown to play a more important role in neural cell differentiation and function rather ...
... "bee venom therapy" which he described in his book Bee venom therapy: Bee venom, its nature, and its effect on arthritic and ... There are no studies proving the ability of bee venom to cure any ailment. Bee Venom Therapy: Bee Venom, Its Nature, and Its ... His books have been reprinted since his death under new titles, Bee Venom Therapy as The Bible of Bee Venom Therapy, and Honey ... 1935). Bee Venom Therapy: Bee Venom, Its Nature, and Its Effect on Arthritic and Rheumatoid Conditions. Journal of the American ...
The venom has been little studied. In 2020, a proteomic study identified 51 putative toxins form the venom of S. malayensis ... "Proteomic Analysis of the Venom of Jellyfishes Rhopilema esculentum and Sanderia malayensis". Marine Drugs. 18 (12): 655. doi: ...
As a paradox to the symptoms after a bee sting, bee venom is used for treatment of pain, inflammation (e.g. rheumatoid ... Tertiapin is a compound of the honey bee venom (apitoxin) that causes pain and signs of inflammation around the sting, but a ... Tertiapin is a 21-amino acid peptide isolated from venom of the European honey bee (Apis mellifera). It blocks two different ... Drici, MD; Diochot, S; Terrenoire, C; Romey, G; Lazdunski, M (2000). "The bee venom peptide tertiapin underlines the role of ...
... has been practiced since the times of Hippocrates and Galen. Modern use of bee venom appears to have originated with ... Adverse reactions to bee venom therapy are frequent. Frequent exposure to the venom can also lead to arthropathy. In sensitized ... royal jelly and bee venom. There has been no scientific or clinical evidence for the efficacy or safety of apitherapy ... "Instruction for Bee Sting Venom Apitherapy". Humans have historically used bee products in various ways: beeswax was used in ...
The reaction of a person to a bee sting may vary according to the bee species. While bee stinger venom is slightly acidic and ... Apitoxin Bee venom therapy Characteristics of common wasps and bees Fear of bees (apiphobia) Fear of wasps (spheksophobia) ... In one of the alternative medical uses of honey bee products, apitherapy, bee venom has been used to treat arthritis and other ... This massive abdominal rupture kills the honey bee. Honey bees are the only bees to die after stinging. Bee sting. The stinger ...
... is an element in bee venom. You can come into contact with apamin through bee venom, so the symptoms that are known are ... Apamin is an 18 amino acid globular peptide neurotoxin found in apitoxin (bee venom). Dry bee venom consists of 2-3% of apamin ... Apamin was named after this bee. Bee venom contains many other compounds, like histamine, phospholipase A2, hyaluronidase, MCD ... The first symptoms of apitoxin (bee venom), that are now thought to be caused by apamin, were described back in 1936 by Hahn ...
N. Yoirish (2001). Curative Properties of Honey and Bee Venom. p. 111. ISBN 9780898754094. Media related to Genista tinctoria ... The plant has been used in popular medicine and herbalism for various complaints, including skin diseases, even in modern times ... Numerous cultivars have been selected for garden use, of which 'Royal Gold' has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award ... The plant, as its Latin and common names suggest, has been used from ancient times for producing a yellow dye, which combined ...
... their exact genre has been a topic of debate. Venom have been labelled various genres by members of the press. Most prominent ... "Venom (8)". discogs. Retrieved 8 January 2018. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Venom. Official website Venom at AllMusic ... Venom's music was faster and harsher than most heavy metal contemporaries and while Satanism and other dark topics had been ... Metallica opened for Venom on an early 1980s tour, Venom opened for Metallica and Slayer on the Ride the Lightning tour, and ...
Lant has been active with Venom ever since. Hickey also rejoined Venom in 2005, but departed again two years later. Cronos' ... Lant's eponymous band formed after disappointing sales of Venom's Calm Before the Storm album led him to quit Venom. He took ... as well as re-recorded Venom material performed by the current Cronos line-up. In 1995, the 'classic' Venom lineup reformed, ... The three ex-Venom members added drummer Chris Patterson to complete Cronos' initial line-up, releasing Dancing in the Fire in ...
He is the author of books (in Russian) including "Bee venom: Properties, reception, application" (1995), "Bee venom in ... He is known as a bee venom expert. He graduated from the N. I. Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod in 1970. He was ... ISBN 978-5-903535-03-3 In English Krylov V.N., Sokolsky S.S. Experimental study of bee royal jelly cardioprotectiv ...
This have been convergently recruited into the venom. Although they are flexible in the ways that they obtain their nutrition's ... They are present in all cnidarians and produce highly complex venom filled organelles. The most functional and common venom ... All cnidarians lack a centralised venom system and in replace produce numerous venom tissues throughout the body, using 2 ... which allows for the opportunity for the reach of the venom to extend. In general, the venom of an Enthemonae are harmless to ...
A lack of anti-venom has also been highlighted. Over the past years a number of dogs have also been bitten. Species resident or ... Topham, Sean (29 July 2008). "Snake venom plea after adder attack". Horncastle News. Retrieved 28 April 2013. "OSTLERS ...
Bees use a stinger located in their hind region to inject a venom consisting of proteins such as melittin, which causes a ... Jun G, Guan SM, Sun W, Fu H (June 2016). "Melittin, the Major Pain-Producing Substance of Bee Venom". Neuroscience Bulletin. 32 ... The weever is a type of fish which has venomous spines covering its fins and gills and injects a venom consisting of proteins ... If blood flows into the syringe it signals that a blood vessel has been hit. Due to the prevalence of unsafe injection ...
The venom has been researched for potential medical applications. California to Texas and southward into the Baja California ... "Transcriptomic and Proteomic Analyses Reveal the Diversity of Venom Components from the Vaejovid Scorpion Serradigitus gertschi ...
Rubin, Rebecca (August 12, 2021). "'Venom: Let There Be Carnage' Has Been Delayed Again". Variety. Retrieved August 13, 2021. ... Sony Pictures closed its offices in London, Paris, and Poland after an employee was thought to have been exposed to the virus. ... The ceremony had already been downsized into a non-televised event due to boycotts of the organization by media companies and ... Within the industry, it was suggested at the time that after the pandemic had been contained and major events rescheduled, the ...
The question has been asked, "If fish cannot feel pain, why do stingrays have purely defensive tail spines that deliver venom? ... When acetic acid or bee venom is injected into the lips of rainbow trout, they exhibit an anomalous side-to-side rocking ... Lariviere WR, Melzack R (August 1996). "The bee venom test: a new tonic-pain test". Pain. 66 (2-3): 271-7. doi:10.1016/0304- ... Rainbow trout lips were injected with acetic acid, while another group were injected with bee venom. These substances were ...
Bee venom can cause a life-threatening allergic reaction. Severe dietary restrictions such as Macrobiotic diets can disrupt the ... Patients have been shown to face a greater risk of mortality if they refuse or delay scientifically-proven treatments in favor ... Chemotherapy has not been found to be effective in the treatment of brain metastases from breast cancer, due to the inability ... Cell-surface sialylation has been implicated in cell-to-cell interactions, and over-expression of a brain sialyltransferase in ...
"Live Well: How to avoid 'brain freeze' from cold drinks and bee venom could help fight cancer". "Vitamin C-detecting sensor ... breast cancer and melanoma cell growth in laboratory settings by delivering a synthetic compound mimicking venom from bees, ... ". "Bee, scorpion and snake venom may hold cancer cure". CNN. 12 August 2014. " ... Three tests, including the Antisense test, have been licensed for commercialization and registered with the Food and Drug ...
1). Venom in squamates has historically been considered a rarity; while it has been known in Serpentes since ancient times, the ... In snakes, the venom gland is in the upper jaw, but in helodermatids, it is found in the lower jaw. The origin of venom in ... It was estimated that the common ancestral species that first developed venom in the venom clade lived on the order of 200 ... This prompted further research, which led to the discovery of venom (and venom genes) in species from groups which were not ...
Three peptides have been identified from P. major major venom. Identification of three novel peptides isolated from the venom ... Recently, it has been spotted in Spain. Sightings of P. major major have been recorded in Spain. According to this study, P. ... and PMM3 have been extracted and identified from the venom of Polistes major major. Being larger than native European species, ... Many specimens have been obtained from various parts of Costa Rica, and are distributed all over Puerto Rico. It is most ...
Venom glands in lace monitors have been confirmed. The venom is similar to that produced by snakes but not enough to cause ... Goanna remains have been recovered in middens in what is now Sydney. The lace monitor is bred in captivity as an exotic pet. ... Historically, it has been described as growing as much as 8 ft long. Regardless of the accuracy of these reports, lace monitors ... It has also been reported from Healesville, Rushworth, and Murchison in Victoria and the Flinders Ranges in South Australia. It ...
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... hornet and wasp venom extracts used in shots that prevent life-threatening reactions. ... There have been a few reports of allergists who couldnt get supplies of venom, and patients who couldnt get the product, ... Supplies of the extracts -- which are made from venom gathered by hand from millions of individual insects -- have been scarce ... Now he gets regular venom shots every three months and takes over-the-counter allergy medications before he climbs onto his ...
Bee Products. Honey (2358) Propolis (1736) Bee Venom (1004) Apitherapy and Beekeeping (1001) Royal Jelly (725) Bee-Collected ... Bee venom facials are no so common. It was introduced in duchees and top models and actress of Hollywood. But its result is ... The new buzz which is introduced in beauty industry is called "bee venom facials." Facials protect your skin from seasonal and ... Kate Middleton, new the duchees of Cambridge has used bee venom facial before wedding to Prince William in 2011… ...
Bee venom is a toxin that bees use for their protection from enemies. However, for centuries it has been used in the Orient as ... Bee venom and its major component, melittin, are potential means of reducing excessive immune responses and provide new ... Bee venom is a toxin that bees use for their protection from enemies. However, for centuries it has been used in the Orient as ... In addition, the anti-inflammatory effect of bee venom PLA2 was recently established [71]. As melittin and bee venom PLA2 are ...
Bee venom (BV), a type of defensive venom, has been confirmed to have favorable activities, such as anti-tumor, neuroprotective ... Pharmacological effects and mechanisms of bee venom and its main components: Recent progress and perspective. ...
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p,I help teach Live Bee Venom Therapy. ,/p, ,p,The swarms I collect are homed in hives and set up in our patients yards ...
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  • As summer begins, signaling peak time for insect stings, allergists across the U.S. are warning of a shortage of a little-known but crucial product -- honeybee, hornet and wasp venom extracts used in shots that prevent life-threatening reactions. (wcpo.com)
  • The shortage started last fall, when ALK Laboratories of Denmark shut down production of six types of venom proteins -- honeybee, wasp, white-faced hornet, yellow hornet, yellow jacket and "mixed vespid," a cocktail of venoms. (wcpo.com)
  • Some of the insect stings Schmidt considered to be at a pain level of 1 include the Southern fire ant, the graceful twig ant, the Western paper wasp, the urban digger bee, and most small bees. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wasp venom uniquely contains kinin. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the kinins found in wasp venom, "polistes kinin 3", is found to lead to similar effects on smooth musculature and circulation as bradykinin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fire ant venom differs from bee and wasp venom, which are mostly proteinaceous solutions. (medscape.com)
  • [ 6 ] Antigenic similarity exists between these proteins and bee and wasp venoms. (medscape.com)
  • Bee venom and its major component, melittin, are potential means of reducing excessive immune responses and provide new alternatives for the control of inflammatory diseases. (mdpi.com)
  • Melittin is a peptide found in bee venom that is known for its potential to inhibit the release of certain neurotransmitters. (marktemusik.club)
  • The active compounds found in bee venom, particularly melittin, can promotes lipolysis, the process of breaking down fat tissue, and impeding the formation of new fat cells . (marktemusik.info)
  • Since many small bees are categorized into a pain level of 1, most toxic polypeptides in bee venom are melittin, apamin, and MCD peptide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Melittin is the main toxin of bee venom, and it damages red blood cells and white blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The treatment, authorized for nearly 40 years, injects small doses of venom under the skin to reduce sensitivity to the allergens that can trigger dangerous symptoms. (wcpo.com)
  • These techniques have been applied for environmental allergens and venoms. (medscape.com)
  • The fact that sensitisation of asthmatic children reflects the Background Although asthma is strongly associated with allergens found in different climatic areas has been taken as immediate hypersensitivity to indoor allergens, several studies evidence that exposure to allergens plays an important part have suggested that a cat in the house can decrease the risk in the disease.1-6 For dust-mite allergens there is good of asthma. (cdc.gov)
  • He has categorized a variety of wasps, bees, and ants into pain level 2, including yellowjackets, the Asiatic honey bee, the trap-jaw ant, and the bald-faced hornet. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fire ant is a wingless member of the order Hymenoptera , which includes wasps and bees. (medscape.com)
  • This Bee Venom Serum from Rodial is an ingenious product, infused with plant stem cell technology in order to completely revitalise your skin. (lookfantastic.com.sg)
  • Its all thanks to the key ingredients of Manuka Honey and Purified Bee Venom (PBV™) that create a similar wrinkle relaxing and The key ingredients in our Royal Nectar Rejuvenating Serum are: New Zealand Manuka Honey - Manuka Honey is rich in natural antioxidants and antibacterial activity and helps to moisturise and renew the skin. (gladmonkey.com)
  • Kalian bisa banget cobain 60% Vita Propolis + Bee Venom Glow Serumnya @Somethinc4u serum yang memiliki banyak fungsi ini cocok banget buat acne prone skin ✨ Selain menutrisi kulit, mengurangi sebum, melindungi kulit dari penyebab jerawat, ini juga dapat mengurangi tampilan minyak berlebih, membantu merawat kulit berjerawat dan meningkatkan elastisitas kulit. (gopicky.com)
  • Read this clinical study on the beneficial effects of honeybee-venom serum on facial wrinkles in humans. (honeylab.co.nz)
  • Skincare with Manuka Honey & Bee Venom Manuka Doctor 19/10/2016 · GET BIG LIPS FAST! (gladmonkey.com)
  • NaturalVital is proud to introduce our Bee Venom Essence, a product crafted with utmost care and precision to harness the incredible potential of this newfound skincare superstar. (marktemusik.club)
  • Given that I'm only 24, I'd Bee venom seems to be the next big thing for anti-ageing skincare. (gladmonkey.com)
  • Manuka Doctor harnesses the power of the highest performing ingredients from the hive for naturally inspired, scientifically enhanced skincare formulations, which are refined, concentrated and 100% bee … The antioxidant qualities of the bee venom supports anti-aging. (gladmonkey.com)
  • Each batch of Purified Bee Venom is tested for its composition and recorded for quality control and tracking Bee venom seems to be the next big thing for anti-ageing skincare. (gladmonkey.com)
  • Start your review of Manuka Doctor Skincare Apinourish Rejuvenating Face Mask Our iconic bee venom mask that naturally lifts & fights wrinkles. (gladmonkey.com)
  • Because I had a history of anaphylaxis to bee venom, I had a prescription filled for an epinephrine autoinjector. (cdc.gov)
  • Bee venom is a toxin that bees use for their protection from enemies. (mdpi.com)
  • Supplies of the extracts -- which are made from venom gathered by hand from millions of individual insects -- have been scarce since October. (wcpo.com)
  • The health effects of stinging or biting insects or scorpions range from mild discomfort or pain to a lethal reaction for those workers allergic to the insect's venom. (cdc.gov)
  • His original paper in 1983 was a way to systematize and compare the hemolytic properties of insect venoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Allergic reaction to venoms in insect bites and stings that is triggered by the immune system (i.e. (bvsalud.org)
  • Delighted Momma: Have you Heard of The Bee Venom Mask? (delightedmomma.com)
  • I was recently sent this Abeeco Bee Venom Mask to try and I am totally hooked! (delightedmomma.com)
  • The Bee Venom contained in the mask works by fooling the skin into thinking it has been lightly stung. (delightedmomma.com)
  • Abbey- Sorry for not including that in the post but yes, if you are allergic to bee stings then you can not use the mask. (delightedmomma.com)
  • Takeaways: Bee Venom for Anti-Aging + Lanocreme Bee Venom Face Mask. (gladmonkey.com)
  • All in all, I was surprisingly happy with the bee venom mask. (gladmonkey.com)
  • Given that I'm only 24, I'd, 17/02/2012 · The result of 30mins application of this new face mask which contains Bee Venon, I did check that it is ethically harvested and that bees are not harmed before I committed to buying the product. (gladmonkey.com)
  • Iconic bee venom mask has been hailed as 'nature's answer to Botox' - AND TODAY YOU CAN TRY IT FOR HALF PRICE PLUS FREE GIFTS! (gladmonkey.com)
  • Rejuvenating Bee Venom face, eye and neck moisturiser cream with Aloe Vera 50ml, extreme Anti aging and anti wrinkle, 110% money back guarantee 18/06/2016 · I did a first impression demonstration review on the Manuka Doctor's Purifying Facial Peel with bee venom! (gladmonkey.com)
  • The most toxic component of widow spider venom seems to be a peptide, alpha-latrotoxin, that affects neuromuscular transmission. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Now he gets regular venom shots every three months and takes over-the-counter allergy medications before he climbs onto his Harley-Davidson. (wcpo.com)
  • While this makes Kānu Bee Venom safe for everyday use, it should not be used by anyone with an allergy to bees. (honeylab.co.nz)
  • Subcutaneous allergy injection therapy (SCIT) has been used to successfully treat respiratory allergy for more than a century. (medscape.com)
  • Another potent benefit of bee venom lies in its ability to prevent lymphatic blockage in the targeted area . (marktemusik.info)
  • By enhancing lymphatic flow, bee venom aids in the efficient removal of waste and toxins from the neck area . (marktemusik.info)
  • A total of 919 143 people have been displaced from Mosul since the start of the crisis in late 2016 to 06 July 2017. (who.int)
  • Do not use if you are allergic to bee stings. (nzshoponline.com)
  • Schmidt set the sting of the Western honey bee at a pain level of 2 to be the anchoring value, basing his categorization of all other stings on it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Substances that don't bother most people (such as venom from bee stings and certain foods, medicines, and pollens) can trigger allergic reactions in certain people. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The venom also contains several allergenic proteins, measuring about 1.5% by dry weight. (medscape.com)
  • Simple, pure, and effective, Kānu Bee Venom® reduces the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles to reveal radiant, younger-looking skin. (honeylab.co.nz)
  • About 95% of fire ant venom is water-insoluble, is nonproteinaceous, and contains dialkylpiperidine hemolytic factors. (medscape.com)
  • But a smaller number use what's known as venom immunotherapy, or VIT, to dramatically reduce the risk of reactions. (wcpo.com)
  • If the allergic reaction is from a bee sting, scrape the stinger off the skin with something firm (such as a fingernail or plastic credit card). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Do not use tweezers -- squeezing the stinger will release more venom. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It arches its body and drives an abdominal stinger into the skin to release venom. (medscape.com)
  • Venom sac and stinger of a fire ant. (medscape.com)
  • Nature knows best, and that's why Kānu Bee Venom is nothing more than Vetox bee venom and kānuka honey with Ecocert polymer and preservative plus distilled water to give the consistency and stability. (honeylab.co.nz)
  • Despite this high burden, snake antivenoms are often unavailable to those in need, hampering effective treatment, and when they are, they may have been prepared from poor quality snake venoms that are not regionally representative, or have been poorly designed and manufactured and have limited efficacy. (who.int)
  • Schmidt published a number of works on the subject, and claimed to have been stung by the majority of stinging Hymenoptera. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enter your search keyword 15/04/2013 · Watch the great Purified Bee Venom products by Manuka Doctor as featured on Breakfast News 10.04.2013. (gladmonkey.com)
  • Bee venom is extracted naturally by stimulating the secretion without causing any damage to the bees. (apinfiore.com)
  • That left only Jubilant HollisterStier, a Spokane, Wash., company that also produces venom extracts. (wcpo.com)
  • A pair of coiled glands produces the venom that discharges into the venom sac. (medscape.com)
  • Bee Venom Cream has been carefully researched and formulated to bestow the skin of face he was born in décolleté maximum tone and elasticity. (apinfiore.com)
  • bee venom can prevent aging and blemish-free skin by improving blood circulation. (marktemusik.club)
  • Bee venom is believed to stimulate collagen synthesis in the skin. (marktemusik.club)
  • Because bee venom can contain contaminants from handling and collection, we established a process to ensure only the purest of ingredients go into our products and on your skin. (gladmonkey.com)
  • Using a unique high-strength formulation of New Zealand bee venom, Kānu is shown in our clinical studies to rejuvenate the appearance of skin of all types. (honeylab.co.nz)
  • Massage Kānu Bee Venom lightly into your skin morning and night. (honeylab.co.nz)
  • As the bee venom absorbs, feel your skin begin to tighten almost instantly. (honeylab.co.nz)
  • They called for spacing out doses at longer intervals, cutting maintenance doses, minimizing venom waste -- and stopping treatment for patients at lowest risk for severe reactions. (wcpo.com)
  • There have been a few reports of allergists who couldn't get supplies of venom, and patients who couldn't get the product, which costs about $70 for induction doses and about $20 for each maintenance dose. (wcpo.com)
  • At that time, December 19th, 272,001 doses of the Pfizer-BioNTech had been administered. (cdc.gov)
  • Currently over 2 million doses of the Pfizer vaccine have been administered. (cdc.gov)
  • This is our special 100% natural formulation of New Zealand bee venom that makes the magic happen. (honeylab.co.nz)
  • Vetox is our special formulation of New Zealand bee venom, found effective by 90% of women within 5 days in our clinic studies. (honeylab.co.nz)
  • However, for centuries it has been used in the Orient as an anti-inflammatory medicine for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. (mdpi.com)
  • In this bee venom cream that belongs to the Apis Regina line we have enclosed and kept a mix of precious active ingredients. (apinfiore.com)
  • The bioactive compounds found in bee venom have been shown to promote vasodilation . (marktemusik.info)
  • This document has been superseded and the new version can be found here . (cdc.gov)
  • Furthermore, bee venom cream has no particular contraindications except in admittedly allergic subjects. (apinfiore.com)
  • View cart "Orchard Bee Brilliance Cream SPF 30" has been added to your cart. (venofye.com)
  • In such circumstances where the quality of products may not have been reliably or completely verified the confidence of health care providers and patients with respect to antivenom products has declined, leading to loss of demand despite abundant need, and an increase in morbidity and mortality. (who.int)
  • Many patients have venom-specific IgE-mediated wheal and flare reactions that develop over hours into pruritic edematous, indurated, and erythematous lesions that persist for up to 72 hours. (medscape.com)
  • In most cases, the symptoms disappear in weeks to months and most patients recover completely, although rare cases of blindness, paralysis, and death have been reported. (cdc.gov)
  • Information has also been developed for the healthcare community in Hawaii because many physicians may not consider AC when evaluating patients with eosinophilic meningitis. (cdc.gov)
  • The efficacy of the cluster and rush approaches is well established and has been reviewed elsewhere. (medscape.com)
  • Some reactions can occur after several hours, particularly if the allergen causes a reaction after it has been eaten. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Pharmacological effects and mechanisms of bee venom and its main components: Recent progress and perspective. (iasp-pain.org)
  • What is more, she fell in love with Xu Qingnuo in the end and cared more bee venom for penis enlargement about his news. (sc.gov.br)
  • I did experience a slight tingling sensation but nothing painful or uncomfortable like an actual bee sting. (delightedmomma.com)
  • And after between three and five years of treatment, many can be weaned from the venom with no ill effects. (wcpo.com)
  • A thrombin-generation-based test has also been shown to detect protein C deficiency. (medscape.com)
  • The new buzz which is introduced in beauty industry is called "bee venom facials. (blogspot.com)
  • HollisterStier ramped up manufacturing, Golden said, but the firm couldn't supply enough venom extract fast enough to avoid a shortage. (wcpo.com)
  • Used in a new but highly functional way, bee venom has become a valuable natural but high-quality component. (apinfiore.com)
  • So we've developed our own venom collection technology that protects our bees while producing the highest quality bee venom. (honeylab.co.nz)
  • Our community has been around for many years and pride ourselves on offering unbiased, critical discussion among people of all different backgrounds. (nzbees.net)
  • among them 55% were women and 28% children under the age of 15 years) have been referred to hospitals in Mosul and neighboring governorates. (who.int)
  • In Colombia, the prevalence of obesity has been increasing in recent years due to changes in dietary and nutritional patterns. (bvsalud.org)
  • How Does the flysmus™ NaturalVital Bee Venom Essence Works? (marktemusik.club)
  • They follow ironclad guidelines to ensure that no bees are harmed during the extraction process. (delightedmomma.com)
  • This stabilises the formulation, to ensure Kānu Bee Venom is long-lasting. (honeylab.co.nz)