Hospital Bed Capacity
Bedding and Linens
Health Facility Size
Progressive Patient Care
Intensive Care Units
Lower Body Negative Pressure
Health Facility Closure
Certificate of Need
Intermediate Care Facilities
Moving and Lifting Patients
Sudden Infant Death
Blood Flow Velocity
Health Facility Planning
Analysis of Variance
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester
Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide
Sympathetic Nervous System
Commitment of Mentally Ill
Cigarette smoking and other risk factors in relation to p53 expression in breast cancer among young women. (1/198)p53 mutations may be a fingerprint for cigarette smoking and other environmental carcinogens, including breast carcinogens. This study was undertaken to explore whether p53 mutations are associated with environmental or other suspected or established risk factors for breast cancer. p53 protein detection by immunohistochemistry (which is more easily quantified in large epidemiological studies than are mutations, and are highly correlated with them) was determined for 378 patients from a case-control study of breast cancer. In this population-based sample of women under the age of 45 years, 44.4% (168/378) of the cases had p53 protein detected by immunohistochemistry (p53+). Polytomous logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) for p53+ and p53- breast cancer, as compared with the controls, in relation to cigarette smoking and other factors. The ratio of the ORs was used as an indicator of heterogeneity in risk for p53+ versus p53- cancer. The ratio of the ORs in a multivariate model was substantially elevated among women with a greater than high school education [2.39; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.43-4.00], current cigarette smokers (1.96; 95% CI, 1.10-3.52), and users of electric blankets, water beds, or mattresses (1.78; 95% CI, 1.11-2.86). Nonsignificant heterogeneity was noted for family history of breast cancer and ethnicity but not for other known or suspected risk factors. Coupled with the strong biological plausibility of the association, our data support the hypothesis that in breast cancer, as with other tumors, p53 protein immunohistochemical detection may be associated with exposure to environmental carcinogens such as cigarette smoking. (+info)
Evaluating the community education programme of an insecticide-treated bed net trial on the Kenyan coast. (2/198)Increased interest in the potential contribution of insecticide-impregnated bed nets (ITBN) to malaria control has led to research efforts to determine the impact and sustainability of ITBN programmes in differing environments. There is a need to develop effective, feasible educational strategies that will both inform and motivate community members, and thus maximize the correct usage of ITBN. This is especially true in communities where indigenous usage of bed nets is low. This paper describes the educational component of a randomized controlled community intervention trial of ITBN, with childhood malaria morbidity as an outcome. The educational approach and messages for the ITBN trial were developed from anthropological survey data collected 4 years before the trial, and from community surveys conducted by project researchers. Low levels of understanding amongst mothers of the aetiological link between mosquitos and malaria led to the exclusion of the term 'malaria' from the initial educational messages promoting the use of ITBN. Appropriate individuals within the existing district health care structure were trained as community educators in the project. These educators conducted intensive teaching in the community through public meetings and group teaching in the first 6 months of the trial. The impact of these initial activities was assessed through interviews with a random sample of 100 mothers and 50 household heads. This allowed the identification of messages which had not been well understood and further educational methods were chosen to address the areas pinpointed. The community assessment also demonstrated that, in 1994, over 90% of mothers understood a protective role for bed nets against malaria and the ITBN education messages were changed to take account of this. The school programme was evaluated through determining outreach (the number of households accessed), changes in participant children's knowledge, post-teaching assessment of mothers' knowledge and discussions with parent-teacher associations. It was shown that 40% of intervention homes with children in the target group were accessed, participant children learned the educational messages well (scores increased from a pre-teaching mean of 59% to a post-teaching mean of 92%) and a high level of awareness of the ITBN trial was achieved in these homes (75%). However, specific messages of the education programmed were not well transferred to the home (30%). The discussion emphasises the need for allocation of adequate resources for education in programmes dependent on achieving a change in community practices. We also describe the value of ongoing communication between programme planners and a target population in maximizing the effectiveness of messages and methods used. (+info)
Predictors of acute hospital costs for treatment of ischemic stroke in an academic center. (3/198)BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We sought to determine predictors of acute hospital costs in patients presenting with acute ischemic stroke to an academic center using a stroke management team to coordinate care. METHODS: Demographic and clinical data were prospectively collected on 191 patients consecutively admitted with acute ischemic stroke. Patients were classified by insurance status, premorbid modified Rankin scale, stroke location, stroke severity (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score), and presence of comorbidities. Detailed hospital charge data were converted to cost by application of department-specific cost-to-charge ratios. Physician's fees were not included. A stepwise multiple regression analysis was computed to determine the predictors of total hospital cost. RESULTS: Median length of stay was 6 days (range, 1 to 63 days), and mortality was 3%. Median hospital cost per discharge was $4408 (range, $1199 to $59 799). Fifty percent of costs were for room charges, 19% for stroke evaluation, 21% for medical management, and 7% for acute rehabilitation therapies. Sixteen percent were admitted to an intensive care unit. Length of stay accounted for 43% of the variance in total cost. Other independent predictors of cost included stroke severity, heparin treatment, atrial fibrillation, male sex, ischemic cardiac disease, and premorbid functional status. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the major predictors of acute hospital costs of stroke in this environment are length of stay, stroke severity, cardiac disease, male sex, and use of heparin. Room charges accounted for the majority of costs, and attempts to reduce the cost of stroke evaluation would be of marginal value. Efforts to reduce acute costs should be monitored for potential cost shifting or a negative impact on quality of care. (+info)
The effect of delivery mechanisms on the uptake of bed net re-impregnation in Kilifi District, Kenya. (4/198)The results of recently completed trials in Africa of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITBN) offer new possibilities for malaria control. These experimental trials aimed for high ITBN coverage combined with high re-treatment rates. Whilst necessary to understand protective efficacy, the approaches used to deliver the intervention provide few indications of what coverage of net re-treatment would be under operational conditions. Varied delivery and financing strategies have been proposed for the sustainable delivery of ITBNs and re-treatment programmes. Following the completion of a randomized, controlled trial on the Kenyan coast, a series of suitable delivery strategies were used to continue net re-treatment in the area. The trial adopted a bi-annual, house-to-house re-treatment schedule free of charge using research project staff and resulted in over 95% coverage of nets issued to children. During the year following the trial, sentinel dipping stations were situated throughout the community and household members informed of their position and opening times. This free re-treatment service achieved between 61-67% coverage of nets used by children for three years. In 1997 a social marketing approach, that introduced cost-retrieval, was used to deliver the net re-treatment services. The immediate result of this transition was that significantly fewer of the mothers who had used the previous re-treatment services adopted this revised approach and coverage declined to 7%. The future of new delivery services and their financing are discussed in the context of their likely impact upon previously defined protective efficacy and cost-effectiveness estimates. (+info)
Hypothermia bed system for stroke patients. Technical note. (5/198)A new hypothermia bed system was used to induce mild hypothermia (33-35 degrees C) in six patients with stroke due to subarachnoid hemorrhage, hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage, or embolic internal carotid artery occlusion. The system bed contained all necessary equipment including a respirator, a cooling unit, physiological monitors, and a storage battery. Surface cooling of the patients was performed using water-circulating blankets, and core temperature was maintained based on bladder temperature and a feedback computer program. During hypothermic therapy, patient transfer and radiological examination including computed tomography and positron emission tomography could be easily and safely performed. Differences between the measured bladder temperature and the target temperature were approximately +/- 0.1 degree C. The proposed hypothermia system bed may be useful for serial radiological examination of patients with stroke. (+info)
Dynamics of bed use in accommodating emergency admissions: stochastic simulation model. (6/198)OBJECTIVE: To examine the daily bed requirements arising from the flow of emergency admissions to an acute hospital, to identify the implications of fluctuating and unpredictable demands for emergency admission for the management of hospital bed capacity, and to quantify the daily risk of insufficient capacity for patients requiring immediate admission. DESIGN: Modelling of the dynamics of the hospital system, using a discrete-event stochastic simulation model, which reflects the relation between demand and available bed capacity. SETTING: Hypothetical acute hospital in England. SUBJECTS: Simulated emergency admissions of all types except mental disorder. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The risk of having no bed available for any patient requiring immediate admission; the daily risk that there is no bed available for at least one patient requiring immediate admission; the mean bed occupancy rate. RESULTS: Risks are discernible when average bed occupancy rates exceed about 85%, and an acute hospital can expect regular bed shortages and periodic bed crises if average bed occupancy rises to 90% or more. CONCLUSIONS: There are limits to the occupancy rates that can be achieved safely without considerable risk to patients and to the efficient delivery of emergency care. Spare bed capacity is therefore essential for the effective management of emergency admissions, and its cost should be borne by purchasers as an essential element of an acute hospital service. (+info)
The prevalence of reported asthma is independent of exposure in house dust mite-sensitized children. (7/198)In areas with low house dust mite (HDM) allergen exposure, both mite sensitization and asthma prevalence are low. In most other areas, HDM allergen exposure is higher than the threshold for sensitization. In this setting, is HDM allergen exposure a factor which is causally related to the development of asthma in HDM-sensitive individuals? To answer this question, the cumulative prevalence of asthma was evaluated in a group of 157 schoolchildren, aged 10 and 11 yrs, who were allergic to HDM allergen, and compared it with HDM allergen exposure and atopic status, using univariate and multivariate analysis. HDM allergen levels were measured in mattress dust using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Of mattress dust samples, 94% had an HDM allergen level >2 microg x g dust(-1). Atopy was evaluated by means of skin prick tests using five common allergens. Among the predictive variables studied by means of univariate analysis, only the number of positive skin tests and male sex correlated with asthma prevalence, but not HDM allergen exposure. Logistic regression analysis also demonstrated that the number of positive skin tests correlated with asthma prevalence (odds ratio (OR)=1.38, p=0.05), whereas the OR for HDM allergen exposure was 1.0. This survey suggests that, in a geographical area with high HDM allergen exposure, asthma prevalence is not linked with HDM allergen levels. (+info)
Babies sleeping with parents: case-control study of factors influencing the risk of the sudden infant death syndrome. CESDI SUDI research group. (8/198)OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risks of the sudden infant death syndrome and factors that may contribute to unsafe sleeping environments. DESIGN: Three year, population based case-control study. Parental interviews were conducted for each sudden infant death and for four controls matched for age, locality, and time of sleep. SETTING: Five regions in England with a total population of over 17 million people. SUBJECTS: 325 babies who died and 1300 control infants. RESULTS: In the multivariate analysis infants who shared their parents' bed and were then put back in their own cot had no increased risk (odds ratio 0.67; 95% confidence interval 0.22 to 2.00). There was an increased risk for infants who shared the bed for the whole sleep or were taken to and found in the parental bed (9.78; 4.02 to 23.83), infants who slept in a separate room from their parents (10.49; 4.26 to 25.81), and infants who shared a sofa (48.99; 5.04 to 475.60). The risk associated with being found in the parental bed was not significant for older infants (>14 weeks) or for infants of parents who did not smoke and became non-significant after adjustment for recent maternal alcohol consumption (>2 units), use of duvets (>4 togs), parental tiredness (infant slept 2 people per room of the house). CONCLUSIONS: There are certain circumstances when bed sharing should be avoided, particularly for infants under four months old. Parents sleeping on a sofa with infants should always be avoided. There is no evidence that bed sharing is hazardous for infants of parents who do not smoke. (+info)
There are several different types of malaria, including:
1. Plasmodium falciparum: This is the most severe form of malaria, and it can be fatal if left untreated. It is found in many parts of the world, including Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
2. Plasmodium vivax: This type of malaria is less severe than P. falciparum, but it can still cause serious complications if left untreated. It is found in many parts of the world, including Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
3. Plasmodium ovale: This type of malaria is similar to P. vivax, but it can cause more severe symptoms in some people. It is found primarily in West Africa.
4. Plasmodium malariae: This type of malaria is less common than the other three types, and it tends to cause milder symptoms. It is found primarily in parts of Africa and Asia.
The symptoms of malaria can vary depending on the type of parasite that is causing the infection, but they typically include:
4. Muscle and joint pain
6. Nausea and vomiting
8. Anemia (low red blood cell count)
If malaria is not treated promptly, it can lead to more severe complications, such as:
3. Respiratory failure
4. Kidney failure
5. Liver failure
6. Anemia (low red blood cell count)
Malaria is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as blood smears or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. Treatment for malaria typically involves the use of antimalarial drugs, such as chloroquine or artemisinin-based combination therapies. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage complications and provide supportive care.
Prevention is an important aspect of managing malaria, and this can include:
1. Using insecticide-treated bed nets
2. Wearing protective clothing and applying insect repellent when outdoors
3. Eliminating standing water around homes and communities to reduce the number of mosquito breeding sites
4. Using indoor residual spraying (IRS) or insecticide-treated wall lining to kill mosquitoes
5. Implementing malaria control measures in areas where malaria is common, such as distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS)
6. Improving access to healthcare services, particularly in rural and remote areas
7. Providing education and awareness about malaria prevention and control
8. Encouraging the use of preventive medications, such as intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) for pregnant women and children under the age of five.
Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are critical in preventing the progression of malaria and reducing the risk of complications and death. In areas where malaria is common, it is essential to have access to reliable diagnostic tools and effective antimalarial drugs.
Insects such as mosquitoes, wasps, bees, and hornets are common culprits of bites and stings that cause minor to severe reactions in humans. These reactions may cause pain, redness, swelling, itching, and burning sensations at the site of the bite or sting.
Most insect bites and stings can be treated with over-the-counter medications such as antihistamines, hydrocortisone creams, or calamine lotion. Severe allergic reactions may require medical attention and epinephrine injections to prevent anaphylaxis.
BN is a serious mental health condition that affects individuals of all ages, genders, and backgrounds. It is estimated that approximately 1% of females and 0.5% of males will develop BN at some point in their lifetime.
Symptoms of BN include:
1. Recurring episodes of binge eating, which are characterized by consuming large amounts of food in a short period of time.
2. Purging behaviors such as self-induced vomiting, abuse of laxatives or diuretics, or fasting.
3. Feeling out of control during binge eating episodes.
4. Feeling guilty or ashamed after binge eating.
5. Loss of menstrual period in females (amenorrhea).
6. Dental problems such as tooth erosion and gum inflammation.
7. Gastric rupture, which is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication.
BN can have serious physical and emotional consequences if left untreated, including:
1. Electrolyte imbalances that can lead to heart problems, seizures, and other complications.
2. Gastrointestinal problems such as esophageal inflammation, gastric ulcers, and constipation.
3. Dental problems such as tooth decay and gum recession.
4. Hormonal imbalances that can lead to menstrual irregularities, fertility problems, and other hormone-related issues.
5. Social isolation and depression.
6. Anxiety and stress.
7. Suicidal thoughts and behaviors.
Treatment for BN typically involves a combination of medication and therapy, including:
1. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to address negative thought patterns and behaviors related to binge eating and weight management.
2. Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) to improve communication skills and relationships with others.
3. Psychodynamic therapy to explore underlying emotional issues and gain insight into the causes of BN.
4. Medications such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and other antidepressants to help manage symptoms of BN, such as depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive behaviors.
5. Nutritional counseling to learn healthy eating habits and improve overall nutrition.
6. Support groups to connect with others who are experiencing similar struggles and to receive ongoing support and encouragement.
It's important to note that BN is a treatable condition, and seeking professional help can lead to significant improvements in physical and emotional health. With the right treatment and support, individuals with BN can learn to manage their symptoms and live a fulfilling life.
1. Onychomycosis: This is a fungal infection of the nail that can cause discoloration, thickening, and brittleness of the nails. It is more common in toenails than fingernails.
2. Paronychia: This is a bacterial or fungal infection of the skin around the nail that can cause redness, swelling, and pus.
3. Nail psoriasis: This is a chronic condition that causes redness, thickening, and pitting of the nails. It is often associated with psoriasis, an autoimmune disorder.
4. Nail trauma: This can occur due to injury or repetitive stress on the nail, such as from biting or picking at the nails.
5. Nail cancer: This is a rare condition that affects the skin underneath the nail and can cause thickening, discoloration, and bleeding.
6. Melanonychia: This is a condition where the nails become darkened due to an increase in melanin production. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including exposure to ultraviolet radiation, certain medications, and underlying medical conditions.
7. Nail fragility: This is a condition where the nails are weak and prone to breaking or splitting. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including nutritional deficiencies, systemic diseases, and trauma.
8. Nail abnormalities: These can occur due to a variety of factors, including genetics, infections, and certain medical conditions. Examples include clubbing of the nails, where the nails curve downward, and koilonychia, where the nails are thin and concave.
Nail diseases can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as nail scrapings, biopsies, or blood tests. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the condition and may involve topical or oral medications, changes to the diet or lifestyle, or surgery in severe cases. It is important to seek medical attention if you notice any changes or abnormalities in your nails, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.
In individuals with orthostatic intolerance, the body has difficulty adjusting to the change in position from lying down or sitting to standing, leading to a sudden drop in blood pressure and heart rate. This can cause symptoms such as dizziness, lightheadedness, fainting, and fatigue.
Orthostatic intolerance can be caused by a variety of factors, including dehydration, hypovolemia (low blood volume), certain medications, and medical conditions such as heart failure, anemia, and adrenal insufficiency. Treatment for orthostatic intolerance typically involves addressing the underlying cause, increasing fluid and electrolyte intake, and in some cases, medication to help regulate blood pressure and heart rate.
In summary, orthostatic intolerance is a condition where an individual experiences symptoms due to their body's inability to maintain stable blood pressure and heart rate when changing positions. It can be caused by various factors and treated with addressing the underlying cause, fluid and electrolyte replacement, and medication if necessary.
There are several factors that can contribute to the development of pressure ulcers, including:
1. Pressure: Prolonged pressure on a specific area of the body can cause damage to the skin and underlying tissue.
2. Shear: Movement or sliding of the body against a surface can also contribute to the development of pressure ulcers.
3. Friction: Rubbing or friction against a surface can damage the skin and increase the risk of pressure ulcers.
4. Moisture: Skin that is wet or moist is more susceptible to pressure ulcers.
5. Incontinence: Lack of bladder or bowel control can lead to prolonged exposure of the skin to urine or stool, increasing the risk of pressure ulcers.
6. Immobility: People who are unable to move or change positions frequently are at higher risk for pressure ulcers.
7. Malnutrition: A diet that is deficient in essential nutrients can impair the body's ability to heal and increase the risk of pressure ulcers.
8. Smoking: Smoking can damage blood vessels and reduce blood flow to the skin, increasing the risk of pressure ulcers.
9. Diabetes: People with diabetes are at higher risk for pressure ulcers due to nerve damage and poor circulation.
10. Age: The elderly are more susceptible to pressure ulcers due to decreased mobility, decreased blood flow, and thinning skin.
Pressure ulcers can be classified into several different stages based on their severity and the extent of tissue damage. Treatment for pressure ulcers typically involves addressing the underlying cause and providing wound care to promote healing. This may include changing positions frequently, using support surfaces to reduce pressure, and managing incontinence and moisture. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to clean and close the wound.
Prevention is key in avoiding pressure ulcers. Strategies for prevention include:
1. Turning and repositioning frequently to redistribute pressure.
2. Using support surfaces that are designed to reduce pressure on the skin, such as foam mattresses or specialized cushions.
3. Maintaining good hygiene and keeping the skin clean and dry.
4. Managing incontinence and moisture to prevent skin irritation and breakdown.
5. Monitoring nutrition and hydration to ensure adequate intake.
6. Encouraging mobility and physical activity to improve circulation and reduce immobility.
7. Avoiding tight clothing and bedding that can constrict the skin.
8. Providing proper skin care and using topical creams or ointments to prevent skin breakdown.
In conclusion, pressure ulcers are a common complication of immobility and can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Understanding the causes and risk factors for pressure ulcers is essential in preventing and managing these wounds. Proper assessment, prevention, and treatment strategies can improve outcomes and reduce the burden of pressure ulcers on patients and healthcare systems.
Some common signs and symptoms of bulimia include:
* Frequent episodes of binge eating, often accompanied by feelings of guilt, shame, or self-criticism
* Purging behaviors such as vomiting, using laxatives, or excessive exercise to compensate for the binge eating
* Secretive or secretive behavior around eating habits
* Difficulty maintaining a healthy weight due to extreme calorie restriction or purging
* Constipation, bloating, or other gastrointestinal symptoms
* Tooth decay and gum problems from frequent acid exposure
* Hormonal imbalances and menstrual irregularities
* Dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and other complications from purging
* Social withdrawal, low self-esteem, and other emotional difficulties
Bulimia can be difficult to diagnose, as individuals with the disorder may try to hide their symptoms or deny that they have a problem. However, healthcare professionals can use the following criteria to diagnose bulimia:
* Recurring episodes of binge eating or purging behaviors at least once a week for three months
* Self-evaluation of body shape or weight that is distorted or excessive
* Intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat
* Denial of the disorder or secrecy around eating habits
If you suspect that someone you know may have bulimia, it's important to approach the situation with sensitivity and support. Encourage them to seek professional help from a mental health provider or a registered dietitian who specializes in eating disorders. With appropriate treatment and support, individuals with bulimia can recover and lead a healthy, fulfilling life.
The exact cause of SID is not known, but researchers believe that it may be related to defects in the baby's brain that affect the baby's ability to regulate their breathing, heart rate, and temperature. These defects may be inherited or caused by environmental factors such as exposure to tobacco smoke, overheating, or exposure to soft bedding or loose bedding in the crib.
There are no specific signs or symptoms of SID, and it can occur suddenly and without warning. It is important for parents and caregivers to be aware of the risk factors and take steps to reduce the risk of SID, such as:
1. Placing the baby on their back to sleep
2. Using a firm mattress and tight-fitting bedding
3. Keeping the crib free of soft objects and toys
4. Avoiding overheating or overdressing the baby
5. Breastfeeding and offering a pacifier
6. Ensuring that the baby is sleeping in a safe sleep environment, such as a crib or bassinet, and not on a sofa or other soft surface.
There is no specific treatment for SID, and it is often diagnosed by ruling out other causes of death. If you suspect that your infant has died from SID, it is important to contact the authorities and seek medical attention immediately.
There are several possible causes of orthostatic hypotension, including:
1. Deconditioning: This is a common cause of orthostatic hypotension in older adults who have been bedridden or hospitalized for prolonged periods.
2. Medication side effects: Certain medications, such as beta blockers and vasodilators, can cause orthostatic hypotension as a side effect.
3. Heart conditions: Conditions such as heart failure, arrhythmias, and structural heart defects can lead to orthostatic hypotension.
4. Neurological disorders: Certain neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and stroke, can cause orthostatic hypotension.
5. Vasomotor instability: This is a condition where the blood vessels constrict or dilate rapidly, leading to a drop in blood pressure.
6. Anemia: A low red blood cell count can lead to a decrease in oxygen delivery to the body's tissues, causing orthostatic hypotension.
7. Dehydration: Dehydration can cause a drop in blood volume and lead to orthostatic hypotension.
8. Hypovolemia: This is a condition where there is a low volume of blood in the body, leading to a drop in blood pressure.
9. Sepsis: Sepsis can cause vasodilation and lead to orthostatic hypotension.
10. Other causes: Other causes of orthostatic hypotension include adrenal insufficiency, thyroid disorders, and certain genetic conditions.
Symptoms of orthostatic hypotension may include:
* Dizziness or lightheadedness
* Blurred vision
* Nausea and vomiting
If you experience any of these symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. Your healthcare provider can perform a physical examination and order diagnostic tests to determine the underlying cause of your orthostatic hypotension. Treatment will depend on the specific cause, but may include medications to raise blood pressure, fluid replacement, and addressing any underlying conditions.
In medicine, cross-infection refers to the transmission of an infectious agent from one individual or source to another, often through direct contact or indirect exposure. This type of transmission can occur in various settings, such as hospitals, clinics, and long-term care facilities, where patients with compromised immune systems are more susceptible to infection.
Cross-infection can occur through a variety of means, including:
1. Person-to-person contact: Direct contact with an infected individual, such as touching, hugging, or shaking hands.
2. Contaminated surfaces and objects: Touching contaminated surfaces or objects that have been touched by an infected individual, such as doorknobs, furniture, or medical equipment.
3. Airborne transmission: Inhaling droplets or aerosolized particles that contain the infectious agent, such as during coughing or sneezing.
4. Contaminated food and water: Consuming food or drinks that have been handled by an infected individual or contaminated with the infectious agent.
5. Insect vectors: Mosquitoes, ticks, or other insects can transmit infections through their bites.
Cross-infection is a significant concern in healthcare settings, as it can lead to outbreaks of nosocomial infections (infections acquired in hospitals) and can spread rapidly among patients, healthcare workers, and visitors. To prevent cross-infection, healthcare providers use strict infection control measures, such as wearing personal protective equipment (PPE), thoroughly cleaning and disinfecting surfaces, and implementing isolation precautions for infected individuals.
In summary, cross-infection refers to the transmission of an infectious agent from one individual or source to another, often through direct contact or indirect exposure in healthcare settings. Preventing cross-infection is essential to maintaining a safe and healthy environment for patients, healthcare workers, and visitors.
CDC - Bed Bugs - Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
Moving a patient from bed to a wheelchair: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
Bed Bugs: MedlinePlus
BED (file format) - Wikipedia
NIMH » Bed nucleus of stria terminalis
NIH Guide: COLLABORATORY TEST BEDS
platform beds from Sears.com
The Best Dog Beds For Home, Travel And More
Sunnycroft Farmhouse Bed & Breakfast - About us
Logan Range Sofa Beds | M&S
Hiking - Lava Beds National Monument (U.S. National Park Service)
Petition New 3 Bed Hospital
'Good in Bed' | Salon...
Doctors Fight Plan to Limit Beds in ER - WSJ
Medium Wood - Full - Beds - Bedroom Furniture - The Home Depot
Beds, Herts & Bucks: Latest updates - BBC News
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A Bed of Stars by Jessica Love
WOOZY Cat Radiator Hammock / Cat Bed - Etsy
Soda Crate Pet Bed - Make
KLIPSK Bed tray, turquoise - IKEA
Bed Bugs Won't Give You Chagas Disease (probably) | WIRED
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Kuranda® | Elevated, Indestructible & Large Dog Beds
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Results for 'bedding' - data.gov.uk
Psychiatric hospital beds1
- The State disperses funds to the Region for the CSB's to purchase private psychiatric hospital beds for individuals with no healthcare benefits when admission to a state psychiatric hospital is not possible. (fairfaxcounty.gov)
- The soft fabric lends a sophisticated look to the clean-lined bed design, complete with platform slats that provide plenty of support and let you skip the box spring. (homedepot.ca)
- COLLABORATORY TEST BEDS Release Date: January 9, 1998 P.T. National Center for Research Resources The National Center for Research Resources (NCRR) will be soliciting competitive supplemental applications, limited to current NCRR supported Biomedical Technology resource centers, to establish, demonstrate, and evaluate collaboratory (laboratory without walls) test beds. (nih.gov)
- The goal of these collaboratory test beds is to determine whether this approach will significantly enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of research activities, and provide measurable improvements in the ability of these resource centers to serve the biomedical research community. (nih.gov)
- Bed bug infestations usually occur around or near the areas where people sleep. (cdc.gov)
- This study determined the extent of reemerging bed bug infestations in homeless shelters and other locations in Toronto, Canada. (cdc.gov)
- Bed bug infestations were reported at 20 (31%) of 65 homeless shelters. (cdc.gov)
- Bed bug infestations can have an adverse effect on health and quality of life in the general population, particularly among homeless persons living in shelters. (cdc.gov)
- In North America and Western Europe, bed bug infestations became rare during the second half of the 20th century and have been viewed as a condition that occurs in travelers returning from developing countries ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
- This study was conducted to document the magnitude and adverse effects of bed bug infestations in homeless shelters and other locations in Toronto. (cdc.gov)
- The log of telephone calls made in 2003 to Toronto Public Health was reviewed to identify calls related to bed bug infestations, the types of locations affected, and the regions of the city where infestations were reported. (cdc.gov)
- The survey documented the number of bed bug-related calls received, the number of treatments provided by pest control operators in 2003, and the types of insecticides used to treat bed bug infestations. (cdc.gov)
- To protect the confidentiality of persons and establishments affected by bed bugs, we asked each pest control operator to report the number of different locations treated for bed bug infestations by general type (e.g., apartment, single-family dwelling, shelter) and not by specific name or address. (cdc.gov)
- A telephone interview of the director or supervisor at each homeless shelter in Toronto was conducted to determine which shelters had experienced bed bug infestations. (cdc.gov)
- They hide during the day in places such as seams of mattresses, box springs, bed frames, headboards, dresser tables, inside cracks or crevices, behind wallpaper, or any other clutter or objects around a bed. (cdc.gov)
- Bed bugs hide in cracks and crevices in beds, wooden furniture, floors, and walls during the daytime and emerge at night to feed on their preferred host, humans. (cdc.gov)
- Check the mattress and headboard for signs of bed bugs. (nih.gov)
- With their simple, armless profiles, the sofa beds in our Logan range help you make the most of your available space. (marksandspencer.com)
- Bed bugs ( Cimex lectularius ) are small, flat, parasitic insects that feed solely on the blood of people and animals while they sleep. (cdc.gov)
- In the laboratory, Chagas parasites will live in a wide variety of insects, including bed bugs. (wired.com)
- The insecticides that are used for treating bed nets kill mosquitoes, as well as other insects. (cdc.gov)
- The bed bugs travel in the seams and folds of luggage, overnight bags, folded clothes, bedding, furniture, and anywhere else where they can hide. (cdc.gov)
- Bed bugs don't transmit or spread diseases. (nih.gov)
- Nobody likes bed bugs, but one thing we could always say was 'at least they don't transmit any human diseases! (wired.com)
- A new paper in The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene reported that bed bugs might be able to host and transmit Chagas Disease , a chronic heart disease caused by the blood parasite Trypanosoma cruzi . (wired.com)
- Dr. Michael Levy, an author on the new study, summed it this way: 'We knew that [bed bugs] probably could transmit the parasite. (wired.com)
- Other people may be allergic to the bed bugs and can react adversely to the bites. (cdc.gov)
- Bed bugs are reddish-brown in color, wingless, range from 1mm to 7mm (roughly the size of Lincoln's head on a penny), and can live several months without a blood meal. (cdc.gov)
- Lastly, the researchers also measured how long it took for bed bugs to poop after a blood meal, and found the Time-to-pooping by kissing bugs and bed bugs were similar. (wired.com)
- I don't think most dogs care about round versus oval versus rectangular, but fitting into your home decor is important, and for this reason, bed covers come in a staggering variety of colors and prints, and the latest craze is scaled down, dog-sized versions of human furniture designs, like couches with turned legs. (forbes.com)
- Other symptoms of bed bug bites include insomnia, anxiety, and skin problems that arise from profuse scratching of the bites. (cdc.gov)
- Because bed bug bites affect everyone differently, some people may have no reaction and will not develop bite marks or any other visible signs of being bitten. (cdc.gov)
- Bed bug bites usually do not pose a serious medical threat. (cdc.gov)
- At 1 affected shelter, 4% of residents reported having bed bug bites. (cdc.gov)
- According to The National Institutes of Health, Laboratory Animal Allergy Prevention Program, corncob, recycled wood product (paper), and wood chip bedding are the primary bedding materials used at the NIH. (nih.gov)
- Due to hypoallergenic properties, corncob bedding and recycled wood products are preferred for allergy prevention. (nih.gov)
- Uncontaminated bedding could potentially be composted or used as landscape mulch. (nih.gov)
- So far, none of them are transmitted to humans by bed bugs. (wired.com)
- Where are bed bugs found? (cdc.gov)
- Bed bugs are found across the globe from North and South America, to Africa, Asia and Europe. (cdc.gov)
- Bed bugs have been found in five-star hotels and resorts and their presence is not determined by the cleanliness of the living conditions where they are found. (cdc.gov)
- Often touted as the State's second best institution of Vaidya Vidhana Parishad (VVP), after the one at Machilipatnam, the hospital is found short of beds, quite frequently. (medindia.net)
- The common bed bug is found worldwide. (cdc.gov)
- The researchers conducted a nationally representative survey of more than 3,000 mothers and found that the majority (65.5 percent) reported room sharing without bed sharing, while 20.7 percent reported bed sharing. (nih.gov)
- Unlike pillow beds that hold onto dirt, odors and pet hair, just wipe down or rinse off your Kuranda Dog Bed with a hose to clean. (kuranda.com)
- Add extra coziness with a variety of bed pad options including bolsters, fleece and pillow pads. (kuranda.com)
- Visual image is an illustration of a cartoon-character mosquito sitting on a pillow on what appears to be an Army bed. (nih.gov)
- As a resident of Southeast Missouri, Northeast Arkansas and/or a consumer of healthcare in the Poplar Bluff Missouri area, I fully support the new Black River Community Medical Center's 3 bed community hospital on the Poplar Bluff Medical Partner's Campus. (ipetitions.com)
- This 3 bed community hospital will be a taxable not-for-profit entity which will increase local economic revenue, add valuable healthcare services to our region, as well as create additional jobs for our community. (ipetitions.com)
- I also understand that the Black River Community Medical Center's vision is to add additional beds to the hospital as the needs of the community increase. (ipetitions.com)
- There are moves to add around a hundred beds to the existing 250 beds of Andhra Pradesh's district hospital at Khammam. (medindia.net)
- We evaluated the distribution of hospital beds across Saudi Arabia from 2015 to 2019 to assess inequalities in hospital resource allocation. (who.int)
- The number of hospital beds per 100 000 population was calculated for the 20 health regions. (who.int)
- The ratio of hospital beds to population improved from 2015 to 2019 in areas such as Ha'il, Tabouk and Ta'if, which increased by 89.6, 72.5 and 32.5 respectively. (who.int)
- There was a strong positive correlation between population and hospital beds in Riyadh, Qaseem, Eastern and Ha'il regions. (who.int)
- In Saudi Arabia the observed inequalities in hospital bed distributions lie mainly in the private sector. (who.int)
- Psychiatric care beds in hospitals (HP.1) are hospital beds accommodating patients with mental health problems (part of HC.1 in the SHA classification). (who.int)
- This polygon dataset identifies the extent and distribution of intertidal seagrass beds mapped through surveys between 2009 and 2012. (data.gov.uk)
- Our single-bed size is ideal for smaller spots, while the double creates a luxurious haven for your overnight visitors. (marksandspencer.com)
- We have an indoor/outdoor dog bed and there are models specifically designed for your car and others that protect and cover the furniture. (forbes.com)
- Conquer your bedroom clutter with this modern upholstered bed. (homedepot.ca)
- The BED ( Browser Extensible Data ) format is a text file format used to store genomic regions as coordinates and associated annotations . (wikipedia.org)
- From 2006, data exclude beds in psychiatric care institutions and initiatives for a protected housing. (who.int)
- 2001-2003: Data for psychiatric care beds are revised. (who.int)
- The revision was done in order to provide the harmonised data and the psychiatric beds from specialised dispensaries are also included. (who.int)
- On the other hand, flat mat style beds work great for crates and are highly portable. (forbes.com)
- With KLIPSK bed tray you can both work and enjoy your business lunch in bed. (ikea.com)
- Whether visiting for work or a holiday, have a warm welcome at our top-rated Bed and Breakfast in Eastbourne on Yell.com. (yell.com)
- What health risks do bed bugs pose? (cdc.gov)
- A formal BED specification  was published in 2021  under the auspices of the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health . (wikipedia.org)
- Animal bedding makes up approximately 12% of our solid waste stream at the National Institutes of Health. (nih.gov)
- Tanning beds, skin cancer, and vitamin D: An examination of the scientific evidence and public health implications. (nih.gov)
- Following advice to sleep in the same room with their infants -but not in the same bed-does not appear to discourage new mothers from breastfeeding, as some experts had feared, according to a new study funded by the National Institutes of Health. (nih.gov)
- Uncontaminated animal bedding can be disposed of as general waste. (nih.gov)
- Park the wheelchair next to the bed, close to you. (medlineplus.gov)
- But in any case, dog beds span a very wide range of cost and quality and these are the best at a variety of price points. (forbes.com)
Getting bed bugs2
- beds for rehabilitation in HP.1.2 and beds allocated to long-term nursing care in HP.1.2 are included as well as beds for same-day care. (who.int)
- The increase in psychiatric care beds in 1996 is due to the creation of beds in psychiatric care institutions and initiatives for a protected housing. (who.int)
- Studies have shown that if you consume an ample amount of protein right before bed, you'll take full advantage of this spike in growth hormone and maximize muscle gains. (healthline.com)
- The kelp beds and interspersed sandy bays around Sanday were intensively surveyed using an acoustic ground discrimination system for remote survey and a towed video for ground truth sampling. (data.gov.uk)
- Survey to establish the infaunal species composition and sediment properties of maerl bed habitats in Falmouth Harbour, from SCUBA diver collected core samples. (data.gov.uk)
- Diver core survey undertaken at a Maerl beds in Wyre Sound and off Tingwall, Orkney by Heriot-Watt University for SNH on the 10th, 12th and 14th June 2015. (data.gov.uk)
- Located within the scenic parkland of Ovid, Tillinghast Manor Bed & Brunch offers comfortable accommodation and a wide range of facilities, including free Wi-Fi, a swimming pool and a designated smoki. (hotelscombined.com)
- Many times, two patients are made to share one bed. (medindia.net)
- Bed bugs hide in a variety of places around the bed. (nih.gov)
- I'm a dog person, and I have one bed in my office, one in my bedroom and one in the living room. (forbes.com)
- Foreign factories, especially in China, have dubious safety track records and have made poisonous dog food and poisonous construction materials for our homes, so I don't trust them a whole lot when it comes to bedding - and that's something your best friend is in touch with every single day. (forbes.com)
- Very low prices typically mean cheap materials and construction, and to me dog bedding is not something to be skimped on. (forbes.com)
- There are not many dog beds made in the USA, and far less made from domestic materials (you'll often see "assembled in the US from imported materials," which is pretty meaningless). (forbes.com)
- Because I strongly prefer beds made in this country from high quality, safe, domestic materials, I'm starting there, and no company in the industry is better known for this than West Paw, which makes every single one of its beds (and toys) in Montana, where they are hand sewn. (forbes.com)
- Blunt trauma to the fingertip and nail bed requires adequate treatment to prevent secondary deformities and reduce the need for subsequent reconstruction. (medscape.com)
- Bed nets form a protective barrier around people sleeping under them. (cdc.gov)
- Complications of nail bed injuries may include scarring, loss or obstruction of the nail fold, destruction of nail with lack of new nail growth, abnormal nail growth or disrupted nail growth, and infection. (medscape.com)
- A bed bug bite affects each person differently. (cdc.gov)
- When bed bugs bite, they inject an anesthetic and an anticoagulant that prevents a person from realizing they are being bitten. (cdc.gov)
- A video shows a Kuranda Dog Bed soiled with dirt being cleaned by a person with a wet towel. (kuranda.com)
- Contaminated bedding should be disposed of as chemical, radioactive, or medical waste, based on the contaminant. (nih.gov)