Bedding and Linens: Articles of cloth, usually cotton or rayon and other synthetic or cotton-blend fabrics, used in households, hospitals, physicians' examining rooms, nursing homes, etc., for sheets, pillow cases, toweling, gowns, drapes, and the like.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Insecticide-Treated Bednets: Lightweight meshwork fabric made of cotton, silk, polyester, nylon (polyamides), or other material impregnated with insecticide, having openings too small to allow entry of mosquitoes or other insects, thereby offering protection against insect bite and insect-borne diseases.Mosquito Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.Pyrethrins: The active insecticidal constituent of CHRYSANTHEMUM CINERARIIFOLIUM flowers. Pyrethrin I is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemummonocarboxylic acid and pyrethrin II is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.LaunderingMaintenance: The upkeep of property or equipment.Permethrin: A pyrethroid insecticide commonly used in the treatment of LICE INFESTATIONS and SCABIES.Mosquito Nets: Free-standing or supported lightweight meshwork fabric made of cotton, silk, polyester or other material, having openings too small to allow entry of mosquitoes or other insects, thereby protecting against INSECT BITES; INSECT STINGS, and insect-borne diseases.Insect Bites and Stings: Bites and stings inflicted by insects.Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane: An organochlorine insecticide that is slightly irritating to the skin. (From Merck Index, 11th ed, p482)Anopheles: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Protective Devices: Devices designed to provide personal protection against injury to individuals exposed to hazards in industry, sports, aviation, or daily activities.Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Ghana: A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Endemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)Insecticide Resistance: The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Culex: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Nitriles: Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.AfricaMalaria, Vivax: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM VIVAX. This form of malaria is less severe than MALARIA, FALCIPARUM, but there is a higher probability for relapses to occur. Febrile paroxysms often occur every other day.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Anopheles gambiae: A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.Senegal: A republic in western Africa, southwest of MAURITANIA and east of MALI. Its capital is Dakar.Chronology as Topic: The temporal sequence of events that have occurred.Child Mortality: Number of deaths of children between one year of age to 12 years of age in a given population.United Nations: An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.Child Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.Schools: Educational institutions.Hypochondriasis: Preoccupation with the fear of having, or the idea that one has, a serious disease based on the person's misinterpretation of bodily symptoms. (APA, DSM-IV)IndiaAntimalarials: Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)Sulfadoxine: A long acting sulfonamide that is used, usually in combination with other drugs, for respiratory, urinary tract, and malarial infections.Pyrimethamine: One of the FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS that is used as an antimalarial or with a sulfonamide to treat toxoplasmosis.District of Columbia: A federal area located between Maryland and Virginia on the Potomac river; it is coextensive with Washington, D.C., which is the capital of the United States.WashingtonRefugees: Persons fleeing to a place of safety, especially those who flee to a foreign country or power to escape danger or persecution in their own country or habitual residence because of race, religion, or political belief. (Webster, 3d ed)Tennis: A game played by two or four players with rackets and an elastic ball on a level court divided by a low net.Leadership: The function of directing or controlling the actions or attitudes of an individual or group with more or less willing acquiescence of the followers.
  • In 1999, the United Nations Children's Fund and World Health Organization set the goal of providing 32 million bednets and 320 million bednet treatments per year for the following ten years to protect 80% of African households against malaria. (malariavaccine.org)
  • Results: Primary outcome: An end-of-project household survey revealed that 40.8% of households owned one or more bednets, but only 19.6% of households owned a net that had been re-treated with insecticide within the preceding 6 months. (healthallianceinternational.org)
  • Recent evaluations have shown that distributing bednets for free can substantially increase take-up , and even make households more likely to buy a bednet in the future , but that charging even very small user fees significantly reduces adoption. (berkeley.edu)
  • One potential solution could be to provide households with small loans to purchase bednets, which could be paid back in small installments without a large one-time cost. (berkeley.edu)
  • Two thirds of households had a bednet at the time of the intervention, almost all of which had been purchased in local markets. (berkeley.edu)
  • But bednet coverage was far from universal, as households had an average of one net for every three people and only about 13 percent of individuals slept under a net the previous night at the time of the baseline survey. (berkeley.edu)
  • Our preliminary results indicate that in Kenya roughly 1 in 4 children under 5, the group most vulnerable to malaria, live in households that do not own a bednet. (arizona.edu)
  • Tested against wild pyrethroid-resistant A. gambiae in Burkina Faso, pyrethroid bednets with organophosphate barriers achieved significantly higher killing rates than bednets alone. (nature.com)
  • Fig. 3: Behaviour at barrier bednets of A. gambiae s. l. laboratory colonies and wild population in Burkina Faso. (nature.com)
  • Methods A total of 3387 neonates from 41 villages in rural Burkina Faso were individually randomized to receive either bednet protection from birth (group A) or from age 6 months (group B). Primary outcomes were all-cause mortality in all study children and incidence of falciparum malaria in a representative subsample of the study population. (coursehero.com)
  • Bednets are a very tangible tool to protect children," says UNICEF Canada President and CEO Nigel Fisher. (unicef.org)
  • In both cities a statistically significant reduction was found in the incidence of new cases in intervention sectors who received bednets compared with control areas. (who.int)
  • An intervention field trial promoting the use of K-OTAB (deltamethrin-tablet formulation) impregnated bednets by local inhabitants of four villages was performed between July 2000 and July 2001. (hacettepe.edu.tr)
  • GATINEAU, Canada, 18 April 2007 - It is a lofty goal: to cover Africa in blue bednets and stop death by malaria. (unicef.org)
  • At the same time, a 'mop-up' campaign was conducted in the rest of the country to distribute bednets to mothers who had received vouchers but not a bednet in December. (cdc.gov)
  • To test whether it is preferable to freely distribute bednets or require a co-payment by recipients, in 2006 Jessica Cohen and Pascaline Dupas, founders of TAMTAM, put their approach to a rigorous test. (poverty-action.org)
  • In Latin America, research investigated the role of community and found that the local manufacture of bednets and their sale through village health workers, even in communities with low cash income, were viable ways of increasing bednet coverage. (malariavaccine.org)
  • Treated barriers on untreated bednets were equally effective, without significant loss of personal protection. (nature.com)
  • So an accurate cost-effectiveness comparison between screens and temporary bednets should include all of these other factors. (malariaworld.org)
  • The objective of the following proposal is to use qualitative and quantitative methods to determine the prevalence ofownership, misuse and disuse of bednets under field conditions and to identify modifiable risk factors. (arizona.edu)
  • We will use an ecological approach to assess not only individual level factors that drive bednet ownership and use but the social and environmental context in which these decisions are being made. (arizona.edu)
  • From the cross-sectional participants we will identify positive deviants, community members who own and use bednets regularly despite experiencing at least 75% of the factors associated with not owning or using a bednet. (arizona.edu)
  • Bednet ownership was significantly associated with higher socio-economic status (odds ratios for association with bednet ownership: 5.6 for highest educational level compared with no education, 0.4 for dirt floor compared with cement or other finished flooring, 2.1 for automobile ownership compared with transportation on foot), but was negatively associated with the presence of young children in the household (odds ratio 0.5). (healthallianceinternational.org)
  • Governments and organizations have reconsidered their policies to charge for bednets in recent years in response to evidence that even small fees reduce coverage. (poverty-action.org)
  • Service: Worked with community to identify strategy to disseminate bednets that would provide equitable coverage for the area. (arizona.edu)
  • The evidence generated by research for implementation was critical to mobilizing the funding for free bednets, expanding distribution schemes, generating investments in the diversity of products now available, and increasing capacity to continue these efforts at all levels. (malariavaccine.org)
  • Insecticide-treated bednets fit over a bed and act as a barrier between insects and the person sleeping. (cochrane.org)
  • I use bednets when I camp out for a short time in areas where malaria transmission is intense, but I would never ask my family to live in a house in the tropics where their only protection against blood-sucking insects were a bunch of temporary bednets. (malariaworld.org)
  • At the same time, in a trial run, bednets were distributed to selected areas before the full-scale distribution began. (cdc.gov)
  • During ITN distribution, field staff members and clinic health workers promoted bednet usage. (cdc.gov)
  • The funds raised through Spread the Net will be used not only for the purchase of bednets but also for net distribution and education on their use. (unicef.org)
  • To clarify this issue, we did a randomized controlled trial to assess the long-term effects of bednet protection during early infancy. (coursehero.com)
  • So if we take a good look at screens from the point of health in general, and not focus myopically on malaria, bednets are a waste of time and money. (malariaworld.org)
  • In microfinance villages, buyers who originally purchased only the bednet and not the re-treatment could re-treat the net for cash. (berkeley.edu)