Lasers: An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Lasers, Solid-State: Lasers which use a solid, as opposed to a liquid or gas, as the lasing medium. Common materials used are crystals, such as YAG (YTTRIUM aluminum garnet); alexandrite; and CORUNDUM, doped with a rare earth element such as a NEODYMIUM; ERBIUM; or HOLMIUM. The output is sometimes additionally modified by addition of non-linear optical materials such as potassium titanyl phosphate crystal, which for example is used with neodymium YAG lasers to convert the output light to the visible range.Laser Coagulation: The use of green light-producing LASERS to stop bleeding. The green light is selectively absorbed by HEMOGLOBIN, thus triggering BLOOD COAGULATION.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Laser Therapy, Low-Level: Treatment using irradiation with LASER light of low power intensity so that the effects are not due to heat, as they are in LASER THERAPY.Quality Indicators, Health Care: Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.Cone-Beam Computed Tomography: Computed tomography modalities which use a cone or pyramid-shaped beam of radiation.Lasers, Excimer: Gas lasers with excited dimers (i.e., excimers) as the active medium. The most commonly used are rare gas monohalides (e.g., argon fluoride, xenon chloride). Their principal emission wavelengths are in the ultraviolet range and depend on the monohalide used (e.g., 193 nm for ArF, 308 nm for Xe Cl). These lasers are operated in pulsed and Q-switched modes and used in photoablative decomposition involving actual removal of tissue. (UMDNS, 2005)Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Particle Accelerators: Devices which accelerate electrically charged atomic or subatomic particles, such as electrons, protons or ions, to high velocities so they have high kinetic energy.Quality Improvement: The attainment or process of attaining a new level of performance or quality.Noble Gases: Elements that constitute group 18 (formerly the zero group) of the periodic table. They are gases that generally do not react chemically.Heavy Ions: Positively-charged atomic nuclei that have been stripped of their electrons. These particles have one or more units of electric charge and a mass exceeding that of the Helium-4 nucleus (alpha particle).Lasers, Dye: Tunable liquid lasers with organic compounds (i.e., dye) which have a strong absorption band, used as the active medium. During emission, the dye has to be optically excited by another light source (e.g., another laser or flash lamp). The range of the emission wavelength may be anywhere from the ultraviolet to the near infrared (i.e., from 180 to 1100nm). These lasers are operated in continuous wave and pulsed modes. (UMDNS, 2005)Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Laser Scanning Cytometry: A scanning microscope-based, cytofluorimetry technique for making fluorescence measurements and topographic analysis on individual cells. Lasers are used to excite fluorochromes in labeled cellular specimens. Fluorescence is detected in multiple discrete wavelengths and the locational data is processed to quantitatively assess APOPTOSIS; PLOIDIES; cell proliferation; GENE EXPRESSION; PROTEIN TRANSPORT; and other cellular processes.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted mathematical calculations of beam angles, intensities of radiation, and duration of irradiation in radiotherapy.Water Quality: A rating of a body of water based on measurable physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.Total Quality Management: The application of industrial management practice to systematically maintain and improve organization-wide performance. Effectiveness and success are determined and assessed by quantitative quality measures.Radiotherapy Dosage: The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.Radiation Dosage: The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).Proton Therapy: The use of an external beam of PROTONS as radiotherapy.Keratomileusis, Laser In Situ: A surgical procedure to correct MYOPIA by CORNEAL STROMA subtraction. It involves the use of a microkeratome to make a lamellar dissection of the CORNEA creating a flap with intact CORNEAL EPITHELIUM. After the flap is lifted, the underlying midstroma is reshaped with an EXCIMER LASER and the flap is returned to its original position.Phantoms, Imaging: Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Gas PoisoningPhotons: Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Equipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Angioplasty, Laser: A technique utilizing a laser coupled to a catheter which is used in the dilatation of occluded blood vessels. This includes laser thermal angioplasty where the laser energy heats up a metal tip, and direct laser angioplasty where the laser energy directly ablates the occlusion. One form of the latter approach uses an EXCIMER LASER which creates microscopically precise cuts without thermal injury. When laser angioplasty is performed in combination with balloon angioplasty it is called laser-assisted balloon angioplasty (ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON, LASER-ASSISTED).Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Food Quality: Ratings of the characteristics of food including flavor, appearance, nutritional content, and the amount of microbial and chemical contamination.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Argon: Argon. A noble gas with the atomic symbol Ar, atomic number 18, and atomic weight 39.948. It is used in fluorescent tubes and wherever an inert atmosphere is desired and nitrogen cannot be used.Radiotherapy, Conformal: Radiotherapy where there is improved dose homogeneity within the tumor and reduced dosage to uninvolved structures. The precise shaping of dose distribution is achieved via the use of computer-controlled multileaf collimators.Radiotherapy, High-Energy: Radiotherapy using high-energy (megavolt or higher) ionizing radiation. Types of radiation include gamma rays, produced by a radioisotope within a teletherapy unit; x-rays, electrons, protons, alpha particles (helium ions) and heavy charged ions, produced by particle acceleration; and neutrons and pi-mesons (pions), produced as secondary particles following bombardment of a target with a primary particle.Relative Biological Effectiveness: The ratio of radiation dosages required to produce identical change based on a formula comparing other types of radiation with that of gamma or roentgen rays.Gas, Natural: A combustible, gaseous mixture of low-molecular weight PARAFFIN hydrocarbons, generated below the surface of the earth. It contains mostly METHANE and ETHANE with small amounts of PROPANE; BUTANES; and higher hydrocarbons, and sometimes NITROGEN; CARBON DIOXIDE; HYDROGEN SULFIDE; and HELIUM. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Laser Capture Microdissection: Techniques using a laser to cut away and harvest a specific cell or cluster of cells from a tissue section while viewing it under the microscope.Brachytherapy: A collective term for interstitial, intracavity, and surface radiotherapy. It uses small sealed or partly-sealed sources that may be placed on or near the body surface or within a natural body cavity or implanted directly into the tissues.Transducers: Any device or element which converts an input signal into an output signal of a different form. Examples include the microphone, phonographic pickup, loudspeaker, barometer, photoelectric cell, automobile horn, doorbell, and underwater sound transducer. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Linear Energy Transfer: Rate of energy dissipation along the path of charged particles. In radiobiology and health physics, exposure is measured in kiloelectron volts per micrometer of tissue (keV/micrometer T).Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated: CONFORMAL RADIOTHERAPY that combines several intensity-modulated beams to provide improved dose homogeneity and highly conformal dose distributions.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Synchrotrons: Devices for accelerating protons or electrons in closed orbits where the accelerating voltage and magnetic field strength varies (the accelerating voltage is held constant for electrons) in order to keep the orbit radius constant.Scattering, Radiation: The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Heavy Ion Radiotherapy: The use of a heavy ion particle beam for radiotherapy, such as the HEAVY IONS of CARBON.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Radiographic Image Enhancement: Improvement in the quality of an x-ray image by use of an intensifying screen, tube, or filter and by optimum exposure techniques. Digital processing methods are often employed.Optics and Photonics: A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Gas Gangrene: A severe condition resulting from bacteria invading healthy muscle from adjacent traumatized muscle or soft tissue. The infection originates in a wound contaminated with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM. C. perfringens accounts for the majority of cases (over eighty percent), while C. noyvi, C. septicum, and C. histolyticum cause most of the other cases.Computer-Aided Design: The use of computers for designing and/or manufacturing of anything, including drugs, surgical procedures, orthotics, and prosthetics.X-Rays: Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard X-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength X-rays. Soft x-rays or Grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the X-ray spectrum overlaps the GAMMA RAYS wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.Helium: Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation: The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.Infrared Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum usually sensed as heat. Infrared wavelengths are longer than those of visible light, extending into the microwave frequencies. They are used therapeutically as heat, and also to warm food in restaurants.Microdissection: The performance of dissections with the aid of a microscope.Laser-Doppler Flowmetry: A method of non-invasive, continuous measurement of MICROCIRCULATION. The technique is based on the values of the DOPPLER EFFECT of low-power laser light scattered randomly by static structures and moving tissue particulates.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Corneal Surgery, Laser: Surgical techniques on the CORNEA employing LASERS, especially for reshaping the CORNEA to correct REFRACTIVE ERRORS.Radiotherapy: The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.Monte Carlo Method: In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Light Coagulation: The coagulation of tissue by an intense beam of light, including laser (LASER COAGULATION). In the eye it is used in the treatment of retinal detachments, retinal holes, aneurysms, hemorrhages, and malignant and benign neoplasms. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)United StatesImage Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Artifacts: Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Oil and Gas Fields: Areas of the earth where hydrocarbon deposits of PETROLEUM and/or NATURAL GAS are located.Thermoluminescent Dosimetry: The use of a device composed of thermoluminescent material for measuring exposure to IONIZING RADIATION. The thermoluminescent material emits light when heated. The amount of light emitted is proportional to the amount of ionizing radiation to which the material has been exposed.Radiography, Dental: Radiographic techniques used in dentistry.Ophthalmoscopy: Examination of the interior of the eye with an ophthalmoscope.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Sickness Impact Profile: A quality-of-life scale developed in the United States in 1972 as a measure of health status or dysfunction generated by a disease. It is a behaviorally based questionnaire for patients and addresses activities such as sleep and rest, mobility, recreation, home management, emotional behavior, social interaction, and the like. It measures the patient's perceived health status and is sensitive enough to detect changes or differences in health status occurring over time or between groups. (From Medical Care, vol.xix, no.8, August 1981, p.787-805)Scintillation Counting: Detection and counting of scintillations produced in a fluorescent material by ionizing radiation.Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Neon: Neon. A noble gas with the atomic symbol Ne, atomic number 10, and atomic weight 20.18. It is found in the earth's crust and atmosphere as an inert, odorless gas and is used in vacuum tubes and incandescent lamps.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Organs at Risk: Organs which might be damaged during exposure to a toxin or to some form of therapy. It most frequently refers to healthy organs located in the radiation field during radiation therapy.Radiation ProtectionRadiotherapy, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems or programs used in accurate computations for providing radiation dosage treatment to patients.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Lenses: Pieces of glass or other transparent materials used for magnification or increased visual acuity.Electrons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Voice Quality: That component of SPEECH which gives the primary distinction to a given speaker's VOICE when pitch and loudness are excluded. It involves both phonatory and resonatory characteristics. Some of the descriptions of voice quality are harshness, breathiness and nasality.Optical Fibers: Thin strands of transparent material, usually glass, that are used for transmitting light waves over long distances.Film Dosimetry: Use of a device (film badge) for measuring exposure of individuals to radiation. It is usually made of metal, plastic, or paper and loaded with one or more pieces of x-ray film.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Fiducial Markers: Materials used as reference points for imaging studies.Management Quality Circles: Participation of employees with management as a labor-management team, in decisions pertaining to the operational activities of the organization or industry.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Optical Devices: Products or parts of products used to detect, manipulate, or analyze light, such as LENSES, refractors, mirrors, filters, prisms, and OPTICAL FIBERS.Fiber Optic Technology: The technology of transmitting light over long distances through strands of glass or other transparent material.Tomography Scanners, X-Ray Computed: X-ray image-detecting devices that make a focused image of body structures lying in a predetermined plane from which more complex images are computed.Ophthalmoscopes: Devices for examining the interior of the eye, permitting the clear visualization of the structures of the eye at any depth. (UMDNS, 1999)Radiation Injuries: Harmful effects of non-experimental exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation in VERTEBRATES.Interferometry: Measurement of distances or movements by means of the phenomena caused by the interference of two rays of light (optical interferometry) or of sound (acoustic interferometry).Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Radiotherapy, Image-Guided: The use of pre-treatment imaging modalities to position the patient, delineate the target, and align the beam of radiation to achieve optimal accuracy and reduce radiation damage to surrounding non-target tissues.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Ultrasonics: A subfield of acoustics dealing in the radio frequency range higher than acoustic SOUND waves (approximately above 20 kilohertz). Ultrasonic radiation is used therapeutically (DIATHERMY and ULTRASONIC THERAPY) to generate HEAT and to selectively destroy tissues. It is also used in diagnostics, for example, ULTRASONOGRAPHY; ECHOENCEPHALOGRAPHY; and ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, to visually display echoes received from irradiated tissues.Benchmarking: Method of measuring performance against established standards of best practice.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Mustard Gas: Severe irritant and vesicant of skin, eyes, and lungs. It may cause blindness and lethal lung edema and was formerly used as a war gas. The substance has been proposed as a cytostatic and for treatment of psoriasis. It has been listed as a known carcinogen in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985) (Merck, 11th ed).Refractometry: Measurement of the index of refraction (the ratio of the velocity of light or other radiation in the first of two media to its velocity in the second as it passes from one into the other).Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography: Three-dimensional computed tomographic imaging with the added dimension of time, to follow motion during imaging.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Photorefractive Keratectomy: A type of refractive surgery of the CORNEA to correct MYOPIA and ASTIGMATISM. An EXCIMER LASER is used directly on the surface of the EYE to remove some of the CORNEAL EPITHELIUM thus reshaping the anterior curvature of the cornea.Acoustics: The branch of physics that deals with sound and sound waves. In medicine it is often applied in procedures in speech and hearing studies. With regard to the environment, it refers to the characteristics of a room, auditorium, theatre, building, etc. that determines the audibility or fidelity of sounds in it. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Dose Fractionation: Administration of the total dose of radiation (RADIATION DOSAGE) in parts, at timed intervals.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Radiobiology: Study of the scientific principles, mechanisms, and effects of the interaction of ionizing radiation with living matter. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Patient Positioning: Moving a patient into a specific position or POSTURE to facilitate examination, surgery, or for therapeutic purposes.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Fluorescein Angiography: Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.Optical Tweezers: A technique that uses LASERS to trap, image, and manipulate small objects (biomolecules, supramolecular assembles, DENDRIMERS) in three dimensional space. (From Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology Terms, 4th ed.)Health Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Plasma Gases: Ionized gases, consisting of free electrons and ionized atoms or molecules which collectively behave differently than gas, solid, or liquid. Plasma gases are used in biomedical fields in surface modification; biological decontamination; dentistry (e.g., PLASMA ARC DENTAL CURING LIGHTS); and in other treatments (e.g., ARGON PLASMA COAGULATION).Optical Processes: Behavior of LIGHT and its interactions with itself and materials.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Image Enhancement: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Semiconductors: Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Radiography, Dental, Digital: A rapid, low-dose, digital imaging system using a small intraoral sensor instead of radiographic film, an intensifying screen, and a charge-coupled device. It presents the possibility of reduced patient exposure and minimal distortion, although resolution and latitude are inferior to standard dental radiography. A receiver is placed in the mouth, routing signals to a computer which images the signals on a screen or in print. It includes digitizing from x-ray film or any other detector. (From MEDLINE abstracts; personal communication from Dr. Charles Berthold, NIDR)Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Signal-To-Noise Ratio: The comparison of the quantity of meaningful data to the irrelevant or incorrect data.United States Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE established in 1990 to "provide indexing, abstracting, translating, publishing, and other services leading to a more effective and timely dissemination of information on research, demonstration projects, and evaluations with respect to health care to public and private entities and individuals engaged in the improvement of health care delivery..." It supersedes the National Center for Health Services Research. The United States Agency for Health Care Policy and Research was renamed Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) under the Healthcare Research and Quality Act of 1999.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Microscopy, Fluorescence, Multiphoton: Fluorescence microscopy utilizing multiple low-energy photons to produce the excitation event of the fluorophore. Multiphoton microscopes have a simplified optical path in the emission side due to the lack of an emission pinhole, which is necessary with normal confocal microscopes. Ultimately this allows spatial isolation of the excitation event, enabling deeper imaging into optically thick tissue, while restricting photobleaching and phototoxicity to the area being imaged.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Microscopy: The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.Radiation Oncology: A subspecialty of medical oncology and radiology concerned with the radiotherapy of cancer.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Optical Phenomena: LIGHT, it's processes and properties, and the characteristics of materials interacting with it.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Sleep Disorders: Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)Silicon: A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Fundus Oculi: The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Laboratories: Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Neutrons: Electrically neutral elementary particles found in all atomic nuclei except light hydrogen; the mass is equal to that of the proton and electron combined and they are unstable when isolated from the nucleus, undergoing beta decay. Slow, thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons refer to the energy levels with which the neutrons are ejected from heavier nuclei during their decay.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Miniaturization: The design or construction of objects greatly reduced in scale.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Erbium: Erbium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Er, atomic number 68, and atomic weight 167.26.Palliative Care: Care alleviating symptoms without curing the underlying disease. (Stedman, 25th ed)Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Laser Therapy: The use of photothermal effects of LASERS to coagulate, incise, vaporize, resect, dissect, or resurface tissue.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Diagnostic Imaging: Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.Dental Soldering: The joining of pieces of metal through the use of an alloy which has a lower melting point, usually at least 100 degrees Celsius below the fusion temperature of the parts being soldered. In dentistry, soldering is used for joining components of a dental appliance, as in assembling a bridge, joining metals to orthodontic bands, or adding to the bulk of certain structures, such as the establishment of proper contact areas on inlays and crowns with adjacent teeth. (Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Radiosurgery: A radiological stereotactic technique developed for cutting or destroying tissue by high doses of radiation in place of surgical incisions. It was originally developed for neurosurgery on structures in the brain and its use gradually spread to radiation surgery on extracranial structures as well. The usual rigid needles or probes of stereotactic surgery are replaced with beams of ionizing radiation directed toward a target so as to achieve local tissue destruction.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
... gas lasers can use concave mirrors, flat mirrors, or a combination of both. The divergence of high-quality laser beams is ... "Properties of Lasers". World of Lasers. World of Lasers. 2015. Retrieved 5 August 2015. Joshi (2010). Engineering Physics. Tata ... Laser light from gas or crystal lasers is highly collimated because it is formed in an optical cavity between two parallel ... A perfectly collimated beam, with no divergence, would not disperse with distance. Such a beam cannot be created, due to ...
Major advantage of gas lasers in biophotonics is their fixed wavelength, their perfect beam quality and their low linewidth/ ... Gas lasers[edit]. Major gas lasers used for biophotonics applications, and their most important wavelengths, are: - Argon Ion ... Solid state lasers[edit]. Solid-state lasers are lasers based on solid-state gain media such as crystals or glasses doped with ... can be made in the form of bulk lasers, fiber lasers, or other types of waveguide lasers. Solid-state lasers may generate ...
... represents a unique class of hybrid electric gas high-energy laser with the potential to have inherently higher beam quality ... The principal advantage of such an inherently high beam quality system is the trade of a relatively small fixed mass in ... The Electric Oxygen Iodine Laser, or ElectricOIL, or EOIL, is an infrared hybrid electrical / chemical laser. Its output ... "Recent advances in the development of discharge-pumped oxygen-iodine lasers". Laser & Photonics Reviews. 4: 671-683. 2010-06-07 ...
... "burning stabilized laser gas cutting", "flame cutting". Reactive cutting is like oxygen torch cutting but with a laser beam as ... or is blown away by a jet of gas, leaving an edge with a high-quality surface finish. Industrial laser cutters are used to cut ... 3D printing Laser ablation Laser converting Laser drilling Laser engraving Laser beam machining Lasersaur List of laser ... A laser microjet is a water-jet guided laser in which a pulsed laser beam is coupled into a low-pressure water jet. This is ...
New solid state lasers use direct electronic control of the laser source to provide blanking. With gas lasers, such as argon or ... and color selection of a multi-color laser beam. Most DPSS lasers used in laser projectors support modulation. Modulation has ... Material and time saving by an optimized workflow Immediate visual quality control Rise in productivity Laser projection with ... Laser video projector Laser video display CNET Three colors homemade laser projector with ATMega64 controller Home Built Laser ...
... high-quality optical beam. Compact size: Fiber lasers are compact compared to rod or gas lasers of comparable power, because ... Fiber lasers are pumped by semiconductor laser diodes or by other fiber lasers. Q-switched pulsed fiber lasers offer a compact ... Commercial single-mode lasers have reached 10 kW in CW power. In 2014 a combined beam fiber laser demonstrated power of 30 kW. ... A fiber laser or fibre laser is a laser in which the active gain medium is an optical fiber doped with rare-earth elements such ...
Units operating at 633 nm are very common in schools and laboratories because of their low cost and near perfect beam qualities ... A gas laser is a laser in which an electric current is discharged through a gas to produce coherent light. The gas laser was ... Ion lasers, mostly argon, are used in CW dye laser pumping. Gas dynamic laser Brewster window List of laser types "Air Force ... Gas lasers using many gases have been built and used for many purposes. Carbon dioxide lasers, or CO2 lasers can emit hundreds ...
The two types of lasers commonly used are solid-state lasers (especially ruby lasers and Nd:YAG lasers) and gas lasers. The ... Weld quality tends to be higher as well, since the potential for undercutting is reduced. Although laser beam welding can be ... remote laser beam welding is used. In this method, the laser beam is moved along the seam with the help of a laser scanner, so ... These lasers can operate in both continuous and pulsed mode, and the wavelength of the CO2 gas laser beam is 10.6 μm, deep ...
Small particles which accompany natural and industrial gases pass through two laser beams focused a short distance apart in the ... A drop in quality (change in the measured speed of sound) is an indication that the meter needs servicing. ... A laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV), also called a laser Doppler anemometer (LDA), focuses a laser beam into a small volume in a ... Laser Doppler flow measurement[edit]. A beam of laser light impinging on a moving particle will be partially scattered with a ...
LasersEdit. *The two types of lasers commonly used are solid-state lasers (especially ruby lasers and Nd:YAG lasers) and gas ... LBW results in higher quality welds A derivative of LBW, laser-hybrid welding, combines the laser of LBW with an arc welding ... Laser beam deliveryEdit. Modern laser beam welding machines can be grouped into two types. In the traditional type, the laser ... Gas laserEdit. Gas lasers use high-voltage, low-current power sources to supply the energy needed to excite the gas mixture ...
Random mechanical dithering (e.g. laser beam dithering and/or sample rotation ) has been found effective in GASMAS. However, ... Also this gas can be of great value to study to monitor quality and maturity level (see e.g. and ). See M. Sjöholm, G. ... It is well known that optical interference often is a major problem in laser-based gas spectroscopy. In conventional laser- ... Laser light is sent into a sample with gas cavities, which could either be small pores (left) or larger gas-filled chambers. ...
Thus this laser does not need a concave lens or refocusing lenses and beam quality improves along the gain medium. The height ... A nitrogen laser is a gas laser operating in the ultraviolet range (typically 337.1 nm) using molecular nitrogen as its gain ... The nitrogen laser is a three-level laser. In contrast to more typical four-level lasers, the upper laser level of nitrogen is ... Gas lasers use low density of gas molecules and a high density of initial electrons to prevent streamers. Electrons are added ...
... because of their relatively low cost and ease of operation compared to other visible lasers producing beams of similar quality ... A helium-neon laser or HeNe laser, is a type of gas laser whose gain medium consists of a mixture of 85% helium and 15% neon ... The laser is used in the device to read the optical disc. List of laser types C. S. Willet "An Introduction to Gas Lasers" ... The first HeNe lasers emitted infrared at 1.15 μm, and were the first gas lasers. However, a laser that operated at visible ...
... spectral and beam quality, polarization, etc.) it is useful to classify applications by these basic properties. Many ... InGaAsP gas sensing: CH 4 1,877 nm - GaInAsSb gas sensing: H 2O 2,004 nm - GaInAsSb gas sensing: CO 2 2,330 nm - GaInAsSb gas ... laser pointers, CD/DVD/Blu-ray disc reading/recording, laser printing, laser scanning and light beam illumination. A laser ... injection laser diode (ILD), or diode laser is a semiconductor device similar to a light-emitting diode in which the laser beam ...
Laser guided and stabilized welding (LGS-welding) is a process in which a laser beam irradiates an electrical heated plasma arc ... Laser Stabilized Double TIG-welding)[permanent dead link] Wendelstorf, J.; Decker, I.; Wohlfahrt, H. 1994, Laser-enhanced gas ... The goal of this technique is to increase welding speed of TIG-welding without compromising the quality. For this process two ... In order to realize a maximum overlap between the electric arc and the laser beam in the process area, the laser is installed ...
There are many different types of lasers including gas, solid states lasers, and excimer. In gas lasers, an electric current is ... Laser cladding is used to coat cheap or weak parts with a harder material in order to improve the surface quality. Drilling and ... Solid state lasers are designed by doping a rare element into various host materials. Unlike in gas lasers, solid state lasers ... Operating the laser beam is comparatively technical, and services from an expert may be required. Laser beams are not designed ...
Lockheed Martin is developing a 60 kW fiber laser to mount on the HEMTT that maintains beam quality at high power outputs while ... The U.S. Air Force's Airborne Laser, or Advanced Tactical Laser, was a plan to mount a CO2 gas laser or COIL chemical laser on ... Portable Efficient Laser Testbed (PELT) Laser AirCraft CounterMeasures (ACCM) Mobile Expeditionary High-Energy Laser (MEHEL) ... Laser beams begin to cause plasma breakdown in the atmosphere at energy densities of around one megajoule per cubic centimetre ...
His research encompasses gas lasers, solid state lasers, high power fiber lasers, ceramic lasers for inertial confinement ... His current interests cover laser applications. He is also a pioneer of ultra-high quality optics in Japan. He was the ... in 1981 he investigated the kinetics of KrF excimers and the physics on generation of intense relativistic e-beams. He ... He is a pioneer of fiber laser research in Japan. He developed kilowatt fiber-disk lasers and fiber Raman lasers and so on. ...
... gas-metal arc, submerged-arc, electron beam, and laser beam welding processes. However, whilst these processes were able to ... The phrase "X-ray welding" also has an older, unrelated usage in quality control. In this context, an X-Ray welder is a ... X-ray beams have been shown to have potential as welding sources for classes of materials which cannot be welded conventionally ... It is assumed (or trusted) by the Quality Control Department of a fabrication or manufacturing shop that the welding work ...
... is the free-electron laser (or one might say xaser for an X-ray device). Free-electron lasers can produce high quality beams at ... Excimer lasers are gas-based light systems that are usually filled with inert and halide gases (Kr, Ar, Xe, F and Cl) that are ... A laser beam (laser writer) or a beam of electrons (e-beam writer) is used to expose the pattern defined by the data file and ... Generally, an excimer laser is designed to operate with a specific gas mixture; therefore, changing wavelength is not a trivial ...
In 1986, the personal computer market opened a door for Akins and Sandstrom to apply their unique laser knowledge for the ... Light at these wavelengths is produced when an electrical discharge is applied to a mixture of gases (Krypton and Fluorine (KrF ... SmartPulse delivers wafer-level light source parameter monitoring and on-board beam metrology to optimize the lithography ... reporting and analysis products to enable tighter process control and improved wafer quality. OnPulse Plus provides real-time ...
The mirrors reflect the laser beams across the screen and so produce the necessary number of image lines. The small layers of ... stimulating the gas (typically xenon and neon) atoms inside the cell. These ionized gas atoms, or plasmas, then release ... Light from each cell can be controlled and changed rapidly to produce a high-quality moving picture.[10][11][12][13] ... Laser Phosphor Display[edit]. In Laser Phosphor Display technology, first demonstrated in June 2010 at InfoComm, the image is ...
... the first use of a laser beam to successfully measure gas density in 1966, the first independent HYGE sled test facility to ... test services and airborne testbeds Test pilot and flight training In-flight simulation Flight control and handling qualities ...
... therefore a quality assessment of the bond is possible. Double cantilever beam test, also referred to as crack opening or razor ... A development in bond strength testing of adhesively bonded composite structures is laser bond inspection (LBI). LBI provides a ... The radiation absorption enables the analysis with a specific wavelength for gases. Ultrasonic microscopy uses high frequency ... The Gillis and Gilman approach considers bend and shear forces in the beam. The compliance equation is: C = 8 L 3 E ∗ w t 3 ( 1 ...
... gas surrounding the laser), or in a sealed chamber. Electron beam freeform fabrication uses an electron beam heat source inside ... The quality and complexity of printer designs, however, as well as the quality of kit or finished products, varies greatly from ... a high-power laser is used to melt metal powder supplied to the focus of the laser beam. The laser beam typically travels ... Laser-based wirefeed systems, such as Laser Metal Deposition-wire (LMD-w), feed wire through a nozzle that is melted by a laser ...
This material is used for archival quality storage of documents by the Library of Congress (Mylar® type D, ICI Melinex 516 or ... The result is much less permeable to gases (important in food packaging) and reflects up to 99% of light, including much of the ... As a beamsplitter in Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, typically with laser applications. Film thicknesses are often in ... detector ring and the patient allowing negligible attenuation of the xray beam when active. ...
When installing a fiber delivered laser system, checking the quality of the delivered beam is important. The beam quality can ... Laser beam characterization instruments provide the tools to know precisely what the laser beam is doing at the point of the ... So you can indeed get one laser beam profiler and use it with many different kinds of laser beams - youll just need the proper ... these laser measurements were performed by directing the laser beam through a lens and measuring the resulting beam waist ...
The two types of lasers commonly used are solid-state lasers (especially ruby lasers and Nd:YAG lasers) and gas lasers. The ... Weld quality tends to be higher as well, since the potential for undercutting is reduced. Although laser beam welding can be ... remote laser beam welding is used. In this method, the laser beam is moved along the seam with the help of a laser scanner, so ... These lasers can operate in both continuous and pulsed mode, and the wavelength of the CO2 gas laser beam is 10.6 μm, deep ...
Gas lasers use an AC or DC electrical discharge through the gas medium, or external RF excitation, electron beam bombardment, ... SS Laser Testing, Adjustment, Repair - Cleaning, cooling, alignment, tuning, beam quality and energy. *SS Laser Power Supplies ... EXP28 - Laser Scanner *EXP29 - Laser Beam Analysis *EXP30 - Laser Doppler Ananometer *EXP31 - Fibre Ring Laser *EXP32 - Laser ... EXP20 - Laser Safety *EXP21 - Laser Triangulation *EXP22 - Laser Leveling *EXP23 - CO2 Laser Workstation Laser Maintenance and ...
These photo ICs detect laser beam printing start timing in laser beam printers and digital copiers. ... Quality Control. We are actively taking measures to improve product quality levels.. ... Photo IC for laser beam synchronous detection. These photo ICs detect laser beam printing start timing in laser beam printers ... Photo IC for laser beam synchronous detection. Photo IC assemblies for flame detection. Phototransistors. ...
LasersEdit. *The two types of lasers commonly used are solid-state lasers (especially ruby lasers and Nd:YAG lasers) and gas ... LBW results in higher quality welds A derivative of LBW, laser-hybrid welding, combines the laser of LBW with an arc welding ... Laser beam deliveryEdit. Modern laser beam welding machines can be grouped into two types. In the traditional type, the laser ... Gas laserEdit. Gas lasers use high-voltage, low-current power sources to supply the energy needed to excite the gas mixture ...
... the laser is a production line machine with a master oscillator producing a very narrow band seed beam which is amplified in ... Novel control features specially adapted for a two-chamber gas discharge laser system include: (1) pulse energy controls, with ... fast response gas temperature control and (4) F2 injection controls with novel learning algorithm. ... The present invention provides a control system for a modular high repetition rate two discharge chamber ultraviolet gas ...
TRUMPF lasers perform a wide variety of cutting and drilling work in metal, plastic, paper, and stone using a non-contact ... Choosing the right nozzle is crucial for part quality. The form of the gas beam as well a the gas quantity are determined by ... Cutting gas: the resulting melt is blown out of the kerf using cutting gas. The gas is emitted coaxially with the laser beam ... Laser precision cutting For laser beam precision cutting, individuals bores are joined together with pulsed laser energy; these ...
The wave emanating from the anode is associated with the presence of a solid surface that prevents the gas from expanding. As a ... Optical Quality of Pulsed Electron-Beam Sustained Lasers E. R. Pugh, J. Wallace, J. H. Jacob, D. B. Northam, and J. D. ... Acoustical wave effects on the beam quality of a high energy CO electric discharge laser G. L. McAllister, V. G. Draggoo, and R ... Transverse profile instabilities of the laser beam in the active media of pulsed excimer lasers A. S. Kostyuchenko, V. S. ...
Engineering and manufacturing Laser beams Properties Welding Analysis Equipment and supplies Management Technology application ... The effect of the relative location of laser beam with arc in different hybrid welding processes/Lazerinio-lankinio suvirinimo ... welding position and the shielding gas arrangement. Other important parameters are laser and arc power, the laser beam focus ... The required throughput time and quality set limits for performance, and the available system (laser beam, material, arc source ...
... high-quality optical beam. Compact size: Fiber lasers are compact compared to rod or gas lasers of comparable power, because ... Fiber lasers are pumped by semiconductor laser diodes or by other fiber lasers. Q-switched pulsed fiber lasers offer a compact ... Commercial single-mode lasers have reached 10 kW in CW power. In 2014 a combined beam fiber laser demonstrated power of 30 kW. ... A fiber laser or fibre laser is a laser in which the active gain medium is an optical fiber doped with rare-earth elements such ...
With an unstable resonator and an aerodynamic window for the extraction of the beam the laser system gives a beam quality which ... The influence of laser mixture contents, gas pressure and temperature, laser pulse length and spectral width upon the laser ... however not so much is known about the optical quality of the high-power laser beam. Our experimental studies on the laser ... uniformities on the beam quality, which may explain, in part, the experimentally observed poor beam quality. The methods to ...
o High beam quality UV lasers. * Environmental corona discharges. o Gas cleaning. o Water cleaning : YTRID project. o Corona ... So now we have gone from gas and dust, to dusty gas, to matter. We now have it cooling but still do not have the mechanism for ... Particle dynamics by Laser Light scattering and video imaging (carbon particle formation), and laser Doppler methods. Apart ... Using a laser they can be seen even by the naked eye.. Dusty plasmas have been studied in the group EPG since 1991. There are ...
3 Beam Propagation. 3.1 Gaussian Beams. 3.2 Beam Quality. 3.3 Beam Imaging. 3.4 Problems. Notes and References. 4 Laser System ... 2.2 Laser Types. 2.2.1 Semiconductor lasers. 2.2.2 Solid-state lasers. 2.2.3 Fiber lasers. 2.2.4 Gas lasers. 2.3 Laser ... 1.3 Laser Systems Engineering. 1.4 Problems. Notes and References. 2 Laser Selection. 2.1 Laser Specifications. 2.1.1 ... and laser damage threshold. In addition to the laser and optical subsystems, scanning and beam control are required for ...
... laser-cut quality depends on an accurately aligned beam. And during production, a beam can move out of alignment numerous times ... Best practices for laser cutting call for matching the right assist-gas nozzle diameter to the laser output power and assist- ... designed to optimize laser-beam-on time and cut edge quality. The technology packages three key features: automatic nozzle ... Republic laser-cuts mild- and stainless-steel work from 16 gauge to 3⁄8 in. thick, using six different assist-gas nozzle ...
Ultrafast laser pulses with proper energy density and wavelength can now be used for processing materials where thermal ... While pushing the beam-quality limits of high-average-power, rod-type lasers, diode-pumped disk laser technology was developed ... Solving this equation requires a kit of optical components, such as scanners, F-Theta lenses, focus optics with coaxial gas ... Behind the laser exit window, the main task is to manipulate the laser beam and transfer the laser power to maximum ...
A new BETEX professional digital laser thermometer from Quality Bearings & Components - QBC is a high-quality ... The laser beam allows you to remotely measure the temperature of any required object. The digital laser temperature meter can ... The digital laser temperature meter can be used to accurately measure fluids, gasses and a variety of other substances. ... Quality Bearings & Components - QBC LogoQuality Bearings & Components - QBC Logo. BETEX 1250 Digital Laser Thermometer: Low-Res ...
Major advantage of gas lasers in biophotonics is their fixed wavelength, their perfect beam quality and their low linewidth/ ... Gas lasers[edit]. Major gas lasers used for biophotonics applications, and their most important wavelengths, are: - Argon Ion ... Solid state lasers[edit]. Solid-state lasers are lasers based on solid-state gain media such as crystals or glasses doped with ... can be made in the form of bulk lasers, fiber lasers, or other types of waveguide lasers. Solid-state lasers may generate ...
... laser machining, and laser the ability to transport significant power to a target while maintaining good beam quality is ... high-pressure gas surrounded by a thin, spherical shell of cooled, dense gas with a radiative shock as its outer boundary, the ... These adaptive optics systems have successfully improved laser beam quality, but have also generally revealed additional high- ... From the beamed bremsstrahlung we infer that about 40-50% of the laser energy is converted to broadly beamed hot electrons. ...
In this technique, the laser beam strikes a target inside a chamber filled with nitrogen gas. The beam vaporizes the target, ... For instance, the Italian researchers will need more high-quality BNNTs to continue their studies in mice. Moving to this next ... method was developed with Jefferson Labs Free-Electron Laser and was later perfected using a commercial welding laser. ... forming a plume of boron gas. A condenser, a cooled metal wire, is inserted into the boron plume. The condenser cools the boron ...
... a physicist and inventor who helped develop the first gas laser nearly 50 years ago at Bell Laboratories, died on June 29, at ... xenon and similar gases and studied the qualities and burning power of their laser beams, giving ways to countless applications ... Ali JavanBell LaboratoriesDonald R. Herriottgas laserhelium neon laserHeNe laserlasersNews & FeaturesphotonicsWilliam R. ... gas laser. One of the first lasers to find practical application. Generally, the pumping mechanism is an electric discharge, ...
Gas lasers dont have as big a problem with thermal lensing, so you can make them real big and still get good beam quality. ... As was said before, CO2 lasers are gas lasers and YAGs are solid-state lasers. Gas lasers are very rugged - the material that ... Gas Dynamic CO2 Laser *Gas Fill *Composition and Pressures for CO2 Lasers *Why is There Carbon Monoxide in Some CO2 Lasers? * ... CO2 lasers and YAGs produce very different wavelengths and beam shapes. CO2 lasers are gas lasers that use carbon dioxide as ...
Here the electric field of the laser provides... ... intensity laser beam passes through a gas and ionizes this gas ... and top-hat beams have a parabolic thermal lens which does not decrease beam quality. Due to this reason, it becomes vital to ... Let us consider the propagation of a circularly polarized laser beam in a gas jet target. At z = 0, the laser field is given by ... we have investigated a situation where a high intensity laser beam passes through a gas and ionizes this gas by tunnel ...
Frequency-doubled diode lasers that produce blue light at or near 488 nm have emerged over the past couple of years, ... The power and pointing stability and the beam quality of solid-state lasers are competitive with those of argon lasers. The ... argon-ion laser. gas laser using ionized argon as the active medium and applying electronic excitation in order to produce the ... The M2 value of the beam from both lasers is less than 1.1.. Figure 2. Sapphires 488-nm beam matches the wavelength of an ...
Estimate the laser power generated, the wall plug power required, the beam quality, the operational lifetime, and the frequency ... Proposed improvements to the FAL laser transmitter to make more laser lines available by using isotope gas mixtures would ... mid-wave infrared laser transmitter, wavelength tuner, agile tuner, quantum cascade laser, CO2 waveguide laser, CO2 TEA laser, ... non-cryogenic lasers that maintain good beam quality and frequency stability over hours of operation will be strongly favored. ...
Gas detection device and gas inlet module thereof , Analyte extraction apparatus and method , Blood testing system , ... Short-wave infrared super-continuum lasers for natural gas leak detection, exploration, and other active remote.... A ... The methods allow for performing quality control of the... US-9,897,573. System, method and computer-accessible medium for ... beam using... ... Gas detection device and gas inlet module thereof. A gas ...
  • Millisecond-long pulses are used to weld thin materials such as razor blades while continuous laser systems are employed for deep welds. (
  • The industrial implementation of cold laser ablation, cutting, and drilling by use of ultrashort pulses has been a vision for more than 20 years. (
  • Early experiments with Ti:sapphire amplifiers as the paradigm of ultrafast technology during the last decades have demonstrated the huge potential of ultrashort laser pulses for precision machining. (
  • High energy short pulse generation (multi-kilojoule, picosecond pulses) will be possible via the adaptation of chirped pulse amplification laser techniques on the NIF. (
  • In addition, deployment of HEPW pulses on NIF is constrained by existing laser infrastructure and requires new, compact compressor designs and short-pulse, fiber-based, seed-laser systems. (
  • The key motivations for high energy petawatt pulses on NIF is briefly outlined and includes high-energy, x-ray radiography, proton beam radiography, proton isochoric heating and tests of the fast ignitor concept for inertial confinement fusion. (
  • 10 ] gave an extensive review of paraxial ray theory of self-focusing and self-guiding of short laser pulses in ionizing gases and plasmas. (
  • By focusing intense pulses of infrared light--each just a few optical cycles in duration--into a high-pressure gas cell, the researchers converted part of the original laser energy into a coherent super-continuum of light that extends well into the X-ray region of the spectrum. (
  • Typically, the laser pulses in such machines spread out as they pass through a plasma, leading to diffuse beams with few energetic electrons. (
  • Researchers at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory have improved the quality of laser wakefield beams by injecting preliminary pulses into a gas to create a plasma channel that guides a subsequent, accelerating laser pulse. (
  • The laser pulses were focused on different types of targets, depending on the acceleration technique. (
  • In two of the TNSA studies, double laser pulses were used. (
  • It was found that the spatial separation and relative intensities of the two pulses were important, and affected the spatial profile of the resulting proton beams. (
  • Furthermore, the elliptical profile could be tilted by changing the relative intensities of the two laser pulses, as a result of the transverse expansion of the electron sheath. (
  • In the foreground, units of the front end stretch and amplify short, relatively weak laser pulses before further amplification in the long central chamber. (
  • Its initial peak power of one petawatt is twice that of lasers recently said to produce pulses more powerful than that consumed by the entire U.S. "at any instant in time. (
  • Pulsed lasers are usually more powerful than CW lasers since their energy is concentrated in pulses whose length may be varied. (
  • Harmless pulses of UV laser radiation were emitted in a beam out into the atmosphere. (
  • In addition, this approach readily delivers optical pulses shorter than those of the input laser and with high spatial quality. (
  • The delivery of molecules into cells by carbon nanoparticles activated by femtosecond laser pulses is a promising recent technique developed on non-adherent cells. (
  • The use of paraxial ray approximation theory for the present case of super-Gaussian lasers reveals the self-focusing of the beams and frequency upshifting. (
  • The predicted self-focusing of the laser beams is contrary to the expected outcome of defocusing of these beams in the plasma, indicating that the paraxial theory may not be valid for the case of super-Gaussian lasers even for the inclusion of most of the near axis region in the theory. (
  • However, the super-Gaussian lasers have recently attracted the researchers all over the world [ 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 ] for their better extraction from saturated laser amplifiers, better non-linear conversion for same peak intensity, and top-hat beams have a parabolic thermal lens which does not decrease beam quality. (
  • Due to this reason, it becomes vital to investigate the profile of super-Gaussian lasers when they tunnel ionize the gas and produce the plasma. (
  • Hence, in the present article, we have derived the coupled equations for the amplitude and phase of super-Gaussian laser beam and solve it numerically using initial conditions. (
  • It was postulated that this effect was related to the use of surgical lasers with a Gaussian beam mode (see fig) In this mode the power of laser is highest at the centre of the beam with the power then falling off in a bell-shaped curve with the weakest power at the periphery of the beam diffusing out into the undamaged tissues2. (
  • The intensity distribution of the beam is Gaussian. (
  • Frequency-doubled diode lasers that produce blue light at or near 488 nm have emerged over the past couple of years, potentially affecting the multibillion-dollar instrumentation market based on the air-cooled argon-ion laser that has evolved over the past two decades. (
  • An interesting application in itself, but what makes it even more remarkable is the fact that industry experts have been predicting the death of gas lasers in favour of fibre and diode lasers for the past 15 years. (
  • Direct and fiber-coupled diode lasers operate in the range of 50 W to 10 kW. (
  • Semiconductor diode lasers able to operate at room temperatures, with lifetimes approaching or exceeding those of gas lasers are today, small, light-weight and inexpensive. (
  • A plasma - an ionized gas consisting of electrons and ions - is the fourth state of matter and, besides solid (crystalline), liquid and gaseous, also the most disordered state. (
  • Here the electric field of the laser provides a sufficient velocity to the electrons to surpass the Coulomb barrier of the atom. (
  • Unlike a laser--which gets more intense as more energy is pumped into the system--in HHG, if the laser hits the atoms too hard, too many electrons are liberated from the gas atoms, and those electrons cause the laser light to speed up. (
  • this is revealed by the high-quality films with a long scattering lifetime of conduction electrons. (
  • Electron Beam Welding (EBW), which relies on beams of electrons to melt and join metal pieces, provides the highest quality welds currently achievable. (
  • Because of the separation of positive and negative charges, the bubble contained powerful electrical fields that accelerated some of the plasma's electrons to form an energetic beam, while also causing that beam to wiggle. (
  • The fundamental idea behind the miniature particle accelerator's development is to enable scientists to use laser beams to accelerate electrons. (
  • This thesis describes experiments involving laser-plasma-based acceleration of electrons and protons, using the techniques of laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) and target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA). (
  • To obtain better control over how the electrons are injected, density gradient injection was used, which resulted in electron beams with increased charge, decreased spatial divergence, and better shot-to-shot stability compared to electron beams relying on self-injection. (
  • have brought about revolutionary changes in electronics, which was previously based on the technology of the electron tube electron tube, device consisting of a sealed enclosure in which electrons flow between electrodes separated either by a vacuum (in a vacuum tube) or by an ionized gas at low pressure (in a gas tube). (
  • Unlike conventional accelerators that use modulated electric fields to accelerate charged particles such as protons and electrons, laser plasma accelerators generate waves of electron density that move through a plasma, using laser beams to either heat and drill through a plume of gas or driving through plasma enclosed in a thin capillary in a crystalline block like sapphire. (
  • The BELLA laser is expected to drive what will be the first laser plasma accelerator to produce a beam of electrons with an energy of 10 billion electron volts (10 GeV). (
  • The Home-Built Laser Assembly and Power Supply - Structure, optics, mirror mounts, electrical components. (
  • Typical power output for ruby lasers is 10-20 W, while the Nd:YAG laser outputs between 0.04-6,000 W. To deliver the laser beam to the weld area, fiber optics are usually employed. (
  • Depending on the optics and the laser tube a different number of lines is usable but the most commonly used lines are 458 nm, 488 nm and 514.5 nm. (
  • For many years, adaptive optics based on thing deformable glass mirrors with piezoelectric or electrostrictive actuators have be used to remove the low-order wavefront errors from high-power laser systems. (
  • These adaptive optics systems have successfully improved laser beam quality, but have also generally revealed additional high-spatial-frequency errors, both because the low-order errors have been reduced and because deformable mirrors have often introduced some high-spatial-frequency components due to manufacturing errors. (
  • The typical HeCd laser can produce a high quality beam at 442 nm (violet-blue) and/or 325 nm (UV) depending on the optics. (
  • External mirrors provide a polarized beam (due to the Brewster windows) and allow for swapping of optics to to select 325 nm and/or 442 nm operation. (
  • The most important members of this group are quantum cascade lasers (QCLs), which over the past two decades have evolved from being new discoveries in the optics laboratory to robust, commercially available units. (
  • hundreds of small emitters knife edged and fiber coupled, that's what's inside most of the industrial FC IR laser pumps, many small lasers bundled with optics. (
  • From what I understand though, combining many individual beams with (imperfect) optics tends to yield poorer beam quality than if you were to have a single emitter. (
  • Additionally, their stupendous beam quality can facilitate applications with narrow focusing optics and accessing comparatively larger working areas. (
  • LOASIS reported its first high-quality electron beams of 100 million electron volts (100 MeV) in 2004 and the first beams of a billion electron volts (1 GeV) in 2006 - in a sapphire block just 3.3 centimeters long. (
  • Before being converted to other uses, the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center achieved 50‑GeV electron beams with traditional technology, but required a linear accelerator two miles long to do it. (
  • In fiber lasers, the main medium is the optical fiber itself. (
  • While almost all of the books that have the word "laser" in their title focus on the development of the lasers themselves, Laser Systems Engineering emphasizes the design and engineering of optical systems that incorporate these unique sources of light. (
  • How did it happen that more than 50 years after the invention of the laser, almost all of the books that have the word "laser" in their title emphasize the design of the lasers themselves, rather than the development of optical systems that incorporate these unique sources of light? (
  • very few books, however- Building Electro-Optical Systems by Hobbs, Laser Communications in Space by Lambert and Casey, Field Guide to Lidar by McManamon, and Electro-Optical Instrumentation by Donati, for example-address aspects of the design and engineering of laser systems. (
  • Among optical techniques, an emerging imaging technology based on laser scanning, the optical coherence tomography or OCT imaging is considered to be a useful tool to differentiate healthy from malignant skin tissue. (
  • Thermal effects due to the interaction of high-power laser or pump light with the internal optical components or with the ambient gas are common causes of wavefront degradation. (
  • Where common diode, HeNe, and even most Ar/Kr lasers put out mW of optical power, nearly all CO2 lasers are rated in WATTs or KILOWATTS. (
  • The typical electrical power in to optical power out (wall plug) efficiency of a CO2 laser may be anywhere from 5 to 20 percent or more (compared to less than 0.1 percent for a HeNe or Ar/Kr ion laser). (
  • Self-focusing is a non-linear optical process induced by a change in refractive index of material exposed to intense laser radiation. (
  • These arise due to tunnel ionization of atoms in the optical field of the laser and due to the relativistic dependence of electron mass on its velocity. (
  • The output power of HeCd lasers is generally fixed by operating conditions, but by adjusting Cd pressure, may be traded off against optical noise. (
  • There is usually no light feedback to regulate output power, though some Liconix (and possibly other) HeCd lasers implement active noise reduction, which probably uses optical feedback to control tube current. (
  • Records analysis results such as WDM analysis (OSNR, optical signal/noise ratio), distributed feedback laser diode (DFB-LD) analysis, and multi-peak measurements at up to 10000 points per channel with time stamps. (
  • The keyhole target is a diagnostic variation of the standard NIF hohlraum in which a gold conical tube is inserted through the hohlraum wall into the interior of the capsule, providing optical access to the propagating laser shocks so they can be imaged by the Velocity Interferometer System for any Reflector (VISAR), a time-resolved Doppler velocity camera. (
  • Not only are fiber lasers more power-efficient, more compact, deliver higher power with high-quality beam relative to existing solid state lasers, but they also require less time to service and interface more easily with optical fiber channels. (
  • Frankfurt: W1I) is a bio-photonics technology company developing high-performance crystals, photo detectors, medical lasers, optical imaging and 3D display technologies for commercial applications in the medical diagnostics and high-tech industry. (
  • The team has developed a new technique involving the intersection of two laser beams oscillating at different frequencies in order to generate an optical field whose properties the researchers can influence to an extremely precise degree. (
  • These include light sources such as light emitting diodes (LEDs) and photodiodes, optical fiber and fiber optic components, lasers, and optical devices such as beam splitters and lenses. (
  • Leemans heads AFRD's Lasers and Optical Accelerator Systems Integrated Studies program (LOASIS) and conceived BELLA in 2006. (
  • Cal;Bungalow In an biblical shop Output Coupling in Optical Cavities and Lasers:, the statement does known within the V. In the analysis, ' Every farming reaches Pilot, ' the controller of excellent activity is found in an structure of what it sends to carry a Analysis. (
  • In, ' This shop Output Coupling in Optical Cavities and Lasers: A Quantum does 120 workers interested, ' the questions are given or produced only to trace a equivalent % that is topologically led in any of the substantial turns. (
  • Roalson, Eric H. All shop Output Coupling in Optical Cavities and Lasers: A Quantum revolutions was given in the products of the methodological segue, focusing involved collection perceptions, and the limited providing evolution were disposed in the pest. (
  • The instrument detects the presence of oil using optical sensing with a vertical laser beam and measuring the differences in the reflection properties of water and oil products. (
  • The optical set up guarantees a collimated elliptical beam shape. (
  • The bundled laser beam only heats up the material locally, and the rest of the workpiece is subjected to minimal thermal stresses or not at all. (
  • Therefore, thermal approaches are generally used to measure beam power or determine beam profile. (
  • Zondlo says he has experimented with QCLs for a decade, but only in the past five years or so have the commercially available QCLs advanced enough in terms of beam quality, thermal stability, efficiency and general ruggedness to take their place in field spectroscopy campaigns to answer new science questions. (
  • In addition, ceramics, which have excellent thermal conductivity, have been used to aid cooling of heat generated by the plasma, which had previously been a big disadvantage of CO 2 lasers. (
  • High power is achieved by increased stimulation of the laser source, which can cause thermal and mechanical stress, so the lasers need to be much larger to provide stability. (
  • All thermal cutting techniques utilize gases to assist in the cutting process. (
  • Laser devices were manufactured in which power densities and energy densities of laser were lowered to a point where no photo thermal effects occurred but the photo-osmotic, photo-ionic and photo-enzymatic effects were still operative. (
  • The application of disk lasers helps eliminating thermal lensing and ensures high beam quality with improved processing abilities at high power levels. (
  • Gas mass flow rate can be directly measured, independent of pressure and temperature effects, with thermal mass flowmeters , Coriolis mass flowmeters , or mass flow controllers . (
  • The thermal drift was seen to be most stable using a commercially available thermal enclosure that provided a half-hour steady state window when set at 33°C. Rayleigh scattered light from an injection-seeded, frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser was analyzed using a planar mirror Fabry-Perot interferometer operating in the static imaging mode. (
  • Thermal Imaging for Continuous Process Monitoring and Quality Control. (
  • The Copper vapor laser, with two spectral lines of green (510.6 nm) and yellow (578.2 nm), is the most powerful laser with the highest efficiency in the visible spectrum. (
  • Greenhouse gases and other air pollutants have spectral signatures in the mid-infrared region. (
  • Many trace gases in the atmosphere, including methane, have strong absorption features in the mid-infrared spectral region at which QCLs operate, says Anna Michel, an assistant scientist at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (USA). (
  • The Nobel laureate's brilliant exposition of the kinetic theory of gases, elementary particles, the nuclear atom, wave-corpuscles, atomic structure and spectral lines, electron spin and Pauli's principle, quantum statistics, molecular structure and nuclear physics. (
  • The advantages of fiber lasers have been proven in the infrared spectral region and now with the introduction of Zecotek's new series, these advantages have been extended to a wide, green spectral range. (
  • nanoplus DFB lasers show outstanding spectral, tuning and electrical properties. (
  • Whether 2D or 3D laser processing - TRUMPF offers machines and systems for extremely various applications for you. (
  • Faced with just that scenario, Republic Sales & Manufacturing added automated nozzle changing to its shopping list when it acquired its latest 4-kW CO2 laser-cutting machine (a Trumpf TruLaser 3030), early in 2012. (
  • The Dallas, TX firm, primarily an OEM manufacturer of blowers and related accessories, also operates a 2008-vintage 4-kW Trumpf laser-cutting machine. (
  • Gerald Jones, general sales manager for Trumpf, says: 'Fifteen years ago, CO 2 lasers were typically in the 1kW range. (
  • The top three players, Trumpf GmbH + Co. KG, Amada Co. Ltd., and Han's Laser Technology Co. Ltd., held over 47% of the market in terms of revenue in 2013. (
  • The vendor landscape in the global laser cutting machines market therefore looks highly fragmented, currently led by companies such as Amada Miyachi CO. Ltd., ALPHA Laser GmbH, Trumpf Laser GMBH + Co. KG, DPSS Lasers Incorporation, and and IPG Photonics Corporation. (
  • The Advanced Laser Applications Workshop (ALAW) is an annual conference hosted by The Fabricators & Manufacturers Associate (FMA) in the Detroit, Michigan area. (
  • This extremely wide material range makes the laser the top cutting tool for many applications in the area of metals and non-metals. (
  • The resulting process is a new, more complicated process, which still widens the area of suitable applications for laser welding. (
  • Taking the perspective of the laser systems engineer, this book reviews the concepts and components required for the development of laser-based systems for manufacturing, biomedical applications, laser radar, sensors, metrology, laser-based displays, directed energy, etc. (
  • Many current and emerging laser applications fall into the high-resolution category where there is an increased need for the correction of high spatial frequency aberrations which requires correctors with thousands of degrees of freedom. (
  • Developed at Spectra-Physics in the early 1970s by a group led by John Goldsborough, the air-cooled argon-ion laser has found broad applications, including in the medical field, in graphics and in semiconductor inspection. (
  • Researchers have used lasers to create the first practical macroscopic yarns from boron nitride fibers, opening the door for an array of applications, from radiation-shielded spacecraft to stronger body armor, according to a just-published study. (
  • A more standard example of these applications would be the employment of 10W CO 2 gas lasers to mark medical instruments, avoiding the risk of hazardous inks and providing a permanent and sterile means of identification. (
  • Although fiber lasers are well-established as a successful welding method in several automotive production applications, there are still some specific uses in which they deliver less than ideal results. (
  • Contributions are welcome from the frontiers of diagnostics in different areas of research: high energy and accelerator physics and technology, nuclear fusion plasmas, space and astrophysics research, medical applications, lasers physics and technology, etc., to discuss common interests in concepts and realization of measurement systems. (
  • Because of their compact size, laser wakefield accelerators are likely to find applications in laboratories that lack space for conventional accelerators. (
  • Haun Specialty Gases offers the complete MicroBulk delivery system by Chart as a solution to reliably and effortlessly manage a diverse range of gas applications. (
  • And for mixed gas applications, the Medley solution provides on-site gas blending directly from liquid storage for the most accurate mixture available and at the lowest cost. (
  • For aerospace applications, these advantages can be translated into improvements in productivity and joint quality, as well as new opportunities for improved designs, leading to an overall reduction in aircraft weight. (
  • The first clinical applications of the GaAlAs diode laser appeared in the literature in 1981. (
  • The emerging applications of laser processing are also expected to creative opportunities conducive to the market's growth in the near future. (
  • Focuses on dye lasers' applications for imaging spectroscopy in combustion research. (
  • (
  • Hydrolab and Sea-bird Coastal offer a variety of multiparameter water quality instrumentation and nutrient sensors for long-term coastal applications. (
  • Furthermore, the rising demand for materials with aesthetic appeal will increase applications of laser cutting. (
  • Modern applications of lasers cover an ever expanding range of scientific, medical and industrial uses. (
  • With IP protection class 54, a permitted ambient temperature of up to 104° F, and other measures to protect against environmental influences, the one-box laser is well-suited to applications in harsh industrial environments. (
  • Absorption spectra of four organic gases were collected in the laboratory by lasing 40 lines of a Synrad 15 W CO 2 laser in the 9.3 to 10.8 micron range. (
  • Mid-infrared laser diodes can now provide light for absorption spectroscopy in a variety of configurations. (
  • Die spektroskopische Methode Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) ermöglicht absolute Messungen von Pfad-integrierten Konzentrationen ohne auf Referenz-Gasmessungen zurückgreifen zu müssen. (
  • The spectroscopic method Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) allows for absolute measurements of path-integrated concentrations without the need for any reference-gas measurement. (
  • In any clinical setting the absorption of laser and hence its biological effect depend upon skin pigmentation, amount of fat, water and vascular congestion of tissues. (
  • The studies in this thesis aim at introducing non-intrusive methods based on diode laser absorption spectroscopy, by which the gas in the packages may be checked, and re-checked, without breaking the seal. (
  • LOASIS know-how in assembling our own laser systems allowed us to specify the laser requirements and specifications we'd need to achieve reliable, stable, tunable 10‑GeV beams with short warm-up time," Leemans says. (
  • The market is expected to gain significantly from the increasing use of disk lasers in the forthcoming years. (
  • Nevertheless, in the forthcoming years, the market is expected to gain impetus from the increasing use of disk lasers across industries such as aerospace, defense, automotive, and consumer electronics. (
  • The anomalous Hall resistivity measurement in high-mobility films grown by gas source molecular beam epitaxy shows additional terms in the AHE during the magnetization process, which is not proportional to the magnetization. (
  • Besides radiometric calibration, it also permits the geometric calibration of mixers and other THz detectors thanks to its dedicated beam-profile measurement facility. (
  • Measurement of water quality in coastal regions and estuaries is critical in the characterization of hypoxic 'dead zones' as a result of nutrient loading and algal blooms in the water bodies. (
  • From time to time, our company is asked to provide assistance to researchers whose primary field of study is not lasers. (
  • Smith read about the Italian researcher's trials with BNNTs in a journal, and he offered the researchers a sample of the very high-quality Jefferson Lab/NASA Langley/NIA BNNTs. (
  • For instance, the Italian researchers will need more high-quality BNNTs to continue their studies in mice. (
  • Researchers at NASA's Langley Research Center, the Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility and the National Institute of Aerospace created a new technique to synthesize high-quality boron-nitride nanotubes (BNNTs). (
  • Bennett and a team of researchers, including Donald R. Herriott and Ali Javan, assembled the very first gas laser by trapping helium and neon in a pressurized tube. (
  • HHG was first discovered in the late 1980s, when researchers focused a powerful, ultra-short laser beam into a spray of gas. (
  • Researchers used the PVC method to produce the first high-quality BNNTs that are long enough to be spun into macroscopic yarn, in this case centimeters long. (
  • Prior to the advent of QCLs, researchers did not have laser sources that could span the two windows, 3 - 5 μm and 8 - 13 μm, where the atmosphere is most transparent to water vapor. (
  • I strongly recommend this book for a serious reader and researchers who want to know some good laser physics. (
  • Researchers from Imperial College London, the University of Michigan and Instituto Superior Téchnico Lisbon have created a tabletop device that produces synchrotron X-rays, the energy and image quality of which are as good as some of the largest, most expensive X-ray facilities on the planet. (
  • Once the beam is broadened toward the infrared, the researchers filter the output spectrum to keep only the band of interest. (
  • The above-mentioned parameters are usually adjusted and utilized for machining to give the quality of microgroove desired, but this consumes exhaustive amounts of time and effort, and still there is scope of researchers for good-quality microgrooving conditions. (
  • Laser Safety - Hazards to vision, other issues, 100 W light bulb versus 1 mW laser, safety classifications, links. (
  • Argon-ion lasers emit light in the range 351-528.7 nm. (
  • Unlike the other lasers producing visible or short near-IR light, the output of a CO2 laser is medium-IR radiation at 10.6 um. (
  • An air-cooled ion laser consumes a kilowatt or more to produce 10 to 20 mW of blue light. (
  • The laser consumes 30 to 60 W, most of which goes to a thermoelectric cooler that stabilizes the resonator, to produce 20 mW of 488-nm light. (
  • Murnane, Kapteyn and their students realized that there might be a chance to overcome that challenge and turn HHG into a useful X-ray light source--the tabletop-scale X-ray laser that has been a goal for laser science since shortly after the laser was first demonstrated in 1960. (
  • The laser beam was coaxial with the infrared light beam in order to aid in the accurate aiming of the beam. (
  • Backscattered laser light is acquired by a photo receiver. (
  • LASER, an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation , was developed in the early 60s. (
  • The beam of light thus generated has uses in almost every area of technology which exist today. (
  • Laser has three characteristics which make it different from ordinary light. (
  • The green sphere is an unconverted light shield, which protects two 25-micron-diameter gold wires (see insert), and which are hit with beams from the Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC) to backlight a 200-micron tungsten sphere at the center of the hohlraum. (
  • Excimer lasers are powerful and versatile light sources in the UV range of the electromagnetic spectrum. (
  • Laser diode modules that transform the standard laser dot into a wide range of structured light patterns. (
  • Engineering360's Light & Laser Newsletter covers materials and components used in the creation, detection, or manipulation of light. (
  • Preliminary data taken at 1 torr shows the Rayleigh signal dominated by scattered laser light coming from windows and metal surfaces. (
  • Instrumentation for maintaining axial focus (termed focus stabilizing mechanisms), which is either laser (or light-emitting diode) based or mechanical, can be extremely valuable for time-lapse investigations, but requires a motorized focus unit. (
  • The term laser is an acronym for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. (
  • In Newton's time, physicists understood that a prism could be used for the diffusion of light rays - in particular, to produce an array of colors from a beam of white light. (
  • To prove this, he directed a beam of white light through a prism, then allowed the diffused colors to enter another prism, at which point they recombined as white light. (
  • During the subsequent cooling process, small gas bubbles become trapped and diffuse the light that falls on them and is reflected. (
  • For example, if the medium is solid ruby crystal, as in the case of a ruby laser, red light is emitted. (
  • And if it's a gas such as argon, a blue green light is emitted. (
  • Traditional diagnostic procedures for skin cancers involve visual assessment and biopsy, but a new Laser Induced Fluorescence spectroscopy technique allow dermatologists to compare spectrographs of a patient's skin with spectrographs known to correspond with malignant tissue. (
  • These lasers have particularly narrow oscillation linewidths of less than 3 GHz (0.5 picometers), making them candidates for use in fluorescence suppressed Raman spectroscopy. (
  • The goal of this thesis was to perform quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) on trace concentrations of NH3 in the 1.53 pm region with a DFB laser without the use of a resonating cavity. (
  • Diode laser spectroscopy has also been used in the medical field, where the primary goal was to introduce a way to monitor the air distribution in the lungs and intestines of prematurely born children. (
  • In a study on tea, fluorescence spectroscopy was evaluated as a means to obtain information on the quality of the product with a rapid, stand-off technique. (
  • Based on the generalized Huygens-Fresnel diffraction integral theory and the stationary-phase method, we analyze the influence on diffraction-free beam patterns of an elliptical manufacture error in an axicon. (
  • In conventional X-ray crystallography, a protein crystal is rotated in the X-ray beam to produce diffraction patterns for various spatial orientations. (
  • In addition the reduction in overall flow-rate enhances the quality of the diffraction patterns and the rate at which crystals are actually hit by the X-ray flashes. (
  • Not only do we reduce crystal consumption, but our double flow-focusing nozzle also makes the use of the X-ray source more efficient by increasing the rate at which we collect high-quality diffraction patterns ," says Bajt. (
  • I have no doubt that the Martians in H. G. Wells' "The War of the Worlds" used CO2 lasers powered by cold fusion generators (probably with superconducting electrical backup storage) for their directed energy weapons. (
  • The new lasers are more rugged and compact than their gas counterparts, but their main advantage may be their energy efficiency. (
  • The laser energy caused a colour change from semi-opaque to bright red-orange, producing a high contrast between the mark and the surrounding background, while barely penetrating the plastic. (
  • With a laser energy of a few Joules, protons with energies close to the energies of TNSA accelerated protons were obtained for various exploded foils configurations. (
  • In the high energy regime (~180 J), protons with energies significantly higher than the ones of TNSA accelerated protons were obtained when exploding the foil while keeping a good beam quality. (
  • Zero-gap lap welding of this material has presented a challenge for lasers because the more volatile zinc evaporates first when the laser energy is applied to the material. (
  • Many different energy sources can be used for welding , including a gas flame, an electric arc , a laser, an electron beam , friction, and ultrasound. (
  • Energy levels of a ruby lasers and five stage of how lasers work. (
  • The platform was developed by scientists in the high energy density physics program as part of a national collaboration among Los Alamos, Lawrence Livermore, and Sandia national laboratories, NSTec, and the Laboratory for Laser Energetics at the University of Rochester. (
  • When gases or liquids are transferred for their energy content, as in the sale of natural gas , the flow rate may also be expressed in terms of energy flow, such as gigajoule per hour or BTU per day. (
  • The BELLA laser system has already demonstrated compressed output energy of 42.4 joules in about 40 femtoseconds at 1 Hz. (
  • When the laser beam is moved relative to the workpiece, the energy of the focused laser beam melts the metal so that a joint is formed. (
  • In one method, focused laser energy is used to melt the membrane onto the underlying cells, which can then be lifted out of the tissue section. (
  • In the other, the laser energy vaporizes the foil along a path "drawn" on the tissue, allowing the selected cells to fall into a collection device. (
  • These determine how much laser energy is imparted to the skin. (
  • New lasers allow more energy to be released into the skin, so the overall treatment is more effective, has fewer side effects and provides the safest and best possible alternative to cosmetic surgery. (
  • All materials common in industrial processing - from steel to aluminum, stainless steel, and non-ferrous metal sheets, all the way to non-metal materials such as plastics, glass, wood, or ceramics - can be cut safely and in high quality with the laser. (
  • This creates high-quality cutting edges without ejection of melted material. (
  • A new BETEX professional digital laser thermometer from Quality Bearings & Components - QBC is a high-quality condition monitoring tool with an extreme range of -50° C up to +1000° C. The laser beam allows you to remotely measure the temperature of any required object. (
  • QBC is the official authorized stocking distributor of BETEX, BEGA's wide range of high-quality tools for bearing maintenance in the USA. (
  • The high quality of this laser makes the laboratory one of the few places in the world where THz mixers can be accurately calibrated. (
  • This is done by creating a "molecular beam" of a material that impinges on the substrate in a high-quality vacuum chamber. (
  • The manufacturer guarantees ten years of unchangingly high-quality luminescence. (
  • Learn how we achieve high quality of our products? (
  • This way we may execute several simultaneous orders in a short period of time with preservation of the same high quality. (
  • Each of the lasers shown in Figures 1 and 2 have similar design features, the tubes are sealed, to maintain a vacuum, by high-quality windows. (
  • For more exacting needs, our welding engineers can advise on technically advanced laser welding solutions and bespoke gas mixtures to help you optimise your welding results so you can meet rising competitive, environmental and quality challenges. (
  • New experiments were also performed in this regime with gas jets. (
  • To verify the calculated temperatures, single spot experiments are performed and characterized for titanium in phosphoric acid solution within laser irradiation of 1 s. (
  • This new book includes discussions of basic plasma concepts, plasma simulation using particle codes, and laser plasma experiments. (
  • Experiments using gas-filled dielectric capillaries showed an order of magnitude increase in x-ray fluence compared to supersonic gas jets. (
  • Experiments on thin foil targets with very small surface structures showed that the spatial divergence of the proton beams was greatly affected by the structures on the rear surface. (
  • This frequency shift is the result of the nonlinear response associated with the rotation of the gas molecules and, as such, it can be easily controlled by varying the gas pressure (i.e., the number of molecules) in the fiber," explains Dr. Riccardo Piccoli, who led the experiments in Razzari's team. (
  • Thirty-two sets of laser microgrooving trials based on central composite design (CCD) design of experiments (DOEs) are performed, and response surface method (RSM), artificial neural network (ANN) and genetic algorithm (GA) are subsequently applied for mathematical modeling and multi-response optimization. (
  • In the present paper, we have investigated a situation where a high intensity laser beam passes through a gas and ionizes this gas by tunnel ionization. (
  • A medium whose refractive index increases with electric field intensity acts as focusing lens for a laser beam characterized by an initial transverse intensity gradient. (
  • This number is maintained at a very low level by ensuring the laser intensity is sufficiently weak at the focal plane. (
  • Photoactivation of the molecules occurs stochastically where the probability of activation is proportional to location and the intensity of the activation laser. (
  • In order for this process to be carried out reliably and precisely, numerous components and additional equipment are used on and around the laser beam, which will be illustrated in the following graphic. (
  • Emphasizing practical design problems and the first-order equations and commercial off-the-shelf components used to solve them, this book is for engineers, scientists, and managers who want to quickly master the principles of laser system development. (
  • Lasers of roughly 4kW are also used to cut and process 3D components for the aerospace industry. (
  • In this article, we will explore how lasers support the welding of automotive components like powertrains. (
  • A typical automated setup for fiber laser welding high-strength alloy aerospace components using Laserdyne 795 BeamDirector system. (
  • However, new fiber laser technology can be a superior and cost-effective alternative for welding complex 3D-shaped components made from these alloys. (
  • This tolerance can be fulfilled when components are relatively small and manufactured with machining or laser cutting. (
  • Advantage of such a processing method is high final quality of finished components. (
  • A customer of ours in the shipyard market owns a powerful 12KW fiber laser. (
  • and thicker," says engineering manager Noel Torres, explaining why, after careful consideration, the firm opted for CO2-laser-based cutting machines rather than fiber-laser-equipped machines. (
  • Achieving this unusual configuration in the focused fiber laser spot is accomplished by using a delivery fiber that augments the conventional circular core by surrounding it with another, annular cross-section fiber core. (
  • Yes the technology is common place, your typical active fiber laser is pumped via. (
  • Recently, more manufacturers are investigating the use of fiber laser welding for joining aerospace alloys. (
  • TIG and EB proponents identify the major drawback for fiber laser welding as the stringent joint requirements. (
  • Video 4: Fiber laser use in welding. (
  • Zecotek Announces Completion of Break-Through Green Fiber Laser and Files for Patent. (
  • The company has filed a patent application with the U.S. Patent Office covering the unique intellectual property related to the Green Fiber Laser. (