Behaviour and aeration of the respiratory system in the domestic fowl embryo. (1/122)1. The monitoring of developmental stage and under-water dissection were used to examine the initial aeration of the respiratory system in domestic fowl embryos. 2. A virtually complete absence of free air within the chorioallantois was found before the beak had begun to make 'beak-clapping' movements, even when the membranes were already draped over its tip. 3. During the 'beak-clapping' stage, but before the membranes were pierced and before respiratory movements had begun, many embryos were found to contain free bubbles of air within the trachea and air sacs. 4. All embryos in which the respiratory system was aerated were found also to have froth in the crop or other parts of the digestive system. 5. Air was found in both the respiratory and digestive systems of all embryos examined after membrane penetration by the beak. 6. When air was injected into the chorioallantois before the stage of initial aeration it was recovered 5 min later from both the respiratory and digestive systems in under-water dissections. 7. It is suggested that lung ventilation takes place in the avian embryo in three distinct stages: the major air-ways become aerated, then respiratory movements begin and lastly the tertiary bronchi are slowly aerated. It is suggested also that movements involved in the imbibing of fluids play a part in aeration before the membranes are pierced. (+info)
The role of sonic hedgehog in normal and abnormal craniofacial morphogenesis. (2/122)There is growing evidence that implicates a role for Sonic hedgehog (SHH) in morphogenesis of the craniofacial complex. Mutations in human and murine SHH cause midline patterning defects that are manifested in the head as holoprosencephaly and cyclopia. In addition, teratogens such as jervine, which inhibit the response of tissues to SHH, also produce cyclopia. Thus, the loss of SHH signaling during early stages of neural plate patterning has a profound influence of craniofacial morphogenesis. However, the severity of these defects precludes analyses of SHH function during later stages of craniofacial development. We have used an embryonic chick system to study the role of SHH during these later stages of craniofacial development. Using a combination of surgical and molecular experiments, we show here that SHH is essential for morphogenesis of the frontonasal and maxillary processes (FNP and MXPs), which give rise to the mid- and upper face. Transient loss of SHH signaling in the embryonic face inhibits growth of the primordia and results in defects analogous to hypotelorism and cleft lip/palate, characteristics of the mild forms of holoprosencephaly. In contrast, excess SHH leads to a mediolateral widening of the FNP and a widening between the eyes, a condition known as hypertelorism. In severe cases, this widening is accompanied by facial duplications. Collectively, these experiments demonstrate that SHH has multiple and profound effects on the entire spectrum of craniofacial development, and perturbations in SHH signaling are likely to underlie a number of human craniofacial anomalies. (+info)
Electron microscopical observations of psittacine beak and feather disease in an Umbrella cockatoo (Cacatua alba). (3/122)Psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD) was diagnosed in an umbrella cockatoo (Cacatua alba) with severe feather dystrophy and loss. Electron microscopically, the intranuclear and intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies observed by light microscopy were composed of viral particles forming paracrystalline arrays, whorls, semicircles or concentric circles. Recovered viral particles from the skin and feather follicle tracts were icosahedral and 15 to 20 nm in diameter. (+info)
Vocal tract function in birdsong production: experimental manipulation of beak movements. (4/122)Kinematic analyses have demonstrated that the extent to which a songbird's beak is open when singing correlates with the acoustic frequencies of the sounds produced, suggesting that beak movements function to modulate the acoustic properties of the vocal tract during song production. If motions of the beak are necessary for normal song production, then disrupting the ability of a bird to perform these movements should alter the acoustic properties of its song. We tested this prediction by comparing songs produced normally by white-throated sparrows and swamp sparrows with songs produced when the beak was temporarily immobilized. We also observed how temporarily loading the beak of canaries with extra mass affected vocal tract movements and song production. Disruption of vocal tract movements resulted in the predicted frequency-dependent amplitude changes in the songs of both white-throated sparrows and swamp sparrows. Canaries with mass added to their beak sang with their beak open more widely than normal and produced notes with greater harmonic content than those without weights. Both manipulations resulted in acoustic changes consistent with a model in which beak motions affect vocal tract resonances, thus supporting the hypothesis that dynamic vocal tract motions and post-production modulation of sound are necessary features of normal song production. (+info)
Evidence for ecological causation of sexual dimorphism in a hummingbird. (5/122)Unambiguous examples of ecological causes of animal sexual dimorphism are rare. Here we present evidence for ecological causation of sexual dimorphism in the bill morphology of a hummingbird, the purple-throated carib. This hummingbird is the sole pollinator of two Heliconia species whose flowers correspond to the bills of either males or females. Each sex feeds most quickly at the flower species approximating its bill dimensions, which supports the hypothesis that floral specialization has driven the evolution of bill dimorphism. Further evidence for ecological causation of sexual dimorphism was provided by a geographic replacement of one Heliconia species by the other and the subsequent development of a floral dimorphism, with one floral morph matching the bills of males and the other of females. (+info)
Choreography of song, dance and beak movements in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). (6/122)As do many songbirds, zebra finches sing their learned songs while performing a courtship display that includes movements of the body, head and beak. The coordination of these display components was assessed by analyzing video recordings of courting males. All birds changed beak aperture frequently within a single song, and each individual's pattern of beak movements was consistent from song to song. Birds that copied their father's songs reproduced many of the changes in beak aperture associated with particular syllables. The acoustic consequences of opening the beak were increases in amplitude and peak frequency, but not in fundamental frequency, of song syllables. The change in peak frequency is consistent with the hypothesis that an open beak results in a shortened vocal tract and thus a higher resonance frequency. Dance movements (hops and changes in body or head position) were less frequent, and the distribution of dance movements within the song was not as strongly patterned as were changes in beak aperture, nor were the peaks in the distribution as strongly marked. However, the correlation between the positioning of dance movements within fathers' and sons' songs was striking, suggesting that the choreography of dance patterns is transmitted from tutor to pupil together with the song. (+info)
Connexin43 gap junction protein plays an essential role in morphogenesis of the embryonic chick face. (7/122)Normal outgrowth and fusion of facial primordia during vertebrate development require interaction of diverse tissues and co-ordination of many different signalling pathways. Gap junction channels, made up of subunits consisting of connexin proteins, facilitate communication between cells and are implicated in embryonic development. Here we describe the distribution of connexin43 and connexin32 gap junction proteins in the developing chick face. To test the function of connexin43 protein, we applied antisense oligodeoxynucleotides that specifically reduced levels of connexin43 protein in cells of early chick facial primordia. This resulted in stunting of primordia outgrowth and led to facial defects. Furthermore, cell proliferation in regions of facial primordia that normally express high levels of connexin43 protein was reduced and this was associated with lower levels of Msx-1 expression. Facial defects arise when retinoic acid is applied to the face of chick embryos at later stages. This treatment also resulted in significant reduction in connexin43 protein, while connexin32 protein expression was unaffected. Taken together, these results indicate that connexin43 plays an essential role during early morphogenesis and subsequent outgrowth of the developing chick face. (+info)
Clade-specific morphological diversification and adaptive radiation in Hawaiian songbirds. (8/122)The Hawaiian honeycreepers are a dramatic example of adaptive radiation but contrast with the four other songbird lineages that successfully colonized the Hawaiian archipelago and failed to undergo similar diversification. To explore the processes that produced the diversity dichotomy in this insular fauna, we compared clade age and morphological diversity between the speciose honeycreepers and the comparatively depauperate Hawaiian thrushes. Mitochondrial-DNA-based genetic distances between these Hawaiian clades and their continental sister taxa indicate that the ancestral thrush colonized the Hawaiian Islands as early as the common ancestor of the honeycreepers. This similar timing of colonization indicates that the marked difference in diversity between the Hawaiian honeycreeper and thrush clades is unlikely to result from differences in these clades' tenures within the archipelago. If time cannot explain the contrasting diversities of these taxa, then an intrinsic, clade-specific trait may have fostered the honeycreeper radiation. As the honeycreepers have diversified most dramatically in morphological characters related to resource utilization, we used principal components analyses of bill characters to compare the magnitudes of morphological variation in the ancestral clades from which the Hawaiian honeycreeper and thrush lineages are derived, the Carduelini and Turdinae respectively. Although the Carduelini share a more recent common ancestor and have a lower species diversity than the Turdinae, these finch-like relatives of the honeycreepers exhibit significantly greater variation in bill morphology than do the continental relatives of the Hawaiian thrushes. The higher magnitude of morphological variation in the non-Hawaiian Carduelini suggests that the honeycreepers fall within a clade exhibiting a generally high evolutionary flexibility in bill morphology. Accordingly, although the magnitude of bill variation among the honeycreepers is similar to that of the entire passerine radiation, this dramatic morphological radiation represents an extreme manifestation of a general clade-specific ability to evolve novel morphologies. (+info)
Examples of Bird Diseases:
1. Avian Influenza (Bird Flu): A viral disease that affects birds and can be transmitted to humans, causing respiratory illness and other symptoms.
2. Psittacosis (Parrot Fever): A bacterial infection caused by Chlamydophila psittaci, which can infect a wide range of bird species and can be transmitted to humans.
3. Aspergillosis: A fungal infection that affects birds, particularly parrots and other Psittacines, causing respiratory problems and other symptoms.
4. Beak and Feather Disease: A viral disease that affects birds, particularly parrots and other Psittacines, causing feather loss and beak deformities.
5. West Nile Virus: A viral disease that can affect birds, as well as humans and other animals, causing a range of symptoms including fever, headache, and muscle weakness.
6. Chlamydophila psittaci: A bacterial infection that can infect birds, particularly parrots and other Psittacines, causing respiratory problems and other symptoms.
7. Mycobacteriosis: A bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium avium, which can affect a wide range of bird species, including parrots and other Psittacines.
8. Pacheco's Disease: A viral disease that affects birds, particularly parrots and other Psittacines, causing respiratory problems and other symptoms.
9. Polyomavirus: A viral disease that can affect birds, particularly parrots and other Psittacines, causing a range of symptoms including respiratory problems and feather loss.
10. Retinoblastoma: A type of cancer that affects the eyes of birds, particularly parrots and other Psittacines.
It's important to note that many of these diseases can be prevented or treated with proper care and management, including providing a clean and spacious environment, offering a balanced diet, and ensuring access to fresh water and appropriate medical care.
Circoviridae infections refer to a group of viral infections caused by the Circoviridae family of viruses. This family includes two genera: Circovirus and Papillomavirus. These viruses can infect a wide range of animals, including pigs, cattle, sheep, goats, and birds.
What are the symptoms of Circoviridae infections?
The symptoms of Circoviridae infections can vary depending on the type of virus and the species affected. However, common symptoms include:
* Loss of appetite
* Weight loss
* Poor growth or development in young animals
* Respiratory problems
* Eye inflammation
* Neurological problems
How are Circoviridae infections diagnosed?
Circoviridae infections are typically diagnosed through a combination of clinical signs, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Laboratory tests may include:
* Viral culture
* Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
What is the treatment for Circoviridae infections?
There is no specific treatment for Circoviridae infections, other than supportive care to manage symptoms. Supportive care may include:
* Fluid therapy to prevent dehydration
* Antibiotics to prevent or treat secondary bacterial infections
* Pain management medication
* Anti-inflammatory medication
* Rest and isolation to prevent the spread of the virus
How can Circoviridae infections be prevented?
Prevention is key to avoiding Circoviridae infections. Some ways to prevent these infections include:
* Good hygiene practices, such as frequent handwashing and cleaning of surfaces
* Proper disposal of animal waste
* Avoiding contact with infected animals or their tissues
* Implementing biosecurity measures on farms and in animal facilities
* Vaccination of animals against certain Circoviridae infections
* Monitoring for signs of illness in animals and humans and seeking medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
Beak & Claw
Parrot's Beak, Cambodia
Toco toucan beak
The Beak Brackets Series
Psittacine beak and feather disease
The Beak of the Finch
Deraniyagala's beaked whale
Upper beak description
Lower beak description
A TERRIFIC TOUCAN WITH A COLORFUL BEAK - CSMonitor.com
Beak Spider lyrics | LyricsMode.com
KARL'S NEW BEAK | Kirkus Reviews
Beak Room 2022
Western USA wildflowers: Heller's Bird's Beak, Cordylanthus Kingii
Robin In Spring Stock Photo - Download Image Now - Animal, Animal Wildlife, Beak - iStock
Reaper Miniatures :: beak price/01650
Peter A. Beak - John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation...
Claude Vonstroke - Freaks & Beaks (Gate) | RECORD STORE DAY
Pages - Beak Brewery - Untappd
Toucan Beak - Rit Dye
Letters: That new beak!
3M™ Unitek™ Prestige Posterior Band Removing Pliers, Short Beak, 900-712, 1/Ea | 3M United States
A&E Cage Company Natural 6' Cuttlebone 2 Pack | bird Nail & Beak Trimmers | PetSmart
Bird Beak Buffet - Discovery Place Science Museum
Prehistoric Turtle Had a Toothless Beak But No Shell | HowStuffWorks
German Poultry Associations Commit to Stopping Beak Cutting | The Poultry Site
Photo of Beak-spouted jug - Late Helladic period. Aegean civilisation, Greece
Parrot-beaked Tortoise (Homopus areolatus) · iNaturalist
Beaked whale | Watching Our Water Ways
Image: Vitamin D deficiency, malformed beak, dove - Merck Veterinary Manual
Brazilian veterinarian gives parrot a prosthetic beak - Upworthy
VIDEO REPORT: Rare "beaked" whale rescued in Hawaii
Maimed Toucan Set To Receive 3D Printed Beak | IFLScience
The Sticky Beak Gallery | WingedHearts.org
Twin Beaks Neck Gaiter | My Pet Skeleton
A Guide To Digestive Health In Chickens, From Beak To Tail - Hobby Farms
- Each of these feathery critters has a role in its environment, and the shape and size of a birds' beak tell us a lot about them. (discoveryplace.org)
- In this activity, we will examine bird diversity (the ways in which birds are different) and their adaptations (physical or behavioral changes that a living thing uses to survive in its habitat) by trying out different beaks. (discoveryplace.org)
- This diversity in bird beaks makes it easier for some birds to eat certain foods. (discoveryplace.org)
- GERMANY - Germany has decided to stop the cutting of poultry birds' beaks, in order to try and improve animal welfare. (thepoultrysite.com)
- Less commonly, birds infect people through bites and beak-to-mouth contact. (cdc.gov)
- The beak usually refers to the bill of birds in which the whole varies greatly in form according of the food and habits of the bird. (nih.gov)
- While the beak refers most commonly to birds, the anatomical counterpart is found also in the turtle, squid, and octopus. (nih.gov)
- Other means of exposure include bird bites, mouth-to-beak contact, and the handling of infected birds' plumage and tissues. (cdc.gov)
- Carl: If you haven't read The Beak of the Finch , do so now. (nationalgeographic.com)
- In lieu of pearly whites, all living turtle species - be they vegetarian tortoises or eccentric fish-gulpers like the matamata - have horny, toothless beaks. (howstuffworks.com)
- As a key component of animal welfare initiative "A question of attitude", Federal Agriculture Minister Christian Schmidt and the poultry industry recently signed an agreement to phase out the routine beak trimming of laying hens and turkeys. (thepoultrysite.com)
- Comparison of Changes in the Plumage and Body Condition, Egg Production, and Mortality of Different Non-Beak-Trimmed Pure Line Laying Hens during the Egg-Laying Period. (bvsalud.org)
- The experiment was carried out with altogether 1740 non- beak -trimmed laying hens, which originated from Bábolna TETRA Ltd., representing two different types ( Rhode Island Red (RIR) and Rhode Island White (RIW)) and four different lines (Lines 1-2 RIR, Lines 3-4 RIW). (bvsalud.org)
- Because the occurrence of injurious pecking seems to depend on the genetic background , selection of the hens (lines, families , individuals) for calm temperament will be very important in the future in order to maintain the high production level in non- beak -trimmed layer flocks. (bvsalud.org)
- The shape of their beak is specifically suited for the food they eat. (discoveryplace.org)
- Beginning in 1973, the Grants, who recently retired from the faculty of Princeton University, camped several months every year on a barren rock (Daphne Major) in the Galapagos, meticulously documenting the changes in size and shape of the beaks of Darwin's famous finches in response to changes in climate. (nih.gov)
- This creature was over 6 feet [or 1.8 meters] long, it had a strange disc-like body and a long tail, and the [frontal] part of its jaws developed into this strange beak,' Chicago Field Museum paleontologist Olivier Rieppel, one of the paper's co-authors, said in a press statement . (howstuffworks.com)
- The straightforward text introduces the bird, explains how hornbills use their beaks in the wild, and follows the process step by step. (kirkusreviews.com)
- It didn't say how this bird came to losing its beak, but would have surely perished if it wasn't for the expertise of the lady vet who carried out this amazing procedure. (parrotmag.com)
- Unusually, here the special focus is on the process: the complicated and painstaking repair of Karl's lower beak, including the construction of its replacement part. (kirkusreviews.com)
- She had vitamin D les équipements pour confirmer le replacement therapy but absconded métabolite en urine n'aient pas été from follow up. (who.int)
- Thanks to the dramatic 1982-83 El Nino, the Grants were able to show that as the normally arid climate, which selected for finches with sturdy short beaks that are good at cracking dry hard seeds, became tropical, finches with long narrow beaks that could drink nectar from the now-abundant vegetation came to predominate. (nih.gov)
- Description of the lower beak can be found here. (tolweb.org)
- Thin 'white line', of uncertain significance, may be found in young beaks. (tolweb.org)
- Description of the upper beak can be found here. (tolweb.org)
- Polpo in Beak Street is based on the bacari - or wine bars, especially good for a glass of Prosecco - frequently found in the city famous for its canals. (londontown.com)
- Now scientists have found what almost looks like the yin to Odontochelys ' yang: A primitive turtle with a tooth-free beak, but no trace of a shell . (howstuffworks.com)
- In the June issue, I was delighted to read about the parrot that got a new beak. (parrotmag.com)
- Shoulder-blade covered or nearly covered in young beaks by hyaline matrix of wing fold. (tolweb.org)
- The form of the beak is far easier to interpret in 3D and we strongly recommend to the viewer that the glasses be obtained (this is especially helpful when viewing enlarged images - i.e. click on the image). (tolweb.org)
- Visit stations around the table and use your chosen tool (beak) to try to eat different types of food. (discoveryplace.org)
- Note the light-colored beak, which over time, would eventually turn dark-colored. (cdc.gov)
- When he is sleeping, the toucan lays his big beak on his back and covers it with his wings and tail. (csmonitor.com)
- The new album 'Freaks & Beaks' is a celebration of quirky innovation and a relentless pursuit of something new and fresh, while hearkening back to the freewheeling spirit that inspired the launch of his label. (recordstoreday.com)
- Today, Claude also delivers fans part one of an intimate video series, shot by his sister Emily (an accomplished filmmaker), documenting the creation of 'Freaks and Beaks', celebrating this historic milestone and taking a deeper dive into the day to day life of Claude VonStroke on the road. (recordstoreday.com)
- Polly beak deformity is a complication of rhinoplasty defined by the typical appearance of a dorsal nasal convexity resembling a parrot's beak. (medscape.com)
- If during the intraoperative evaluation of the nose, a surgeon does not recognize the improper tip-supratip relationship that is the hallmark of this deformity, a polly beak occurs. (medscape.com)
- In addition, polly beak deformity may develop because of the inability of a surgeon to precisely predict the ultimate healing of the nose. (medscape.com)
- Polly beak deformity describes the postoperative deformity associated with fullness in the supratip that leads to a disproportionate relationship between the tip and the supratip. (medscape.com)
- One study showed that 64% of patients presenting for revision rhinoplasty had a polly beak deformity. (medscape.com)
- A retrospective study of 28 ethnic patients who underwent revision rhinoplasty found that polly beak deformity and persistent bulbous tip were among the most common indications for revision. (medscape.com)
- Two general categories of a polly beak deformity are described. (medscape.com)
- Patients with a polly beak deformity are generally dissatisfied with the birdlike appearance of their nose. (medscape.com)
- Considerable overlap among the beak, claw, feather, and scale samples was observed in protein profiles, but those from beak and claw were the most similar. (nih.gov)
- Less commonly, birds infect people through bites and beak-to-mouth contact. (cdc.gov)