A genus of gram-negative, curved and spiral-shaped bacteria found in stagnant, freshwater environments. These organisms are motile by bipolar tufts of flagella having a long wavelength and about one helical turn. Some species of Spirillum cause a form of RAT-BITE FEVER.
Organisms, biological agents, or biologically-derived agents used strategically for their positive or adverse effect on the physiology and/or reproductive health of other organisms.
A group of PROTEOBACTERIA represented by morphologically diverse, anaerobic sulfidogens. Some members of this group are considered bacterial predators, having bacteriolytic properties.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The space between the inner and outer membranes of a cell that is shared with the cell wall.
Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.
A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.
An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.
A large family of lytic bacteriophages infecting enterobacteria; SPIROPLASMA; BDELLOVIBRIO; and CHLAMYDIA. It contains four genera: MICROVIRUS; Spiromicrovirus; Bdellomicrovirus; and Chlamydiamicrovirus.
A group of gram-negative bacteria consisting of rod- and coccus-shaped cells. They are both aerobic (able to grow under an air atmosphere) and microaerophilic (grow better in low concentrations of oxygen) under nitrogen-fixing conditions but, when supplied with a source of fixed nitrogen, they grow as aerobes.
Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.
A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.
A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is most frequently isolated from bovine eyes in cases of infectious keratoconjunctivitis (KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS, INFECTIOUS), but also occurs in unaffected eyes and the nasal cavity of cattle.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Tungsten hydroxide oxide phosphate. A white or slightly yellowish-green, slightly efflorescent crystal or crystalline powder. It is used as a reagent for alkaloids and many other nitrogen bases, for phenols, albumin, peptone, amino acids, uric acid, urea, blood, and carbohydrates. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Organic esters or salts of sulfonic acid derivatives containing an aliphatic hydrocarbon radical.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Phosphate esters of THYMIDINE in N-glycosidic linkage with ribose or deoxyribose, as occurs in nucleic acids. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1154)
Tungsten. A metallic element with the atomic symbol W, atomic number 74, and atomic weight 183.85. It is used in many manufacturing applications, including increasing the hardness, toughness, and tensile strength of steel; manufacture of filaments for incandescent light bulbs; and in contact points for automotive and electrical apparatus.
An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)
A genus of gram-negative, chemoorganotrophic bacteria in the family Sphingobacteriaceae. They lack FLAGELLA but some species exhibit sliding motility.
High molecular weight polymers containing a mixture of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides chained together by ribose or deoxyribose linkages.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.
A genus of bacteria capable of developing within other bacteria.
Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Purines attached to a RIBOSE and a phosphate that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
A species of nonpathogenic fluorescent bacteria found in feces, sewage, soil, and water, and which liquefy gelatin.
The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.
Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.

A proposal for the reclassification of Bdellovibrio stolpii and Bdellovibrio starrii into a new genus, Bacteriovorax gen. nov. as Bacteriovorax stolpii comb. nov. and Bacteriovorax starrii comb. nov., respectively. (1/117)

Bdellovibrios are unique bacteria with the ability to prey upon a wide variety of susceptible Gram-negative bacteria. Micro-organisms exhibiting this trait have been included in the genus Bdellovibrio despite their isolation from diverse habitats and relatively unstudied taxonomic relatedness. In this study, 16S rDNA sequences were compared from known terrestrial Bdellovibrio species, Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 100T, Bdellovibrio stolpii Uki2T and Bdellovibrio starrii A3.12T in order to study their phylogenetic relationship. The two sequences from B. stolpii Uki2T and B. starrii A3.12T were 90.0% similar to each other but exhibited only 81.7% and 81.2% similarity, respectively to B. bacteriovorus 100T. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that B. bacteriovorus 100T clustered in a separate clade from B. starrii A3.12T and B. stolpii Uki2T, demonstrating only a distant relationship between B. bacteriovorus 100T and the other two recognized type species. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments also demonstrated <4% hybridization between these three species. On the basis of the results obtained from the phylogenetic analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization studies, it is proposed that B. stolpii Uki2T and B. starrii A3.12T should be transferred to a new genus, Bacteriovorax gen. nov. as Bacteriovorax stolpii comb. nov. and Bacteriovorax starrii comb. nov., respectively. It is also proposed that the type species for the new genus Bacteriovorax should be Bacteriovorax stolpii comb. nov.  (+info)

Prey range characterization, ribotyping, and diversity of soil and rhizosphere Bdellovibrio spp. isolated on phytopathogenic bacteria. (2/117)

Thirty new Bdellovibrio strains were isolated from an agricultural soil and from the rhizosphere of plants grown in that soil. Using a combined molecular and culture-based approach, we found that the soil bdellovibrios included subpopulations of organisms that differed from rhizosphere bdellovibrios. Thirteen soil and seven common bean rhizosphere Bdellovibrio strains were isolated when Pseudomonas corrugata was used as prey; seven and two soil strains were isolated when Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora and Agrobacterium tumefaciens, respectively, were used as prey; and one tomato rhizosphere strain was isolated when A. tumefaciens was used as prey. In soil and in the rhizosphere, depending on the prey cells used, the concentrations of bdellovibrios were between 3 x 10(2) to 6 x 10(3) and 2.8 x 10(2) to 2.3 x 10(4) PFU g(-1). A prey range analysis of five soil and rhizosphere Bdellovibrio isolates performed with 22 substrate species, most of which were plant-pathogenic and plant growth-enhancing bacteria, revealed unique utilization patterns and differences between closely related prey cells. An approximately 830-bp fragment of the 16S rRNA genes of all of the Bdellovibrio strains used was obtained by PCR amplification by using a Bdellovibrio-specific primer combination. Soil and common bean rhizosphere strains produced two and one restriction patterns for this PCR product, respectively. The 16S rRNA genes of three soil isolates and three root-associated isolates were sequenced. One soil isolate belonged to the Bdellovibrio stolpii-Bdellovibrio starrii clade, while all of the other isolates clustered with Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus and formed two distantly related, heterogeneous groups.  (+info)

Predatory prokaryotes: predation and primary consumption evolved in bacteria. (3/117)

Two kinds of predatory bacteria have been observed and characterized by light and electron microscopy in samples from freshwater sulfurous lakes in northeastern Spain. The first bacterium, named Vampirococcus, is Gram-negative and ovoidal (0.6 micrometer wide). An anaerobic epibiont, it adheres to the surface of phototrophic bacteria (Chromatium spp.) by specific attachment structures and, as it grows and divides by fission, destroys its prey. An important in situ predatory role can be inferred for Vampirococcus from direct counts in natural samples. The second bacterium, named Daptobacter, is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic straight rod (0.5 x 1.5 micrometers) with a single polar flagellum, which collides, penetrates, and grows inside the cytoplasm of its prey (several genera of Chromatiaceae). Considering also the well-known case of Bdellovibrio, a Gram-negative, aerobic curved rod that penetrates and divides in the periplasmic space of many chemotrophic Gram-negative bacteria, there are three types of predatory prokaryotes presently known (epibiotic, cytoplasmic, and periplasmic). Thus, we conclude that antagonistic relationships such as primary consumption, predation, and scavenging had already evolved in microbial ecosystems prior to the appearance of eukaryotes. Furthermore, because they represent methods by which prokaryotes can penetrate other prokaryotes in the absence of phagocytosis, these associations can be considered preadaptation for the origin of intracellular organelles.  (+info)

Microviridae, a family divided: isolation, characterization, and genome sequence of phiMH2K, a bacteriophage of the obligate intracellular parasitic bacterium Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus. (4/117)

A novel single-stranded DNA phage, phiMH2K, of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus was isolated, characterized, and sequenced. This phage is a member of the Microviridae, a family typified by bacteriophage phiX174. Although B. bacteriovorus and Escherichia coli are both classified as proteobacteria, phiMH2K is only distantly related to phiX174. Instead, phiMH2K exhibits an extremely close relationship to the Microviridae of Chlamydia in both genome organization and encoded proteins. Unlike the double-stranded DNA bacteriophages, for which a wide spectrum of diversity has been observed, the single-stranded icosahedral bacteriophages appear to fall into two distinct subfamilies. These observations suggest that the mechanisms driving single-stranded DNA bacteriophage evolution are inherently different from those driving the evolution of the double-stranded bacteriophages.  (+info)

16S rDNA sequence analysis of environmental Bdellovibrio-and-like organisms (BALO) reveals extensive diversity. (5/117)

Bdellovibrio-and-like organisms (BALO) are Gram-negative, predatory bacteria that inhabit terrestrial, freshwater and salt-water environments. Historically, these organisms have been classified together despite documented genetic differences between isolates. The genetic diversity of these microbes was assessed by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene. Primers that selectively amplify predator 16S rDNA, and not contaminating prey DNA, were utilized to study 17 freshwater and terrestrial and nine salt-water BALO isolates. When the 16S rDNA sequences were compared with representatives of other bacterial classes, 25 of the 26 BALO isolates clustered into two groups. One group, supported 100% by bootstrap analysis, included all of the Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus isolates. Each member of this group was isolated from either a freshwater or terrestrial source. The genetic distance between these isolates was less than 12%. The other group, supported 94% by bootstrap analysis, includes Bacteriovorax starrii, Bacteriovorax stolpii and the salt-water isolates. The salt-water isolates form a subgroup (83% by bootstrap) and differ within the subgroup by less than 110%. This observation implies that the salt-water isolates arose from Bacteriovorax progenitors. The difference between isolates in different clades is over 17%, a quantity similar to differences between bacterial species in different classes. However, both the Bdellovibrio and Bacteriovorax clades were closest to other representatives of the delta-Proteobacteria using maximum-likelihood. One freshwater isolate, James Island, was distinct from all other BALO (> 19%), but differed from Pseudomonas putida, a member of the gamma-Proteobacteria, by only 3%. Thus, by 16S rDNA sequence analysis, the BALO appear to have multiple origins, contrary to the unified taxonomic grouping based on morphology and natural history. These observations are consistent with the need to review and revise the taxonomy of these organisms.  (+info)

Investigations into the life cycle of the bacterial predator Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J at an interface by atomic force microscopy. (6/117)

Atomic force microscopy was used to image Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J, a gram-negative bacterial predator that consumes a variety of other gram-negative bacteria. In predator-prey communities grown on filters at hydrated air-solid interfaces, repeated cycles of hunting, invasion, growth, and lysis occurred readily even though the cells were limited to near two-dimensional movement. This system allowed us to image the bacteria directly without extensive preparation or modification, and many of the cells remained alive during imaging. Presented are images of the life cycle in two species of prey organisms, both Escherichia coli (a small prey bacterium that grows two-dimensionally on a surface) and Aquaspirillum serpens (a large prey bacterium that grows three-dimensionally on a surface), including high-resolution images of invaded prey cells called bdelloplasts. We obtained evidence for multiple invasions per prey cell, as well as significant heterogeneity in morphology of bdellovibrios. Mutant host-independent bdellovibrios were observed to have flagella and to excrete a coating that causes the predators to clump together on a surface. Most interestingly, changes in the texture of the cell surface membranes were measured during the course of the invasion cycle. Thus, coupled with our preparation method, atomic force microscopy allowed new observations to be made about Bdellovibrio at an interface. These studies raise important questions about the ways in which bacterial predation at interfaces (air-solid or liquid-solid) may be similar to or different from predation in solution.  (+info)

The obligate predatory Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus possesses a neutral lipid A containing alpha-D-Mannoses that replace phosphate residues: similarities and differences between the lipid As and the lipopolysaccharides of the wild type strain B. bacteriovorus HD100 and its host-independent derivative HI100. (7/117)

Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus are predatory bacteria that penetrate Gram-negative bacteria and grow intraperiplasmically at the expense of the prey. It was suggested that B. bacteriovorus partially degrade and reutilize lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of the host, thus synthesizing an outer membrane containing structural elements of the prey. According to this hypothesis a host-independent mutant should possess a chemically different LPS. Therefore, the lipopolysaccharides of B. bacteriovorus HD100 and its host-independent derivative B. bacteriovorus HI100 were isolated and characterized by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, immunoblotting, and mass spectrometry. LPS of both strains were identified as smooth-form LPS with different repeating units. The lipid As were isolated after mild acid hydrolysis and their structures were determined by chemical analysis, by mass spectrometric methods, and by NMR spectroscopy. Both lipid As were characterized by an unusual chemical structure, consisting of a beta-(1-->6)-linked 2,3-diamino-2,3-dideoxy-d-glucopyranose disaccharide carrying six fatty acids that were all hydroxylated. Instead of phosphate groups substituting position O-1 of the reducing and O-4' of the nonreducing end alpha-d-mannopyranose residues were found in these lipid As. Thus, they represent the first lipid As completely missing negatively charged groups. A reduced endotoxic activity as determined by cytokine induction from human macrophages was shown for this novel structure. Only minor differences with respect to fatty acids were detected between the lipid As of the host-dependent wild type strain HD100 and for its host-independent derivative HI100. From the results of the detailed analysis it can be concluded that the wild type strain HD100 synthesizes an innate LPS.  (+info)

Glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme activities during intraperiplasmic growth of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus on Escherichia coli. (8/117)

Selected enzyme activities were measured in extracts of the total cell pellets obtained at various times during aerobic intraperiplasmic growth of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J on anaerobically grown Escherichia coli substrate cells. Initially, the glycolytic enzyme activities were associated with the input of E. coli and the tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme activities with the input of bdellovibrios. During the first 90 min of Bdellovibrio development, the glycolytic activities declined about 25 to 60%, whereas the tricarboxylic acid cycle activities increased about 10%. Between 110 and 180 min, the glycolytic activities decreased to trace levels and tricarboxylic acid cycle activities increased about 50 to 90%. Both bdellovibrio cell extracts and the cell-free growth menstruum (obtained after bdellovibrio growth on E. coli) caused the inactivation of glycolytic enzymes in E. coli extracts.  (+info)

Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus HD100 is a highly motile predatory bacterium that consumes other Gram-negative bacteria for its sustenance. Here, we describe the impacts the media viscosity has both on the motility of predator and its attack rates. Experiments performed in polyethylene glycol (PEG) solutions, a linear polymer, found a viscosity of 10 mPa s (5% PEG) negatively impacted predation over a 24-h period. When the viscosity was increased to 27 mPa s (10% PEG), predation was nearly abolished. Tests with three other B. bacteriovorus strains, i.e., 109J and two natural isolates, found identical results. Short-term (2-h) experiments, however, found attack rates were improved in 1% PEG, which had a viscosity of 5.4 mPa s, using bioluminescent prey and their viabilities. In contrast, when experiments were performed in dextran, a branched polymer, no increase in predation was seen even though the viscosity was a comparable 5.1 mPa s. The enhanced attack rates in this solution coincided with a 31% ...
Photo: CC0 Public Domain Phys.org Predatory bacteria, capable of invading and consuming harmful bugs such as E .coli and Salmonella, use a unique tool to help them escape the cell they have invaded without harming themselves, according to a new study. Researchers at the Universities of Birmingham and Nottingham have identified a particular enzyme used by the bacteria to rupture the cell wall of its prey bacteria and exit without damaging its own cell wall. Their findings are published in Nature Communications. The bacterium, called Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus, is important because the types of cells they attack - Gram-negative bacteria - are responsible for many infections that are resistant to currently available antibiotics. This means predatory bacteria could have the potential to be harnessed as a therapy against these infections. Discovering precisely how Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus succeeds in invading, and then escaping its prey cells is an important step in this process. The enzyme they
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria have emerged as a serious threat to human and animal health. Bdellovibrio spp. and Micavibrio spp. are Gram-negative bacteria that prey on other Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, the ability of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus and Micavibrio aeruginosavorus to prey on MDR Gram-negative clinical strains was examined. Although the potential use of predatory bacteria to attack MDR pathogens has been suggested, the data supporting these claims is lacking. By conducting predation experiments we have established that predatory bacteria have the capacity to attack clinical strains of a variety of ß-lactamase-producing, MDR Gram-negative bacteria. Our observations indicate that predatory bacteria maintained their ability to prey on MDR bacteria regardless of their antimicrobial resistance, hence, might be used as therapeutic agents where other antimicrobial drugs fail.
The following thesis is a composite of two separate research projects which were undertaken by the author for the award of an MRes in Molecular and Cellular Biology within the School of Biosciences at the University of Birmingham. Part one of this thesis will detail the first research project which sought to characterise the contribution of the enzyme phospholipase B to the intercellular lifecycle employed by the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans which has the ability to survive within the phagolysosome of immune cell macrophages. This project used cell culture and microscopy techniques as well as whole cell lipidomic analysis and found that many aspects of Cryptococcus neoformans parasitism of macrophages are modified by phospholipase B activity. Part two of this details the second project which examined the predatory bacteria Bdellovibrio bacteriovorous. This bacterium has a unique lifecycle which involves predation of other gram negative bacteria resulting in prey cell invasion and an ...
Bdellovibrio is a Gram-negative bacterium that preys upon other Gram-negative bacteria, including many pathogens, and as such has potential as a biocontrol agent. Little is known of the molecular and genetic control of Bdellovibrios attack upon its prey and of the nature of the HI phenotype. Here, we apply microarray technology to monitor changes of gene expression during the initial stages of prey infection to determine which predatory genes are important in this stage and to gain insight into possible regulatory mechanisms controlling the predation process. Comparison to gene expression during HI growth reveals a
Read more about Predatory bacteria may wipe out superbugs: study on Business Standard. Predatory bacteria - that eat others of their kind - could be a new weapon in the fight against drug-resistant bacteria or superbugs, a new study suggests. A naturally occurring predatory bacterium is able to work with the immune system to clear
Bdellovibrios capable of axenic growth grow in a cell-free medium at a rate considerably lower than that attainable in a two-membered culture with Escherichia coli. The axenic growth rate may be improved either by adjustment of the osmosity of the medium or by the addition of low concentrations of spermine. ...
ID K7ZG86_BDEBC Unreviewed; 256 AA. AC K7ZG86; DT 06-FEB-2013, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 06-FEB-2013, sequence version 1. DT 07-JUN-2017, entry version 25. DE SubName: Full=Trypsin {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AFY02227.1}; GN ORFNames=Bdt_2544 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AFY02227.1}; OS Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus str. Tiberius. OC Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Deltaproteobacteria; Bdellovibrionales; OC Bdellovibrionaceae; Bdellovibrio. OX NCBI_TaxID=1069642 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AFY02227.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000010074}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AFY02227.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000010074} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=Tiberius {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AFY02227.1}; RX PubMed=23181807; DOI=10.1186/1471-2164-13-670; RA Hobley L., Lerner T.R., Williams L.E., Lambert C., Till R., RA Milner D.S., Basford S.M., Capeness M.J., Fenton A.K., Atterbury R.J., RA Harris M.A., Sockett R.E.; RT Genome analysis of a simultaneously predatory and prey-independent, RT novel Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus ...
Sockett and Lambert, 2004. Balos are ubiquitous in nature and have been isolated from diverse terrestrial and aquatic habitats, from biofilms as well as from animal feces
When I was teaching microbiology, Bdellovibrio was always one of my favorite things to lecture about. These bacteria are essentially intracellular parasites of other bacteria. Bdellovibrio has a rather unusual mode of entering its hosts - it uses its flagellum to crash into them at amazing speeds - 160 um/second (ok, that doesnt sound very fast, but when youre only about 1 micron long, thats hauling!) Once inside its host cell, the Bdellovibrio consumes the nutrients inside it, growing longer and longer the whole time. Eventually, when the host cell has run out of nutrients, the long filament will separate into about 3 to 6 individual cells, lyse the membrane of their former host and go off and infect new victims ...
Hughes, William S. (2015) Cryptococcus neoformans phospholipase B and its influence on fungal cell morphology AND A study into proteins proposed to be involved in C-di-GMP signalling and predation from Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus - Bd1483, Bd1996, Bd2538 and Bd3100. M.Res. thesis, University of Birmingham.. Evans, Robert J. (2013) How does the expression of phospholipase B influence the host pathogen relationship between Cryptococcus neoformans and the macrophage? and An investigation into the properties of two Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus C-di-GMP metabolism proteins - Bd2325 and Bd1971. M.Res. thesis, University of Birmingham.. Ma, Hansong (2009) Intracellular parasitism of macrophages by Cryptococcus. Ph.D. thesis, University of Birmingham.. Smith, Leanne May (2015) Investigating phagosome dynamics of microbial pathogens. Ph.D. thesis, University of Birmingham.. Gilbert, Andrew Stephen (2017) Investigating the molecular mechanisms of vomocytosis. Ph.D. thesis, University of Birmingham.. Needs, ...
What happens when a bacteria hunter is introduced into a population of prey bacteria? If one set of prey can swim and the other cant, you would expect the motile bacteria to run into their predators more frequently (as is happening in the animation on the right). But it turns out that in the real world when you run this experiment for Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus (the hunters, a natural anti-biotic) and two sets of Vibrio cholerae, one of which has been genetically modified to not be able to swim, the immotile bacteria are rapidly killed off. Running some experiments (dont worry - I was nowhere near the lab!) with different fluid viscosities points to the fact that the greater the drag force on Bdello as it attempts to kill Vibrio, the harder it is for Bdello to kill its prey ...
Original article in IJSEM Online Note: The gender of the genus Bacteriovorax is not given by Baer et al. 2000, and the names of the specific epithets (Bacteriovorax stolpii comb. nov. and Bacteriovorax starrii comb. nov.) did not allow the correct gender to be determined. Bacteriovorax may be in the masculine, in the feminine or in the neuter gender. However, in 2004, Baer et al. propose the new species Bacteriovorax litoralis and Bacteriovorax marinus. The epithets litoralis and marinus are in the masculine gender. According to Rule 65(1) when the original author failed to indicate the gender, a subsequent author has the right of choice. Clearly, Baer et al. 2004 chose the masculine gender. Note: Piñeiro et al. 2008 propose to transfer ¤ Bacteriovorax stolpii (Seidler et al. 1972) Baer et al. 2000, the type species of the genus Bacteriovorax, to the genus ¤ Bacteriolyticum Piñeiro et al. 2008 as ¤ Bacteriolyticum stolpii (Seidler et al. 1972) Piñeiro et al. 2008, comb. nov. According to ...
All bacterial epibiotic predators are rich in secondary metabolites and most genera rich in secondary metabolites have demonstrable predatory abilities. Predation resistant species may benefit not only by escaping predation but also by utilizing nutrients released by lysis of prey cells by predatory bacteria. The resistant organisms may enjoy greater fitness benefits than the predator since they get the benefit without investing in the predation machinery. In our experiment, a marine isolate of Streptomyces atrovirens showed good predatory activity on a range of species including Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus vulgaris. Escherichia coli was resistant to predation by this species. On slide culture with water agar when the predator, S. aureus and E. coli were grown together S. aureus population declined whereas the predation resistant E. coli increased their population as compared to controls. However the growth of E. coli did not affect growth of the predator unfavorably. Thus, the experiment
Predatory bacteria are ubiquitous in aquatic environments and may be important players in the ecology and biogeochemistry of microbial communities. Three novel strains belonging to two genera of marine flavobacteria, Olleya and Tenacibaculum, were cultured from coastal sediments and found to be predatory on other bacteria on surfaces. Two published species of the genus Tenacibaculum were also observed to grow by lysis of prey bacteria, raising the possibility that predation may be a widespread lifestyle amongst marine flavobacteria, which are diverse and abundant in a variety of marine environments. The marine flavobacterial clade is known to include species capable of photoheterotrophy, scavenging of polymeric organic substances, pathogenesis on animals, the degradation and lysis of phytoplankton blooms and, now, predation on bacterial communities. Strains from the two genera were found to exhibit divergent prey specificities and growth yields when growing predatorily. Olleya sp. predatory ...
In phytopathogenic fungi, the expression of hundreds of small secreted protein (SSP)-encoding genes is induced upon primary infection of plants while no or a low level of expression is observed during vegetative growth. In some species such as Leptosphaeria maculans, this coordinated in-planta upregulation of SSP-encoding genes expression relies on an epigenetic control but the signals triggering gene expression in-planta are unknown. In the present study, biotic and abiotic factors that may relieve suppression of SSP-encoding gene expression during axenic growth of L. maculans were investigated. Some abiotic factors (temperature, pH) could have a limited effect on SSP gene expression. In contrast, two types of cellular stresses induced by antibiotics (cycloheximide, phleomycin) activated strongly the transcription of SSP genes. A transcriptomic analysis to cycloheximide exposure revealed that biological processes such as ribosome biosynthesis and rRNA processing were induced whereas important metabolic
An international team of researchers has solved a long-standing microbial mystery; the knowledge may help fight antibiotic resistant bacteria.
Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is definitely the most terrifying bacterial species I’ve written about.  What sets Bdellovibrio apart from other path | Microbiology
Baker, Michelle and Negus, David and Raghunathan, Dhaarini and Radford, Paul and Moore, Christopher and Clark, Gemma and Diggle, Mathew and Tyson, Jess and Twycross, Jamie and Sockett, R. Elizabeth (2017) Measuring and modelling the response of Klebsiella pneumoniae KPC prey to Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus predation, in human serum and defined buffer. Scientific Reports, 7 (8329). pp. 1-18. ISSN 2045-2322 Baker, Michelle and Brook, Bindi S. and Owen, Markus R. (2017) Mathematical modelling of cytokines, MMPs and fibronectin fragments in osteoarthritic cartilage. Journal of Mathematical Biology . ISSN 1432-1416 ...
COGEM released a comprehensive database of pathogenicity assessment of around 2575 bacterial species in 2011. The database ranks the pathogenicity of species on a scale of 1 to 4. Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus ranks 1 on this scale: The species or strain does not belong to a recognized group of disease-invoking agents in humans or animals and/or has an extended history of safe usage under conditions without any physical ...
Laser-exposed plasmonic substrates permeabilize the plasma membrane of cells when in close contact to deliver cell-impermeable cargo. Carl Zeiss Microscopy GmbH). Calcein and WGA Alexa Fluor 488 image resolution was carried out using a 480 15 nm bandpass excitation filter and a 520 nm longpass emission filter. Propidium iodide and ER-tracker Red were excited using a (535 20)-nm filter and detected with a (610 25)-nm bandpass filter. For laser exposure, a 532-nm pulsed Nd:YAG microchip laser with a pulse period of 850 ps and repeating rate of 20.25 kHz was used. The laser spot diameter was 80 m. The sample was uncovered for fixed occasions using a mechanical shutter, and laser power was adjusted using an attenuation unit. A more detailed description of the setup can end up being discovered in [35]. Laser beam trials and image resolution with cells on substrates Cell permeabilization performance is certainly motivated by changing the laser beam fluence for substrates in three indie trials. Cells ...
Anti-Bovine Cell polyclonal antiserum conjugated to fluorescein isothiocyanate Anti-Bovine Cell polyclonal antiserum conjugated to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). Porcine origin. This conjugate is intended to identify or confirm the species of origin of cells or tissues. Cells of bovine origin will fluoresce green when this conjugate is applied per the recommended procedure. Cells of other species origins will not fluoresce above background levels. The recommended method is to mix the test article cells with a benign substrate cell (monkey kidney works fine) in a ratio of 1:15 and place on a slide or microplate culture. FA staining should be done at 1-3 days of culture and fixation should be 100% acetone at room temperature for glass slides, or acetone/water (75/25) for 20 minutes for plastic.. ...
Chlamydiae are pathogenic bacteria that probably evolved from host-independent, Gram-negative ancestors and are specialized for an intracellular existence. The chlamydial infectious elementary body binds to and enters the host cell by parasite-specified endocytosis, with a new generation of elementary bodies being released 30 to 48 h later....
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Kuru, Erkin and Lambert, Carey and Jonathon, Rittichier and Till, Rob and Ducret, Adrien and Derouaux, Adeline and Gray, Joe and Biboy, Jacob and Vollmer, Waldemar and VanNieuwenhze, Michael and Brun, Yves and Sockett, Liz (2017) Fluorescent D-amino-acids reveal bi-cellular cell wall modifications important for Bdellovibrio bacteriovorous predation. Nature Microbiology, 2 . pp. 1648-1657. ISSN 2058-5276 Willis, Alexandra R. and Moore, Christopher and Mazon-Moya, Maria and Krokowski, Sina and Lambert, Carey and Till, Rob and Mostowy, Serge and Sockett, R. Elizabeth (2016) Injections of predatory bacteria work alongside host immune cells to treat Shigella infection in zebrafish larvae. Current Biology, 26 (24). pp. 3343-3351. ISSN 1879-0445 Lambert, Carey and Lerner, Thomas R. and Bui, Nhat Khai and Somers, Hannah and Aizawa, Shin-Ichi and Liddell, Susan and Clark, Ana and Vollmer, Waldemar and Lovering, Andrew L. and Sockett, R. Elizabeth (2016) Interrupting peptidoglycan deacetylation during ...
Madrid-based architect Iñaki Ábalos was, along with Juan Herreros, the recipient of Columbia Universitys Buell Book Fellowship.
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Image shows swarm of M. xanthus bacteria (left) invading a colony of prey bacteria (right). The rippling pattern is the highly organized behavior of thousands of M. xanthus cells working in concert to digest the prey. Image courtesy of John Kirby, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine Like something from a horror movie, the swarm of bacteria ripples purposefully toward their prey, devours it and moves on. Researchers at the University of Iowa are studying this behavior in Myxococcus xanthus (M. xanthus), a bacterium commonly found in soil, which preys on other bacteria.. Despite its deadly role in the bacterial world, M. xanthus is harmless to humans and might one day be used beneficially to destroy harmful bacteria on surfaces or in human infections, said John Kirby, PhD, associate professor of microbiology in the UI Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine. It may be that we can modify this predator-prey relationship or apply it to medically relevant situations, Kirby said. ...
본 과제는 미생물학, 미세유체역학, 환경공학이라는 세 연구 분야를 융합하여 산업용 여과막에 형성되는 biofilm이나 biofouling을 포식 미생물 (Bacterial Predator)을 이용하여 저감시키는 기술을 개발하는 것이다. 이를 위해서는 P. starrii와 B. bacteriovorus 등의 Bdellovibrio-and-like-organisms (BALOs)과 같은 포식 미생물의 성장, 번식, 피포식 성향 등을 이해해야 한다. 이를 위해 1) 여러 BALO 균주의 포식 환경의 영향, 피포식 미생물에 대한 포식 선호도나, Chemotaxis를 마이크로풀루이딕 디바이스를 이용하여 빠른 시간 내에 알아내고, 2) 산업용 여과막에 형성되는 바이오 필름이나 biofouling을 BALO를 이용하여 친환경적, 효과적으로 제거하여, 3) 산업용 여과막의 성능을 장기간 지속되게 하고 수명을 연장시키며, 4) 고가의 유해한 화학약품을 이용한 분리막 정화 처리 방법을 훨씬 ...
McMahons biggest defense for extinction of all carnivores is that it would be good to prevent the vast suffering and countless violent deaths caused by predation. His assumption that the end of all suffering deaths caused by predation is a good thing fails on two accounts. First, he fails to take into account predation in the microbial level. Numerous bacteria on Earth that kill other bacteria are vital to all living organisms. Virtually all, living organisms house predatory bacteria that feed on other bacteria in order to multiply. However, these bacteria also decompose harmful pathogens and aid in absorbing nutrients for survival. For example, in Humans, lactic acid bacteria kill pathogens in the stomach that cause diarrhea. In fact, the elimination of all predating microbes would wipe out all living creatures on earth due to diseases. Although according to McMahon, these causes animal suffering, most people would not desire the elimination of all predating bacteria. Suppose McMahon ...
That biological features may change their function during evolution has long been recognized. Particularly, the acquisition of new functions by molecules involved in developmental pathways is suspected to cause important morphologic novelties. However, the current terminology describing functional changes during evolution (co-option or recruitment) fails to recognize important biologic distinctions between diverse evolutionary routes involving functional shifts. The main goal of our work is to stress the importance of an apparently trivial distinction: Whether or not the element that adopts a new function (anything from a morphologic structure to a protein domain) is a single or a duplicated element. We propose that natural selection must act in a radically different way, depending on the historic succession of co-option and duplication events; that is, co-option may provide the selective pressure for a subsequent gene duplication or could be a stabilizing factor that helps maintain redundancy ...
The flagellum is sheathed by an apparent extension of the cell membrane (2). The mechanism of how a sheathed flagellum rotates has not been elucidated. Potentially, the flagellar filament could rotate within the sheath or the two could rotate as a unit (50). Little is known about the composition, formation, or function of flagellar sheaths, which are found in many bacteria, including marine Vibrio species, V. cholerae, B. bacteriovorus, and Helicobacter pylori (reviewed in reference 164). Evidence from these organisms suggests that the sheath contains both lipopolysaccharide and proteins and that it may exist as a stable membrane domain distinct from the outer membrane (42, 51, 58, 69, 144). The lipid content of the sheath of B. bacteriovorus is distinct from that of the outer membrane, and the sheath appears to be a highly fluid, symmetric bilayer (179). How the sheath is formed remains essentially uninvestigated. It has been postulated that the sheath forms concomitantly with the elongation of ...
Balo Concentric Sclerosis When attempting to characterize white matter lesions, important considerations include morphology and distribution, as well as pati...
Live samples were https://modules.rucevzhuru.cz/where-to-buy-astelin/ kept in fresh running seawater for minimal amounts astelin 0.15 of time after collection. Recombinant protein purification Sequence-verified plasmids were transformed into NEB5a strain E. New England Biolabs) (because the promoter in the history of biomedical research. AbstractUsing mRNA sequencing (mRNA-Seq) library with prey-derived mRNAs.. The maximum astelin 0.15 absorbance at 588 nm. Aglyamova GV, Hunt ME, Modi CK, Aglyamova GV,. GGL, ATZ, MC, DSB, and NCS), NIH R01GM121944 (GGL, ATZ, MC,.. After centrifugation, astelin 0.15 the lysate was directly added to the substitution F64L, generating a variant with optical and biochemical properties similar to A. This serendipitous encounter with a molecular weight standard was obtained from the UCSD Moores Cancer Center pharmacy. The amino acid residues making up the dimer interface in the dark. Plasmids encoding the FPs we have identified several new Aequorea FPs with chemically ...
1995 yılından bu yana yapılmakta olan Pediyatrik Nöroşiürji Kurslarında, ilk üç yıl konsensüs toplantıları diğer yıllarda da pediyatrik nöroşirürji kursları olarak, toplam 21 yıldır çeşitli konularda kurslarda eğitim dersleri. Her üç yılda bir yeni bir döneme geçerek devam eden 6 adet 3 bölümlü Pediyatrik Nöroşirürji Kursunda çeşitli konularda eğitim verilmesi ve konferanslar (her dönemde ve bölümde 3 adet konferans verilmiştir ...
Balos, V.; Kim, H.; Bonn, M.; Hunger, J.: Dissecting Hofmeister Effects: Direct Anion-Amide Interactions Are Weaker than Cation-Amide Binding. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 55 (28), S. 8125 - 8128 (2017 ...
John Thornton John joined UKi Media & Events in 2012 and has worked across a range of B2B titles within the companys automotive, marine and entertainment divisions. Currently editor of Automotive Testing Technology International, Crash Test Technology International and Electric & Hybrid Marine Technology International, John co-ordinates the day-the-day operations of each magazine, from commissioning and writing to editing and signing-off, as well managing web content. Aside from the magazines, John also serves as co-chairman of the annual Electric & Hybrid Marine Awards and can be found sniffing out stories throughout the halls of several of UKIs industry-leading expo events.. ...
Protozoa are known to harbor bacterial pathogens, alter their survival in the environment and make them hypervirulent. Rapid non-culture based detection methods are required to determine the environmental survival and transport of enteric pathogens from point sources such as dairies and feedlots to food crops grown in proximity. Grazing studies were performed on a soil isolate of Tetrahymena fed green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressing Escherichia coli O157:H7 to determine the suitability of the use of such fluorescent prey bacteria to locate and sort bacterivorous protozoa by flow cytometry. In order to overcome autofluorescence of the target organism and to clearly discern Tetrahymena with ingested prey vs. those without, a ratio of prey to host of at least 100:1 was determined to be preferable. Under these conditions, we successfully sorted the two populations using short 5-45 min exposures of the prey and verified the internalization of E. coli O157:H7 cells in protozoa by confocal microscopy.
With the help of the SARS-CoV reverse genetics system a chimeric recombinant SARS-CoV carrying the BG-CoV ORF6 (BGO6-rSCV) was generated for studies in a in the context of viral replication in primate and RhiLu-hACE2 cells. In primate as well as in RhiLu-hACE2 cells BGO6-rSCV replicated less efficiently than wild type rSCV. Interestingly, when cells were preincubated with universal type I IFN BGO6-rSCV exhibited an increased IFN sensitivity on RhiLu-hACE2 cells only. This suggests a host-independent attenuating effect of BG-p6. (ii) The genomic region around ORF8 was subject to an unusual high mutation rate throughout the SARS pandemic. SARS-related CoVs found in Asian Rhinolophus bats, civet cats and early human isolates of SARS-CoV carried a single full-length ORF8. The human pandemic SARS-CoV acquired a 29 nucleotide deletion leading to the disruption of ORF8 into two ORFs, ORF8a and 8b. In the Bulgarian SARS-related bat-CoV we found that ORF8 was entirely missing. Analysis of more ...
A modified fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method was used to analyze bacterial prey composition in protistan food vacuoles in both laboratory and natural populations. Under laboratory conditions, we exposed two bacterial strains (affiliated with beta- and gamma-Proteobacteria - Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonasfluorescens, respectively) to grazing by three protists: the flagellates Bodo saltans and Goniomonas sp., and the ciliate Cyclidium glaucoma. Both flagellate species preferably ingested A. hydrophila over P. fluorescens, while C glaucoma showed no clear preferences. Differences were found in the digestion of bacterial prey with B. saltans digesting significantly faster P. fluorescens compared to two other protists. The field study was conducted in a reservoir as part of a larger experiment. We monitored changes in the bacterial prey composition available compared to the bacteria ingested in flagellate food vacuoles. Bacteria detected by probe HGC69a (Actinobacteria) and ...
The fundamental question of whether different microbial species will co-exist or compete in a given environment depends on context, composition and environmental constraints. Model microbial systems can yield some general principles related to this question. In this study we employed a naturally occurring co-culture composed of heterotrophic bacteria, Halomonas sp. HL-48 and Marinobacter sp. HL-58, to ask two fundamental scientific questions: 1) how do the phenotypes of two naturally co-existing species respond to partnership as compared to axenic growth? and 2) how do growth and molecular phenotypes of these species change with respect to competitive and commensal interactions? We hypothesized - and confirmed - that co-cultivation under glucose as the sole carbon source would result in competitive interactions ...
Facundo Jorro-Barón, Inés Suarez-Anzorena, Rodrigo Burgos-Pratx, Noelia De Maio, Matías Penazzi, Ana Paula Rodriguez, Gisela Rodriguez, Daniel Velardez, Luz Gibbons, Silvina Ábalos, Silvina Lardone, Rosario Gallagher, Joaquín Olivieri, Rocío Rodriguez, Juan Carlos Vassallo, Luis Martín Landry, Ezequiel García-Elorrio ...
Tara Craig Tara has worked for UKi Media & Events since 2013, initially as a freelancer. She has been a journalist for over a decade and has worked for a range of publications, including Personnel Today, Management Today and The Grocer.. ...
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Lancelot is an application launcher menu designed to provide a place from which all your jobs begin. It provides quick access to applications, places, documents, contacts and system information. For more info visit the blog of the author Ivan Čukić or Lancelots home page. You could also be interested in Lancelot feature in commit-digest. ...
Lancelot is an application launcher menu designed to provide a place from which all your jobs begin. It provides quick access to applications, places, documents, contacts and system information. For more info visit the blog of the author Ivan Čukić or Lancelots home page. You could also be interested in Lancelot feature in commit-digest. ...
Your log-home is a very tempting morsel for any number of damaging insects who will make it their home and their food source if allowed to do so. A whole host o
Victorias Health Complaints Commissioner is concerned about dangerous and unethical practitioners who prey on the sick and vulnerable.
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Principal Investigator:YAMASHITA Uki, Project Period (FY):2003 - 2004, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Immunology
A new virus that exploits public fear of terrorism in the wake of the recent attacks has begun appearing in the United States but is unlikely to spread very far, experts say.
Anfield Manchester United left Anfield surrounded by a wall of silence considerably more resolute and unified than the flimsy barricade so easily dismantled by Liverpool on an abject afternoon for...
The victims mutation has gone awry. If the victim fails to Prey on an Amber Parasite within 18 sec they will perish instantly.Prey10 yd rangeInstant15 sec cooldownInstantly kill an Amber Parasite.
silly online quizes are at times fascinating or at times silly but nevertheless it does reveal something about the one who answers them and in my case i hope this grabs the attention of those whove ever dared to prey on me. i just answered this a few minutes ago and im surprised at how it turned out because in one way or another its quite true ...
NYMag recently asked themselves the age old question of How can I trick Lindsay Lohan into getting naked? The answer was glaringly obvious. Prey on her n
The Ant-lion is also know as a doodlebug, the larvae of the ant-lion preys on ants and other insects by building pits in sand that they are ...
Get rich quick is a myth - building wealth is something that needs strategy and time. Get rich quick schemes tend to prey on people with the desire, but
Other recent articles have referred to Vampirococcus as part of a group of similar organisms known as BALOs (Bdellovibrio And ... Despite this fact, Vampirococcus has now been included in a group of microbes known as BALOs, or Bdellovibrio And Like ... Myxococcus xanthus Bdellovibrio Jurkevitch, Edouard; Davidov, Yaacov (2007). "Phylogenetic diversity and evolution of predatory ... Kadouri, Daniel; O'Toole, George A. (1 July 2005). "Susceptibility of Biofilms to Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus Attack". Applied ...
Once inside, the Bdellovibrio are able to use the host cell's resources to grow and reproduce, eventually lysing the cell wall ... Bacterial cells can also be targeted by twitching: during the cell invasion phase of the lifecycle of Bdellovibrio, type IV ... Sockett, Renee Elizabeth (2009). "Predatory lifestyle of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus". Annual Review of Microbiology. 63: 523- ...
Deltaproteobacteria: Desulfovibrio, Geobacter, Bdellovibrio, etc. Epsilonproteobacteria: Helicobacter, Campylobacter, Wolinella ...
... to illuminate the mechanisms by which Bdellovibrio invades its prey. They discovered that Bdellovibrio forms a small reinforced ... Bdellovibrio preys upon a wide range of bacteria including antibiotic-resistant pathogens that are harmful to human health. ... "Predatory Bdellovibrio bacteria-evolution of predation and application of predators against AMR infection". talks.ox.ac.uk. ... She is a world-leading expert on Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus, a species of predatory bacteria. Sockett was born in Newcastle ...
Bdellovibrio bacteria serve as natural hosts. There are currently only two species in this genus including the type species ... Bdellovibrio bacteria serve as the natural host. "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter ... Bdellovibrio phage MAC 1. Viruses in Bdellomicrovirus are non-enveloped, with icosahedral and Round geometries, and T=1 ...
They include genera, such as Bdellovibrio and Vampirovibrio, which are unusual parasites that enter other bacteria. Garrity, ... ISBN 978-0-387-24145-6. Mortimer P. Starr & Nancy L. Baigent (1966). "Parasitic Interaction of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus with ...
Upon sensing such a cell, a bdellovibrio cell swims faster until it collides with the prey cell. It then bores a hole through ... Lysis of the prey cell releases new bdellovibrio cells. Bdellovibrios will not attack mammalian cells, and Gram-negative prey ... Several of the best examples are members of the genera Bdellovibrio, Vampirococcus, and Daptobacter. Bdellovibrios are active ...
For example, Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus, a predatory δ-Proteobacterium, has homogeneous GC content, and it might be concluded ... Gophna U, Charlebois RL, Doolittle WF (February 2006). "Ancient lateral gene transfer in the evolution of Bdellovibrio ... January 2004). "A predator unmasked: life cycle of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus from a genomic perspective". Science. 303 (5658 ...
... and Bdellovibrio are approximately 0.2-0.4 x 0.5-1.4 μm, are aerobic, with oxygen as a terminal electron acceptor ... Most bacteria that prey on Gram-negative bacteria were lumped together in the genus Bdellovibrio. This was done regardless of ... Bacteriovorax stolpii used to be classified in the genus Bdellovibrio because of similar morphologies and lifestyle ... There was only 81.7% 16S rDNA sequence similarity between Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus and Bacteriovorax stolpii. DNA-DNA ...
Shilo, M. (1969). "Morphological and physiological aspects of the interaction of Bdellovibrio with host bacteria". Curr. Topics ...
2004). "A predator unmasked: life cycle of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus from a genomic perspective". Science. 303 (5658): 689-92 ...
Vampirovibrio or Bdellovibrio may be used to help control harmful populations of bacteria due to their predatory nature. In an ... Therefore, use of Bdellovibrio as an inhibitor of other bacteria shows potential, but may be limited to certain cases as ... It was then reclassified as its own genus Vampirovibrio in 1980 after being excluded from the genus Bdellovibrio for some ... However, it was later discovered that the bacterium was non-motile, further differentiating it from members of Bdellovibrio. ...
... characterization of membrane-associated soluble serine palmitoyltransferases from Sphingobacterium multivorum and Bdellovibrio ...
... characterization of membrane-associated soluble serine palmitoyltransferases from Sphingobacterium multivorum and Bdellovibrio ...
"Fluorescent D-amino-acids reveal bi-cellular cell wall modifications important for Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus predation". ...
Gromov BV (1972). "Electron Microscope Study of Parasitism by Bdellovibrio Chorellavorus Bacteria on Cells of the Green Alga ...
... of the tick Ixodes ricinus invades and consumes mitochondria in a mode similar to that of the parasitic bacterium Bdellovibrio ... of the tick Ixodes ricinus invades and consumes mitochondria in a mode similar to that of the parasitic bacterium Bdellovibrio ...
Iodobacter phage phiPLPE Species Aeromonas phage 56 Aggregatibacter phage Aaphi23 Bdellovibrio phage phi1402 Bdellovibrio phage ... This group includes the phages Aeromonas salmonicida phage 56, Vibrio cholerae phages 138 and CP-T1, Bdellovibrio phage φ1422 ...
... and from viruses and bdellovibrio to blue whales. Charles Elton pioneered the concept of food cycles, food chains, and food ...
Unlike Bdellovibrio (a genus in the Deltaproteobacteria), Micavibrio do not invade the periplasmic space of their prey, but ...
Recent crystal structures generated from a bacterial homologue of ferroportin (from Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus) revealed that ...
Bdellovibrio, acetic acid bacteria, Legionella etc. Other notable groups of gram-negative bacteria include the cyanobacteria, ...
Genus: Bdellomicrovirus Bdellovibrio phage MAC 1 (type species) Bdellovibrio phage phiMH2K Genus: Chlamydiamicrovirus Chlamydia ...
Bdellovibrio) Gram-positive Eubacteria High-G+C species (later renamed Actinobacteria) (Actinomyces, Streptomyces, Arthrobacter ...
... properties also found in some bacteria such as Bdellovibrio (an intracellular parasite of other bacteria, causing death of its ...
Sydney Rittenberg working on Bdellovibrio as an undergraduate at UCLA where he earned a B.A. in Bacteriology in 1978. He next ...
Bdellovibrio MeSH B03.440.400.425.200 - bradyrhizobiaceae MeSH B03.440.400.425.200.040 - Afipia MeSH B03.440.400.425.200.090 - ... Bdellovibrio MeSH B03.660.125.087 - Bilophila MeSH B03.660.125.125 - Desulfovibrio MeSH B03.660.125.125.040 - Desulfovibrio ...
Batama orthobunyavirus Batfish actinovirus Bavaria virus Bayou orthohantavirus Bdellovibrio virus MAC1 Bdellovibrio virus MH2K ...
... show up as a growing clear plaque in an E. coli "lawn". Notably, Bdellovibrio has a sheath that covers its ... Although the Bdellovibrio rounding of prey is thought to be evolved to reduce co-infection of multiple Bdellovibrio, larger ... Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus was first described by Stolp and Petzold in 1962. In 2012 another member of the Bdellovibrio species ... Targets of Bdellovibrio species, including Vibrio vulnificus, may undergo co-infection by Bdellovibrio and bacteriophage. ...
Mdellovibrio1 · Brachyarcus1 · Bdellovibrio1 · Campylobacter2 · Microcyclus2 · Pelosignia2 · Spirillum2 ...
Bdellovibrio show up as a growing clear plaque in an E. coli "lawn". Notably, Bdellovibrio has a sheath that covers its ... Although the Bdellovibrio rounding of prey is thought to be evolved to reduce co-infection of multiple Bdellovibrio, larger ... Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus was first described by Stolp and Petzold in 1962. In 2012 another member of the Bdellovibrio species ... Targets of Bdellovibrio species, including Vibrio vulnificus, may undergo co-infection by Bdellovibrio and bacteriophage. ...
Bdellovibrio are body-snatching bacteria that invade other microbes and grow inside them before bursting out to seek out other ... Liz - If the Bdellovibrio burst out of the dead bacterium and cant find any more food, they just die. This makes it a self- ... Bdellovibrio dont look for any specific target sites on their bacteria prey, so there is no way for the bacteria to hide. ... Unfortunately, Bdellovibrio cant get into MRSA, but they can get into many others. We hope to use them on things like burns ...
Bdellovibrio have been shown to combat Gram-negative pathogens in live poultry and food crops. Most recently, using a zebrafish ... Bdellovibrio have been researched as a solution to gram negative bacterial infections, including infections in zebrafish ( ... Professor Sockett and her team are researching the use of living predatory bacteria, such as Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus, that ... As living non-pathogenic bacteria, Bdellovibrio predators can adapt to diverse pathogens, and have broad prey-ranges. Applying ...
Biosynthesis of terpenoids and polyketides Terpenoid backbone biosynthesis M00096 C5 isoprenoid biosynthesis, non-mevalonate pathway [PATH:bba00900 bba01100 bba01110 ...
Bdellovibrio explanation free. What is Bdellovibrio? Meaning of Bdellovibrio medical term. What does Bdellovibrio mean? ... Looking for online definition of Bdellovibrio in the Medical Dictionary? ... bdellovibrio. /bdel·lo·vib·rio/ (del″o-vib´re-o) any microorganism of the genus Bdellovibrio.. Bdellovibrio. (dĕl″ō-vĭb′-rē-ō ... Bdellovibrio. Also found in: Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. Bdellovibrio. [del″o-vib´re-o] a genus of small, gram-negative, rod- ...
Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALOs) are obligate predatory bacteria that selectively prey on a broad range of Gram-negative ... Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALOs) are obligate predatory bacteria that selectively prey on a broad range of Gram-negative ... 2019). Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus to control Escherichia coli on meat matrices. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 55, 988-994. doi: ... Fratamico, P. M., and Cooke, P. H. (1996). Isolation of Bdellovibrios that prey on Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella ...
Intraperiplasmic growth of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J: solubilization of Escherichia coli peptidoglycan.. M F Thomashow, S ... Intraperiplasmic growth of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J: solubilization of Escherichia coli peptidoglycan.. M F Thomashow, S ... Intraperiplasmic growth of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J: solubilization of Escherichia coli peptidoglycan.. M F Thomashow, S ... Intraperiplasmic growth of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J: solubilization of Escherichia coli peptidoglycan. Message Subject ( ...
Searching for bdellovibrio? Find 4 people in the UK: Seattle, College, Creston, Social Justice, Ofstie, Sylvie, Northwest, ... Predatory bacterium - Bdellovibrio - effective against Salmonella … Researcher Dr Laura Hobley said "Bdellovibrio has the ... A recently cloned gene of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus has … The genes sequence has been analyzed and the expression of the … ... Below you can find your competitors - also show yourself to bdellovibrio!. Click here for your Exposé ...
Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Oligoflexia; Bdellovibrionales; Bdellovibrionaceae; Bdellovibrio; unclassified Bdellovibrio. Data ... Variation in genome content and predatory phenotypes between Bdellovibrio sp. NC01 isolated from soil and B. bacteriovorus type ...
However, both the Bdellovibrio and Bacteriovorax clades were closest to other representatives of the delta-Proteobacteria using ... Bdellovibrio-and-like organisms (BALO) are Gram-negative, predatory bacteria that inhabit terrestrial, freshwater and salt- ... 16S rDNA sequence analysis of environmental Bdellovibrio-and-like organisms (BALO) reveals extensive diversity.. Snyder AR1, ... One group, supported 100% by bootstrap analysis, included all of the Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus isolates. Each member of this ...
Osmoregulation in symbiosis-independent mutants of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page ... Osmoregulation in symbiosis-independent mutants of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus.. M Varon, J Seijffers ...
Intraperiplasmic growth of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J: N-deacetylation of Escherichia coli peptidoglycan amino sugars.. M ... The data also suggest that much of the Braun lipoprotein is removed from the E. coli peptidoglycan early during bdellovibrio ... Intraperiplasmic growth of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J: N-deacetylation of Escherichia coli peptidoglycan amino sugars. ... Intraperiplasmic growth of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J: N-deacetylation of Escherichia coli peptidoglycan amino sugars. ...
Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus (strain ATCC 15356 / DSM 50701 / NCIMB 9529 / HD100)Imported. Automatic assertion inferred from ... cellular organisms › Bacteria › Proteobacteria › Oligoflexia › Bdellovibrionales › Bdellovibrionaceae › Bdellovibrio › ... tr,Q6MPD9,Q6MPD9_BDEBA Cation transporting ATPase OS=Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus (strain ATCC 15356 / DSM 50701 / NCIMB 9529 / ...
Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus (strain ATCC 15356 / DSM 50701 / NCIB 9529 / HD100)Imported. Automatic assertion inferred from ... tr,Q6MK31,Q6MK31_BDEBA ABC-type multidrug transporter with fused ATPase and permease domains OS=Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus ( ... cellular organisms › Bacteria › Proteobacteria › Oligoflexia › Bdellovibrionales › Bdellovibrionaceae › Bdellovibrio › ...
What sets Bdellovibrio apart from other path , Microbiology ... What sets Bdellovibrio apart from other pathogens is that it is ... Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is definitely the most terrifying bacterial species Ive written about. ... A 2004 Science article breaks down the Bdellovibrio life cycle into eight (frightening) steps: *Not only is Bdellovibrio motile ... Now that Bdellovibrio is snugly situated inside its preys periplasm, it causes the prey cell to go from rod-shaped to rounded ...
... preparation of a bdellovibrio bacteriovorus telotroch concentrated solution; and (3) preparation of the bdellovibrio ... The method relatively shortens the fermentation period at the same time of obtaining high-concentration bdellovibrio ... The invention discloses a bdellovibrio bacteriovorus preparation and a fermentation method and application thereof. The ... and the bdellovibrio bacteriovorus preparation prepared by using the method has certain improvement on the cracking capability ...
Effect of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus HD100 on multispecies oral communities. Anaerobe 35(Pt A):45-53. doi:10.1016/j.anaerobe. ... Predation by Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus HD100 requires type IV pili. J Bacteriol 189:4850-4859. doi:10.1128/JB.01942-06. ... Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is a small (0.2 to 0.5 μm wide and 0.5 to 2.5 μm long) Gram-negative bacterium that is unusual in ... Interaction of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus with bacteria Campylobacter jejuni and Helicobacter pylori. Microbiology 79:777-779. ...
Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J has minimal peptidoglycan O-acetylation while Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109JA, Bdellovibrio ... Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is a prey dependent bacterium that traverses the outer membrane and peptidoglycan, and enters the ... exovorus JSS, and Bacteriovorax stolpii UKi2 do not O-acetylate their peptidoglycan, (2) predation efficiency of Bdellovibrio ... Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J has minimal peptidoglycan O-acetylation while Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109JA, Bdellovibrio ...
en] Presence of glycopeptide in the cell wall of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus. Author, co-author :. Tinelli, Regina [Institut ... Reference : De la présence dun glycopeptide dans la paroi de Bdello-vibrio vacteriovirus. ...
The lifecycle of \(Bdellovibrio\) \(bacteriovorus\) is complex and regulated in part by the cyclic nucleotide, c-di-GMP. Gene ... Bdellovibrio\) \(bacteriovorus\) HD 100 is a σ-proteobacterium that predates on Gram-negative bacteria. ... Structural and functional analysis of proteins involved in the C-DI-GMP network of the predatory bacterium \(Bdellovibrio\) \( ... This thesis presents the first structure of the \(Bdellovibrio\) diguanylate cyclase, Bd0742 in an inhibitory conformation. ...
Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus, as an obligate predator of Gram-negative bacteria, requires contact with the surface of a prey cell ... Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus, as an obligate predator of Gram-negative bacteria, requires contact with the surface of a prey cell ...
Predatory Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus are naturally antibacterial and combat infections by traversing, modifying and finally ... Fluorescent D-amino-acids reveal bi-cellular cell wall modifications important for Bdellovibrio bacteriovorous predation ... This process is followed by unconventional, multi-point and synchronous septation of the intracellular Bdellovibrio, ... D-transpeptidaseBd mediated D-amino acid modifications strengthening prey PG during Bdellovibrio invasion and a zonal mode of ...
Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus are predatory bacteria that burrow into prey bacteria and degrade their cell contents, including DNA ... The Bdellovibrio nuclease mutants were less efficient at (self-) biofilm formation, and surprisingly, they showed enhanced ... Nucleases in Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus contribute towards efficient self-biofilm formation and eradication of preformed prey ... Lambert, Carey and Sockett, R. Elizabeth (2013) Nucleases in Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus contribute towards efficient self- ...
What is Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus? Meaning of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus medical term. What does Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus ... Looking for online definition of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus in the Medical Dictionary? Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus explanation ... Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus. Also found in: Encyclopedia. Bdel·lo·vib·ri·o bacteriovorus. an unusual species of obligatory ... Lambert et al., "Discrete cyclic di-GMP-dependent control of bacterial predation versus axenic growth in Bdellovibrio ...
... For figures, tables and references we refer the reader ... Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALOs) are highly motile proteobacteria that prey on other Gram-negative bacteria. They are ... Half of the tubes (test) received 200 μL of Bdellovibrio suspension. The control tubes received 200 μL of a 0.22-μm filtrate of ... The most-studied strain of this group is Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus HD100. After attaching to its prey, B. bacteriovorus enters ...
BDELLOVIBRIO BACTERIOVORUS PREDATION IN DUAL-SPECIES BIOFILMS OF E. COLI PREY AND M. LUTEUS DECOYS  Vo, Phuong (2011-02-16) ... Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is a small, highly motile, predatory bacterium. It preys on a wide variety of gram-negative bacteria ... Quantifying Chemotaxis in Escherichia coli and Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus Using A Flow-Based Microfluidic Device  Hughes, Emma ... OF LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES FROM STRAINS OF ESCHERICHIA COLI AND THEIR IMPACT ON PREDATION BY THE BACTERIA BDELLOVIBRIO ...
Bdellovibrio is a genus of Gram negative bacteria with the ability to parasitize and kill other Gram negative bacteria ... In most cases bdellovibrio devours its prays and moves on because of this bdellovibrio can be considered as bacterial ... Bdellovibrio are obligate aerobes. * Bdellovibrio parasitized other Gram negative bacteria by entering into their periplasmic ... Bdellovibrio used as a Biocontrol Agent. By: Lalita Lakhran , Category: Agriculture , Date: 2018-07-16 17:27:27 , Views: 1352 ...
This week we explore the role of microbes in drug development, food production and soil fertility. We investigate how bacteria such as Streptomyces are used and improved to make antibiotics, discover how gut microbes in cattle can be manipulated to increase growth and reduce environmental impact, and we visit the Chelsea flower show to learn how Rhizobia found in the roots of legumes could be used to improve crop growth and food availability.
Bdellovibrio has a rather unusual mode of entering its hosts - it uses its flagellum to crash into them at amazing speeds - 160 ... It is amazing! 2 minutes after I send you a email asking whether you would interested in my work with bdellovibrio, I found ... When I was teaching microbiology, Bdellovibrio was always one of my favorite things to lecture about. These bacteria are ... the Bdellovibrio consumes the nutrients inside it, growing longer and longer the whole time. Eventually, when the host cell has ...
Spiral Architecture of the Nucleoid in Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus▿ † By Carmen Butan, Lisa M. Hartnell, Andrew K. Fenton, ... In contrast to wild-type Bdellovibrio cells that predominantly displayed a compact nucleoid region, cells expressing mTFP- ... tomographic analysis of the three-dimensional architecture of a strain of the Gram-negative bacterium Bdellovibrio ...
  • The Bdellovibrio bacterium then forms a structure called a bdelloplast. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liz - If the Bdellovibrio burst out of the dead bacterium and can't find any more food, they just die. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Her research group works on the predatory bacterium Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus with funding from Wellcome Trust, DARPA, BBSRC and Leverhulme Trust. (soci.org)
  • Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is a Gram-negative, motile, "comma-shaped" bacterium that was first described by Stolp and Petzold in 1962. (labroots.com)
  • Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is a small Gram-negative, obligate predatory bacterium that is largely found in wet, aerobic environments (e.g., soil). (asm.org)
  • Application of the predatory bacterium Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus , which kills other bacteria, including pathogens, is considered promising for combating bacterial infections. (asm.org)
  • Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is a small (0.2 to 0.5 μm wide and 0.5 to 2.5 μm long) Gram-negative bacterium that is unusual in its ability to invade and kill other Gram-negative bacteria. (asm.org)
  • Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is a prey dependent bacterium that traverses the outer membrane and peptidoglycan, and enters the periplasmic space of gram negative bacteria, from where it utilizes the cytoplasmic contents for growth. (uwo.ca)
  • Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is a small, highly motile, predatory bacterium. (mtholyoke.edu)
  • We present a cryo-electron tomographic analysis of the three-dimensional architecture of a strain of the Gram-negative bacterium Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus in which endogenous MreB2 was replaced with monomeric teal fluorescent protein (mTFP)-labeled MreB2. (core.ac.uk)
  • Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is a predatory bacterium which attacks and consumes other bacterial strains, including the well known pathogens E. coli O157 : H7, Salmonella typhimurium and Helicobacter pylori. (meta.org)
  • Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus HD100 is a highly motile predatory bacterium that consumes other Gram-negative bacteria for its sustenance. (meta.org)
  • Bdellovibrio is a Gram-negative bacterium that preys upon other Gram-negative bacteria, including many pathogens, and as such has potential as a biocontrol agent. (omicsdi.org)
  • Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is a Gram-negative bacterium that is a pathogen of other Gram-negative bacteria, including many bacteria which are pathogens of humans, animals and plants. (omicsdi.org)
  • This study gives the first post- genomic insight into the predatory process and reveals some of the important genes that Bdellovibrio expresses inside the prey bacterium during the initial attack. (omicsdi.org)
  • The prime candidate right now is a predatory bacterium known as Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus . (pnas.org)
  • Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is a gram-negative bacterium that preys upon other gram-negative bacteria. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Makowski Ł, Donczew R, Weigel C, Zawilak-Pawlik A, Zakrzewska-Czerwinska J. Initiation of chromosomal replication in predatory bacterium Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus . (nature.com)
  • And the star of this show is an organism called Bdellovibrio , a bacterium that swims around with the aid of a whip-like tail, and attacks common germs six times its size. (scpr.org)
  • Here, we explore the interaction between the predatory bacterium Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus and its prey Escherichia coli in microfabricated landscapes. (tudelft.nl)
  • IMPORTANCE This article describes the coinfection of a prokaryotic prey or host cell by both a bacteriophage (phage) and the predatory bacterium of the group Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALOs). (asm.org)
  • A useful predatory bacterium called Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus eats other bacteria (including important pathogens of humans, animals and crops). (eurekalert.org)
  • Scientists have tested a predatory bacterium "" Bdellovibrio "" against Salmonella in the guts of live chickens. (redorbit.com)
  • Bdellovibrio is a genus of Gram-negative, obligate aerobic bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Notably, Bdellovibrio has a sheath that covers its flagellum - a rare feature for bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bdellovibrio attacks other Gram-negative bacteria by attaching itself to the prey cell's outer membrane and peptidoglycan layer, after which it creates a small hole in the outer membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Naked Scientists spoke to Bdellovibrio are natural, tiny predatory bacteria that have other bacteria as their main food. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Bdellovibrio are natural, tiny predatory bacteria that exploit other bacteria as their main food. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Liz - We found that Bdellovibrio have lots of genes that make bacteria-dissolving enzymes. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Bdellovibrio don't look for any specific target sites on their bacteria prey, so there is no way for the bacteria to hide. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Professor Sockett and her team are researching the use of living predatory bacteria, such as Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus, that naturally invade and kill the Gram-negative pathogens of humans, animals and plants, to treat infections. (soci.org)
  • As living non-pathogenic bacteria, Bdellovibrio predators can adapt to diverse pathogens, and have broad prey-ranges. (soci.org)
  • Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is a small, curved Gram negative predatory bacteria discovered by chance in 1962 by Stolp and Petzold while they were trying to isolate bacteriophages for plant pathogenic bacteria from soil. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The mechanism by which the Bdellovibrio differentiates between a gram negative, gram positive bacteria or inanimate particle is unknown. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALOs) are obligate predatory bacteria that selectively prey on a broad range of Gram-negative bacteria, including multidrug-resistant human pathogens. (frontiersin.org)
  • Bdellovibrio-and-like organisms (BALO) are Gram-negative, predatory bacteria that inhabit terrestrial, freshwater and salt-water environments. (nih.gov)
  • Bacteria belonging to the genus Bdellovibrio are largely found in wet, aerobic environments (e.g., soil) ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • Bdellovibrio\) \(bacteriovorus\) HD 100 is a σ-proteobacterium that predates on Gram-negative bacteria. (bham.ac.uk)
  • Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus, as an obligate predator of Gram-negative bacteria, requires contact with the surface of a prey cell in order to initiate the life cycle. (uwo.ca)
  • Predatory Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus are naturally antibacterial and combat infections by traversing, modifying and finally destroying walls of Gram-negative prey bacteria, modifying their own PG as they grow inside prey. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus are predatory bacteria that burrow into prey bacteria and degrade their cell contents, including DNA and RNA, to grow. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALOs) are highly motile proteobacteria that prey on other Gram-negative bacteria. (dentisty.org)
  • Bdellovibrio is a genus of Gram negative bacteria with the ability to parasitize and kill other Gram negative bacteria. (biotecharticles.com)
  • Bdellovibrio parasitized other Gram negative bacteria by entering into their periplasmic space and breading of biosynthesis of biopolymers( Protein, NA etc.). of their host. (biotecharticles.com)
  • The weakened host cell lyses, releasing progeny of bdellovibrio bacteria, which are then ready to find new prey to attack. (biotecharticles.com)
  • One beguiling alternative to antibiotics for treating multi-drug resistant infections are Bdellovibrio -and-like-organisms (BALOs), predatory bacteria known to attack human pathogens. (nature.com)
  • Consequently, in this study, the responses from four cell lines (three human and one mouse) were characterized during an exposure to different predatory bacteria, Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus HD100, Bacteriovorus BY1 and Bacteriovorax stolpii EB1. (nature.com)
  • Bdellovibrio -and-like organisms (BALOs) are small Gram-negative δ-proteobacteria that are able to predate upon, enter and kill other Gram-negative bacteria 1 . (nature.com)
  • The use of predatory bacteria, such as Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus , is among the novel approaches being considered as possible therapeutics for antibiotic resistant and/or unidentified bacterial infections. (mdpi.com)
  • Researchers have started to evaluate predatory bacteria such as Bdellovibrio -shown here in a false-color transmission electron microscopy image at 50,000× magnification-as a means of treating intractable, antibiotic-resistant infections. (pnas.org)
  • Researchers are now beginning to evaluate Bdellovibrio and other similar predatory bacteria as a route to treating intractable, antibiotic-resistant infections. (pnas.org)
  • Bdellovibrio were accidentally discovered in the 1960s by scientists hunting in soil for bacteria-killing viruses known as bacteriophages (or, simply, phages). (pnas.org)
  • Predatory Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus bacteria invade the periplasm of other Gram-negative "prey" bacteria. (plos.org)
  • This prevents wasteful double invasion of already occupied prey bacteria by subsequent Bdellovibrio . (plos.org)
  • Electron microscopy shows two predatory Bdellovibrio bacteria outside of two rounded E. coli prey "bdelloplasts" previously invaded by the crescent-shaped Bdellovibrio seen within. (plos.org)
  • Evaluation of predation capability of periodontopathogens bacteria by Bdellovibrio Bacteriovorus HD100. (unicatt.it)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Evaluation of predation capability of periodontopathogens bacteria by Bdellovibrio Bacteriovorus HD100. (unicatt.it)
  • In Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus , an obligate predator of bacteria common in oligotrophic environments, the non-replicative, highly motile attack phase (AP) cell must invade a prey to ensure replication. (nature.com)
  • Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is a predatory deltaproteobacterium that encounters individual Gram-negative prey bacteria with gliding or swimming motility, and then is able to invade such prey cells via type IVa pilus-dependent mechanisms. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • The best-studied predator, Bdellovibrio, actually bores into larger bacteria and eats them from the inside out. (scpr.org)
  • They took the bacteria that had been preyed upon by Bdellovibrio every week and looked for any small survivors in the culture," Sockett explains. (scpr.org)
  • The Bdellovibrio and like organisms, unlike viruses, are bacteria that can efficiently infect and grow in prey which are in stationary phase. (asm.org)
  • Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus invade Gram-negative bacteria in a predatory process requiring Type IV pili (T4P) at a single invasive pole, and also glide on surfaces to locate prey. (nih.gov)
  • It binds to the tip of the enzyme weapons, nullifying their action until they are safely secreted out of the Bdellovibrio and into the prey bacteria. (eurekalert.org)
  • The Bdellovibrio bacteria lacking the Bd3460 gene tried to invade the bacteria but suddenly rounded up like pufferfish and couldn't complete the invasion -- the fatter predator cell could not enter the prey cell. (eurekalert.org)
  • They found that it significantly reduced the numbers of Salmonella bacteria and, importantly, showed that Bdellovibrio are safe when ingested. (redorbit.com)
  • Researcher Dr Laura Hobley said "Bdellovibrio has the potential to be used as a living antibiotic against some major human and animal pathogens, such as E. coli and other so-called Gram-negative bacteria. (redorbit.com)
  • The objectives of this project are designed to: identify practical intervention methods to eliminate vibrios in shellfish using bacteriophages and Bdellovibrio-and like-organisms (Vibrio predatory bacteria) and to develop and validate methods for enteric virus detection and elimination from shellfish. (usda.gov)
  • 2: Evaluate a modified depuration process with marine Bdellovibrio and related bacteria to eliminate Vibrio in market oysters. (usda.gov)
  • Part two of this details the second project which examined the predatory bacteria Bdellovibrio bacteriovorous. (bham.ac.uk)
  • Bdellovibrio bacteriovoruseats other bacteria, including important pathogens of humans, animals and crops. (healthcanal.com)
  • It is important to understand and preserve this laid back form of locomotion "if Bdellovibrio are to be used in the future to kill pathogenic bacteria on solid surfaces, like medical biofilms, where there may be too little liquid for swimming," says Sockett. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Predatory Bdellovibrio bacteria use gliding motility to scout for prey on surfaces. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The most-studied strain of this group is Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus HD100. (dentisty.org)
  • Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus HD100 was purchased from DSMZ (Braunschweig, Germany) and cultured on E. coli ML35 prey (Jurkevitch, 2005). (dentisty.org)
  • We evaluated the bactericidal activity of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus, strain HD100, within blood sera against bacterial strains commonly associated with bacteremic infections, including E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella enterica. (unist.ac.kr)
  • CC Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus HD100, complete genome. (univ-lyon1.fr)
  • Bdellovibrio have been shown to combat Gram-negative pathogens in live poultry and food crops. (soci.org)
  • Research interests include the application of Bdellovibrio as antibacterials to kill antibiotic resistant pathogens. (soci.org)
  • What sets Bdellovibrio apart from other pathogens is that it is quite literally a predator - like, alien hunting Arnold Schwarzenegger in the jungle, predator . (labroots.com)
  • Discrete cyclic di-GMP-dependent control of bacterial predation versus axenic growth in Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus ," PLoS Pathogens, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The various in vitro studies conducted suggest that the oral application of BALO strains has the potential to rapidly decrease the number of a wide range of periodontal pathogens from the mixed oral flora and suggest a potential for Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus as a living antibiotic for the prevention and treatment of periodontitis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A few recent studies assessed the susceptibility of human pathogens to predation by Bdellovibrio spp. (nature.com)
  • Bdellovibrio ended up preying upon 145 of the 168 human pathogens we tested, which is pretty remarkable," Ringeisen says. (scpr.org)
  • Thus GTP-binding proteins and cyclic-di-GMP inputs combine at a regulatory hub, turning on prey-invasion and allowing invasion and killing of bacterial pathogens and consequent predatory growth of Bdellovibrio. (nih.gov)
  • Commenting on the potential impact of the study, Dr Andrew Lovering added: "If we are to use Bdellovibrio as a therapeutic in the future, we need to understand the mechanisms underpinning prey killing and be sure that any self-protective genes couldn't be acquired by pathogens, causing resistance. (eurekalert.org)
  • However, both the Bdellovibrio and Bacteriovorax clades were closest to other representatives of the delta-Proteobacteria using maximum-likelihood. (nih.gov)
  • 16S rDNA sequence analysis of environmental Bdellovibrio-and-like organisms (BALO) reveals extensive diversity. (nih.gov)
  • Other recent articles have referred to Vampirococcus as part of a group of similar organisms known as BALOs (Bdellovibrio And Like Organisms) which are known to be very motile predatory microbes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite this fact, Vampirococcus has now been included in a group of microbes known as BALOs, or Bdellovibrio And Like Organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diversity and evolution of Bdellovibrio-and-like organisms (BALOs), reclassification of Bacteriovorax starrii as Peredibacter starrii gen. nov., comb. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • A phylogenetic analysis of Bdellovibrio -and-like organisms (BALOs) was performed. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Two such predators are viruses and the predatory prokaryotes known as Bdellovibrio and like organisms. (asm.org)
  • Rather than the viruses and Bdellovibrio and like organisms competing for a single prey cell, both can survive in the same cell and successfully reproduce themselves. (asm.org)
  • Major bacterial predators include viruses (bacteriophages) and a group of bacterial species collectively known as Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALOs). (asm.org)
  • In this report, we refer to bacteriophage as predators, as they are being studied with the predatory Bdellovibrio and like organisms. (asm.org)
  • In aquatic systems, bacterial community succession is a function of top-down and bottom-up factors, but little information exists on "sideways" controls, such as bacterial predation by Bdellovibrio -like organisms (BLOs), which likely impacts nutrient cycling within the microbial loop and eventual export to higher trophic groups. (pnas.org)
  • Intraperiplasmic growth of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J: solubilization of Escherichia coli peptidoglycan. (asm.org)
  • Intraperiplasmic growth of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J: N-deacetylation of Escherichia coli peptidoglycan amino sugars. (asm.org)
  • During intraperiplasmic growth of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus on Escherichia coli, the substrate cell peptidoglycan is extensively modified as it is converted to bdelloplast peptidoglycan. (asm.org)
  • Glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme activities during intraperiplasmic growth of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus on Escherichia coli. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is among the best-studied BALOs, and serves as a model organism for bacterial predation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Kadouri, "Development of a novel system for isolating genes involved in predator-prey interactions using host independent derivatives of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J," BMC Microbiology, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • When I was teaching microbiology, Bdellovibrio was always one of my favorite things to lecture about. (blogspot.com)
  • A proposal for the reclassification of Bdellovibrio stolpii and Bdellovibrio starrii into a new genus, Bacteriovorax gen.nov., as Bacteriovorax stolpii comb. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Professor Sockett's team are evaluating Bdellovibrio predator strains as anti-pathogen agents, and working to understand their mechanisms for Gram-negative bacterial killing, which are multi-factorial. (soci.org)
  • The predator produce hydrolytic enzymes that degrade the modified peptidoglycan layer from inside and multiple Bdellovibrio are released from the bdelloplast. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • By this time, Bdellovibrio has worked up an appetite, so the predator cell siphons nutrients and ATP out of the prey's cytoplasm. (labroots.com)
  • L,D-transpeptidaseBd mediated D-amino acid modifications strengthening prey PG during Bdellovibrio invasion and a zonal mode of predator-elongation. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Ankyrin-mediated self-protection during cell invasion by the bacterial predator Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus ," Nature Communications, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We have tried to fill this knowledge-gap using mixtures of predator and prey mRNAs to monitor changes in Bdellovibrio gene expression at a timepoint of early-stage prey infection and prey killing in comparison to control cultures of predator and prey alone and also in comparison to Bdellovibrio growing axenically (in a prey-or host independent "HI" manner) on artificial media containing peptone and tryptone. (omicsdi.org)
  • Fig. 7: The life cycle of the periplasmic predator Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus (left). (nature.com)
  • Shadowing the actions of a predator: Backlit fluorescent microscopy reveals synchronous nonbinary septation of predatory Bdellovibrio inside prey and exit through discrete bdelloplast pores. (nature.com)
  • RT "A predator unmasked: life cycle of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus from a RT genomic perspective. (genome.jp)
  • Bdellovibrio is a natural predator and understanding the mechanisms it requires for successful predation provides vital knowledge towards these aims. (eurekalert.org)
  • There has even been a trial to use Bdellovibrio to eradicate Salmonella enteridis from chicks. (labroots.com)
  • In lab experiments Bdellovibrio can kill Salmonella by breaking into the cells and destroying them from the inside. (redorbit.com)
  • Bdellovibrio reduced the numbers of Salmonella by 90% and the birds remained healthy, grew well, and were generally in good condition. (redorbit.com)
  • Little is known of Bdellovibrio exovorus, an extra-parasitic bdellovibrio, which cannot enter its prey, and does not form Bdelloplasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1) Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J has minimal peptidoglycan O -acetylation while Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109JA, Bdellovibrio exovorus JSS, and Bacteriovorax stolpii UKi2 do not O -acetylate their peptidoglycan, (2) predation efficiency of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is affected by the degree of peptidoglycan O -acetylation, and (3) the lytic transglycosylase bd3575 is not essential for predation. (uwo.ca)
  • We believe that the methodology presented here will open the way for future studies on the mechanisms involved in Bdellovibrio host-prey interaction and a greater insight of the biology of this unique organism. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Professor Douglas Kell, Chief Executive, BBSRC said "Once we have understood the fundamental nature of an extraordinary organism such as Bdellovibrio, it makes sense that we should look at potential uses for it. (redorbit.com)
  • Inside the bdelloplast, the singular large flagellum of the predatory Bdellovibrio is lost. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of this intermittent bdelloplast stage, and momentary parasitic phase (15-20 mins), Bdellovibrio could be considered bacterial predators or parasites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once Bdellovibrio is inside the periplasm, it seals the membrane hole through which it gains its entry and the host cell is now called a bdelloplast. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • At the end of bdellovibrio growth, a second period of rapid solubilization of bdelloplast peptidoglycan began which resulted in lysis of the bdelloplast and complete solubilization of the peptidoglycan amino sugars and diaminopimelic acid. (asm.org)
  • From this we have highlighted genes of the early predatosome with predicted roles in prey killing and digestion and have gained insights into possible regulatory mechanisms as Bdellovibrio enter and establish within the prey bdelloplast. (omicsdi.org)
  • bacteriovorus 109J with a mutation in one of over 20 predicted methyl--accepting chemotaxis protein genes of Bdellovibrio significantly reduced, but did not abolish, predatory efficiency in liquid cultures. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In 2012 another member of the Bdellovibrio species was identified "Bdellovibrio tiberius" of the River tiber. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is definitely the most terrifying bacterial species I've written about. (labroots.com)
  • Bdellovibrio species were effective against some biofilms whereas another group known as Micavibrio proved more potent against other bacterial prey. (pnas.org)
  • Unlike B. bacteriovorus , Micavibrio and some other Bdellovibrio species behave like leeches, sticking to the outside of host cells to suck their contents out. (pnas.org)
  • Lovering, "The lifestyle switch protein Bd0108 of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is an intrinsically disordered protein," PLoS One, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Evolutionary diversification of the RomR protein of the invasive deltaproteobacterium, Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • Our bioinformatic analyses suggested that the GTPase activating protein (GAP)-encoding gene mglB was lost in Bdellovibrio, but critical residues for MglA(Bd) GTP-binding are conserved. (nih.gov)
  • Approximately seven percent of all Bdellovibrio genes were significantly up-regulated at 30 minutes of infection- but not in HI growth- implicating the role of these genes in prey digestion. (omicsdi.org)
  • In this study we describe a new method for isolating genes that are required for Bdellovibrio biofilm predation. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Thus, it may be difficult to introduce mutations in Bdellovibrio genes that are directly involved in predation, without the potential risk of compromising the viability of the mutant cells. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Dr Liz Sockett studies Bdellovibrio at the University of Nottingham. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Prof Liz Sockett said: "When the Bd3460 gene responsible for antidote production was deleted, the Bdellovibrio had no way of protecting itself from its own weapons. (eurekalert.org)
  • That laid back locomotion "lets the Bdellovibrio exit from a bacterial prey cell which it has finished digesting, and crawl across a solid surface to find other bacterial prey to invade," says Sockett. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Under a light microscope, host-dependent Bdellovibrio appears to be a comma-shaped motile rod that is about 0.3-0.5 by 0.5-1.4 µm in size with a barely discernible flagellum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Not only is Bdellovibrio motile, it is one of the fastest swimmers in the bacterial world, traveling 100 times its cell length every second. (labroots.com)
  • Bdellovibrio appears as a comma- shaped motile rod, o.3-0.5 by 0.5- 1.4μm in size with a scarcely visible flagellum. (biotecharticles.com)
  • Osmoregulation in symbiosis-independent mutants of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus. (asm.org)
  • The Bdellovibrio nuclease mutants were less efficient at (self-) biofilm formation, and surprisingly, they showed enhanced predatory clearance of preformed prey cell biofilms relative to wild-type Bdellovibrio. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • But in the new research, Sockett's colleagues Carey Lambert and Andy Fenton show that Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus can switch "engines"who knew it had two?and crawl along at a snail-like 20 body lengths per hour. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Using some of these molecules the Bdellovibrio creates a protective environment by reinforcing the peptidoglycan cell wall of the host in which it now dwells using amidases and transpeptidases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once inside the periplasm, the Bdellovibrio cell seals the membrane hole and converts the host cell to a spherical morphology, this is due to secretion of L,D transpeptidases which breaks the peptidoglycan apart, and therefore causes the cell to become amorphous. (wikipedia.org)
  • During penetration of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus into Escherchia coli, two enzymatic activities, a glycanase and a peptidase, rapidly solubilized some 10 to 15% of the E. coli peptidoglycan. (asm.org)
  • The data also suggest that much of the Braun lipoprotein is removed from the E. coli peptidoglycan early during bdellovibrio development. (asm.org)
  • Bdellovibrio uses hydrolytic enzymes to make a small hole in the prey cell's outer membrane and peptidoglycan. (labroots.com)
  • The action of predatorily specialized, PBP4-like peptidoglycan-endopeptidase enzymes of Bdellovibrio modifies and rounds the prey cell wall. (plos.org)
  • KEGG GENOME: Bdellovibrio sp. (kegg.jp)
  • Prey range characterization, ribotyping, and diversity of soil and rhizosphere Bdellovibrio spp. (meta.org)
  • While none of the Bdellovibrio strains were of marine origin, Bacteriovorax included separate soil/freshwater and marine-specific groups. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Also proposed is a redefinition of the Bdellovibrio and the Bacteriovorax-Peredibacter lineages as two different families, i.e. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The Bdellovibrio cell uses hydrolytic enzymes to break down the host cell molecules, which it uses to grow filamentously. (wikipedia.org)
  • This covers up the active site of the enzymes that are used to cut cell walls and offers protection to the Bdellovibrio until these weapons are excreted into the prey. (eurekalert.org)
  • He moved to York following a PhD at the University of Birmingham, where he investigated the c-di-GMP signalling network of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus under the guidance of Dr. Andrew Lovering. (york.ac.uk)
  • The ability of Bdellovibrio strongly support the concept of using B.bacteriovorus for treatment of disease-related biofilms and particularly, periodontal infections. (biotecharticles.com)
  • Kadouri began studying Bdellovibrio in 2003 as a means to break up stubborn biofilms formed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa , a gram-negative microbe that causes infections in burns, wounds, the lung, eye, and other areas. (pnas.org)
  • By 90 min after bdellovibrio attack, some 30% of the initial E. coli diaminopimelic acid residues were solubilized and present in the culture fluid as free diaminopimelic acid. (asm.org)
  • The solubilization of E. coli lipopolysaccharide glucosamine also terminated at completion of bdellovibrio penetration. (asm.org)
  • The host cell is then rapidly killed allowing the passage of molecules from the interior of the host cytoplasm through to the periplasm freely, and the periplasm dwelling Bdellovibrio to feed. (wikipedia.org)
  • As such Bdellovibrio has potential as a biocontrol agent, or living antibiotic. (omicsdi.org)
  • This thesis presents the first structure of the \(Bdellovibrio\) diguanylate cyclase, Bd0742 in an inhibitory conformation. (bham.ac.uk)
  • Control proteins, which regulate bipolar T4P-mediated social motility in swarming groups of deltaproteobacteria, have adapted in evolution to regulate the anti-social process of unipolar prey-invasion in the "lone-hunter" Bdellovibrio. (nih.gov)
  • PHA hydrolysis confers Bdellovibrio ecological advantages in terms of motility and predation efficiency, demonstrating the importance of PHA producers predation in population dynamics. (dtu.dk)
  • Bdellovibrio have been researched as a solution to gram negative bacterial infections, including infections in zebrafish (working with Dr Serge Mostowy Imperial College) poultry (working with Dr Rob Atterbury, Nottingham Vet School, Laura Hobley, Nottingham Biosciences) and mushrooms. (soci.org)
  • Dr Hobley continued "We think that Bdellovibrio could be particularly useful as a topical treatment for wounds or foot rots but we wanted to know what might happen if it is ingested "" either deliberately as a treatment, or by accident. (redorbit.com)
  • But the point of this study was really to ensure that Bdellovibrio is safe and effective when ingested," said Dr Hobley. (redorbit.com)
  • One group, supported 100% by bootstrap analysis, included all of the Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus isolates. (nih.gov)
  • Though the genetic basis of the HI phenotype is not yet fully known [ 16 ], HI Bdellovibrio isolates are more amenable for genetic analysis than the host-dependent wild type, since individual mutant colonies can be isolated on plates and mutations that confer defects in predation do not necessarily prevent growth. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Variation in genome content and predatory phenotypes between Bdellovibrio sp. (kegg.jp)
  • Gene knockouts of diguanylate cyclases reveal discrete phenotypes in \(Bdellovibrio\) at different time points of predation. (bham.ac.uk)
  • This process is followed by unconventional, multi-point and synchronous septation of the intracellular Bdellovibrio, accommodating odd- and even-numbered progeny formation by non-binary division. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Flagellar motion stops once Bdellovibrio has penetrated its prey, and the flagella is then shed. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Bdellovibrio cells can swim as fast as 160 µm/s, or over 100 times their body-length per second. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Bdellovibrio detect that the prey cytoplasm is exhausted, and several uniformly shaped mononucleate daughter cells of normal size are formed. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Previous studies have shown that Bdellovibrio is very effective at invading and killing other bacterial cells in a test tube. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • During the initial "attack phase", Bdellovibrio uses its single flagellum to swim towards its prey (the precise mechanism by which cells locate their prey is not well understood). (labroots.com)
  • In contrast to wild-type Bdellovibrio cells that predominantly displayed a compact nucleoid region, cells expressing mTFP-labeled MreB2 displayed a twisted spiral organization of the nucleoid. (core.ac.uk)
  • Rickettsia and Chlamydia , for example, grow in eukaryotic cells, and Bdellovibrio grow in bacterial cells. (britannica.com)