BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Mycobacterium bovis: The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Tuberculosis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Vaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Tuberculin Test: One of several skin tests to determine past or present tuberculosis infection. A purified protein derivative of the tubercle bacilli, called tuberculin, is introduced into the skin by scratch, puncture, or interdermal injection.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Vaccines, Combined: Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.International System of Units: A system of physical units in which the fundamental quantities are length, time, mass, electric current, temperature, luminous intensity, and amount of substance, and the corresponding units are the meter, second, kilogram, ampere, kelvin, candela, and mole. The system has been given official status and recommended for universal use by the General Conference on Weights and Measures.AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Guinea-Bissau: A republic in western Africa, south of SENEGAL and west of GUINEA. Its capital is Bissau.Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Vaccines, Conjugate: Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Tuberculosis, Miliary: An acute form of TUBERCULOSIS in which minute tubercles are formed in a number of organs of the body due to dissemination of the bacilli through the blood stream.Lymphadenitis: Inflammation of the lymph nodes.Tuberculosis, Meningeal: A form of bacterial meningitis caused by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS or rarely MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. The organism seeds the meninges and forms microtuberculomas which subsequently rupture. The clinical course tends to be subacute, with progressions occurring over a period of several days or longer. Headache and meningeal irritation may be followed by SEIZURES, cranial neuropathies, focal neurologic deficits, somnolence, and eventually COMA. The illness may occur in immunocompetent individuals or as an OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTION in the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunodeficiency syndromes. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp717-9)Malaria Vaccines: Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Papillomavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Meningococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Tuberculin: A protein extracted from boiled culture of tubercle bacilli (MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS). It is used in the tuberculin skin test (TUBERCULIN TEST) for the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection in asymptomatic persons.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Hepatitis B Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.Measles Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Pertussis Vaccine: A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Mice, Inbred BALB CHaemophilus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated: A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.Rabies Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.Rotavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.Leprosy: A chronic granulomatous infection caused by MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE. The granulomatous lesions are manifested in the skin, the mucous membranes, and the peripheral nerves. Two polar or principal types are lepromatous and tuberculoid.Cholera Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Lactoferrin: An iron-binding protein that was originally characterized as a milk protein. It is widely distributed in secretory fluids and is found in the neutrophilic granules of LEUKOCYTES. The N-terminal part of lactoferrin possesses a serine protease which functions to inactivate the TYPE III SECRETION SYSTEM used by bacteria to export virulence proteins for host cell invasion.Smallpox Vaccine: A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine: A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Mice, Inbred C57BLChickenpox Vaccine: A live, attenuated varicella virus vaccine used for immunization against chickenpox. It is recommended for children between the ages of 12 months and 13 years.Immunization Schedule: Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Mumps Vaccine: Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Hepatitis A Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine: A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.Streptococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Anthrax Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.Dengue Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with DENGUE VIRUS. These include live-attenuated, subunit, DNA, and inactivated vaccines.Vaccines, Virosome: Vaccines using VIROSOMES as the antigen delivery system that stimulates the desired immune response.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral: A live vaccine containing attenuated poliovirus, types I, II, and III, grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture, used for routine immunization of children against polio. This vaccine induces long-lasting intestinal and humoral immunity. Killed vaccine induces only humoral immunity. Oral poliovirus vaccine should not be administered to immunocompromised individuals or their household contacts. (Dorland, 28th ed)Viral Hepatitis Vaccines: Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.Yellow Fever Vaccine: Vaccine used to prevent YELLOW FEVER. It consists of a live attenuated 17D strain of the YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.Plague Vaccine: A suspension of killed Yersinia pestis used for immunizing people in enzootic plague areas.Fungal Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.Rubella Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of duck embryo or human diploid cell tissue culture origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of nonpregnant adolescent and adult females of childbearing age who are unimmunized and do not have serum antibodies to rubella. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (Dorland, 28th ed)Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Vaccines, Acellular: Vaccines that are produced by using only the antigenic part of the disease causing organism. They often require a "booster" every few years to maintain their effectiveness.SAIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent SAIDS; (SIMIAN ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME); and containing inactivated SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS or type D retroviruses or some of their component antigens.Salmonella Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with SALMONELLA. This includes vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER or PARATYPHOID FEVER; (TYPHOID-PARATYPHOID VACCINES), and vaccines used to prevent nontyphoid salmonellosis.Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle: Vaccines using supra-molecular structures composed of multiple copies of recombinantly expressed viral structural proteins. They are often antigentically indistinguishable from the virus from which they were derived.Ebola Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent EBOLA HEMORRHAGIC FEVER.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Immunization Programs: Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Staphylococcal VaccinesDiphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines: Combined vaccines consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and an acellular form of PERTUSSIS VACCINE. At least five different purified antigens of B. pertussis have been used in various combinations in these vaccines.Injections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.Cytomegalovirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Diphtheria-Tetanus Vaccine: A combined vaccine used to prevent infection with diphtheria and tetanus toxoid. This is used in place of DTP vaccine (DIPHTHERIA-TETANUS-PERTUSSIS VACCINE) when PERTUSSIS VACCINE is contraindicated.Poliovirus Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS. They include inactivated (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, INACTIVATED) and oral vaccines (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, ORAL).Escherichia coli Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat both enterotoxigenic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infections.West Nile Virus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with WEST NILE VIRUS.

Advances in the biological therapy and gene therapy of malignant disease. (1/1802)

Biological and gene therapy of cancer have become important components of clinical cancer research. Advances in this area are based on evidence for the presence of tumor antigens, antitumor immune responses, evasion of host control by tumors, and the recognition of host defense failure in cancer patients. These mechanisms are being corrected or exploited in the development of biological and gene therapy. Over the last decade, 9 biological therapies have received Food and Drug Administration approval, and another 12 appear promising and will likely be approved in the next few years. Our approach to gene therapy has been to allogenize tumors by the direct intratumoral injection of HLA-B7/beta2-microglobulin genes as plasmid DNA in a cationic lipid into patients with malignant melanoma. In four Phase I studies, we found a 36% response by the local injected tumor and a 19% systemic antitumor response. In other cancers, gene transfer, expression, and an intratumoral T-cell response were seen, but no clinical response was seen. A variety of follow-up studies with HLA-B7 and other genes are planned. Evasion of host control is now a major target of gene therapy. Strategies to overcome this include up-regulation of MHC and introduction of cell adhesion molecules into tumor cells, suppression of transforming growth factor and interleukin 10 production by tumor cells, and blockade of the fas ligand-fas interaction between tumor cells and attacking lymphocytes. With these approaches, it seems likely that gene therapy may become the fifth major modality of cancer treatment in the next decade.  (+info)

Characterization of the culture filtrate-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte response induced by Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination in H-2b mice. (2/1802)

Although CD8+ T cells are supposed to play an important role in protective immunity to mycobacteria, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses in this infection remain poorly characterized. We previously demonstrated that bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) immunization of H-2b mice induced CTL able to recognize and kill macrophages incubated with proteins from mycobacterial culture supernatant [culture filtrate (CF) antigens]. In the present study, we have further characterized the lytic activity of these CTL and the processing pathway used for the presentation of CF proteins. We show that they use the degranulation pathway (secretion of perforins and granzymes) as the main lytic mechanism of cytotoxicity and also secrete IFN-gamma upon incubation with CF-pulsed macrophages. The in vitro presentation of CF proteins to CTL required a processing step inhibited in the cold but insensitive to Brefeldin A. Transporter-associated protein (TAP)-2-deficient RMA-S cells were efficiently recognized and killed by CF-specific CTL, demonstrating the lack of TAP requirement for this presentation. However, recognition of target cells by CTL was abolished when carried out in the presence of chloroquine. These results indicate that a non-classical MHC class I-processing pathway allows the recognition of a CF protein by CTL in BCG-vaccinated H-2b mice.  (+info)

Influences of Kupffer cell stimulation and suppression on immunological liver injury in mice. (3/1802)

AIM: To study the possible involvement of Kupffer cells (KC) in immunological liver injury in mice. METHODS: Liver injury was induced by i.v. injection of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) 5 x 10(7) viable bacilli followed by i.v. injection of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) 7.5 micrograms to each mouse. Indian ink and silica were i.v. injected to suppress KC and retinol was given po to stimulate KC in these mice. Plasma alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT), aspatate aminotransferase (AspAT), nitric oxide (NO), and liver tissue were examined. RESULTS: Injection of LPS following BCG injection resulted in a remarkable elevation of plasma NO, AlaAT, and AspAT levels, and severe liver damage. The damages were enhanced by the activation of KC with retinol and reduced by suppression of KC with silica and Indian ink. CONCLUSION: The degree of liver injury induced by BCG + LPS is closely correlated with the status of KC, and NO from KC plays an important role in the pathogenesis of the liver damage in mice.  (+info)

Differential protective efficacy of DNA vaccines expressing secreted proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (4/1802)

The development of more-effective antituberculosis vaccines would assist in the control of the global problem of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. One recently devised vaccination strategy is immunization with DNA plasmids encoding individual microbial genes. Using the genes for the M. tuberculosis secreted proteins MPT64 (23 kDa), Ag85B (30 kDa), and ESAT-6 (6 kDa) as candidate antigens, DNA vaccines were prepared and tested for immunogenicity and protective efficacy in a murine model of aerosolized tuberculosis (TB). Intramuscular immunization with DNA-64 or DNA-85B resulted in the activation of CD4(+) T cells, which produce gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), and high titers of specific immunoglobulin G antibodies. Further, DNA-64 induced major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells. The addition of a eukaryotic leader sequence to mpt64 did not significantly increase the T-cell or antibody response. Each of the three DNA vectors stimulated a significant reduction in the level of M. tuberculosis infection in the lungs of mice challenged 4 weeks after immunization, but not to the levels resulting after immunization with Mycobacterium bovis BCG. The vaccines showed a consistent hierarchy of protection, with the most effective being Ag85B, followed by ESAT-6 and then MPT64. Coimmunization with the three vectors resulted in a greater degree of protection than that induced by any single vector. This protective efficacy was associated with the emergence of IFN-gamma-secreting T cells earlier than in infected animals immunized with a control vector. The efficacy of these DNA vaccines suggests that multisubunit vaccination may contribute to future vaccine strategies against TB.  (+info)

Vaccinated mice remain more susceptible to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection initiated via the respiratory route than via the intravenous route. (5/1802)

Mice given Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli via the respiratory route succumbed much sooner to infection than mice given 1,000 times more bacilli via the intravenous route. Vaccination provided increased protection to an M. tuberculosis challenge infection; however, mice infected via the respiratory route remained much more susceptible.  (+info)

Skin reaction and antibody responses in guinea-pigs sensitized to human leukaemia cells or their nuclei in combination with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin. (6/1802)

Guinea-pigs sensitized by subcutaneous injection of chronic lymphatic leukaemia (CLL) cells combined with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) displayed good skin reacitons 24 and 48 h after challenge with CLL cells. Equally good responses were also demonstrated using nuclei from the leukaemic cells in combination with BCG. These reactions were significantly greater than those produced in the same manner but without BCG. Sera form the animals were examined for the presence of antibodies against CLL cells by cytotoxicity and immunofluorescence techniques. Only samples from guinea-pigs innoculated with CLL cells were found to contain significant antibodies. Histological examination showed that whereas leukaemic cells persisted at the sensitizing injection site leukaemic cell nuclei could not be visualized. It is suggested that because leukaemic cell nuclei in combination with BCG are able to induce good skin reactivity without provoking a vigorous humoral antibody response they may have possible advantages over leukaemic cells when used for immunotherapy.  (+info)

The association between CD2+ peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets and the relapse of bladder cancer in prophylactically BCG-treated patients. (7/1802)

We investigated the potential existence of differences in the distribution of T-lymphocyte subsets and in the proliferative response of these CD2+ cells to polyclonal mitogens in patients with transitional cell bladder carcinoma (SBTCC) treated with prophylactic intracavitary instillations of bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) according to their clinical response to this treatment. Before BCG treatment, different subset distribution (CD8+ and CD3+ CD56+), activation antigen expression (CD3+ HLA- DR+) and proliferative response to mitogenic signals were found in CD2+ cells from SBTCC patients prophylactically treated with BCG who remained free of disease or those who had recurrence of tumour. Otherwise, the prophylactic intracavitary BCG instillations in SBTCC patients are associated with a transitory variation of T-lymphocyte subset distribution (CD4 and CD8) and activation antigens expression (CD25).  (+info)

Childhood immunization coverage in zone 3 of Dhaka City: the challenge of reaching impoverished households in urban Bangladesh. (8/1802)

A household survey of 651 children aged 12-23 months in Zone 3 of Dhaka City carried out in 1995 revealed that 51% of them had fully completed the series of childhood immunizations. Immunization coverage in slum households was only half that in non-slum households. Apart from residence in a slum household, other characteristics strongly associated with the completion of the entire series of childhood immunizations included the following: educational level of the mother, number of children in the family household, mother's employment status, distance from the nearest immunization site, and number of home visits from family-planning field workers. The findings point to the need to improve childhood immunization promotion and service delivery among slum populations. Two promising strategies for improving coverage are to reduce the number of missed opportunities for immunization promotion during encounters between health workers and clients, and to identify through visits to households those children who need additional immunizations. In the long run, increasing the educational level of women will provide a strong stimulus for improving childhood immunization coverage in the population.  (+info)

  • All eligible contributors will obtain intradermal injections of BCG:placebo in a 1:1 ratio. (
  • However, the standard, intradermal route of BCG administration may not generate enough of these critical cells in the lungs. (
  • Based on flow cytometry (FACS) and fluorescein diacetate (FDA) as the most appropriate fluorescent staining reagent, 17 lots of BCG vaccines for percutaneous administration and 5 lots of BCG vaccines for intradermal administration were analyzed in this study. (
  • Pearson correlation coefficients of FACS and CFU assays for percutaneous and intradermal BCG vaccines were 0.6962 and 0.7428, respectively, indicating a high correlation. (
  • Accordingly, the aim of this study was to develop a FACS-based test method to detect viable and non-viable cells in the BCG vaccine, which was evaluated with several percutaneous or intradermal BCG vaccines against the CFU assay. (
  • BCG vaccines distributed in the Korean market, freeze-dried BCG vaccine for percutaneous administration that was manufactured from the Tokyo 172 strain (Japan BCG Laboratory, Tokyo, Japan), and freeze-dried BCG vaccine for intradermal administration that was manufactured from the Danish 1331 strain (Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark), were used in this study. (
  • The NHS Choices site has the following information on this topic in its FAQ section: BCG (TB) vaccine: frequently asked questions - Vaccinations - NHS Choices I hope this helps but do ring your HV, nurse practitioner or contact the telephone number on your appointment letter for further information if you are concerned. (
  • It is necessary that the investigators receive the consent by way of REDCAp to a) keep away from direct person-to-person contact and adjust to social distancing imposed suggestions, and b) decrease the waste of reconstituted BCG by permitting the analysis personnel to schedule vaccinations in a managed vogue. (
  • Their study, released so far on the preprint medrxiv platform, compares COVID-19 death rates in countries with and without universal BCG vaccinations for tuberculosis (TB). (
  • All the vaccinations, including the double BCG were repeated when we entered the 6th. (
  • All the vaccinations, including the double BCG were repeated when we entered the 6th form. (
  • In order to verify the above research conclusions, the animal experiments were conducted in combination with an SLE model mouse with BCG vaccinations. (
  • The research results showed that, for the mice receiving BCG vaccinations, the serum protein complement C4 concentration was significantly higher than that of the normal saline control group. (
  • In at least one Phase III study, researchers want to investigate whether the vaccine candidate VPM1002, originally developed against tuberculosis by scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, is also effective against infection with SARS-CoV-2. (
  • Apparently, a vaccination with BCG also activates the immune system against a viral infection. (
  • The vaccine candidate, originally developed at the Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology in Berlin by the group of Stefan H.E. Kaufmann, thus provides more effective protection against tuberculosis than the old vaccine and is intended for use in new-borns as well as for boosting a vaccination in adults. (
  • The higher safety profile of VPM1002 and the improved effectiveness give reason to hope that the new vaccine will also be better able to alleviate the symptoms of an infection with the SARS co-virus 2 than the BCG vaccine. (
  • The trial is specifically looking at whether the BCG vaccine reduces coronavirus infection or COVID-19 symptom severity. (
  • Due to this, the vaccine may not sufficiently equip the human body to fight off all infection varieties. (
  • Another belief is that the vaccine is administered by injecting it into the skin, whereas the infection occurs through the inhalation of bacteria. (
  • A study conducted in 2016 suggests that the main reason for the inefficiency of the BCG vaccine is the time it takes for the body to respond to the infection, rather than the strength of the vaccine itself. (
  • Johnjoe McFadden of the University of Surrey in the United Kingdom will modify the BCG vaccine currently used against bovine and human tuberculosis, and develop a complementary diagnostic test that can distinguish between tuberculosis infection and vaccination. (
  • The study will document whether the BCG vaccine can prevent the occurrence of the SARS-CoV-2 infection and its progression and death associated with COVID-19 among elderly individuals. (
  • and to reduce viremia in an experimental human model of viral infection, the hypothesis is that BCG vaccination will partially protect against mortality in high-risk, elderly individuals," said the scientist. (
  • In accordance with the Finnish national vaccination program, children under 7 at an increased risk of tuberculosis infection are entitled to free BCG vaccination. (
  • To control Mtb infection and prevent clinical disease, a TB vaccine must elicit strong, sustained responses from the immune system's T cells, specifically those in the lungs. (
  • And, as the authors wrote, "Studies performed 50 years ago suggested that administration of BCG by aerosol (AE) or intravenous (IV) routes enhanced protection in no-human primates (NHPs) challenged shortly after immunization … We hypothesized that a sufficiently high dose of IV BCG would elicit a high frequency of systemic and tissue resident T cells mediating durable protection against Mtb infection and disease in highly susceptible rhesus macaques. (
  • Complete deficiency of either of the two human interferon (IFN)-γ receptor components, the ligand-binding IFN-γR1 chain and the signaling IFN- γR2 chain, is invariably associated with early-onset infection caused by bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccines and/or environmental nontuberculous mycobacteria, poor granuloma formation, and a fatal outcome in childhood. (
  • The Bacille Calmette-Guerin or BCG vaccine, originally made against tuberculosis, has a general stimulating effect on the immune system and is therefore effective against Covid-19, say researchers.The study, published in the journal Cell Reports Medicine, compared groups of volunteers who have received a BCG vaccine in the past five years (before the corona pandemic), showing that the vaccine is safe and possibly influences Covid-19 symptoms. (
  • A Phase II trial on tuberculosis (TB) vaccines has suggested the potential for new Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) revaccination strategies in addition to hope for subunit vaccines against the disease, according to results presented at the 5th Global Forum on TB Vaccines (20-23 February, New Delhi, India). (
  • To circumvent the limitations of the current golden standard method, colony-forming unit (CFU) assay, for viability of Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccines, we developed a new method to rapidly and accurately determine the potency of BCG vaccines. (
  • Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is a live attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis used for the prevention of tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis [ 1 ]. (
  • The research results indicated that the BCG vaccine may have therapeutic effects on systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). (
  • To test whether changing the method of BCG administration might change its protective effectiveness, Flynn and colleagues separated their colony of monkeys into six groups given the vaccine via different routes of administration, or in different doses. (
  • The India Council of Medical Research (ICMR) is all set to conduct a study to evaluate the effectiveness of the BCG vaccination in preventing morbidity and mortality due to COVID-19 in elderly individuals between 60 to 95 years of age living in COVID-19 hotspots in India. (
  • According to the ICMR scientist, BCG is a vaccine against tuberculosis, with protective non-specific effects against other respiratory tract infections in in-vitro and in-vivo studies, and reported significant reductions in morbidity and mortality. (
  • The partners involved, Vakzine Project Management (VPM) and the Serum Institute of India, have already held promising discussions with the authorities regarding the implementation of a Phase III study with VPM1002 in Germany in order to investigate the effectiveness of the vaccine in elderly people and healthcare workers. (
  • In 2012, the company began to further develop the vaccine together with the Serum Institute of India, one of the largest vaccine manufacturers worldwide. (
  • We examined whether functionally defined TLR pathway polymorphisms were associated with T cell cytokine responses in whole blood stimulated ex vivo with BCG 10 weeks after newborn BCG vaccination of South African infants. (
  • Given to infants via a needle under the skin, the BCG vaccine protects against disseminated TB, but is far less effective at preventing pulmonary TB, which is the major cause of illness and deaths in people when they reach their teens or adulthood. (
  • BCG: increasing innate immunity? (
  • The BRACE trial is focusing on healthcare workers, who are at greater risk of contracting COVID-19 pandemic, in the hope it could help boost innate immunity against subsequent infections: thus buying time in the race to develop an effective and safe vaccine against COVID-19. (
  • Currently BCG is the only licensed vaccine for TB and past studies have indicated that primary BCG vaccination may only offer partial protection, suggesting revaccination could provide additional benefits. (
  • It is very important to confirm that someone who has been vaccinated with BCG does not experience any increased symptoms during the Covid-19 pandemic," said study researcher Mihai Netea from Radboud University in the Netherlands.The BCG vaccine is the most widely received vaccine in the world. (
  • A person who has been treated with hepatitis B immune globulin should generally not be vaccinated for several months with a live vaccine. (
  • BCG live is thought to cause a local, chronic inflammatory response involving macrophage and leukocyte infiltration of the bladder. (
  • BCG live is used intravesically as a biological response modifier for bladder cancer in situ. (
  • Due to the immunodeficiency, the child must not be administered live, attenuated vaccines (BCG, rotavirus, MMR or chickenpox vaccines). (
  • BCG is made of a live, weakened form of TB bacteria found in cattle. (
  • The study uses the same BCG vaccine that is administered to newborn babies as a part of the National Immunization program for more than 50 years in this country," Dr. Subash Babu, Scientific Director at National Institute of Research in Tuberculosis told ANI. (
  • The data demonstrating that IV BCG immunization results in markedly increased antigen-responsive T cells, including T cells systemically and throughout the lung parenchyma, and unprecedented protection against Mtb challenge," the authors stated. (
  • Previous studies in mice have shown the BCG vaccine is effective at protecting against several respiratory viral infections. (
  • Studies on mice show that the BCG vaccine can protect not only against tuberculosis but also against viral infections of the respiratory tract. (
  • The results of the trial will help show whether the BCG vaccine could be used as an early intervention measure to protect healthcare workers and high-risk groups: both in the COVID-19 pandemic and future novel viral outbreaks. (
  • These findings could potentially guide novel adjuvant vaccine strategies as well as have implications for IFN-γ-based diagnostic testing for TB. (