An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.
The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
One of several skin tests to determine past or present tuberculosis infection. A purified protein derivative of the tubercle bacilli, called tuberculin, is introduced into the skin by scratch, puncture, or interdermal injection.
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
A system of physical units in which the fundamental quantities are length, time, mass, electric current, temperature, luminous intensity, and amount of substance, and the corresponding units are the meter, second, kilogram, ampere, kelvin, candela, and mole. The system has been given official status and recommended for universal use by the General Conference on Weights and Measures.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.
A republic in western Africa, south of SENEGAL and west of GUINEA. Its capital is Bissau.
Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.
Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.
An acute form of TUBERCULOSIS in which minute tubercles are formed in a number of organs of the body due to dissemination of the bacilli through the blood stream.
Inflammation of the lymph nodes.
A form of bacterial meningitis caused by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS or rarely MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. The organism seeds the meninges and forms microtuberculomas which subsequently rupture. The clinical course tends to be subacute, with progressions occurring over a period of several days or longer. Headache and meningeal irritation may be followed by SEIZURES, cranial neuropathies, focal neurologic deficits, somnolence, and eventually COMA. The illness may occur in immunocompetent individuals or as an OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTION in the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunodeficiency syndromes. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp717-9)
Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.
A protein extracted from boiled culture of tubercle bacilli (MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS). It is used in the tuberculin skin test (TUBERCULIN TEST) for the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection in asymptomatic persons.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.
A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Inbred BALB/c mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical to each other, making them useful for scientific research and experiments due to their consistent genetic background and predictable responses to various stimuli or treatments.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.
A chronic granulomatous infection caused by MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE. The granulomatous lesions are manifested in the skin, the mucous membranes, and the peripheral nerves. Two polar or principal types are lepromatous and tuberculoid.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
An iron-binding protein that was originally characterized as a milk protein. It is widely distributed in secretory fluids and is found in the neutrophilic granules of LEUKOCYTES. The N-terminal part of lactoferrin possesses a serine protease which functions to inactivate the TYPE III SECRETION SYSTEM used by bacteria to export virulence proteins for host cell invasion.
A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.
A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
A live, attenuated varicella virus vaccine used for immunization against chickenpox. It is recommended for children between the ages of 12 months and 13 years.
Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).
A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with DENGUE VIRUS. These include live-attenuated, subunit, DNA, and inactivated vaccines.
Vaccines using VIROSOMES as the antigen delivery system that stimulates the desired immune response.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A live vaccine containing attenuated poliovirus, types I, II, and III, grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture, used for routine immunization of children against polio. This vaccine induces long-lasting intestinal and humoral immunity. Killed vaccine induces only humoral immunity. Oral poliovirus vaccine should not be administered to immunocompromised individuals or their household contacts. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.
Vaccine used to prevent YELLOW FEVER. It consists of a live attenuated 17D strain of the YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.
A suspension of killed Yersinia pestis used for immunizing people in enzootic plague areas.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.
A live attenuated virus vaccine of duck embryo or human diploid cell tissue culture origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of nonpregnant adolescent and adult females of childbearing age who are unimmunized and do not have serum antibodies to rubella. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
Vaccines that are produced by using only the antigenic part of the disease causing organism. They often require a "booster" every few years to maintain their effectiveness.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent SAIDS; (SIMIAN ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME); and containing inactivated SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS or type D retroviruses or some of their component antigens.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with SALMONELLA. This includes vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER or PARATYPHOID FEVER; (TYPHOID-PARATYPHOID VACCINES), and vaccines used to prevent nontyphoid salmonellosis.
Vaccines using supra-molecular structures composed of multiple copies of recombinantly expressed viral structural proteins. They are often antigentically indistinguishable from the virus from which they were derived.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent EBOLA HEMORRHAGIC FEVER.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Staphylococcal vaccines are prophylactic agents developed to prevent infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus, a pathogenic bacterium that frequently colonizes human skin and mucous membranes, often targeting surface proteins or toxins for immune response induction.
Combined vaccines consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and an acellular form of PERTUSSIS VACCINE. At least five different purified antigens of B. pertussis have been used in various combinations in these vaccines.
The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
A combined vaccine used to prevent infection with diphtheria and tetanus toxoid. This is used in place of DTP vaccine (DIPHTHERIA-TETANUS-PERTUSSIS VACCINE) when PERTUSSIS VACCINE is contraindicated.
Vaccines used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS. They include inactivated (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, INACTIVATED) and oral vaccines (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, ORAL).
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat both enterotoxigenic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infections.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with WEST NILE VIRUS.

Advances in the biological therapy and gene therapy of malignant disease. (1/1802)

Biological and gene therapy of cancer have become important components of clinical cancer research. Advances in this area are based on evidence for the presence of tumor antigens, antitumor immune responses, evasion of host control by tumors, and the recognition of host defense failure in cancer patients. These mechanisms are being corrected or exploited in the development of biological and gene therapy. Over the last decade, 9 biological therapies have received Food and Drug Administration approval, and another 12 appear promising and will likely be approved in the next few years. Our approach to gene therapy has been to allogenize tumors by the direct intratumoral injection of HLA-B7/beta2-microglobulin genes as plasmid DNA in a cationic lipid into patients with malignant melanoma. In four Phase I studies, we found a 36% response by the local injected tumor and a 19% systemic antitumor response. In other cancers, gene transfer, expression, and an intratumoral T-cell response were seen, but no clinical response was seen. A variety of follow-up studies with HLA-B7 and other genes are planned. Evasion of host control is now a major target of gene therapy. Strategies to overcome this include up-regulation of MHC and introduction of cell adhesion molecules into tumor cells, suppression of transforming growth factor and interleukin 10 production by tumor cells, and blockade of the fas ligand-fas interaction between tumor cells and attacking lymphocytes. With these approaches, it seems likely that gene therapy may become the fifth major modality of cancer treatment in the next decade.  (+info)

Characterization of the culture filtrate-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte response induced by Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination in H-2b mice. (2/1802)

Although CD8+ T cells are supposed to play an important role in protective immunity to mycobacteria, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses in this infection remain poorly characterized. We previously demonstrated that bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) immunization of H-2b mice induced CTL able to recognize and kill macrophages incubated with proteins from mycobacterial culture supernatant [culture filtrate (CF) antigens]. In the present study, we have further characterized the lytic activity of these CTL and the processing pathway used for the presentation of CF proteins. We show that they use the degranulation pathway (secretion of perforins and granzymes) as the main lytic mechanism of cytotoxicity and also secrete IFN-gamma upon incubation with CF-pulsed macrophages. The in vitro presentation of CF proteins to CTL required a processing step inhibited in the cold but insensitive to Brefeldin A. Transporter-associated protein (TAP)-2-deficient RMA-S cells were efficiently recognized and killed by CF-specific CTL, demonstrating the lack of TAP requirement for this presentation. However, recognition of target cells by CTL was abolished when carried out in the presence of chloroquine. These results indicate that a non-classical MHC class I-processing pathway allows the recognition of a CF protein by CTL in BCG-vaccinated H-2b mice.  (+info)

Influences of Kupffer cell stimulation and suppression on immunological liver injury in mice. (3/1802)

AIM: To study the possible involvement of Kupffer cells (KC) in immunological liver injury in mice. METHODS: Liver injury was induced by i.v. injection of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) 5 x 10(7) viable bacilli followed by i.v. injection of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) 7.5 micrograms to each mouse. Indian ink and silica were i.v. injected to suppress KC and retinol was given po to stimulate KC in these mice. Plasma alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT), aspatate aminotransferase (AspAT), nitric oxide (NO), and liver tissue were examined. RESULTS: Injection of LPS following BCG injection resulted in a remarkable elevation of plasma NO, AlaAT, and AspAT levels, and severe liver damage. The damages were enhanced by the activation of KC with retinol and reduced by suppression of KC with silica and Indian ink. CONCLUSION: The degree of liver injury induced by BCG + LPS is closely correlated with the status of KC, and NO from KC plays an important role in the pathogenesis of the liver damage in mice.  (+info)

Differential protective efficacy of DNA vaccines expressing secreted proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (4/1802)

The development of more-effective antituberculosis vaccines would assist in the control of the global problem of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. One recently devised vaccination strategy is immunization with DNA plasmids encoding individual microbial genes. Using the genes for the M. tuberculosis secreted proteins MPT64 (23 kDa), Ag85B (30 kDa), and ESAT-6 (6 kDa) as candidate antigens, DNA vaccines were prepared and tested for immunogenicity and protective efficacy in a murine model of aerosolized tuberculosis (TB). Intramuscular immunization with DNA-64 or DNA-85B resulted in the activation of CD4(+) T cells, which produce gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), and high titers of specific immunoglobulin G antibodies. Further, DNA-64 induced major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells. The addition of a eukaryotic leader sequence to mpt64 did not significantly increase the T-cell or antibody response. Each of the three DNA vectors stimulated a significant reduction in the level of M. tuberculosis infection in the lungs of mice challenged 4 weeks after immunization, but not to the levels resulting after immunization with Mycobacterium bovis BCG. The vaccines showed a consistent hierarchy of protection, with the most effective being Ag85B, followed by ESAT-6 and then MPT64. Coimmunization with the three vectors resulted in a greater degree of protection than that induced by any single vector. This protective efficacy was associated with the emergence of IFN-gamma-secreting T cells earlier than in infected animals immunized with a control vector. The efficacy of these DNA vaccines suggests that multisubunit vaccination may contribute to future vaccine strategies against TB.  (+info)

Vaccinated mice remain more susceptible to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection initiated via the respiratory route than via the intravenous route. (5/1802)

Mice given Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli via the respiratory route succumbed much sooner to infection than mice given 1,000 times more bacilli via the intravenous route. Vaccination provided increased protection to an M. tuberculosis challenge infection; however, mice infected via the respiratory route remained much more susceptible.  (+info)

Skin reaction and antibody responses in guinea-pigs sensitized to human leukaemia cells or their nuclei in combination with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin. (6/1802)

Guinea-pigs sensitized by subcutaneous injection of chronic lymphatic leukaemia (CLL) cells combined with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) displayed good skin reacitons 24 and 48 h after challenge with CLL cells. Equally good responses were also demonstrated using nuclei from the leukaemic cells in combination with BCG. These reactions were significantly greater than those produced in the same manner but without BCG. Sera form the animals were examined for the presence of antibodies against CLL cells by cytotoxicity and immunofluorescence techniques. Only samples from guinea-pigs innoculated with CLL cells were found to contain significant antibodies. Histological examination showed that whereas leukaemic cells persisted at the sensitizing injection site leukaemic cell nuclei could not be visualized. It is suggested that because leukaemic cell nuclei in combination with BCG are able to induce good skin reactivity without provoking a vigorous humoral antibody response they may have possible advantages over leukaemic cells when used for immunotherapy.  (+info)

The association between CD2+ peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets and the relapse of bladder cancer in prophylactically BCG-treated patients. (7/1802)

We investigated the potential existence of differences in the distribution of T-lymphocyte subsets and in the proliferative response of these CD2+ cells to polyclonal mitogens in patients with transitional cell bladder carcinoma (SBTCC) treated with prophylactic intracavitary instillations of bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) according to their clinical response to this treatment. Before BCG treatment, different subset distribution (CD8+ and CD3+ CD56+), activation antigen expression (CD3+ HLA- DR+) and proliferative response to mitogenic signals were found in CD2+ cells from SBTCC patients prophylactically treated with BCG who remained free of disease or those who had recurrence of tumour. Otherwise, the prophylactic intracavitary BCG instillations in SBTCC patients are associated with a transitory variation of T-lymphocyte subset distribution (CD4 and CD8) and activation antigens expression (CD25).  (+info)

Childhood immunization coverage in zone 3 of Dhaka City: the challenge of reaching impoverished households in urban Bangladesh. (8/1802)

A household survey of 651 children aged 12-23 months in Zone 3 of Dhaka City carried out in 1995 revealed that 51% of them had fully completed the series of childhood immunizations. Immunization coverage in slum households was only half that in non-slum households. Apart from residence in a slum household, other characteristics strongly associated with the completion of the entire series of childhood immunizations included the following: educational level of the mother, number of children in the family household, mother's employment status, distance from the nearest immunization site, and number of home visits from family-planning field workers. The findings point to the need to improve childhood immunization promotion and service delivery among slum populations. Two promising strategies for improving coverage are to reduce the number of missed opportunities for immunization promotion during encounters between health workers and clients, and to identify through visits to households those children who need additional immunizations. In the long run, increasing the educational level of women will provide a strong stimulus for improving childhood immunization coverage in the population.  (+info)

BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) vaccine is a type of immunization used primarily to prevent tuberculosis (TB). It contains a live but weakened strain of Mycobacterium bovis, which is related to the bacterium that causes TB in humans (Mycobacterium tuberculosis).

The BCG vaccine works by stimulating an immune response in the body, enabling it to better resist infection with TB bacteria if exposed in the future. It is often given to infants and children in countries where TB is common, and its use varies depending on the national immunization policies. The protection offered by the BCG vaccine is moderate and may not last for a very long time.

In addition to its use against TB, the BCG vaccine has also been investigated for its potential therapeutic role in treating bladder cancer and some other types of cancer. The mechanism of action in these cases is thought to be related to the vaccine's ability to stimulate an immune response against abnormal cells.

"Mycobacterium bovis" is a species of slow-growing, aerobic, gram-positive bacteria in the family Mycobacteriaceae. It is the causative agent of tuberculosis in cattle and other animals, and can also cause tuberculosis in humans, particularly in those who come into contact with infected animals or consume unpasteurized dairy products from infected cows. The bacteria are resistant to many common disinfectants and survive for long periods in a dormant state, making them difficult to eradicate from the environment. "Mycobacterium bovis" is closely related to "Mycobacterium tuberculosis," the bacterium that causes tuberculosis in humans, and both species share many genetic and biochemical characteristics.

A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular infectious disease. It typically contains an agent that resembles the disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins, or one of its surface proteins. The agent stimulates the body's immune system to recognize the agent as a threat, destroy it, and "remember" it, so that the immune system can more easily recognize and destroy any of these microorganisms that it encounters in the future.

Vaccines can be prophylactic (to prevent or ameliorate the effects of a future infection by a natural or "wild" pathogen), or therapeutic (to fight disease that is already present). The administration of vaccines is called vaccination. Vaccinations are generally administered through needle injections, but can also be administered by mouth or sprayed into the nose.

The term "vaccine" comes from Edward Jenner's 1796 use of cowpox to create immunity to smallpox. The first successful vaccine was developed in 1796 by Edward Jenner, who showed that milkmaids who had contracted cowpox did not get smallpox. He reasoned that exposure to cowpox protected against smallpox and tested his theory by injecting a boy with pus from a cowpox sore and then exposing him to smallpox, which the boy did not contract. The word "vaccine" is derived from Variolae vaccinae (smallpox of the cow), the term devised by Jenner to denote cowpox. He used it in 1798 during a conversation with a fellow physician and later in the title of his 1801 Inquiry.

A tuberculosis vaccine, also known as the BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) vaccine, is a type of immunization used to prevent tuberculosis (TB), a bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The BCG vaccine contains a weakened strain of the bacteria that causes TB in cattle.

The BCG vaccine works by stimulating an immune response in the body, which helps to protect against severe forms of TB, such as TB meningitis and TB in children. However, it is not very effective at preventing pulmonary TB (TB that affects the lungs) in adults.

The BCG vaccine is not routinely recommended for use in the United States due to the low risk of TB infection in the general population. However, it may be given to people who are at high risk of exposure to TB, such as healthcare workers, laboratory personnel, and people traveling to countries with high rates of TB.

It is important to note that the BCG vaccine does not provide complete protection against TB and that other measures, such as testing and treatment for latent TB infection, are also important for controlling the spread of this disease.

Synthetic vaccines are artificially produced, designed to stimulate an immune response and provide protection against specific diseases. Unlike traditional vaccines that are derived from weakened or killed pathogens, synthetic vaccines are created using synthetic components, such as synthesized viral proteins, DNA, or RNA. These components mimic the disease-causing agent and trigger an immune response without causing the actual disease. The use of synthetic vaccines offers advantages in terms of safety, consistency, and scalability in production, making them valuable tools for preventing infectious diseases.

Inactivated vaccines, also known as killed or non-live vaccines, are created by using a version of the virus or bacteria that has been grown in a laboratory and then killed or inactivated with chemicals, heat, or radiation. This process renders the organism unable to cause disease, but still capable of stimulating an immune response when introduced into the body.

Inactivated vaccines are generally considered safer than live attenuated vaccines since they cannot revert back to a virulent form and cause illness. However, they may require multiple doses or booster shots to maintain immunity because the immune response generated by inactivated vaccines is not as robust as that produced by live vaccines. Examples of inactivated vaccines include those for hepatitis A, rabies, and influenza (inactivated flu vaccine).

Vaccination is a simple, safe, and effective way to protect people against harmful diseases, before they come into contact with them. It uses your body's natural defenses to build protection to specific infections and makes your immune system stronger.

A vaccination usually contains a small, harmless piece of a virus or bacteria (or toxins produced by these germs) that has been made inactive or weakened so it won't cause the disease itself. This piece of the germ is known as an antigen. When the vaccine is introduced into the body, the immune system recognizes the antigen as foreign and produces antibodies to fight it.

If a person then comes into contact with the actual disease-causing germ, their immune system will recognize it and immediately produce antibodies to destroy it. The person is therefore protected against that disease. This is known as active immunity.

Vaccinations are important for both individual and public health. They prevent the spread of contagious diseases and protect vulnerable members of the population, such as young children, the elderly, and people with weakened immune systems who cannot be vaccinated or for whom vaccination is not effective.

Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It primarily affects the lungs but can also involve other organs and tissues in the body. The infection is usually spread through the air when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks.

The symptoms of pulmonary TB include persistent cough, chest pain, coughing up blood, fatigue, fever, night sweats, and weight loss. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, chest X-ray, and microbiological tests such as sputum smear microscopy and culture. In some cases, molecular tests like polymerase chain reaction (PCR) may be used for rapid diagnosis.

Treatment usually consists of a standard six-month course of multiple antibiotics, including isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide. In some cases, longer treatment durations or different drug regimens might be necessary due to drug resistance or other factors. Preventive measures include vaccination with the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine and early detection and treatment of infected individuals to prevent transmission.

A viral vaccine is a biological preparation that introduces your body to a specific virus in a way that helps your immune system build up protection against the virus without causing the illness. Viral vaccines can be made from weakened or inactivated forms of the virus, or parts of the virus such as proteins or sugars. Once introduced to the body, the immune system recognizes the virus as foreign and produces an immune response, including the production of antibodies. These antibodies remain in the body and provide immunity against future infection with that specific virus.

Viral vaccines are important tools for preventing infectious diseases caused by viruses, such as influenza, measles, mumps, rubella, polio, hepatitis A and B, rabies, rotavirus, chickenpox, shingles, and some types of cancer. Vaccination programs have led to the control or elimination of many infectious diseases that were once common.

It's important to note that viral vaccines are not effective against bacterial infections, and separate vaccines must be developed for each type of virus. Additionally, because viruses can mutate over time, it is necessary to update some viral vaccines periodically to ensure continued protection.

A tuberculin test is a medical procedure used to determine if someone has developed an immune response to the bacterium that causes tuberculosis (TB), Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The test involves injecting a small amount of purified protein derivative (PPD) from the TB bacteria under the skin, usually on the forearm. After 48-72 hours, the area is examined for signs of a reaction, such as swelling, redness, or hardness. A positive result suggests that the person has been infected with TB at some point in the past, although it does not necessarily mean that they have active TB disease. However, individuals who have a positive tuberculin test should be evaluated further to determine if they need treatment for latent TB infection or active TB disease.

I could not find a specific medical definition for "Vaccines, DNA." However, I can provide you with some information about DNA vaccines.

DNA vaccines are a type of vaccine that uses genetically engineered DNA to stimulate an immune response in the body. They work by introducing a small piece of DNA into the body that contains the genetic code for a specific antigen (a substance that triggers an immune response). The cells of the body then use this DNA to produce the antigen, which prompts the immune system to recognize and attack it.

DNA vaccines have several advantages over traditional vaccines. They are relatively easy to produce, can be stored at room temperature, and can be designed to protect against a wide range of diseases. Additionally, because they use DNA to stimulate an immune response, DNA vaccines do not require the growth and culture of viruses or bacteria, which can make them safer than traditional vaccines.

DNA vaccines are still in the experimental stages, and more research is needed to determine their safety and effectiveness. However, they have shown promise in animal studies and are being investigated as a potential tool for preventing a variety of infectious diseases, including influenza, HIV, and cancer.

Combined vaccines are defined in medical terms as vaccines that contain two or more antigens from different diseases, which are given to provide protection against multiple diseases at the same time. This approach reduces the number of injections required and simplifies the immunization schedule, especially during early childhood. Examples of combined vaccines include:

1. DTaP-Hib-IPV (e.g., Pentacel): A vaccine that combines diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (whooping cough), Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease, and poliovirus components in one injection to protect against these five diseases.
2. MMRV (e.g., ProQuad): A vaccine that combines measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella (chickenpox) antigens in a single injection to provide immunity against all four diseases.
3. HepA-HepB (e.g., Twinrix): A vaccine that combines hepatitis A and hepatitis B antigens in one injection, providing protection against both types of hepatitis.
4. MenACWY-TT (e.g., MenQuadfi): A vaccine that combines four serogroups of meningococcal bacteria (A, C, W, Y) with tetanus toxoid as a carrier protein in one injection for the prevention of invasive meningococcal disease caused by these serogroups.
5. PCV13-PPSV23 (e.g., Vaxneuvance): A vaccine that combines 13 pneumococcal serotypes with PPSV23, providing protection against a broader range of pneumococcal diseases in adults aged 18 years and older.

Combined vaccines have been thoroughly tested for safety and efficacy to ensure they provide a strong immune response and an acceptable safety profile. They are essential tools in preventing various infectious diseases and improving overall public health.

Bacterial vaccines are types of vaccines that are created using bacteria or parts of bacteria as the immunogen, which is the substance that triggers an immune response in the body. The purpose of a bacterial vaccine is to stimulate the immune system to develop protection against specific bacterial infections.

There are several types of bacterial vaccines, including:

1. Inactivated or killed whole-cell vaccines: These vaccines contain entire bacteria that have been killed or inactivated through various methods, such as heat or chemicals. The bacteria can no longer cause disease, but they still retain the ability to stimulate an immune response.
2. Subunit, protein, or polysaccharide vaccines: These vaccines use specific components of the bacterium, such as proteins or polysaccharides, that are known to trigger an immune response. By using only these components, the vaccine can avoid using the entire bacterium, which may reduce the risk of adverse reactions.
3. Live attenuated vaccines: These vaccines contain live bacteria that have been weakened or attenuated so that they cannot cause disease but still retain the ability to stimulate an immune response. This type of vaccine can provide long-lasting immunity, but it may not be suitable for people with weakened immune systems.

Bacterial vaccines are essential tools in preventing and controlling bacterial infections, reducing the burden of diseases such as tuberculosis, pneumococcal disease, meningococcal disease, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease. They work by exposing the immune system to a harmless form of the bacteria or its components, which triggers the production of antibodies and memory cells that can recognize and fight off future infections with that same bacterium.

It's important to note that while vaccines are generally safe and effective, they may cause mild side effects such as pain, redness, or swelling at the injection site, fever, or fatigue. Serious side effects are rare but can occur, so it's essential to consult with a healthcare provider before receiving any vaccine.

'Mycobacterium tuberculosis' is a species of slow-growing, aerobic, gram-positive bacteria that demonstrates acid-fastness. It is the primary causative agent of tuberculosis (TB) in humans. This bacterium has a complex cell wall rich in lipids, including mycolic acids, which provides a hydrophobic barrier and makes it resistant to many conventional antibiotics. The ability of M. tuberculosis to survive within host macrophages and resist the immune response contributes to its pathogenicity and the difficulty in treating TB infections.

M. tuberculosis is typically transmitted through inhalation of infectious droplets containing the bacteria, which primarily targets the lungs but can spread to other parts of the body (extrapulmonary TB). The infection may result in a spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from latent TB infection (LTBI) to active disease. LTBI represents a dormant state where individuals are infected with M. tuberculosis but do not show symptoms and cannot transmit the bacteria. However, they remain at risk of developing active TB throughout their lifetime, especially if their immune system becomes compromised.

Effective prevention and control strategies for TB rely on early detection, treatment, and public health interventions to limit transmission. The current first-line treatments for drug-susceptible TB include a combination of isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide for at least six months. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains of M. tuberculosis present significant challenges in TB control and require more complex treatment regimens.

The International System of Units (SI) is not a medical term, but rather a standardized system of units used in science, engineering, and medicine, among other fields. It was established and is maintained by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM).

In the SI system, there are seven base units that define the fundamental quantities:

1. Meter (m) - length
2. Kilogram (kg) - mass
3. Second (s) - time
4. Ampere (A) - electric current
5. Kelvin (K) - thermodynamic temperature
6. Mole (mol) - amount of substance
7. Candela (cd) - luminous intensity

All other units are derived from these base units, and they are used to express various physical quantities in a consistent and coherent manner. This system is widely accepted and used internationally, facilitating communication and collaboration between scientists, engineers, and medical professionals around the world.

An AIDS vaccine is a type of preventive vaccine that aims to stimulate the immune system to produce an effective response against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The goal of an AIDS vaccine is to induce the production of immune cells and proteins that can recognize and eliminate HIV-infected cells, thereby preventing the establishment of a persistent infection.

Despite decades of research, there is still no licensed AIDS vaccine available. This is due in part to the unique challenges posed by HIV, which has a high mutation rate and can rapidly evolve to evade the immune system's defenses. However, several promising vaccine candidates are currently being tested in clinical trials around the world, and researchers continue to explore new approaches and strategies for developing an effective AIDS vaccine.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Guinea-Bissau" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country located in West Africa, bordered by Senegal to the north and Guinea to the south and east. The capital city of Guinea-Bissau is Bissau. If you have any questions about geographical terms or anything else, please let me know!

A subunit vaccine is a type of vaccine that contains a specific piece or component of the microorganism (such as a protein, sugar, or part of the bacterial outer membrane), instead of containing the entire organism. This piece of the microorganism is known as an antigen, and it stimulates an immune response in the body, allowing the development of immunity against the targeted infection without introducing the risk of disease associated with live vaccines.

Subunit vaccines offer several advantages over other types of vaccines. They are generally safer because they do not contain live or weakened microorganisms, making them suitable for individuals with weakened immune systems or specific medical conditions that prevent them from receiving live vaccines. Additionally, subunit vaccines can be designed to focus on the most immunogenic components of a pathogen, potentially leading to stronger and more targeted immune responses.

Examples of subunit vaccines include the Hepatitis B vaccine, which contains a viral protein, and the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine, which uses pieces of the bacterial polysaccharide capsule. These vaccines have been crucial in preventing serious infectious diseases and reducing associated complications worldwide.

Conjugate vaccines are a type of vaccine that combines a part of a bacterium with a protein or other substance to boost the body's immune response to the bacteria. The bacterial component is usually a polysaccharide, which is a long chain of sugars that makes up part of the bacterial cell wall.

By itself, a polysaccharide is not very immunogenic, meaning it does not stimulate a strong immune response. However, when it is conjugated or linked to a protein or other carrier molecule, it becomes much more immunogenic and can elicit a stronger and longer-lasting immune response.

Conjugate vaccines are particularly effective in protecting against bacterial infections that affect young children, such as Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and pneumococcal disease. These vaccines have been instrumental in reducing the incidence of these diseases and their associated complications, such as meningitis and pneumonia.

Overall, conjugate vaccines work by mimicking a natural infection and stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies that can protect against future infections with the same bacterium. By combining a weakly immunogenic polysaccharide with a protein carrier, these vaccines can elicit a stronger and more effective immune response, providing long-lasting protection against bacterial infections.

Secondary immunization, also known as "anamnestic response" or "booster," refers to the enhanced immune response that occurs upon re-exposure to an antigen, having previously been immunized or infected with the same pathogen. This response is characterized by a more rapid and robust production of antibodies and memory cells compared to the primary immune response. The secondary immunization aims to maintain long-term immunity against infectious diseases and improve vaccine effectiveness. It usually involves administering additional doses of a vaccine or booster shots after the initial series of immunizations, which helps reinforce the immune system's ability to recognize and combat specific pathogens.

Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It primarily affects the lungs and can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. The infection typically enters the body when a person inhales droplets containing the bacteria, which are released into the air when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks.

The symptoms of pulmonary TB can vary but often include:

* Persistent cough that lasts for more than three weeks and may produce phlegm or blood-tinged sputum
* Chest pain or discomfort, particularly when breathing deeply or coughing
* Fatigue and weakness
* Unexplained weight loss
* Fever and night sweats
* Loss of appetite

Pulmonary TB can cause serious complications if left untreated, including damage to the lungs, respiratory failure, and spread of the infection to other parts of the body. Treatment typically involves a course of antibiotics that can last several months, and it is essential for patients to complete the full treatment regimen to ensure that the infection is fully eradicated.

Preventive measures include vaccination with the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine, which can provide some protection against severe forms of TB in children, and measures to prevent the spread of the disease, such as covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, wearing a mask in public places, and avoiding close contact with people who have active TB.

Miliary tuberculosis is a disseminated form of tuberculosis (TB), a bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The term "miliary" refers to the tiny millet-like size (2-5 microns in diameter) of the TB foci observed in the lungs or other organs during autopsy or on imaging studies. In military tuberculosis, these small granules are widespread throughout the body, affecting multiple organs such as the lungs, liver, spleen, bones, and brain. It can occur in people with weakened immune systems, including those with HIV/AIDS, or in individuals who have recently been infected with TB bacteria. Symptoms may include fever, night sweats, weight loss, fatigue, and cough. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent severe complications and improve outcomes.

Lymphadenitis is a medical term that refers to the inflammation of one or more lymph nodes, which are small, bean-shaped glands that are part of the body's immune system. Lymph nodes contain white blood cells called lymphocytes, which help fight infection and disease.

Lymphadenitis can occur as a result of an infection in the area near the affected lymph node or as a result of a systemic infection that has spread through the bloodstream. The inflammation causes the lymph node to become swollen, tender, and sometimes painful to the touch.

The symptoms of lymphadenitis may include fever, fatigue, and redness or warmth in the area around the affected lymph node. In some cases, the overlying skin may also appear red and inflamed. Lymphadenitis can occur in any part of the body where there are lymph nodes, including the neck, armpits, groin, and abdomen.

The underlying cause of lymphadenitis must be diagnosed and treated promptly to prevent complications such as the spread of infection or the formation of an abscess. Treatment may include antibiotics, pain relievers, and warm compresses to help reduce swelling and discomfort.

Meningeal tuberculosis, also known as Tuberculous meningitis, is a severe form of tuberculosis (TB) that affects the meninges, which are the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. It is caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacterium, which can spread through the bloodstream from a primary infection site in the lungs or elsewhere in the body.

In meningeal tuberculosis, the bacteria cause inflammation and thickening of the meninges, leading to increased intracranial pressure, cerebral edema, and vasculitis. These conditions can result in various neurological symptoms such as headache, fever, stiff neck, altered mental status, seizures, and focal neurologic deficits. If left untreated, meningeal tuberculosis can lead to severe complications, including brain damage, hydrocephalus, and even death.

Diagnosis of meningeal tuberculosis typically involves a combination of clinical symptoms, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, imaging studies, and sometimes molecular or culture-based tests to detect the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the CSF. Treatment usually involves a prolonged course of antibiotics specifically designed to target TB, such as isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide, often administered for six to nine months or longer. In some cases, corticosteroids may also be used to reduce inflammation and prevent complications.

Malaria vaccines are biological preparations that induce immunity against malaria parasites, thereby preventing or reducing the severity of malaria disease. They typically contain antigens (proteins or other molecules derived from the parasite) that stimulate an immune response in the recipient, enabling their body to recognize and neutralize the pathogen upon exposure.

The most advanced malaria vaccine candidate is RTS,S/AS01 (Mosquirix), which targets the Plasmodium falciparum parasite's circumsporozoite protein (CSP). This vaccine has shown partial protection in clinical trials, reducing the risk of severe malaria and hospitalization in young children by about 30% over four years. However, it does not provide complete immunity, and additional research is ongoing to develop more effective vaccines against malaria.

Immunologic adjuvants are substances that are added to a vaccine to enhance the body's immune response to the antigens contained in the vaccine. They work by stimulating the immune system and promoting the production of antibodies and activating immune cells, such as T-cells and macrophages, which help to provide a stronger and more sustained immune response to the vaccine.

Immunologic adjuvants can be derived from various sources, including bacteria, viruses, and chemicals. Some common examples include aluminum salts (alum), oil-in-water emulsions (such as MF59), and bacterial components (such as lipopolysaccharide or LPS).

The use of immunologic adjuvants in vaccines can help to improve the efficacy of the vaccine, particularly for vaccines that contain weak or poorly immunogenic antigens. They can also help to reduce the amount of antigen needed in a vaccine, which can be beneficial for vaccines that are difficult or expensive to produce.

It's important to note that while adjuvants can enhance the immune response to a vaccine, they can also increase the risk of adverse reactions, such as inflammation and pain at the injection site. Therefore, the use of immunologic adjuvants must be carefully balanced against their potential benefits and risks.

Papillomavirus vaccines are vaccines that have been developed to prevent infection by human papillomaviruses (HPV). HPV is a DNA virus that is capable of infecting the skin and mucous membranes. Certain types of HPV are known to cause cervical cancer, as well as other types of cancer such as anal, penile, vulvar, and oropharyngeal cancers. Other types of HPV can cause genital warts.

There are currently two papillomavirus vaccines that have been approved for use in the United States: Gardasil and Cervarix. Both vaccines protect against the two most common cancer-causing types of HPV (types 16 and 18), which together cause about 70% of cervical cancers. Gardasil also protects against the two most common types of HPV that cause genital warts (types 6 and 11).

Papillomavirus vaccines are given as a series of three shots over a period of six months. They are most effective when given to people before they become sexually active, as this reduces the risk of exposure to HPV. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that all boys and girls get vaccinated against HPV at age 11 or 12, but the vaccine can be given to people as young as age 9 and as old as age 26.

It is important to note that papillomavirus vaccines do not protect against all types of HPV, and they do not treat existing HPV infections or cervical cancer. They are intended to prevent new HPV infections and the cancers and other diseases that can be caused by HPV.

Bacterial antigens are substances found on the surface or produced by bacteria that can stimulate an immune response in a host organism. These antigens can be proteins, polysaccharides, teichoic acids, lipopolysaccharides, or other molecules that are recognized as foreign by the host's immune system.

When a bacterial antigen is encountered by the host's immune system, it triggers a series of responses aimed at eliminating the bacteria and preventing infection. The host's immune system recognizes the antigen as foreign through the use of specialized receptors called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which are found on various immune cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils.

Once a bacterial antigen is recognized by the host's immune system, it can stimulate both the innate and adaptive immune responses. The innate immune response involves the activation of inflammatory pathways, the recruitment of immune cells to the site of infection, and the production of antimicrobial peptides.

The adaptive immune response, on the other hand, involves the activation of T cells and B cells, which are specific to the bacterial antigen. These cells can recognize and remember the antigen, allowing for a more rapid and effective response upon subsequent exposures.

Bacterial antigens are important in the development of vaccines, as they can be used to stimulate an immune response without causing disease. By identifying specific bacterial antigens that are associated with virulence or pathogenicity, researchers can develop vaccines that target these antigens and provide protection against infection.

Meningococcal vaccines are vaccines that protect against Neisseria meningitidis, a type of bacteria that can cause serious infections such as meningitis (inflammation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord) and septicemia (bloodstream infection). There are several types of meningococcal vaccines available, including conjugate vaccines and polysaccharide vaccines. These vaccines work by stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies that can protect against the different serogroups of N. meningitidis, including A, B, C, Y, and W-135. The specific type of vaccine used and the number of doses required may depend on a person's age, health status, and other factors. Meningococcal vaccines are recommended for certain high-risk populations, such as infants, young children, adolescents, and people with certain medical conditions, as well as for travelers to areas where meningococcal disease is common.

Tuberculin is not a medical condition but a diagnostic tool used in the form of a purified protein derivative (PPD) to detect tuberculosis infection. It is prepared from the culture filtrate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacterium that causes TB. The PPD tuberculin is injected intradermally, and the resulting skin reaction is measured after 48-72 hours to determine if a person has developed an immune response to the bacteria, indicating a past or present infection with TB. It's important to note that a positive tuberculin test does not necessarily mean that active disease is present, but it does indicate that further evaluation is needed.

Delayed hypersensitivity, also known as type IV hypersensitivity, is a type of immune response that takes place several hours to days after exposure to an antigen. It is characterized by the activation of T cells (a type of white blood cell) and the release of various chemical mediators, leading to inflammation and tissue damage. This reaction is typically associated with chronic inflammatory diseases, such as contact dermatitis, granulomatous disorders (e.g. tuberculosis), and certain autoimmune diseases.

The reaction process involves the following steps:

1. Sensitization: The first time an individual is exposed to an antigen, T cells are activated and become sensitized to it. This process can take several days.
2. Memory: Some of the activated T cells differentiate into memory T cells, which remain in the body and are ready to respond quickly if the same antigen is encountered again.
3. Effector phase: Upon subsequent exposure to the antigen, the memory T cells become activated and release cytokines, which recruit other immune cells (e.g. macrophages) to the site of inflammation. These cells cause tissue damage through various mechanisms, such as phagocytosis, degranulation, and the release of reactive oxygen species.
4. Chronic inflammation: The ongoing immune response can lead to chronic inflammation, which may result in tissue destruction and fibrosis (scarring).

Examples of conditions associated with delayed hypersensitivity include:

* Contact dermatitis (e.g. poison ivy, nickel allergy)
* Tuberculosis
* Leprosy
* Sarcoidosis
* Rheumatoid arthritis
* Type 1 diabetes mellitus
* Multiple sclerosis
* Inflammatory bowel disease (e.g. Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis)

Attenuated vaccines consist of live microorganisms that have been weakened (attenuated) through various laboratory processes so they do not cause disease in the majority of recipients but still stimulate an immune response. The purpose of attenuation is to reduce the virulence or replication capacity of the pathogen while keeping it alive, allowing it to retain its antigenic properties and induce a strong and protective immune response.

Examples of attenuated vaccines include:

1. Sabin oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV): This vaccine uses live but weakened polioviruses to protect against all three strains of the disease-causing poliovirus. The weakened viruses replicate in the intestine and induce an immune response, which provides both humoral (antibody) and cell-mediated immunity.
2. Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine: This combination vaccine contains live attenuated measles, mumps, and rubella viruses. It is given to protect against these three diseases and prevent their spread in the population.
3. Varicella (chickenpox) vaccine: This vaccine uses a weakened form of the varicella-zoster virus, which causes chickenpox. By introducing this attenuated virus into the body, it stimulates an immune response that protects against future infection with the wild-type virus.
4. Yellow fever vaccine: This live attenuated vaccine is used to prevent yellow fever, a viral disease transmitted by mosquitoes in tropical and subtropical regions of Africa and South America. The vaccine contains a weakened form of the yellow fever virus that cannot cause the disease but still induces an immune response.
5. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine: This live attenuated vaccine is used to protect against tuberculosis (TB). It contains a weakened strain of Mycobacterium bovis, which does not cause TB in humans but stimulates an immune response that provides some protection against the disease.

Attenuated vaccines are generally effective at inducing long-lasting immunity and can provide robust protection against targeted diseases. However, they may pose a risk for individuals with weakened immune systems, as the attenuated viruses or bacteria could potentially cause illness in these individuals. Therefore, it is essential to consider an individual's health status before administering live attenuated vaccines.

"Hepatitis B vaccines are vaccines that prevent infection caused by the hepatitis B virus. They work by introducing a small and harmless piece of the virus to your body, which triggers your immune system to produce antibodies to fight off the infection. These antibodies remain in your body and provide protection if you are exposed to the real hepatitis B virus in the future.

The hepatitis B vaccine is typically given as a series of three shots over a six-month period. It is recommended for all infants, children and adolescents who have not previously been vaccinated, as well as for adults who are at increased risk of infection, such as healthcare workers, people who inject drugs, and those with certain medical conditions.

It's important to note that hepatitis B vaccine does not provide protection against other types of viral hepatitis, such as hepatitis A or C."

A measles vaccine is a biological preparation that induces immunity against the measles virus. It contains an attenuated (weakened) strain of the measles virus, which stimulates the immune system to produce antibodies that protect against future infection with the wild-type (disease-causing) virus. Measles vaccines are typically administered in combination with vaccines against mumps and rubella (German measles), forming the MMR vaccine.

The measles vaccine is highly effective, with one or two doses providing immunity in over 95% of people who receive it. It is usually given to children as part of routine childhood immunization programs, with the first dose administered at 12-15 months of age and the second dose at 4-6 years of age.

Measles vaccination has led to a dramatic reduction in the incidence of measles worldwide and is considered one of the greatest public health achievements of the past century. However, despite widespread availability of the vaccine, measles remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in some parts of the world, particularly in areas with low vaccination coverage or where access to healthcare is limited.

A Pertussis vaccine is a type of immunization used to protect against pertussis, also known as whooping cough. It contains components that stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies against the bacteria that cause pertussis, Bordetella pertussis. There are two main types of pertussis vaccines: whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccines and acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines. wP vaccines contain killed whole cells of B. pertussis, while aP vaccines contain specific components of the bacteria, such as pertussis toxin and other antigens. Pertussis vaccines are often combined with diphtheria and tetanus to form combination vaccines, such as DTaP (diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis) and TdaP (tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis). These vaccines are typically given to young children as part of their routine immunization schedule.

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

Haemophilus vaccines are vaccines that are designed to protect against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), a bacterium that can cause serious infections such as meningitis, pneumonia, and epiglottitis. There are two main types of Hib vaccines:

1. Polysaccharide vaccine: This type of vaccine is made from the sugar coating (polysaccharide) of the bacterial cells. It is not effective in children under 2 years of age because their immune systems are not yet mature enough to respond effectively to this type of vaccine.
2. Conjugate vaccine: This type of vaccine combines the polysaccharide with a protein carrier, which helps to stimulate a stronger and more sustained immune response. It is effective in infants as young as 6 weeks old.

Hib vaccines are usually given as part of routine childhood immunizations starting at 2 months of age. They are administered through an injection into the muscle. The vaccine is safe and effective, with few side effects. Vaccination against Hib has led to a significant reduction in the incidence of Hib infections worldwide.

Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is a soluble cytokine that is primarily produced by the activation of natural killer (NK) cells and T lymphocytes, especially CD4+ Th1 cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. It plays a crucial role in the regulation of the immune response against viral and intracellular bacterial infections, as well as tumor cells. IFN-γ has several functions, including activating macrophages to enhance their microbicidal activity, increasing the presentation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II molecules on antigen-presenting cells, stimulating the proliferation and differentiation of T cells and NK cells, and inducing the production of other cytokines and chemokines. Additionally, IFN-γ has direct antiproliferative effects on certain types of tumor cells and can enhance the cytotoxic activity of immune cells against infected or malignant cells.

Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated (IPV) is a vaccine used to prevent poliomyelitis (polio), a highly infectious disease caused by the poliovirus. IPV contains inactivated (killed) polioviruses of all three poliovirus types. It works by stimulating an immune response in the body, but because the viruses are inactivated, they cannot cause polio. After vaccination, the immune system recognizes and responds to the inactivated viruses, producing antibodies that protect against future infection with wild, or naturally occurring, polioviruses. IPV is typically given as an injection in the leg or arm, and a series of doses are required for full protection. It is a safe and effective way to prevent polio and its complications.

Rabies vaccines are medical products that contain antigens of the rabies virus, which stimulate an immune response in individuals who receive them. The purpose of rabies vaccines is to prevent the development of rabies, a viral disease that is almost always fatal once symptoms appear.

There are two primary types of rabies vaccines available:

1. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) vaccines: These vaccines are given to individuals who are at high risk of coming into contact with the rabies virus, such as veterinarians, animal handlers, and travelers visiting areas where rabies is common. The vaccine series typically consists of three doses given over a period of 28 days.
2. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) vaccines: These vaccines are administered to individuals who have already been exposed to the rabies virus, usually through a bite or scratch from an infected animal. The vaccine series typically consists of four doses given over a period of 14 days, along with a dose of rabies immune globulin (RIG) to provide immediate protection while the immune system responds to the vaccine.

Both types of rabies vaccines are highly effective at preventing the disease, but it is essential to receive them as soon as possible after exposure or before potential exposure, as the virus can be fatal if left untreated.

Rotavirus vaccines are preventive measures used to protect against rotavirus infections, which are the leading cause of severe diarrhea and dehydration among infants and young children worldwide. These vaccines contain weakened or inactivated forms of the rotavirus, a pathogen that infects and causes symptoms by multiplying inside cells lining the small intestine.

The weakened or inactivated virus in the vaccine stimulates an immune response in the body, enabling it to recognize and fight off future rotavirus infections more effectively. The vaccines are usually administered orally, as a liquid droplet or on a sugar cube, to mimic natural infection through the gastrointestinal tract.

There are currently two licensed rotavirus vaccines available globally:

1. Rotarix (GlaxoSmithKline): This vaccine contains an attenuated (weakened) strain of human rotavirus and is given in a two-dose series, typically at 2 and 4 months of age.
2. RotaTeq (Merck): This vaccine contains five reassortant viruses, combining human and animal strains to provide broader protection. It is administered in a three-dose series, usually at 2, 4, and 6 months of age.

Rotavirus vaccines have been shown to significantly reduce the incidence of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis and related hospitalizations among infants and young children. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the inclusion of rotavirus vaccination in national immunization programs, particularly in countries with high child mortality rates due to diarrheal diseases.

Leprosy, also known as Hansen's disease, is a chronic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae. It primarily affects the skin, peripheral nerves, mucosal surfaces of the upper respiratory tract, and the eyes. The disease mainly spreads through droplets from the nose and mouth of infected people.

Leprosy is characterized by granulomatous inflammation, which leads to the formation of distinctive skin lesions and nerve damage. If left untreated, it can cause progressive and permanent damage to the skin, nerves, limbs, and eyes. However, with early diagnosis and multidrug therapy (MDT), the disease can be cured, and disability can be prevented or limited.

The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies leprosy into two types based on the number of skin lesions and bacteriological index: paucibacillary (one to five lesions) and multibacillary (more than five lesions). This classification helps determine the appropriate treatment regimen.

Although leprosy is curable, it remains a public health concern in many developing countries due to its stigmatizing nature and potential for social exclusion of affected individuals.

Cholera vaccines are preventive measures used to protect against the infection caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. There are several types of cholera vaccines available, including:

1. Inactivated oral vaccine (ICCV): This vaccine contains killed whole-cell bacteria and is given in two doses, with each dose administered at least 14 days apart. It provides protection for up to six months and can be given to adults and children over the age of one year.
2. Live attenuated oral vaccine (LCV): This vaccine contains weakened live bacteria that are unable to cause disease but still stimulate an immune response. The most commonly used LCV is called CVD 103-HgR, which is given in a single dose and provides protection for up to three months. It can be given to adults and children over the age of six years.
3. Injectable cholera vaccine: This vaccine contains inactivated bacteria and is given as an injection. It is not widely available and its effectiveness is limited compared to oral vaccines.

Cholera vaccines are recommended for travelers visiting areas with known cholera outbreaks, particularly if they plan to eat food or drink water that may be contaminated. They can also be used in response to outbreaks to help control the spread of the disease. However, it is important to note that vaccination alone is not sufficient to prevent cholera infection and good hygiene practices, such as handwashing and safe food handling, should always be followed.

I must clarify that the term "Guinea Pigs" is not typically used in medical definitions. However, in colloquial or informal language, it may refer to people who are used as the first to try out a new medical treatment or drug. This is known as being a "test subject" or "in a clinical trial."

In the field of scientific research, particularly in studies involving animals, guinea pigs are small rodents that are often used as experimental subjects due to their size, cost-effectiveness, and ease of handling. They are not actually pigs from Guinea, despite their name's origins being unclear. However, they do not exactly fit the description of being used in human medical experiments.

Cellular immunity, also known as cell-mediated immunity, is a type of immune response that involves the activation of immune cells, such as T lymphocytes (T cells), to protect the body against infected or damaged cells. This form of immunity is important for fighting off infections caused by viruses and intracellular bacteria, as well as for recognizing and destroying cancer cells.

Cellular immunity involves a complex series of interactions between various immune cells and molecules. When a pathogen infects a cell, the infected cell displays pieces of the pathogen on its surface in a process called antigen presentation. This attracts T cells, which recognize the antigens and become activated. Activated T cells then release cytokines, chemicals that help coordinate the immune response, and can directly attack and kill infected cells or help activate other immune cells to do so.

Cellular immunity is an important component of the adaptive immune system, which is able to learn and remember specific pathogens in order to mount a faster and more effective response upon subsequent exposure. This form of immunity is also critical for the rejection of transplanted organs, as the immune system recognizes the transplanted tissue as foreign and attacks it.

Lactoferrin is a glycoprotein that belongs to the transferrin family. It is an iron-binding protein found in various exocrine secretions such as milk, tears, and saliva, as well as in neutrophils, which are a type of white blood cell involved in immune response. Lactoferrin plays a role in iron homeostasis, antimicrobial activity, and anti-inflammatory responses. It has the ability to bind free iron, which can help prevent bacterial growth by depriving them of an essential nutrient. Additionally, lactoferrin has been shown to have direct antimicrobial effects against various bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Its role in the immune system also includes modulating the activity of immune cells and regulating inflammation.

The Smallpox vaccine is not a live virus vaccine but is instead made from a vaccinia virus, which is a virus related to the variola virus (the virus that causes smallpox). The vaccinia virus used in the vaccine does not cause smallpox, but it does cause a milder illness with symptoms such as a fever and a rash of pustules or blisters at the site of inoculation.

The smallpox vaccine was first developed by Edward Jenner in 1796 and is one of the oldest vaccines still in use today. It has been highly effective in preventing smallpox, which was once a major cause of death and disability worldwide. In fact, smallpox was declared eradicated by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1980, thanks in large part to the widespread use of the smallpox vaccine.

Despite the eradication of smallpox, the smallpox vaccine is still used today in certain circumstances. For example, it may be given to laboratory workers who handle the virus or to military personnel who may be at risk of exposure to the virus. The vaccine may also be used as an emergency measure in the event of a bioterrorism attack involving smallpox.

It is important to note that the smallpox vaccine is not without risks and can cause serious side effects, including a severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis), encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), and myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle). As a result, it is only given to people who are at high risk of exposure to the virus and who have been determined to be good candidates for vaccination by a healthcare professional.

Typhoid-Paratyphoid vaccines are immunizations that protect against typhoid fever and paratyphoid fevers, which are caused by the Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi, respectively. These vaccines contain inactivated or attenuated bacteria or specific antigens that stimulate an individual's immune system to develop immunity against these diseases without causing the illness itself. There are several types of typhoid-paratyphoid vaccines available, including:

1. Ty21a (oral live attenuated vaccine): This is a live but weakened form of the Salmonella Typhi bacteria. It is given orally in capsule form and requires a series of 4 doses taken every other day. The vaccine provides protection for about 5-7 years.
2. Vi polysaccharide (ViPS) typhoid vaccine: This vaccine contains purified Vi antigens from the Salmonella Typhi bacterium's outer capsular layer. It is given as an injection and provides protection for approximately 2-3 years.
3. Combined typhoid-paratyphoid A and B vaccines (Vi-rEPA): This vaccine combines Vi polysaccharide antigens from Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi A and B. It is given as an injection and provides protection for about 3 years against typhoid fever and paratyphoid fevers A and B.
4. Typhoid conjugate vaccines (TCVs): These vaccines combine the Vi polysaccharide antigen from Salmonella Typhi with a protein carrier to enhance the immune response, particularly in children under 2 years of age. TCVs are given as an injection and provide long-lasting protection against typhoid fever.

It is important to note that none of these vaccines provides 100% protection, but they significantly reduce the risk of contracting typhoid or paratyphoid fevers. Additionally, good hygiene practices, such as handwashing and safe food handling, can further minimize the risk of infection.

The Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis (DTaP) vaccine is a combination immunization that protects against three bacterial diseases: diphtheria, tetanus (lockjaw), and pertussis (whooping cough).

Diphtheria is an upper respiratory infection that can lead to breathing difficulties, heart failure, paralysis, or even death. Tetanus is a bacterial infection that affects the nervous system and causes muscle stiffness and spasms, leading to "lockjaw." Pertussis is a highly contagious respiratory infection characterized by severe coughing fits, which can make it difficult to breathe and may lead to pneumonia, seizures, or brain damage.

The DTaP vaccine contains inactivated toxins (toxoids) from the bacteria that cause these diseases. It is typically given as a series of five shots, with doses administered at 2 months, 4 months, 6 months, 15-18 months, and 4-6 years of age. The vaccine helps the immune system develop protection against the diseases without causing the actual illness.

It is important to note that there are other combination vaccines available that protect against these same diseases, such as DT (diphtheria and tetanus toxoids) and Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis), which contain higher doses of the diphtheria and pertussis components. These vaccines are recommended for different age groups and may be used as booster shots to maintain immunity throughout adulthood.

Antibodies, viral are proteins produced by the immune system in response to an infection with a virus. These antibodies are capable of recognizing and binding to specific antigens on the surface of the virus, which helps to neutralize or destroy the virus and prevent its replication. Once produced, these antibodies can provide immunity against future infections with the same virus.

Viral antibodies are typically composed of four polypeptide chains - two heavy chains and two light chains - that are held together by disulfide bonds. The binding site for the antigen is located at the tip of the Y-shaped structure, formed by the variable regions of the heavy and light chains.

There are five classes of antibodies in humans: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each class has a different function and is distributed differently throughout the body. For example, IgG is the most common type of antibody found in the bloodstream and provides long-term immunity against viruses, while IgA is found primarily in mucous membranes and helps to protect against respiratory and gastrointestinal infections.

In addition to their role in the immune response, viral antibodies can also be used as diagnostic tools to detect the presence of a specific virus in a patient's blood or other bodily fluids.

The spleen is an organ in the upper left side of the abdomen, next to the stomach and behind the ribs. It plays multiple supporting roles in the body:

1. It fights infection by acting as a filter for the blood. Old red blood cells are recycled in the spleen, and platelets and white blood cells are stored there.
2. The spleen also helps to control the amount of blood in the body by removing excess red blood cells and storing platelets.
3. It has an important role in immune function, producing antibodies and removing microorganisms and damaged red blood cells from the bloodstream.

The spleen can be removed without causing any significant problems, as other organs take over its functions. This is known as a splenectomy and may be necessary if the spleen is damaged or diseased.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

The chickenpox vaccine, also known as varicella vaccine, is a preventive measure against the highly contagious viral infection caused by the varicella-zoster virus. The vaccine contains a live but weakened form of the virus, which stimulates the immune system to produce a response without causing the disease itself.

The chickenpox vaccine is typically given in two doses, with the first dose administered between 12 and 15 months of age and the second dose between 4 and 6 years of age. In some cases, the vaccine may be given to older children, adolescents, or adults who have not previously been vaccinated or who have never had chickenpox.

The chickenpox vaccine is highly effective at preventing severe cases of the disease and reducing the risk of complications such as bacterial infections, pneumonia, and encephalitis. It is also effective at preventing transmission of the virus to others.

Like any vaccine, the chickenpox vaccine can cause mild side effects such as soreness at the injection site, fever, or a mild rash. However, these side effects are generally mild and short-lived. Serious side effects are rare but may include allergic reactions or severe immune responses.

Overall, the chickenpox vaccine is a safe and effective way to prevent this common childhood disease and its potential complications.

An immunization schedule is a series of planned dates when a person, usually a child, should receive specific vaccines in order to be fully protected against certain preventable diseases. The schedule is developed based on scientific research and recommendations from health organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

The immunization schedule outlines which vaccines are recommended, the number of doses required, the age at which each dose should be given, and the minimum amount of time that must pass between doses. The schedule may vary depending on factors such as the individual's age, health status, and travel plans.

Immunization schedules are important for ensuring that individuals receive timely protection against vaccine-preventable diseases, and for maintaining high levels of immunity in populations, which helps to prevent the spread of disease. It is important to follow the recommended immunization schedule as closely as possible to ensure optimal protection.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

The Mumps Vaccine is a biological preparation intended to induce immunity against mumps, a contagious viral infection that primarily affects the salivary glands. The vaccine contains live attenuated (weakened) mumps virus, which stimulates the immune system to develop a protective response without causing the disease.

There are two types of mumps vaccines available:

1. The Jeryl Lynn strain is used in the United States and is part of the Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR) vaccine and the Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Varicella (MMRV) vaccine. This strain is derived from a clinical isolate obtained from the throat washings of a child with mumps in 1963.
2. The Urabe AM9 strain was used in some countries but has been discontinued in many places due to an increased risk of meningitis as a rare complication.

The MMR vaccine is typically given to children at 12-15 months of age and again at 4-6 years of age, providing long-lasting immunity against mumps in most individuals. The vaccine has significantly reduced the incidence of mumps and its complications worldwide.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Hepatitis A vaccines are inactivated or live attenuated viral vaccines that are administered to prevent infection and illness caused by the hepatitis A virus. The vaccine contains antigens that stimulate an immune response in the body, leading to the production of antibodies that protect against future infection with the virus.

The inactivated hepatitis A vaccine is made from viruses that have been chemically treated to destroy their ability to cause disease while preserving their ability to stimulate an immune response. This type of vaccine is typically given in two doses, six months apart, and provides long-term protection against the virus.

The live attenuated hepatitis A vaccine contains a weakened form of the virus that is unable to cause illness but can still stimulate an immune response. This type of vaccine is given as a single dose and provides protection against the virus for at least 20 years.

Hepatitis A vaccines are recommended for people who are at increased risk of infection, including travelers to areas where hepatitis A is common, men who have sex with men, people who use injection drugs, and people with chronic liver disease or clotting factor disorders. The vaccine is also recommended for children in certain states and communities where hepatitis A is endemic.

The Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) vaccine is a combination immunization that protects against three infectious diseases: measles, mumps, and rubella. It contains live attenuated viruses of each disease, which stimulate an immune response in the body similar to that produced by natural infection but do not cause the diseases themselves.

The MMR vaccine is typically given in two doses, the first at 12-15 months of age and the second at 4-6 years of age. It is highly effective in preventing these diseases, with over 90% effectiveness reported after a single dose and near 100% effectiveness after the second dose.

Measles is a highly contagious viral disease that can cause fever, rash, cough, runny nose, and red, watery eyes. It can also lead to serious complications such as pneumonia, encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), and even death.

Mumps is a viral infection that primarily affects the salivary glands, causing swelling and tenderness in the cheeks and jaw. It can also cause fever, headache, muscle aches, and fatigue. Mumps can lead to serious complications such as deafness, meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord), and inflammation of the testicles or ovaries.

Rubella, also known as German measles, is a viral infection that typically causes a mild fever, rash, and swollen lymph nodes. However, if a pregnant woman becomes infected with rubella, it can cause serious birth defects such as hearing impairment, heart defects, and developmental delays in the fetus.

The MMR vaccine is an important tool in preventing these diseases and protecting public health.

Streptococcal vaccines are immunizations designed to protect against infections caused by Streptococcus bacteria. These vaccines contain antigens, which are substances that trigger an immune response and help the body recognize and fight off specific types of Streptococcus bacteria. There are several different types of streptococcal vaccines available or in development, including:

1. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV): This vaccine protects against Streptococcus pneumoniae, a type of bacteria that can cause pneumonia, meningitis, and other serious infections. PCV is recommended for all children under 2 years old, as well as older children and adults with certain medical conditions.
2. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV): This vaccine also protects against Streptococcus pneumoniae, but it is recommended for adults 65 and older, as well as younger people with certain medical conditions.
3. Streptococcus pyogenes vaccine: This vaccine is being developed to protect against Group A Streptococcus (GAS), which can cause a variety of infections, including strep throat, skin infections, and serious diseases like rheumatic fever and toxic shock syndrome. There are several different GAS vaccine candidates in various stages of development.
4. Streptococcus agalactiae vaccine: This vaccine is being developed to protect against Group B Streptococcus (GBS), which can cause serious infections in newborns, pregnant women, and older adults with certain medical conditions. There are several different GBS vaccine candidates in various stages of development.

Overall, streptococcal vaccines play an important role in preventing bacterial infections and reducing the burden of disease caused by Streptococcus bacteria.

Immunization is defined medically as the process where an individual is made immune or resistant to an infectious disease, typically through the administration of a vaccine. The vaccine stimulates the body's own immune system to recognize and fight off the specific disease-causing organism, thereby preventing or reducing the severity of future infections with that organism.

Immunization can be achieved actively, where the person is given a vaccine to trigger an immune response, or passively, where antibodies are transferred to the person through immunoglobulin therapy. Immunizations are an important part of preventive healthcare and have been successful in controlling and eliminating many infectious diseases worldwide.

Anthrax vaccines are biological preparations designed to protect against anthrax, a potentially fatal infectious disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax can affect both humans and animals, and it is primarily transmitted through contact with contaminated animal products or, less commonly, through inhalation of spores.

There are two types of anthrax vaccines currently available:

1. Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (AVA): This vaccine is licensed for use in the United States and is approved for pre-exposure prophylaxis in high-risk individuals, such as military personnel and laboratory workers who handle the bacterium. AVA contains a cell-free filtrate of cultured B. anthracis cells that have been chemically treated to render them non-infectious. The vaccine works by stimulating the production of antibodies against protective antigens (PA) present in the bacterial culture.
2. Recombinant Anthrax Vaccine (rPA): This vaccine, also known as BioThrax, is a newer generation anthrax vaccine that was approved for use in the United States in 2015. It contains only the recombinant protective antigen (rPA) of B. anthracis, which is produced using genetic engineering techniques. The rPA vaccine has been shown to be as effective as AVA in generating an immune response and offers several advantages, including a more straightforward manufacturing process, fewer side effects, and a longer shelf life.

Both vaccines require multiple doses for initial immunization, followed by periodic booster shots to maintain protection. Anthrax vaccines are generally safe and effective at preventing anthrax infection; however, they may cause mild to moderate side effects, such as soreness at the injection site, fatigue, and muscle aches. Severe allergic reactions are rare but possible.

It is important to note that anthrax vaccines do not provide immediate protection against anthrax infection. They require several weeks to stimulate an immune response, so they should be administered before potential exposure to the bacterium. In cases of known or suspected exposure to anthrax, antibiotics are used as a primary means of preventing and treating the disease.

Dengue vaccines are designed to protect against dengue fever, a mosquito-borne viral disease that can cause severe flu-like symptoms and potentially life-threatening complications. Dengue is caused by four distinct serotypes of the virus (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4), and infection with one serotype does not provide immunity against the others.

The first licensed dengue vaccine, Dengvaxia (CYD-TDV), is a chimeric yellow fever-dengue tetravalent vaccine developed by Sanofi Pasteur. It is approved for use in several countries and has demonstrated efficacy against dengue fever caused by all four serotypes in clinical trials. However, the vaccine has raised concerns about the risk of severe disease in individuals who have not been previously exposed to dengue. As a result, it is recommended primarily for people with a documented past dengue infection or living in areas with high dengue prevalence and where the benefits outweigh the risks.

Another dengue vaccine candidate, Takeda's TAK-003 (also known as TDV), is a live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine that has shown efficacy against all four serotypes in clinical trials. It was granted approval by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and several other countries for use in individuals aged 4-16 years old, living in endemic areas.

Research and development of additional dengue vaccine candidates are ongoing to address concerns about safety, efficacy, and accessibility, particularly for at-risk populations in low- and middle-income countries where dengue is most prevalent.

Virosomes are artificially constructed spherical vesicles composed of lipids and viral envelope proteins. They are used as a delivery system for vaccines and other therapeutic agents. In the context of vaccines, virosomes can be used to present viral antigens to the immune system in a way that mimics a natural infection, thereby inducing a strong immune response.

Virosome-based vaccines have several advantages over traditional vaccines. For example, they are non-infectious, meaning they do not contain live or attenuated viruses, which makes them safer for certain populations such as immunocompromised individuals. Additionally, virosomes can be engineered to target specific cells in the body, leading to more efficient uptake and presentation of antigens to the immune system.

Virosome-based vaccines have been developed for a variety of diseases, including influenza, hepatitis A, and HIV. While they are not yet widely used, they show promise as a safe and effective alternative to traditional vaccine approaches.

Bacterial antibodies are a type of antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection caused by bacteria. These antibodies are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the bacterial cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Bacterial antibodies can be classified into several types based on their structure and function, including IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE. They play a crucial role in the body's defense against bacterial infections and provide immunity to future infections with the same bacteria.

Virulence, in the context of medicine and microbiology, refers to the degree or severity of damage or harm that a pathogen (like a bacterium, virus, fungus, or parasite) can cause to its host. It is often associated with the ability of the pathogen to invade and damage host tissues, evade or suppress the host's immune response, replicate within the host, and spread between hosts.

Virulence factors are the specific components or mechanisms that contribute to a pathogen's virulence, such as toxins, enzymes, adhesins, and capsules. These factors enable the pathogen to establish an infection, cause tissue damage, and facilitate its transmission between hosts. The overall virulence of a pathogen can be influenced by various factors, including host susceptibility, environmental conditions, and the specific strain or species of the pathogen.

T-lymphocytes, also known as T-cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the adaptive immune system's response to infection. They are produced in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus gland. There are several different types of T-cells, including CD4+ helper T-cells, CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells, and regulatory T-cells (Tregs).

CD4+ helper T-cells assist in activating other immune cells, such as B-lymphocytes and macrophages. They also produce cytokines, which are signaling molecules that help coordinate the immune response. CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells directly kill infected cells by releasing toxic substances. Regulatory T-cells help maintain immune tolerance and prevent autoimmune diseases by suppressing the activity of other immune cells.

T-lymphocytes are important in the immune response to viral infections, cancer, and other diseases. Dysfunction or depletion of T-cells can lead to immunodeficiency and increased susceptibility to infections. On the other hand, an overactive T-cell response can contribute to autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammation.

A lung is a pair of spongy, elastic organs in the chest that work together to enable breathing. They are responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide through the process of respiration. The left lung has two lobes, while the right lung has three lobes. The lungs are protected by the ribcage and are covered by a double-layered membrane called the pleura. The trachea divides into two bronchi, which further divide into smaller bronchioles, leading to millions of tiny air sacs called alveoli, where the exchange of gases occurs.

Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral (OPV) is a vaccine used to prevent poliomyelitis (polio). It contains live attenuated (weakened) polioviruses, which stimulate an immune response in the body and provide protection against all three types of wild, infectious polioviruses. OPV is given by mouth, usually in drops, and it replicates in the gastrointestinal tract, where it induces a strong immune response. This response not only protects the individual who receives the vaccine but also helps to stop the spread of poliovirus in the community, providing indirect protection (herd immunity) to those who are not vaccinated. OPV is safe, effective, and easy to administer, making it an important tool for global polio eradication efforts. However, due to the risk of vaccine-associated paralytic polio (VAPP), inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) is recommended for routine immunization in some countries.

Viral hepatitis vaccines are vaccines that prevent infection caused by various hepatitis viruses, including hepatitis A and B. These vaccines contain antigens that stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies that protect against infection with the corresponding virus. The vaccines are typically administered through injection and may require multiple doses for full protection.

The hepatitis A vaccine is made from inactivated hepatitis A virus, while the hepatitis B vaccine is made from recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen. Both vaccines have been shown to be highly effective in preventing infection and reducing the risk of complications associated with viral hepatitis, such as liver disease and liver cancer.

It's important to note that there are no vaccines available for other types of viral hepatitis, such as hepatitis C, D, or E. Prevention strategies for these types of viral hepatitis typically involve measures to reduce exposure to the virus, such as safe injection practices and avoiding high-risk behaviors like sharing needles or having unprotected sex with infected individuals.

The Yellow Fever Vaccine is a vaccine that protects against the yellow fever virus, which is transmitted to humans through the bites of infected mosquitoes. The vaccine contains live, weakened yellow fever virus, and it works by stimulating the immune system to produce an immune response that provides protection against the disease.

The yellow fever vaccine is recommended for people who are traveling to areas where yellow fever is common, including parts of Africa and South America. It is also required for entry into some countries in these regions. The vaccine is generally safe and effective, but it can cause mild side effects such as headache, muscle pain, and fever in some people. Serious side effects are rare, but may include allergic reactions or infection with the weakened virus used in the vaccine.

It's important to note that yellow fever vaccine may not be recommended for certain individuals, including infants younger than 6 months, pregnant women, people with weakened immune systems, and those with a history of severe allergic reaction to a previous dose of the vaccine or any component of the vaccine. It is always best to consult with a healthcare provider before receiving any vaccination.

A plague vaccine is a type of immunization used to protect against the bacterial infection caused by Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague. The vaccine contains killed or weakened forms of the bacteria, which stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies and activate immune cells that can recognize and fight off the infection if the person is exposed to the bacteria in the future.

There are several types of plague vaccines available, including whole-cell killed vaccines, live attenuated vaccines, and subunit vaccines. The choice of vaccine depends on various factors, such as the target population, the route of exposure (e.g., respiratory or cutaneous), and the desired duration of immunity.

Plague vaccines have been used for many years to protect military personnel and individuals at high risk of exposure to plague, such as laboratory workers and people living in areas where plague is endemic. However, their use is not widespread, and they are not currently recommended for general use in the United States or other developed countries.

It's important to note that while plague vaccines can provide some protection against the disease, they are not 100% effective, and other measures such as antibiotics and insect control are also important for preventing and treating plague infections.

A fungal vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity against fungal infections. It contains one or more fungal antigens, which are substances that can stimulate an immune response, along with adjuvants to enhance the immune response. The goal of fungal vaccines is to protect against invasive fungal diseases, especially in individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those undergoing chemotherapy, organ transplantation, or HIV/AIDS treatment.

Fungal vaccines can work by inducing both humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Humoral immunity involves the production of antibodies that recognize and neutralize fungal antigens, while cell-mediated immunity involves the activation of T cells to directly attack infected cells.

Currently, there are no licensed fungal vaccines available for human use, although several candidates are in various stages of development and clinical trials. Some examples include vaccines against Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Pneumocystis jirovecii.

Rubella vaccine is a preventive measure used to immunize individuals against rubella, also known as German measles. It contains inactivated or weakened forms of the rubella virus that stimulate an immune response when introduced into the body. The two types of rubella vaccines available are:

1. Live Attenuated Rubella Vaccine (RAV): This vaccine contains a weakened form of the rubella virus, which triggers an immune response without causing the disease. It is the most commonly used rubella vaccine and is often combined with measles and mumps vaccines to create the Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) or Measles-Mumps-Rubella-Varicella (MMRV) vaccines.

2. Inactivated Rubella Vaccine: This vaccine contains a killed rubella virus, which is less commonly used but can still provide immunity against the disease.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that children receive one dose of MMR vaccine at 12-15 months of age and another dose at 4-6 years of age. This schedule ensures optimal protection against rubella and other diseases included in the vaccines.

It is important to note that pregnant women should not receive the rubella vaccine, as it can potentially harm the developing fetus. Women who are planning to become pregnant should ensure they have had their rubella immunization before conceiving.

A bacterial genome is the complete set of genetic material, including both DNA and RNA, found within a single bacterium. It contains all the hereditary information necessary for the bacterium to grow, reproduce, and survive in its environment. The bacterial genome typically includes circular chromosomes, as well as plasmids, which are smaller, circular DNA molecules that can carry additional genes. These genes encode various functional elements such as enzymes, structural proteins, and regulatory sequences that determine the bacterium's characteristics and behavior.

Bacterial genomes vary widely in size, ranging from around 130 kilobases (kb) in Mycoplasma genitalium to over 14 megabases (Mb) in Sorangium cellulosum. The complete sequencing and analysis of bacterial genomes have provided valuable insights into the biology, evolution, and pathogenicity of bacteria, enabling researchers to better understand their roles in various diseases and potential applications in biotechnology.

Acellular vaccines are a type of vaccine that contain one or more antigens but do not contain whole cell parts or components of the pathogen. They are designed to produce an immune response in the body that is specific to the antigen(s) contained within the vaccine, while minimizing the risk of adverse reactions associated with whole cell vaccines.

Acellular vaccines are often produced using recombinant DNA technology, where a specific gene from the pathogen is inserted into a different organism (such as yeast or bacteria) that can produce large quantities of the antigen. The antigen is then purified and used to create the vaccine.

One example of an acellular vaccine is the DTaP vaccine, which is used to protect against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (whooping cough). This vaccine contains only a small portion of the pertussis bacterium, along with purified versions of the toxins produced by the bacteria. By contrast, whole cell pertussis vaccines contain entire killed bacteria, which can cause more frequent and severe side effects.

Overall, acellular vaccines offer a safer and more targeted approach to immunization than whole cell vaccines, while still providing effective protection against infectious diseases.

I believe there may be a slight confusion in your question. AIDS is a condition caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and it weakens the immune system, making people more susceptible to other infections and diseases. There is no vaccine for AIDS itself. However, there are vaccines being developed and tested to prevent HIV infection, which would help prevent AIDS from developing.

SAIDS is not a medical term. If you meant to ask about "HIV vaccines," I can provide a definition:

An HIV vaccine aims to stimulate the immune system to produce an effective response against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). An effective HIV vaccine would ideally prevent the initial infection or significantly reduce viral replication and disease progression in infected individuals. Currently, no licensed HIV vaccines are available, but research is ongoing to develop a protective vaccine against HIV infection.

Salmonella vaccines are immunizations that are developed to protect against Salmonella infections, which are caused by bacteria of the Salmonella enterica species. These vaccines typically contain antigens or weakened forms of the Salmonella bacteria that stimulate an immune response in the body, enabling it to recognize and fight off future Salmonella infections.

There are two main types of Salmonella vaccines:

1. Live Attenuated Vaccines: These vaccines contain weakened (attenuated) forms of the Salmonella bacteria that can still replicate but at a much slower rate and with reduced virulence compared to the wild-type bacteria. Examples include Ty21a, a live oral typhoid vaccine, and χ 144, an experimental live oral vaccine against nontyphoidal Salmonella serovars.
2. Inactivated (Killed) Vaccines: These vaccines contain killed Salmonella bacteria or their components, such as proteins or polysaccharides. They cannot replicate and are generally considered safer than live attenuated vaccines. However, they may not stimulate as strong an immune response compared to live vaccines. An example is the Vi polysaccharide vaccine against typhoid fever.

Salmonella vaccines are primarily used for preventing Salmonella infections in humans and animals, particularly those that cause typhoid fever and nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infections. Vaccination is an essential component of controlling Salmonella infections, especially in areas with poor sanitation and hygiene, where the risk of exposure to Salmonella bacteria is higher.

Virus-like particles (VLPs) are nanostructures that mimic the organization and conformation of authentic viruses but lack the genetic material required for replication. VLPs can be produced from one or more viral proteins, which can be derived from various expression systems including bacteria, yeast, insect, or mammalian cells.

VLP-based vaccines are a type of vaccine that uses these virus-like particles to induce an immune response in the body. These vaccines can be designed to target specific viruses or other pathogens and have been shown to be safe and effective in inducing both humoral and cellular immunity.

VLPs resemble authentic viruses in their structure, size, and antigenic properties, making them highly immunogenic. They can be designed to present specific epitopes or antigens from a pathogen, which can stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies and activate T-cells that recognize and attack the pathogen.

VLP vaccines have been developed for several viruses, including human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). They offer several advantages over traditional vaccines, such as a strong immune response, safety, and stability.

Ebola vaccines are medical products designed to confer immunity against the Ebola virus, a deadly pathogen that causes hemorrhagic fever. Several Ebola vaccine candidates have been developed and tested in clinical trials, with some showing promising results. The most advanced Ebola vaccine is rVSV-ZEBOV, which has been shown to be highly effective in preventing the disease in clinical trials. It uses a weakened version of the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) to deliver a protein from the Ebola virus surface, triggering an immune response that protects against infection. Other Ebola vaccine candidates use different approaches, such as delivering Ebola virus genes using a harmless adenovirus vector or using inactivated whole Ebola viruses. These vaccines are still in development and have not yet been approved for widespread use.

Influenza, also known as the flu, is a highly contagious viral infection that attacks the respiratory system of humans. It is caused by influenza viruses A, B, or C and is characterized by the sudden onset of fever, chills, headache, muscle pain, sore throat, cough, runny nose, and fatigue. Influenza can lead to complications such as pneumonia, bronchitis, and ear infections, and can be particularly dangerous for young children, older adults, pregnant women, and people with weakened immune systems or chronic medical conditions. The virus is spread through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks, and can also survive on surfaces for a period of time. Influenza viruses are constantly changing, which makes it necessary to get vaccinated annually to protect against the most recent and prevalent strains.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Immunization programs, also known as vaccination programs, are organized efforts to administer vaccines to populations or communities in order to protect individuals from vaccine-preventable diseases. These programs are typically implemented by public health agencies and involve the planning, coordination, and delivery of immunizations to ensure that a high percentage of people are protected against specific infectious diseases.

Immunization programs may target specific age groups, such as infants and young children, or populations at higher risk of certain diseases, such as travelers, healthcare workers, or individuals with weakened immune systems. The goals of immunization programs include controlling and eliminating vaccine-preventable diseases, reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these diseases, and protecting vulnerable populations from outbreaks and epidemics.

Immunization programs may be delivered through a variety of settings, including healthcare facilities, schools, community centers, and mobile clinics. They often involve partnerships between government agencies, healthcare providers, non-governmental organizations, and communities to ensure that vaccines are accessible, affordable, and acceptable to the populations they serve. Effective immunization programs require strong leadership, adequate funding, robust data systems, and ongoing monitoring and evaluation to assess their impact and identify areas for improvement.

Neutralizing antibodies are a type of antibody that defends against pathogens such as viruses or bacteria by neutralizing their ability to infect cells. They do this by binding to specific regions on the surface proteins of the pathogen, preventing it from attaching to and entering host cells. This renders the pathogen ineffective and helps to prevent or reduce the severity of infection. Neutralizing antibodies can be produced naturally in response to an infection or vaccination, or they can be generated artificially for therapeutic purposes.

Staphylococcal vaccines are immunizations that are developed to protect against infections caused by the Staphylococcus bacteria, particularly Staphylococcus aureus. These vaccines typically contain components of the bacterial cell wall or toxins that stimulate an immune response in the body, leading to the production of antibodies that can recognize and neutralize the bacteria if they invade the body in the future.

There are currently no licensed staphylococcal vaccines available for use in humans, although several candidates are in various stages of development. These vaccines aim to prevent a range of staphylococcal infections, including skin and soft tissue infections, pneumonia, bloodstream infections, and toxic shock syndrome.

It's important to note that while antibiotics can be effective against staphylococcal infections, the bacteria have become increasingly resistant to these drugs over time, making vaccines an important area of research and development for preventing and controlling the spread of these infections.

Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis (DTaP) vaccines are a type of combination vaccine that protect against three serious diseases caused by bacteria: diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (also known as whooping cough).

Diphtheria is a highly contagious respiratory infection that can cause breathing difficulties, heart failure, paralysis, and even death. Tetanus, also known as lockjaw, is a bacterial infection that affects the nervous system and causes muscle stiffness and spasms, which can be severe enough to cause broken bones or suffocation. Pertussis is a highly contagious respiratory infection that causes severe coughing fits, making it difficult to breathe, eat, or drink.

The "a" in DTaP stands for "acellular," which means that the pertussis component of the vaccine contains only parts of the bacteria, rather than the whole cells used in older vaccines. This reduces the risk of side effects associated with the whole-cell pertussis vaccine while still providing effective protection against the disease.

DTaP vaccines are typically given as a series of five shots, starting at 2 months of age and ending at 4-6 years of age. Booster doses may be recommended later in life to maintain immunity. DTaP vaccines are an essential part of routine childhood immunization schedules and have significantly reduced the incidence of these diseases worldwide.

An "injection, intradermal" refers to a type of injection where a small quantity of a substance is introduced into the layer of skin between the epidermis and dermis, using a thin gauge needle. This technique is often used for diagnostic or research purposes, such as conducting allergy tests or administering immunizations in a way that stimulates a strong immune response. The injection site typically produces a small, raised bump (wheal) that disappears within a few hours. It's important to note that intradermal injections should be performed by trained medical professionals to minimize the risk of complications.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) vaccines are medical products being developed to prevent or ameliorate infection and disease caused by the human cytomegalovirus. CMV is a type of herpesvirus that can cause serious health problems in people with weakened immune systems, such as those undergoing organ transplantation, people living with HIV/AIDS, and newborns infected with the virus before birth (congenital CMV infection).

There are currently no approved vaccines for CMV. However, several vaccine candidates are being investigated in clinical trials to evaluate their safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy. These vaccine candidates use various approaches, such as:

1. Live-attenuated viruses: These vaccines contain weakened forms of the virus that can stimulate an immune response without causing disease. An example is the Towne vaccine, which has been studied in clinical trials for several decades.
2. Recombinant proteins: These vaccines use specific viral proteins to induce an immune response. For instance, a glycoprotein B (gB) subunit vaccine has shown promising results in phase II clinical trials.
3. Virus-like particles (VLPs): VLPs mimic the structure of the virus but do not contain any viral genetic material. They can be used to induce an immune response without causing infection.
4. DNA vaccines: These vaccines use plasmids containing CMV genes to stimulate an immune response. A DNA vaccine encoding the CMV phosphoprotein 65 (pp65) has been tested in clinical trials.
5. mRNA vaccines: Similar to DNA vaccines, mRNA vaccines use genetic material to induce an immune response. Moderna Therapeutics is developing an mRNA vaccine candidate for CMV.

The development of a safe and effective CMV vaccine remains a significant public health priority, as CMV infection can lead to severe complications in vulnerable populations.

Intranasal administration refers to the delivery of medication or other substances through the nasal passages and into the nasal cavity. This route of administration can be used for systemic absorption of drugs or for localized effects in the nasal area.

When a medication is administered intranasally, it is typically sprayed or dropped into the nostril, where it is absorbed by the mucous membranes lining the nasal cavity. The medication can then pass into the bloodstream and be distributed throughout the body for systemic effects. Intranasal administration can also result in direct absorption of the medication into the local tissues of the nasal cavity, which can be useful for treating conditions such as allergies, migraines, or pain in the nasal area.

Intranasal administration has several advantages over other routes of administration. It is non-invasive and does not require needles or injections, making it a more comfortable option for many people. Additionally, intranasal administration can result in faster onset of action than oral administration, as the medication bypasses the digestive system and is absorbed directly into the bloodstream. However, there are also some limitations to this route of administration, including potential issues with dosing accuracy and patient tolerance.

Antibody formation, also known as humoral immune response, is the process by which the immune system produces proteins called antibodies in response to the presence of a foreign substance (antigen) in the body. This process involves several steps:

1. Recognition: The antigen is recognized and bound by a type of white blood cell called a B lymphocyte or B cell, which then becomes activated.
2. Differentiation: The activated B cell undergoes differentiation to become a plasma cell, which is a type of cell that produces and secretes large amounts of antibodies.
3. Antibody production: The plasma cells produce and release antibodies, which are proteins made up of four polypeptide chains (two heavy chains and two light chains) arranged in a Y-shape. Each antibody has two binding sites that can recognize and bind to specific regions on the antigen called epitopes.
4. Neutralization or elimination: The antibodies bind to the antigens, neutralizing them or marking them for destruction by other immune cells. This helps to prevent the spread of infection and protect the body from harmful substances.

Antibody formation is an important part of the adaptive immune response, which allows the body to specifically recognize and respond to a wide variety of pathogens and foreign substances.

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody, which is a protective protein produced by the immune system in response to foreign substances like bacteria or viruses. IgG is the most abundant type of antibody in human blood, making up about 75-80% of all antibodies. It is found in all body fluids and plays a crucial role in fighting infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and toxins.

IgG has several important functions:

1. Neutralization: IgG can bind to the surface of bacteria or viruses, preventing them from attaching to and infecting human cells.
2. Opsonization: IgG coats the surface of pathogens, making them more recognizable and easier for immune cells like neutrophils and macrophages to phagocytose (engulf and destroy) them.
3. Complement activation: IgG can activate the complement system, a group of proteins that work together to help eliminate pathogens from the body. Activation of the complement system leads to the formation of the membrane attack complex, which creates holes in the cell membranes of bacteria, leading to their lysis (destruction).
4. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC): IgG can bind to immune cells like natural killer (NK) cells and trigger them to release substances that cause target cells (such as virus-infected or cancerous cells) to undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death).
5. Immune complex formation: IgG can form immune complexes with antigens, which can then be removed from the body through various mechanisms, such as phagocytosis by immune cells or excretion in urine.

IgG is a critical component of adaptive immunity and provides long-lasting protection against reinfection with many pathogens. It has four subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) that differ in their structure, function, and distribution in the body.

"Intramuscular injections" refer to a medical procedure where a medication or vaccine is administered directly into the muscle tissue. This is typically done using a hypodermic needle and syringe, and the injection is usually given into one of the large muscles in the body, such as the deltoid (shoulder), vastus lateralis (thigh), or ventrogluteal (buttock) muscles.

Intramuscular injections are used for a variety of reasons, including to deliver medications that need to be absorbed slowly over time, to bypass stomach acid and improve absorption, or to ensure that the medication reaches the bloodstream quickly and directly. Common examples of medications delivered via intramuscular injection include certain vaccines, antibiotics, and pain relievers.

It is important to follow proper technique when administering intramuscular injections to minimize pain and reduce the risk of complications such as infection or injury to surrounding tissues. Proper site selection, needle length and gauge, and injection technique are all critical factors in ensuring a safe and effective intramuscular injection.

The Diphtheria-Tetanus vaccine, also known as the DT vaccine or Td vaccine (if diphtheria toxoid is not included), is a combination vaccine that protects against two potentially serious bacterial infections: diphtheria and tetanus.

Diphtheria is a respiratory infection that can cause breathing difficulties, heart problems, and nerve damage. Tetanus, also known as lockjaw, is a bacterial infection that affects the nervous system and causes muscle stiffness and spasms, particularly in the jaw and neck.

The vaccine contains small amounts of inactivated toxins (toxoids) from the bacteria that cause diphtheria and tetanus. When the vaccine is administered, it stimulates the immune system to produce antibodies that provide protection against these diseases.

In addition to protecting against diphtheria and tetanus, some formulations of the vaccine may also include protection against pertussis (whooping cough), polio, or hepatitis B. The DTaP vaccine is a similar combination vaccine that includes protection against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis, but uses acellular pertussis components instead of the whole-cell pertussis component used in the DT vaccine.

The Diphtheria-Tetanus vaccine is typically given as a series of shots in childhood, with booster shots recommended every 10 years to maintain immunity. It is an important part of routine childhood vaccination and is also recommended for adults who have not received the full series of shots or whose protection has waned over time.

Poliovirus vaccines are preparations used for active immunization against poliomyelitis, a highly infectious disease caused by the poliovirus. The two types of poliovirus vaccines available are:

1. Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine (IPV): This vaccine contains inactivated (killed) poliovirus strains of all three serotypes. IPV is typically administered through an injection, usually in combination with other vaccines. It provides a strong immune response and does not carry the risk of vaccine-associated paralytic polio (VAPP), which is a rare but serious adverse event associated with the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV).

2. Oral Poliovirus Vaccine (OPV): This vaccine contains live attenuated (weakened) poliovirus strains of all three serotypes. OPV is administered orally and induces both humoral and intestinal immunity, which helps prevent the spread of the virus in a community. However, there is a small risk of VAPP associated with this vaccine, especially after multiple doses. In rare cases, the weakened virus can revert to its virulent form and cause paralytic polio in the vaccinated individual or their close contacts.

Both IPV and OPV have been instrumental in global efforts to eradicate polio. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends using IPV in routine immunization programs, while using OPV during supplementary immunization activities in areas with a high risk of poliovirus transmission.

Escherichia coli (E. coli) vaccines are designed to protect against infections caused by various strains of the E. coli bacterium. These vaccines typically contain inactivated or attenuated (weakened) forms of the bacteria, which stimulate an immune response when introduced into the body. The immune system learns to recognize and fight off the specific strain of E. coli used in the vaccine, providing protection against future infections with that strain.

There are several types of E. coli vaccines available or in development, including:

1. Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) vaccines: These vaccines protect against STEC strains, such as O157:H7 and non-O157 STECs, which can cause severe illness, including hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS).
2. Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) vaccines: These vaccines target ETEC strains that are a common cause of traveler's diarrhea in people visiting areas with poor sanitation.
3. Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) vaccines: EPEC strains can cause persistent diarrhea, especially in young children in developing countries. Vaccines against these strains are still in the research and development stage.
4. Extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) vaccines: These vaccines aim to protect against ExPEC strains that can cause urinary tract infections, sepsis, and meningitis.

It is important to note that different E. coli vaccines are designed for specific purposes and may not provide cross-protection against other strains or types of E. coli infections.

West Nile Virus (WNV) vaccines are immunizations that are designed to protect against the West Nile virus, which is a single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the family Flaviviridae. The virus is primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes, particularly those of the Culex species.

There are currently no licensed WNV vaccines available for human use in the United States or Europe. However, there are several veterinary vaccines that have been developed and approved for use in horses and other animals, such as birds and geese. These vaccines work by stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies against the virus, which can help prevent infection and reduce the severity of symptoms in animals that do become infected.

Human WNV vaccine candidates are in various stages of development and testing. Some of these vaccines use inactivated or weakened forms of the virus, while others use only a portion of the viral protein to stimulate an immune response. While these vaccines have shown promise in clinical trials, further research is needed to determine their safety and effectiveness in larger populations before they can be approved for widespread use.

  • The vaccine was originally developed from Mycobacterium bovis, which is commonly found in cattle. (
  • However, BCG is not generally recommended for use in the United States because of the low risk of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis , the variable effectiveness of the vaccine against adult pulmonary TB, and the vaccine's potential interference with tuberculin skin test reactivity. (
  • [8] The vaccine was originally developed from Mycobacterium bovis , which is commonly found in cattle. (
  • BCG vaccine contains live attenuated Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) strain of Mycobacterium bovis . (
  • The initial scrutiny suggested a weaker association with BCG vaccination policy or BCG coverage, so positivity to the Tuberculin Sensitivity Test (TST)/ Interferon Gamma Release Assay (IGRA) as a measure of the potential protective effect of the resident populations' exposure to Mycobacterium spp . (
  • The BCG vaccine is an avirulent tuberculosis strain Mycobacterium bovis historically given to protect against tuberculosis and, since its introduction in 1921, has been the most widely administered vaccine in the history of medicine. (
  • ABSTRACT Previous work with small-animal laboratory models of tuberculosis has shown that vaccination strategies based on heterologous prime-boost protocols using Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) to prime and modified vaccinia virus Ankara strain (MVA85A) or recombinant attenuated adenoviruses (Ad85A) expressing the mycobacterial antigen Ag85A to boost may increase the protective efficacy of BCG. (
  • BCG vaccine is traditionally given to newborns, to protect them from Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) bacteria. (
  • Mycobacterium bovis onco- BCG bacilli used in immunotherapy of bladder cancer are candidates for training of immune cells towards microbial pathogens. (
  • Revaccination of Guinea Pigs With the Live Attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis Vaccine MTBVAC Improves BCG's Protection Against Tuberculosis. (
  • Reference genome and comparative genome analysis for the WHO reference strain for Mycobacterium bovis BCG Danish, the present tuberculosis vaccine. (
  • Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (M. bovis BCG) is the only vaccine available against tuberculosis (TB). (
  • Contact with different species of environmental Mycobacterium can cause acquired immunity to M. tuberculosis or increase the efficacy of BCG vaccine protection (M. vaccae, M. microti), although some species of these bacteria reduce the efficacy of BCG vaccine (M. scrofulaceum) [8,10-13]. (
  • Boston: A widely used tuberculosis vaccine protected people with Type 1 diabetes from COVID-19, according to a study that demonstrates the potential of multiple doses of the Bacillus Calmette-Guerin ( BCG ) preventive against SARS-CoV-2 and other viruses. (
  • Researchers at the Murdoch Children's Research Institute in Australia are set to conduct a randomised, multi-centre clinical trial to test the use of tuberculosis vaccine BCG against Covid-19. (
  • These findings also have implications for human tuberculosis vaccine development. (
  • The most controversial aspect of BCG is the variable efficacy found in different clinical trials, which appears to depend on geography. (
  • BCG seems to have its greatest effect in preventing miliary tuberculosis or tuberculosis meningitis, so it is still extensively used even in countries where efficacy against pulmonary tuberculosis is negligible. (
  • Tuberculosis elimination is a goal of the World Health Organization (WHO), although the development of new vaccines with greater efficacy against adult pulmonary tuberculosis may be needed to make substantial progress. (
  • A number of possible reasons for the variable efficacy of BCG in different countries have been proposed. (
  • The reasons for variable efficacy have been discussed at length in a WHO document on BCG. (
  • Genetic variation in BCG strains: Genetic variation in the BCG strains used may explain the variable efficacy reported in different trials. (
  • The trial, based in Birmingham, United Kingdom, examined children born to families who originated from the Indian subcontinent (where vaccine efficacy had previously been shown to be zero). (
  • The ongoing release of safety and efficacy data that demonstrates the effectiveness of the vaccines slowly alleviates those concerns. (
  • In addition, new information about the protective efficacy of BCG has become available. (
  • Despite some studies suggesting that BCG may enhance immunity against other respiratory infections in adolescents and adults, the WHO did not endorse its use for COVID-19 at the onset of the pandemic, citing a lack of evidence regarding its efficacy. (
  • To address this uncertainty, the BRACE trial was started in March 2020 to test the efficacy of the BCG vaccine in protecting against COVID-19, at a time when no vaccines specifically for this viral strain were available. (
  • Here we report the first efficacy data on using these vaccines in cattle, a natural target species of tuberculous infection. (
  • Therefore, this study provides evidence of improved protection against tuberculosis by viral booster vaccination in a natural target species and has prioritized potential correlates of vaccine efficacy for further evaluation. (
  • Researchers say that BCG vaccination can protect children from severe forms of TB but its efficacy in adults is poor. (
  • Concerned that scepticism against vaccination is continuing to grow in society despite the proven efficacy and safety of modern vaccines, and that many children do not receive life-saving vaccines as a result of insufficient information to parents or health care workers or even of active anti-vaccination propaganda, 1. (
  • University of Birmingham researchers have received a £1.8M grant by the NIHR EME Programme investigating BCG vaccine efficacy in reducing COPD exacerbations. (
  • Nowadays these bacteria are believed to have an important role in infections, allergies, immunity to other pulmonary infections and the efficacy of bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination [3]. (
  • it can also affect the efficacy of BCG vaccination [3,7-9]. (
  • Several highly effective vaccines receive emergency-use authorization in late 2020. (
  • Two vaccines are authorized for use by the end of 2020, but they are slightly less effective. (
  • A single vaccine receives emergency-use authorization in 2020. (
  • From July 2020, BCGVL started supplying BCG vaccine manufactured in cGMP compliant facility to Universal Immunization Programme (UIP). (
  • 1 In research published in July 2020, every 10% increase in the BCG index (which reflects the extent of a country's BCG vaccination) was associated with a 10.4% reduction in mortality from COVID-19, and higher mortality rates were observed in countries with later vs early initiation of universal BCG vaccination. (
  • However, other research has produced conflicting results, including a study published in August 2020 in Clinical Infectious Diseases that analyzed the effects of BCG vaccination on COVID-19-related outcomes in individuals born in Sweden before and after April 1975 (n=1,026,304 and n=1,018,544, respectively). (
  • Sarah and Lachlan Murdoch have donated $700 000 to the trial, which is designed to test whether BCG, which boosts humans' 'frontline' immunity, can protect healthcare workers exposed to SARS- CoV-2 from developing severe symptoms. (
  • The researchers hope to show that improving 'innate' immunity of frontline healthcare workers will provide crucial time to develop and importantly, validate, a specific anti-COVID-19 vaccine. (
  • The vaccine is said to enhance 'frontline' immunity. (
  • The improved immunity is expected to provide the time required to develop and validate a specific vaccine for Covid-19 infection. (
  • 4 It is believed that BCG may stimulate "trained immunity," which has been a focus of interest for roughly the past 10 years since scientists "realized that the innate immune system does have some memory of infection," Dr Pulendran explained. (
  • The hope is that, through the broad protection conferred by trained immunity, the vaccine may at least limit the severity of infection. (
  • Immunotherapy of cancer with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin : BCG potency testing and BCG induced tumor immunity (met een samenvatting in het Nederlands / door Wilhelmus Huibertus de Jong. (
  • Analysis of vaccine-induced immunity identified memory responses measured by cultured enzyme-linked immunospot assay as well as in vitro interleukin-17 production as predictors of vaccination success, as both responses, measured before challenge, correlated positively with the degree of protection. (
  • BCG vaccine-induced trained immunity and COVID-19: Protective or bystander? (
  • COVID-19 related epidemiological studies showed an inverse relation- ship between national BCG vaccination policies and COVID-19 incidence and death, suggesting that BCG may induce trained immunity that could confer some protection against SARS-CoV-2. (
  • This review focuses on BCG-related cross-protection and acquisition of trained immunity, as well as the correlation between BCG vaccination and COVID-19 incidence and mortality. (
  • Dive into the research topics of 'BCG vaccine-induced trained immunity and COVID-19: Protective or bystander? (
  • BCG also has some effectiveness against Buruli ulcer infection and other nontuberculous mycobacterial infections. (
  • Health care workers considered for BCG vaccination should be counseled regarding the risks and benefits associated with both BCG vaccination and treatment of Latent TB Infection (LTBI). (
  • The tuberculin skin test (TST) and blood tests to detect TB infection are not contraindicated for persons who have been vaccinated with BCG. (
  • Blood tests to detect TB infection, unlike the TST, are not affected by prior BCG vaccination and are less likely to give a false-positive result. (
  • This updated report is being issued by CDC, the Advisory Committee for the Elimination of Tuberculosis, and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, in consultation with the Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee, to summarize current considerations and recommendations regarding the use of BCG vaccine in the United States. (
  • BCG vaccination should be considered for infants and children who reside in settings in which the likelihood of M. tuberculosis transmission and subsequent infection is high, provided no other measures can be implemented (e.g., removing the child from the source of infection). (
  • In addition, BCG vaccination may be considered for health-care workers (HCWs) who are employed in settings in which the likelihood of transmission and subsequent infection with M. tuberculosis strains resistant to isoniazid and rifampin is high, provided comprehensive TB infection-control precautions have been implemented in the workplace and have not been successful. (
  • Immunosuppressives may diminish therapeutic effects of vaccines and increase risk of adverse effects (increased risk of infection). (
  • BCG's broad-based infection protection suggests that, in addition to COVID-19, the vaccine may potentially provide protection against new SARS-CoV-2 variants and other pathogens, they said. (
  • We found that three doses of BCG administered prior to the start of the pandemic prevented infection and limited severe symptoms from COVID-19 and other infectious diseases," Faustman said. (
  • The researchers noted that unlike the antigen-specific vaccines currently in use to prevent COVID-19, BCG's mechanism of action is not limited to a specific virus or infection. (
  • Is Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) Vaccine a Known Risk Factor for Latent Tuberculosis Infection? (
  • Both the data and samples collected are very important in terms of allowing a better understanding of BCG response,' explains Cristina Prat-Aymerich, MD, PhD, co-leader of an IGTP research group dedicated to tuberculosis and head of the respiratory and mycobacterial infection section in the Microbiology service at HUGTiP, currently working in UMC Utrecht, the Netherlands. (
  • The aim of the study is to determine if BCG (re)vaccination reduces the probability of infection with the SARS-CoV-2 virus and/or the severity of symptoms of Covid-19 disease. (
  • In multiple studies comparing the effect of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide, findings thus far suggest lower rates of infection and mortality in countries with universal neonatal Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) tuberculosis vaccination policies compared with countries without this practice. (
  • Taken together, such observations have further piqued researchers' interest in the effect of BCG vaccination in relation to COVID-19 infection. (
  • Further research is needed to elucidate the effect of BCG vaccination on COVID-19 infection in various populations. (
  • To learn more about findings regarding the potential role of BCG in protecting against COVID-19 infection, we spoke with Pramod Kumar Gupta, PhD, a researcher in the Tuberculosis Immunology and Immunoassay Development Section, Radiation Medicine Centre at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre in Mumbai, India. (
  • Summary: There is no evidence that the Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine (BCG) protects people against infection with COVID-19 virus. (
  • Unlike the antigen-specific vaccines currently in use to prevent COVID-19, BCG's mechanism of action is not limited to a specific virus or infection," says Denise Faustman, MD, Ph.D., director of the Immunobiology Laboratory at Massachusetts General Hospital. (
  • In developing countries with a higher prevalence of tuberculous infection, usually more than one Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is recommended. (
  • It also discusses problems involved when testing for TB and treating latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in BCG vaccinated persons. (
  • Hepatitis B (HBV) vaccine is included in routine childhood immunization vaccines to prevent chronic HBV infection. (
  • Differences in effectiveness depend on region, due to factors such as genetic differences in the populations, changes in environment, exposure to other bacterial infections, and conditions in the laboratory where the vaccine is grown, including genetic differences between the strains being cultured and the choice of growth medium. (
  • [18] Differences in effectiveness depend on region, due to factors such as genetic differences in the populations, changes in environment, exposure to other bacterial infections, and conditions in the laboratory where the vaccine is grown, including genetic differences between the strains being cultured and the choice of growth medium. (
  • Before 2012, Russian BCG-I (Bulbio, Sofia, Bulgaria) and Danish SSI 1331 strains were used (≈50% each). (
  • After a change in BCG vaccine strains in Georgia to the exclusive use of BCG SSI vaccine, we found a substantial increase in the known prevalence of BCG-associated lymphadenitis. (
  • We found 23 cases of BCG-associated lymphadenitis during a 19-month period, ≈4 times the number of reported cases during the prior 5 years, when multiple vaccine strains were used. (
  • International Union against, T 1978, ' Phenotypes of BCG-vaccines seed lot strains: results of an international cooperative study ', Tubercle , vol. 59, pp. 139-142. (
  • 40 per 1 million population) adopted a mandatory BCG vaccination program using one of a set of 6 separate BCG strains (Table 1). (
  • An additional question is why different BCG strains may be variably associated with mortality. (
  • BCG Danish 1331, Tokyo 172-1 and Russia BCG-1 were established as the WHO reference strains. (
  • By integrating publicly available data, we provide an update to the genome features of the commonly used BCG strains.We demonstrate how this analysis workflow enables the resolution of genome duplications and of the genome of engineered derivatives of the BCG Danish vaccine strain. (
  • The BCG Danish WHO reference genome will serve as a reference for future engineered strains and the established workflow can be used to enhance BCG vaccine standardization. (
  • Even though no harmful effects of BCG vaccination on the fetus have been observed, further studies are needed to prove its safety. (
  • What do the data suggest thus far about the protective effects of BCG vaccination against COVID-19? (
  • The original BCG strain was developed in 1921. (
  • Shortly after a change to exclusive use of the Danish 1331 strain during 2012-2013, an increasing number of BCG-related lymphadenitis cases were reported to the National Center for Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NCTLD). (
  • COVID-19 mortality was also higher in countries where widespread BCG vaccination was discontinued more than 20 years ago and in countries that used the BCG Denmark strain regularly or temporarily. (
  • Here, two groups of neonate Indian rhesus macaques were immunized with either novel candidate vaccine BCG.HIVA(401) or its parental strain AERAS-401, followed by two doses of recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara MVA.HIVA. (
  • Avoid coadministration of cholera vaccine with systemic antibiotics since these agents may be active against the vaccine strain. (
  • To understand its mechanism of action, researchers at the Precision Vaccines Program at Boston Children's Hospital partnered with the Expanded Program on Immunization Consortium (EPIC), an international team studying early life immunization, to collect and comprehensively profile blood samples from newborns immunized with BCG, using a powerful "big data" approach. (
  • Using metabolomics and lipidomics, the team comprehensively profiled the impact of BCG immunization on the newborns' blood plasma. (
  • International immunization programs for children have many vaccines in common but, depending on the region, may vary slightly. (
  • Another consideration relating to global immunization is the use of travel vaccines. (
  • While an important component of immunization programs, a review of influenza vaccines is beyond the scope of this article. (
  • BCG, or bacille Calmette-Guerin, is a vaccine for tuberculosis (TB) disease. (
  • Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is used as a vaccine against tuberculosis in children, but it also has non-specific protective effects against other respiratory tract infections in children and adults. (
  • Bacille Calmette-Guérin ( BCG ) vaccine and the COVID-19 pandemic : responsible stewardship is needed. (
  • Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination and COVID-19. (
  • The century-old Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine against tuberculosis is one of the world's oldest and most widely used vaccines, used to immunize 100 million newborns every year. (
  • This information sheet discusses the bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine for TB, which is used in many countries to prevent childhood tuberculous meningitis and miliary TB. (
  • In related work, Dr Pulendran and colleagues have been exploring the use of systems vaccinology to predict immune responses to vaccinations, as well as the use of adjuvants to enhance the immune response to vaccines. (
  • The BCG was administered on recapture at a rate of one dose per calendar year, resulting in some individuals receiving multiple vaccinations over the course of the study. (
  • Denise L. Faustman et al, Multiple BCG vaccinations for prevention of COVID-19 and other infectious diseases in Type 1 diabetes, Cell Reports Medicine (2022). (
  • In this study to assess the relationship between the number of BCG vaccinations and tuberculin skin reactions, 3548 children (ages 6 to 12 years) from 7 elementary schools were given 5 tuberculin units of purified protein derivative, and results were compared taking vaccination status into account. (
  • We suggest that tuberculin skin test responses be evaluated with regard to the number of previous BCG vaccinations. (
  • It is necessary that the investigators receive the consent by way of REDCAp to a) keep away from direct person-to-person contact and adjust to social distancing imposed suggestions, and b) decrease the waste of reconstituted BCG by permitting the analysis personnel to schedule vaccinations in a managed vogue. (
  • Administration of routine childhood vaccinations (eg, hepatitis, polio, and meningococcal vaccines) is often prioritized over specific travel vaccines, as these diseases are still prevalent in many underdeveloped countries. (
  • Few recent studies have suggested a positive protective correlation of the BCG vaccination policy of the countries with the observed COVID-19 severity. (
  • Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is a vaccine primarily used against tuberculosis (TB). (
  • Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is one of the most commonly used vaccines for tuberculosis (TB) worldwide ( 1 ). (
  • 卡介苗 (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine, BCG). (
  • This report updates and replaces previous recommendations regarding the use of Bacillus of Calmette and Guerin (BCG) vaccine for controlling tuberculosis (TB) in the United States (MMWR 1988;37:663-4, 669-75). (
  • The BCG vaccine (which stands for Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) is an injection given to children and people who have a higher risk of catching TB. (
  • The Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine, primarily developed to prevent tuberculosis, is administered to over 130 million babies worldwide each year. (
  • Intravesical administration of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) was one of the first FDA-approved immunotherapies and remains a standard treatment for bladder cancer. (
  • Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is a live attenuated tuberculosis (TB) vaccine, associated with induction of non-specific cross-protection against unrelated infections. (
  • The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) recently granted approval to the National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis, Chennai to spearhead a study to see if the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine can reduce the COVID-19 mortality among the elderly. (
  • Researchers at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), published a new paper in Cell Reports Medicine demonstrating the protective potential of multiple doses of the Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine against COVID-19 and other infectious diseases. (
  • Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is given to most infants at birth, and its recombinant form could be used to prime HIV-1-specific responses for a later boost by heterologous vectors delivering the same HIV-1-derived immunogen. (
  • Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is given by injection to help prevent tuberculosis (TB). (
  • Correlation between universal BCG vaccination policy and reduced morbidity and mortality for COVID-19: an epidemiological study. (
  • The Murdoch Children's Research Institute (MCRI) has started vaccinating healthcare workers as part of a multi-centre randomised clinical trial of the BCG vaccine against COVID-19. (
  • The participants in the COVID trial had previously enrolled in a clinical trial testing the effectiveness of the BCG vaccine for type 1 diabetes. (
  • The 144 adult type diabetics (96 BCG treated and 48 placebo) analysed in the COVID-19 trial were part of an ongoing Phase IIb clinical trial testing BCG as a treatment for adults with established type 1 diabetes. (
  • First author Joann Diray Arce, Ph.D., and her colleagues began with blood samples from low-birthweight newborns in Guinea Bissau who were enrolled in a randomized clinical trial to receive BCG either at birth or after a delay of six weeks. (
  • The concern of the public health community about the resurgence and changing nature of TB in the United States prompted a re-evaluation of the role of BCG vaccination in the prevention and control of TB. (
  • In the United States, the use of BCG vaccination as a TB prevention strategy is reserved for selected persons who meet specific criteria. (
  • Evidence Central , (
  • The vaccine is given as an intradermal injection over the left deltoid muscle. (
  • All eligible contributors will obtain intradermal injections of BCG:placebo in a 1:1 ratio. (
  • It also explains how to interpret tuberculin skin test results in people who have received the vaccination and the treatment for LTBI in BCG-vaccinated persons. (
  • BCG is an 'old school' vaccine-it's made from a live, weakened germ-but live vaccines like BCG seem to activate the immune system in a very different way in early life, providing broad protection against a range of bacterial and viral infections. (
  • The bacterial loads in lymph node tissues were also reduced after viral boosting of BCG-vaccinated calves compared to those in BCG-only-vaccinated animals. (
  • Bacterial infections kill over 7 million people each year and the development of new and better vaccines will reduce this devastating burden of disease. (
  • Wait until Abx Tx complete to administer live bacterial vaccine. (
  • The 100th anniversary of BCG was in 2021. (
  • A second vaccine is authorized for use but not until mid-2021. (
  • Safety and immunogenicity of novel recombinant BCG and modified vaccinia virus Ankara vaccines in neonate rhesus macaques. (
  • The BCG vaccine protects against tuberculosis, which is also known as TB. (
  • A growing number of studies show that BCG vaccine protects against unrelated infections," says Ofer Levy, MD, Ph.D., director of the Precision Vaccines Program and the study's senior investigator. (
  • Led by Professor Nigel Curtis, a clinician-scientist who leads MCRI's Infectious Diseases Research Group, the BRACE trial builds on previous studies which showed that BCG reduces the viral load, and lessens their symptoms, when people are infected with respiratory viruses similar to SARS-CoV- 2. (
  • The BCG vaccine may have a broad protective effect against viral pathogens including respiratory infections. (
  • Researchers at Massachusetts General Hospital ( MGH ) in the US found that 12.5 per cent of placebo-treated individuals and 1 per cent of BCG-treated individuals had confirmed COVID-19, yielding a vaccine effectiveness of 92 per cent. (
  • No BCG-related systemic adverse events occurred, according to the researchers. (
  • The researchers are hoping the results will pave the way for a large scale study of the effects of the BCG vaccine in patients with type 1 diabetes, considered among the most vulnerable groups to COVID-19. (
  • Considered to be extremely safe, BCG is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines and is given to roughly 100 million children per year globally, the researchers said. (
  • The results support the idea that BCG needs time to have a clinical effect, but its effects may then be very lasting and durable, the researchers said. (
  • Researchers found that BCG vaccination did not reduce the incidence of COVID-19. (
  • The researchers had parallel findings when they tested BCG in cord blood samples from a cohort of Boston newborns and samples from a separate NIH/NIAID-funded Human Immunology Project Consortium study of newborns in The Gambia and Papua New Guinea. (
  • The BCG vaccine was first used medically in 1921. (
  • Highly effective therapeutics mitigate disease severity during the vaccine ramp up. (
  • The BCG-vaccinated group also displayed protective effects against other infectious diseases, including fewer symptoms, lesser severity and fewer infectious disease events per patient. (
  • BCG will be assessed for its ability to mitigate the prevalence and severity of Covid-19 symptoms. (
  • The primary objective of this trial is to find out if BCG (re)vaccination reduces disease severity, hospital admissions and death in frontline workers with direct patient contact during the pandemic phase of COVID-19. (
  • For example, 2 trials are investigating whether receiving the vaccine (in adulthood) can protect against COVID-19 incidence and severity in healthcare workers and reduce workplace absenteeism in this population, while another trial is focused on the effect of the vaccine on the incidence of COVID-19-related hospital admissions in elderly adults. (
  • Half the participants will receive the BCG vaccine and the other half will receive a placebo and they will be monitored to see if they contract COVID and the severity of their symptoms. (
  • It remains the only vaccine licensed against tuberculosis, which is an ongoing pandemic. (
  • The pivotal Phase III trials of COVID-19 vaccine candidates are nearing the first results, and hopes are rising that the end of the worst pandemic in a century may be approaching. (
  • The study, published in the journal Cell Reports Medicine on Monday, was conducted on 144 patients with type 1 diabetes at the start of the pandemic, much before COVID-specific vaccines were available. (
  • As this pandemic has put most of Earth's population under quarantine, repurposing of the old, well-characterized BCG may ensure some protection against COVID-19. (
  • Specific travel vaccines (eg, typhoid fever, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis) are the next consideration, as these diseases are endemic in many resource-limited countries. (
  • The findings provide clues toward making other vaccines more effective in vulnerable populations with distinct immune systems, such as newborns. (
  • The impact of the vaccine on these unscreened populations can be seen by comparing the proportion of TB in badger controls (unvaccinated population) with the proportion of TB in the vaccinated badgers for each year. (
  • HBV vaccine is also targeted for certain high-risk populations and for travel health. (
  • This is partly due to the earlier-than-expected availability of COVID-19 vaccines (with health care workers prioritized) leading to recruitment stopping before the target number was reached as well as shorter follow-up period. (
  • and provides recommendations for when the BCG should be used with children and health care workers, and contraindications when it should not be used, such as for immunosuppressed persons and pregnant women. (
  • The HIV-1-specific responses induced in infants were lower compared to historic data generated by the two HIVA vaccines in adult animals but similar to other recombinant poxviruses tested in this model. (
  • Additionally, epidemiologic studies conducted prior to the emergence of COVID-19 "showed that BCG vaccination seems to have a beneficial effect not only in preventing tuberculosis but also in all-cause mortality," according to Bali Pulendran, PhD, the Violetta L. Horton Professor and professor of microbiology and immunology in the department of virology at Stanford University in California. (
  • The objective of our study is to test BCG as a prophylactic (preventive measure), to reduce morbidity and mortality. (
  • Is BCG vaccination causally related to reduced COVID-19 mortality? (
  • In contrast, COVID-19 mortality was markedly higher in countries where BCG vaccination is not widely administered or is given only to high-risk groups. (
  • This raises the question of whether BCG vaccination and reduced COVID-19 mortality are causally related. (
  • The results support the idea that BCG needs time to have a clinical effect, but its effects may then be very lasting and durable," says Hazel Dockrell, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, an infectious diseases expert who was not officially involved in the study. (
  • Five hundred front line healthcare workers and paramedics in NSW will join an international trial, to discover whether the tuberculosis (TB) vaccine reduces the impact of COVID-19. (
  • BCG is used in many countries with a high prevalence of TB to prevent childhood tuberculous meningitis and miliary disease. (
  • However, when BCG vaccine is given just after birth, 7 out of 10 of infants and young children will be protected from developing severe forms of TB, e.g. meningeal TB (affecting the brain) and miliary TB (widespread). (
  • BCG vaccine can be administered after birth intradermally. (
  • BCG vaccine is given intradermally over the deltoid muscle on the left arm to infants within 5 days after birth at the maternity hospital. (
  • Monrovia - Scores of parents have expressed concern over the total lack of the BCG vaccine at health centers across the country. (
  • In fact, it increased the risk of symptomatic disease during the first six months following enrollment in the trial, which was 14.7 percent in the BCG group compared to 12.3 percent in the placebo group, a difference deemed not statistically significant. (
  • Data to be collected throughout baseline enrollment contains eligibility affirmation, demographic data, threat elements, randomization task, affirmation of BCG vaccination/placebo, any speedy reactions to BCG vaccination/placebo. (
  • The use of BCG vaccine has been limited because a) its effectiveness in preventing infectious forms of TB is uncertain and b) the reactivity to tuberculin that occurs after vaccination interferes with the management of persons who are possibly infected with M. tuberculosis. (
  • BCG vaccine can be administered at any time before or after rotavirus vaccine because the BCG vaccine is an injectable live vaccine and rotavirus is an oral live vaccine. (
  • The best time to administer the BCG vaccine is when the infant is between a few days old and six months of age. (
  • Only BCG endorsed, authorised vaccinators may administer the BCG vaccine. (
  • Do not administer live vaccines 30 days before or concurrently with belimumab. (
  • Do not administer cholera vaccine to patients who have received oral or parenteral antibiotics within 14 days prior to vaccination. (
  • certolizumab pegol decreases effects of BCG vaccine live by pharmacodynamic antagonism. (
  • It is based on previous study findings that BCG decreases the level of virus in patients infected by viruses similar to SARS-CoV-2. (
  • The BRACE trial, announced last week, has already vaccinated over 300 of an eventual 4000 medical workers in hospitals across Australia, half of whom will be given the BCG vaccine. (
  • Our front line health workers risk exposure to COVID-19 every day, so the sooner we can find a breakthrough and fingers crossed it is the BCG anti-TB vaccine, the better for all of us. (
  • Results: Positive LTBI was found among 14/140 (10.0%) of the dairy workers tested with 12/87 (13.8%) in Dairy A and 2/53 (3.8%) in Dairy B. All LTBI cases were determined to be from Hispanic workers with 71.4% indicating having been vaccinated with the BCG vaccine in their country of birth and none indicated previously known exposure to TB. (
  • Infants and children at risk of TB can catch-up their missed BCG vaccine any time before their 5th birthday. (
  • BCG vaccine can be administered concurrently with other vaccines, including all National Immunisation Schedule vaccines. (
  • Do not give live vaccines concurrently with certolizumab. (
  • Evaluation of TST reactions in persons vaccinated with BCG should be interpreted using the same criteria for those not BCG-vaccinated. (
  • BCG vaccination is not recommended for children and adults who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus because of the potential adverse reactions associated with the use of the vaccine in these persons. (
  • All vaccines were safe, giving local reactions consistent with the expected response at the injection site. (
  • Trials of potential vaccine candidates for Covid-19 are already underway in the US and China . (
  • Over the last 15 years, TASK has completed 65 research projects, many of global significance and contributed to progressing the scientific field of TB drug and vaccine development, most notably with early bactericidal activity (EBA) studies and clinical trials that in part led to the registration of Bedaquiline. (
  • Currently, at least 12 randomized controlled trials are exploring the potential benefit of BCG vaccination for this purpose. (
  • This virus is not going away any time soon, so until we have a proven vaccine, trials like this alongside daily testing and COVID-safe behaviours, are vitally important," Mr Hazzard said. (
  • This trial sets the scene for us to be at the forefront of COVID-19 specific vaccine trials and the results could be the key to providing at-risk groups early protection. (
  • These results inform further infant vaccine development and provide comparative data for two human infant vaccine trials of MVA.HIVA. (
  • The BCG vaccine stimulates the immune system to destroy cancerous cells in certain areas of the body. (
  • Their study, published online May 3 in Cell Reports, found that the BCG vaccine induces specific changes in metabolites and lipids that correlate with innate immune system responses. (
  • Furthermore, the size of a TST reaction in a BCG-vaccinated person is not a factor in determining whether the reaction is caused by LTBI or the prior BCG vaccination. (
  • While vaccines are universally recommended, some children may have contraindications to particular vaccines. (
  • The most common severe adverse events related to BCG vaccination are nonsuppurative and suppurative lymphadenitis. (
  • Although treatment was at the discretion of clinicians, national TB program treatment guidelines did not include management of BCG-related adverse events. (

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