Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)Polycyclic Compounds: Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.Chrysenes: 1,2-Benzphenanthrenes. POLYCYCLIC COMPOUNDS obtained from coal tar.Bay-Region, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon: A concave exterior region on some POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS that have three phenyl rings in a non-linear arrangement.PhenanthrenesBenzo(a)pyrene: A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a public health concern because of its possible effects on industrial workers, as an environmental pollutant, an as a component of tobacco smoke.Pyrenes: A group of condensed ring hydrocarbons.HydrocarbonsCreosote: A greasy substance with a smoky odor and burned taste created by high temperature treatment of BEECH and other WOOD; COAL TAR; or resin of the CREOSOTE BUSH. It contains CRESOLS and POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS which are CARCINOGENS. It has been widely used as wood preservative and in PESTICIDES and had former use medicinally in DISINFECTANTS; LAXATIVES; and DERMATOLOGIC AGENTS.Benz(a)Anthracenes: Four fused benzyl rings with three linear and one angular, that can be viewed as a benzyl-phenanthrenes. Compare with NAPHTHACENES which are four linear rings.Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in the form of an unsaturated, usually hexagonal ring structure. The compounds can be single ring, or double, triple, or multiple fused rings.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind certain aryl hydrocarbons, translocate to the nucleus, and activate transcription of particular DNA segments. AH receptors are identified by their high-affinity binding to several carcinogenic or teratogenic environmental chemicals including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in cigarette smoke and smog, heterocyclic amines found in cooked foods, and halogenated hydrocarbons including dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls. No endogenous ligand has been identified, but an unknown natural messenger with a role in cell differentiation and development is suspected.DNA Adducts: The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.Benzopyrenes: A class of chemicals that contain an anthracene ring with a naphthalene ring attached to it.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Coal Tar: A by-product of the destructive distillation of coal used as a topical antieczematic. It is an antipruritic and keratoplastic agent used also in the treatment of psoriasis and other skin conditions. Occupational exposure to soots, tars, and certain mineral oils is known to be carcinogenic according to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985) (Merck Index, 11th ed).Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1: A liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase capable of biotransforming xenobiotics such as polycyclic hydrocarbons and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons into carcinogenic or mutagenic compounds. They have been found in mammals and fish. This enzyme, encoded by CYP1A1 gene, can be measured by using ethoxyresorufin as a substrate for the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity.Coke: A residue of coal, left after dry (destructive) distillation, used as a fuel.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Epoxy Compounds: Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.Acenaphthenes: Tricyclic ethylene-bridged naphthalene derivatives. They are found in petroleum residues and coal tar and used as dye intermediates, in the manufacture of plastics, and in insecticides and fungicides.7,8-Dihydro-7,8-dihydroxybenzo(a)pyrene 9,10-oxide: 7,8,8a,9a-Tetrahydrobenzo(10,11)chryseno (3,4-b)oxirene-7,8-diol. A benzopyrene derivative with carcinogenic and mutagenic activity.Carcinogens, Environmental: Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Mutagens: Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Metabolic Detoxication, Phase II: The conjugation of exogenous substances with various hydrophilic substituents to form water soluble products that are excretable in URINE. Phase II modifications include GLUTATHIONE conjugation; ACYLATION; and AMINATION. Phase II enzymes include GLUTATHIONE TRANSFERASE and GLUCURONOSYLTRANSFERASE. In a sense these reactions detoxify phase I reaction products.Bays: An area of water mostly surrounded by land, usually smaller than a gulf, and affording access to the sea.Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin: A chemical by-product that results from burning or incinerating chlorinated industrial chemicals and other hydrocarbons. This compound is considered an environmental toxin, and may pose reproductive, as well as, other health risks for animals and humans.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Methylcholanthrene: A carcinogen that is often used in experimental cancer studies.Coal: A natural fuel formed by partial decomposition of vegetable matter under certain environmental conditions.Petroleum Pollution: Release of oil into the environment usually due to human activity.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Fluorenes: A family of diphenylenemethane derivatives.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Vehicle Emissions: Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Anthracenes: A group of compounds with three aromatic rings joined in linear arrangement.Dihydroxydihydrobenzopyrenes: Benzopyrenes saturated in any two adjacent positions and substituted with two hydroxyl groups in any position. The majority of these compounds have carcinogenic or mutagenic activity.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases: A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Hydrocarbons, HalogenatedParticulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.Mutagenicity Tests: Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Metallurgy: The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)Fuel Oils: Complex petroleum hydrocarbons consisting mainly of residues from crude oil distillation. These liquid products include heating oils, stove oils, and furnace oils and are burned to generate energy.Cooking: The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.Naphthalenes: Two-ring crystalline hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar. They are used as intermediates in chemical synthesis, as insect repellents, fungicides, lubricants, preservatives, and, formerly, as topical antiseptics.Dioxins: Chlorinated hydrocarbons containing heteroatoms that are present as contaminants of herbicides. Dioxins are carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. They have been banned from use by the FDA.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene: 7,12-Dimethylbenzanthracene. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in tobacco smoke that is a potent carcinogen.Benzoflavones: Organic compounds containing a BENZENE ring attached to a flavone group. Some of these are potent arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase inhibitors. They may also inhibit the binding of NUCLEIC ACIDS to BENZOPYRENES and related compounds. The designation includes all isomers; the 7,8-isomer is most frequently encountered.Sphingomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria characterized by an outer membrane that contains glycosphingolipids but lacks lipopolysaccharide. They have the ability to degrade a broad range of substituted aromatic compounds.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Gulf of Mexico: A body of water located at the southeastern corner of North America. It is bordered by the states to the north of Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas; by five Mexican states to the west: Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Tabasco, Campeche, Yucatan; and by Cuba to the southeast.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Amino Acids, Aromatic: Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.Incineration: High temperature destruction of waste by burning with subsequent reduction to ashes or conversion to an inert mass.Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Nuclear Translocator: Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator is a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF containing protein that forms a complex with DIOXIN RECEPTOR. The complex binds xenobiotic regulatory elements and activates transcription of a variety of genes including UDP GLUCURONOSYLTRANSFERASE. AhR nuclear translocator is also a subunit of HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1.Naphthols: Naphthalene derivatives carrying one or more hydroxyl (-OH) groups at any ring position. They are often used in dyes and pigments, as antioxidants for rubber, fats, and oils, as insecticides, in pharmaceuticals, and in numerous other applications.beta-Naphthoflavone: A polyaromatic hydrocarbon inducer of P4501A1 and P4501A2 cytochromes. (Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1994 Dec:207(3):302-308)Steel: A tough, malleable, iron-based alloy containing up to, but no more than, two percent carbon and often other metals. It is used in medicine and dentistry in implants and instrumentation.Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated: Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.Dominican Republic: A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Santo Domingo. With Haiti, it forms the island of Hispaniola - the Dominican Republic occupying the eastern two thirds, and Haiti, the western third. It was created in 1844 after a revolt against the rule of President Boyer over the entire island of Hispaniola, itself visited by Columbus in 1492 and settled the next year. Except for a brief period of annexation to Spain (1861-65), it has been independent, though closely associated with the United States. Its name comes from the Spanish Santo Domingo, Holy Sunday, with reference to its discovery on a Sunday. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p338, 506 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p151)Dioxygenases: Non-heme iron-containing enzymes that incorporate two atoms of OXYGEN into the substrate. They are important in biosynthesis of FLAVONOIDS; GIBBERELLINS; and HYOSCYAMINE; and for degradation of AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Gasoline: Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.SmokeHazardous Waste: Waste products which threaten life, health, or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, disposed of, or otherwise managed.Coal Ash: Residue generated from combustion of coal or petroleum.Fundulidae: Family of small, surface-dwelling fish that inhabit fresh and brackish waters, and coastal marine areas.Alkanes: The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.PolandMetabolic Detoxication, Drug: Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.Maternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Astronomy: The science concerned with celestial bodies and the observation and interpretation of the radiation received in the vicinity of the earth from the component parts of the universe (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Benzene: Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.Xenobiotics: Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2: A cytochrome P450 enzyme subtype that has specificity for relatively planar heteroaromatic small molecules, such as CAFFEINE and ACETAMINOPHEN.Ilex paraguariensis: A plant species of the family AQUIFOLIACEAE. An infusion of the leaves is commonly drunk in South America for stimulating effect in much the same manner as coffee is in other cultures.Epoxide Hydrolases: Enzymes that catalyze reversibly the formation of an epoxide or arene oxide from a glycol or aromatic diol, respectively.Water Pollution, Chemical: Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.Construction Materials: Supplies used in building.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.New York CityOxygenases: Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Complex Mixtures: Mixtures of many components in inexact proportions, usually natural, such as PLANT EXTRACTS; VENOMS; and MANURE. These are distinguished from DRUG COMBINATIONS which have only a few components in definite proportions.Nitro Compounds: Compounds having the nitro group, -NO2, attached to carbon. When attached to nitrogen they are nitramines and attached to oxygen they are NITRATES.Mycobacterium: A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Deoxyguanosine: A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.Heating: The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Cities: A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.7-Alkoxycoumarin O-Dealkylase: A drug-metabolizing enzyme found in the hepatic, placental and intestinal microsomes that metabolizes 7-alkoxycoumarin to 7-hydroxycoumarin. The enzyme is cytochrome P-450- dependent.Fossil Fuels: Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.Azacosterol: Diaza derivative of cholesterol which acts as a hypocholesteremic agent by blocking delta-24-reductase, which causes the accumulation of desmosterol.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Aluminum: A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.Environmental Remediation: Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.Extraction and Processing Industry: The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.Mice, Inbred SENCAR: Mice selectively bred for hypersusceptibility to two-stage chemical skin carcinogenesis. They are also hypersusceptible to UV radiation tumorigenesis with single high-dose, but not chronic low-dose, exposures. SENCAR (SENsitive to CARcinogenesis) mice are used in research as an animal model for tumor production.Glucuronates: Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.Nitrosamines: A class of compounds that contain a -NH2 and a -NO radical. Many members of this group have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.Astronomical Phenomena: Aggregates of matter in outer space, such as stars, planets, comets, etc. and the properties and processes they undergo.Maximum Allowable Concentration: The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)Quinones: Hydrocarbon rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.Basidiomycota: A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Water Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Skin Absorption: Uptake of substances through the SKIN.Heterocyclic Compounds: Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Amines: A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Prostaglandins A, Synthetic: Analogs or derivatives of prostaglandin A that do not occur naturally in the body. They do not include the product of the chemical synthesis of hormonal PGA.Industrial Waste: Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Pseudomonas putida: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Tobacco Smoke Pollution: Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Xylenes: A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Soot: A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.Rhizophoraceae: A plant family of the order Rhizophorales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida, that includes mangrove trees.Solid Phase Extraction: An extraction method that separates analytes using a solid phase and a liquid phase. It is used for preparative sample cleanup before analysis by CHROMATOGRAPHY and other analytical methods.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Graphite: An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Glutathione S-Transferase pi: A glutathione transferase that catalyzes the conjugation of electrophilic substrates to GLUTATHIONE. This enzyme has been shown to provide cellular protection against redox-mediated damage by FREE RADICALS.Toluene: A widely used industrial solvent.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Charcoal: An amorphous form of carbon prepared from the incomplete combustion of animal or vegetable matter, e.g., wood. The activated form of charcoal is used in the treatment of poisoning. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Mineral Oil: A mixture of liquid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. It is used as laxative, lubricant, ointment base, and emollient.Thioamides: Organic compounds containing the radical -CSNH2.Tars: Viscous materials composed of complex, high-molecular-weight compounds derived from the distillation of petroleum or the destructive distillation of wood or coal. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Phosphorus Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.Glycine N-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the METHYLATION of GLYCINE using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE to form SARCOSINE with the concomitant production of S-ADENOSYLHOMOCYSTEINE.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Metals, Heavy: Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cotinine: The N-glucuronide conjugate of cotinine is a major urinary metabolite of NICOTINE. It thus serves as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco SMOKING. It has CNS stimulating properties.Pesticide Residues: Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Benzene DerivativesDose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Comet Assay: A genotoxicological technique for measuring DNA damage in an individual cell using single-cell gel electrophoresis. Cell DNA fragments assume a "comet with tail" formation on electrophoresis and are detected with an image analysis system. Alkaline assay conditions facilitate sensitive detection of single-strand damage.Lead Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of lead that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Pb atoms with atomic weights 194-203, 205, and 209-214 are radioactive lead isotopes.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Solid Phase Microextraction: A solventless sample preparation method, invented in 1989, that uses a fused silica fiber which is coated with a stationary phase. It is used for sample cleanup before using other analytical methods.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Hydrolyzable Tannins: Polymeric derivatives of GALLIC ACID that are esters of a sugar.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Vapor Pressure: The contribution to barometric PRESSURE of gaseous substance in equilibrium with its solid or liquid phase.Toxicity Tests: An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria: A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Manufactured Materials: Substances and materials manufactured for use in various technologies and industries and for domestic use.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Rubber: A high-molecular-weight polymeric elastomer derived from the milk juice (LATEX) of HEVEA brasiliensis and other trees and plants. It is a substance that can be stretched at room temperature to at least twice its original length and after releasing the stress, retract rapidly, and recover its original dimensions fully.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Lakes: Inland bodies of still or slowly moving FRESH WATER or salt water, larger than a pond, and supplied by RIVERS and streams.Benzopyrene Hydroxylase: A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-448 (P-450) enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of benzopyrene to 3-hydroxybenzopyrene in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. Also acts on certain anthracene derivatives. An aspect of EC 1.14.14.1.FiresTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with bay-like regions inhibited gap junctional intercellular communication and stimulated MAPK activity. (1/8)

Many polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known carcinogens. A considerable amount of research has been devoted to predicting the genotoxic, tumor-initiating potential of PAHs based on chemical structure. However, information on the correlation of structure with the non-genetoxic, epigenetic events of tumor promotion is sparse. PAHs containing a bay or bay-like region were shown to be potent inhibitors of gap-junctional intercellular communication (GJIC), an epigenetic event involved in the removal of an initiated cell from growth suppression. We tested the epigenetic toxicity of PAHs containing bay-like regions by comparing the effects of methylated vs. chlorinated isomers of anthracene on the temporal activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and the regulation of GJIC. Specifically, we used anthracene, 1-methylanthracene, 2-methylanthracene, 9-methylanthracene, 9,10-dimethylanthracene, 1-chloroanthracene, 2-chloroanthracene, and 9-chloroanthracene. We determined the effect of these compounds on GJIC and on the activation of extracellular receptor kinase (ERK 1 and 2), a MAPK, in F344 rat liver epithelial cells. Results showed that bay or bay-like regions, formed by either chlorine or a methyl group, reversibly inhibited GJIC at the same doses, time, and time of recovery, whereas the linear-planar isomers had no effect on GJIC. Similarly, the GJIC-inhibitory isomers also induced the phosphorylation of ERK 1 and ERK 2, while the non-inhibitory isomers had no effect on the activation of these MAPKs. MAPK activation occurred 10-20 min after the inhibition of GJIC, which indicates that MAPK is not involved in the initial regulation of GJIC; instead altered GJIC may be affecting MAPK activation. The present study revealed that there are structural determinants of PAHs, which clearly affect epigenetic events known to be involved in the non-genetoxic steps of tumor promotion. These events are the release of a cell from growth suppression involving the reduction of GJIC, followed by the activation of intracellular mitogenic events.  (+info)

Three-dimensional structure of anti-5,6-dimethylchrysene-1, 2-dihydrodiol-3,4-epoxide: a diol epoxide with a bay region methyl group. (2/8)

The three-dimensional structure of a dihydrodiol epoxide of 5, 6-dimethylchrysene was elucidated by X-ray diffraction techniques. The effects of the steric overcrowding by the 5-methyl group in the bay region of this compound are described. The carbon atom of the 5-methyl group is found to lie out of the plane of the aromatic system, thereby avoiding the nearer C-H group of the epoxide ring; this C-H hydrogen atom is pushed in the opposite direction. As a result, the molecule is distorted so that the relative orientations of the epoxide group and the aromatic ring systems are very different for the diol epoxides of (nearly planar) benzo[a]pyrene (studied by Neidle and co-workers) and (distorted) 5, 6-dimethylchrysene (described here). The main effect of the 5-methyl group is to change the relative angle between the epoxide-bearing ring (the site of attack when the diol epoxide acts as an alkylating agent) and the aromatic ring system (which is presumed to lie partially between the DNA bases in the DNA adduct that is about to be formed). This may favor some specific alkylation geometry.  (+info)

Tumorigenicity of four optically active bay-region 3,4-diol 1, 2-epoxides and other derivatives of the nitrogen heterocycle dibenz[c,h]acridine on mouse skin and in newborn mice. (3/8)

The nitrogen heterocycle dibenz[c,h]acridine (DB[c,h]ACR) and the enantiomers of the diastereomeric pair of bay-region 3,4-diol 1, 2-epoxides as well as other bay-region epoxides and dihydrodiol derivatives of this hydrocarbon have been evaluated for tumorigenicity on mouse skin and in the newborn mouse. On mouse skin, a single topical application of 50 or 200 nmol of compound was followed 10 days later by twice-weekly applications of the tumor promoter 12-O:-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate for 20 weeks. DB[c, h]ACR and the four optically pure, bay-region 3,4-diol-1,2-epoxide isomers all had significant tumor- initiating activity. The isomer with (1R,2S,3S,4R) absolute configuration [(+)-DE-2] was the most active diol epoxide isomer. The (-)-(3R,4R)-dihydrodiol of DB[c, h]ACR, the expected metabolic precursor of the bay-region (+)-DE-2, was 4- to 6-fold more tumorigenic than its corresponding (+)-enantiomer. In tumorigenicity studies in newborn mice, a total dose of 70-175 nmol of DB[c,h]ACR or one of its derivatives was injected i.p. on days 1, 8 and 15 of life, and tumorigenic activity was determined when the mice were 36-39 weeks old. DB[c,h]ACR produced a significant number of pulmonary tumors and also produced hepatic tumors in male mice. Of the four optically active bay-region diol epoxides, only (+)-DE-2 and (+)-DE-1 with (1R,2S,3S,4R) and (1S, 2R,3S,4R) absolute configuration, respectively, produced a significant tumor incidence. At an equivalent dose, the (+)-DE-2 isomer produced several-fold more pulmonary tumors and hepatic tumors than the (+)-DE-1 isomer. The (-)-(3R,4R)-dihydrodiol, metabolic precursor of the bay-region (+)-DE-2, was strongly active and induced an equal number of pulmonary and hepatic tumors as did DB[c,h]ACR. The (+)-(3S,4S) dihydrodiol was less active. The bay-region (+)-(1R,2S)-epoxide of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro DB[c,h]ACR was strongly tumorigenic in newborn mice whereas its (-)-(1S, 2R)-enantiomer was inactive. This contrasts with the data on mouse skin where both enantiomers had substantial tumorigenic activity. In summary, the bay-region (+)-(1R,2S,3S,4R)-3,4-diol 1,2-epoxide of DB[c,h]ACR was the most tumorigenic of the four optically active bay-region diol epoxides of DB[c,h]ACR on mouse skin and in the newborn mouse. These results with a nitrogen heterocycle are similar to earlier data indicating high tumorigenic activity for the R,S,S,R bay-region diol epoxides of several carbocyclic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.  (+info)

Preferential glutathione conjugation of a reverse diol epoxide compared to a bay region diol epoxide of phenanthrene in human hepatocytes: relevance to molecular epidemiology studies of glutathione-s-transferase polymorphisms and cancer. (4/8)

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Studies of the binding of diolepoxide metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to DNA using electrofluorescence polarization spectroscopy. (5/8)

In the electrofluorescence method, a solution of DNA with covalently bound polycyclic hydrocarbons is placed in an electric field, and changes in the intensity of polarized fluorescence are observed. Under the correct conditions, these charges can be used to determine a value for the angle psi between the long axis of the hydrocarbon molecule and the axis of the DNA helix. For DNA or poly(dA-dT) treated with each stereoisomer of anti-benzo[c]phenanthrene diolepoxide, psi ranged from 55 degrees to 61 degrees, consistent with a mixture of quasi-intercalated adenine adducts and externally bound guanine adducts. Similar results were obtained with another set of 'fjord-region' diolepoxides, derived from benzo[c]chrysene. Adducts in DNA treated with diolepoxides derived from chrysene, 5-methylchrysene or 6-methylchrysene gave psi of about 53 degrees, so the predominant adducts are externally bound, probably in the minor groove of DNA.  (+info)

Bay or baylike regions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were potent inhibitors of Gap junctional intercellular communication. (6/8)

Many polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known carcinogens, and a considerable amount of research has been devoted to predicting the tumor-initiating potential of PAHs based on chemical structure. However, there has been little research into the effects of PAHs on the epigenetic events of tumor promotion and no structural correlation has been made thereof. Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) activity was used in this study as an epigenetic biomarker to determine the structure-activity relationships of twelve different PAHs. The PAHs used were naphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, anthracene, 1-methylanthracene, 2-methylanthracene, 9-methylanthracene, 9, 10-dimethylanthracene, phenanthrene, fluorene, 1-methylfluorene, and fluoranthene. Results showed that PAHs containing bay or baylike regions inhibited GJIC more than did the linear PAHs. The nonnaphthalene PAHs were not cytotoxic as determined by a vital dye uptake assay, but the naphthalene compounds were cytotoxic at the higher doses, indicating that the down regulation of GJIC by these naphthalenes could be a consequence of general membrane damage. Inhibition of GJIC by all the inhibitory PAHs was reversed when the cells were refreshed with PAH-free growth medium. Inhibition of GJIC occurred within 0.5-5 min and correlated with the aqueous solubility of the PAHs. The present study revealed that there are structural determinants of epigenetic toxicity as determined by GJIC activity.  (+info)

Comparative mouse skin tumorigenicity and induction of Ha-ras mutations by bay region diol epoxides of 5-methylchrysene and 5,6-dimethylchrysene. (7/8)

We compared the tumor-initiating activities toward mouse skin of two structurally related polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon diol epoxides: racemic anti-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-5,6-dimethylchrysene-1,2-diol-3,4-epoxide (5,6-diMeCDE) and racemic anti-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-5-methylchrysene-1,2-diol-3,4-epoxide (5-MeCDE). Tumors induced by these diol epoxides were analysed for mutations in the Ha-ras gene. 5,6-diMeCDE is derived from the non-planar parent compound 5,6-dimethylchrysene, and reacts to approximately equal extents with dA and dG in DNA, whereas 5-MeCDE is derived from a nearly planar parent compound, 5-methylchrysene, and reacts mainly with dG in DNA. 5,6-diMeCDE, at initiating doses of 33, 100 or 400 nmol per mouse, induced 1.2, 2.2 and 6.2 skin tumors per mouse, respectively. It was significantly less tumorigenic than 5-MeCDE which induced 3.1, 7.5 and 9.1 skin tumors per mouse at the same doses. Tumors induced by 5,6-diMeCDE had a large number of CAA-->CTA mutations in codon 61 of the Ha-ras gene: 50, 55 and 75% of the tumors analysed had this mutation at the 33, 100 and 400 nmol doses. No mutations were found in codons 12 and 13 in the tumors induced by 5,6-diMeCDE. In contrast, CAA-->CTA mutations in codon 61 were rarely seen in tumors induced by 5-MeCDE. At the highest dose of 5-MeCDE, 20% of the tumors analysed had mutations at G of codons 12 and 13. The results of this comparative study support the hypothesis that mutations in the Ha-ras gene in mouse skin tumors induced by PAH diol epoxides occur as a result of their direct reaction with the gene. However, pathways other than the commonly observed Ha-ras codon 61 mutations are clearly important in mouse skin tumorigenesis by these diol epoxides.  (+info)

Detoxification of optically active bay- and fjord-region polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon dihydrodiol epoxides by human glutathione transferase P1-1 expressed in Chinese hamster V79 cells. (8/8)

Dihydrodiol epoxides (DEs) are important carcinogenic metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The metabolic formation of four stereoisomeric DEs (a pair of optically active diastereomers termed as syn- and anti-form) is possible. Glutathione tranferases (GSTs) have been demonstrated to catalyze the detoxification of DEs. Purified GSTs display remarkable differences in catalytic efficiencies towards bay- and fjord-region DEs along with a high degree of regio- and stereoselectivity. Here we determined to which extent heterologously expressed human GSTP1-1, a major GST isoform in lung, affects the mutagenicity of stereoisomeric bay-region DEs of benzo[a]pyrene in Chinese hamster V79 cells. To evaluate the influence of sterical crowding in the substrate on the activity of GSTP-1, the study was extended to the strongly mutagenic fjord-region (-)-anti-DEs of benzo[c]phenanthrene and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene. GSTP1-1,reduced preferentially the mutagenicity (studied at the hprt locus) of (+)-anti and (+)-syn-DEs of benzo[a]pyrene (by 66 and 67%) as compared with the corresponding (-)-anti- and (-)-syn-enantiomers (by 15 and 13%). These results are in line with previous studies on the enantioselectivity of purified GSTP1-1 towards the DE isomers of benzo[a]pyrene and benzo[c]phenanthrene showing that enantiomers with (R)-configuration at the benzylic oxiranyl carbon are better substrates than those with (S)-configuration. Interestingly, the (-)-anti-DEs of benzo[c]phenanthrene and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene were efficiently detoxified by GSTP-1-1 in the constructed cell line (reduction of mutagenicity by 66 and 64%). This study demonstrates that differences in the caalytic activity seen for purified GST towards individual mutagens do not necessarily reflect the detoxification of DEs by the same enzyme in a living cell and provides further evidence that specific human GSTs play a role in the detoxification of DEs of PAHs.  (+info)

McLaren Bay Region in Bay City, MI - Get directions, phone number, research physicians, and compare hospital ratings for McLaren Bay Region on Healthgrades.
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. BAY-678 ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
Jill shares her emotional story of what happened when she went into labor and the all-hands-on-deck efforts of McLaren Bay Region medical staff when things didnt go as planned.
Triazine is the chemical species of six-membered heterocyclic ring compound with three nitrogens replacing carbon-hydrogen units in the benzene ring structure. The names of the three isomers indicate which of the carbon-hydrogen units on the benzene ring position of the molecule have been replaced by nitrogens, called 1,2,3-triazine, 1,2,4-triazine, and 1,3,5-triazine respectively. Symmetrical 1,3,5-triazine is the common. Triazines are prepared from 2-azidocyclopropene through thermal rearrangement (1,2,3-triazine), from 1,2-dicarbonyl compound with amidrazone by condensation reaction (1,2,4-triazine) and from cyanic acid amide by trimerization (1,3,5-triazine). Pyridine is the aromatic nitrogen heterocycle compound having only one nitrogen, and diazines are with 2 nitrogen atoms and tetrazines are with 4 nitrogen atoms on the benzene ring system. Triazines are weak base. Triazines have much weaker resonance energy than benzene, so nucleophilic substitution is preferred than electrophilic ...
Constrained geometry catalysts (CGC) are known to be active in the polymerization and copolymerization of alkenes with a distinct control over polymer tacticity. The tethering of one ¿5-cyclopentadienyl moiety and one pendant donor gives these compounds an accessible metal center as well as ability to maintain their structure throughout the catalytic process. Complexes of this type typically feature one pendant amido donor. Replacement of the pendant amido donor with a nitrogen heterocycle such as an indolyl- or pyrrolyl-group should result in electrophilic metal centers due to reduced N ¿ M p donation, a consequence of electron delocalization of the nitrogen lone pair in the aromatic system. This dissertation reports the development of a new series of constrained geometry ligands that feature indolyl- and pyrrolyl- donor moieties. In chapter 2, the synthesis and characterization of a series of acetal precursors and their corresponding di(3-methylindolyl)ethane and dipyrrolylethane constrained ...
McLaren urological services offer treatment for disorders of the kidneys, bladder, urinary tract, and male reproductive organs. Common conditions such as kidney stones, incontinence, cancer of the bladder, and male infertility, are treated.
This is a pilot study using AMS to examine PhIP bioavailability, and adduct formation with DNA and protein in five human volunteers after the administration of a defined dietary-relevant dose of [14C]PhIP. Despite the fact that the subjects were undergoing surgery to remove tumors, the data presented are crucial to assess whether PhIP at dietary levels of exposure may be involved in the initiation of colon cancer in humans. Moreover, this study provides a means to validate biomarkers for use in molecular epidemiology studies.. PhIP adducts with protein and DNA were measured by AMS. Although AMS analyses offer no structural information, plasma samples were extensively dialyzed, Hb, and protein from tissues repeatedly solvent extracted and DNA extensively purified to ensure that only covalently bound PhIP was analyzed. Although the major DNA adduct formed by PhIP in laboratory animals and a minor adduct with albumin formed in vitro have been characterized (27, 28, 29) , investigations to determine ...
As the only hospital located in Inglewood, California, Centinela Hospital Medical Center is known for its exceptional expertise and care. Each year, the hospital serves more than 140,000 patients and their families from Los Angeles and the South Bay regions.. ...
Drinking of alcoholic beverages; Newfoundland and Labrador; Trinity Bay Region.; Rural population; Alcohol use; Newfoundland and Labrador; Trinity Bay Region; Drinking of alcoholic beverages; Newfoundland and Labrador; Bonavista Bay Region ...
M. K. Lakshman, A. Deb, R. R. Chamala, P. Pradhan, R. Pratap. Direct arylation of 6 phenylpurine and 6-arylpurine nucleosides by ruthenium-catalyzed C-H bond activation, Angewandte Chemie, International Edition 2011, 50, 11400-11404. DOI: 10.1002/anie.20110403. R. Kumar, P. Pradhan and B. Zajc. Facile synthesis of 4-vinyl- and 4-fluorovinyl-1, 2, 3-triazoles via bifunctional "click-olefination" reagents. (2011) Chem. Commun. 47, 3891-3893.. V.S. Balachandran, S. R. Jadhav, P. Pradhan, S. De Carlo and G. John. Adhesive Vesicles through Adaptive Response of a Biobased Surfactant. (2010). Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 4, 9509.. Synthesis of N6,N6-Dialkyladenine Nucleosides Using Hexaalkylphosphorus Triamides Produced in Situ. M. K. Lakshman A. Choudhury, S. Bae, E. Rochttis, P. Pradhan, A. Kumar (2009) Eur. J. Org. Chem. 152-159.. Palladium-Catalyzed Synthesis of Nucleoside Adducts from Bay and Fjord Region Diol Epoxides. E. Champeil, P. Pradhan and M. K. Lakshman (2007) J. Org. Chem. 72(14) pp 5035 - ...
The aim of this study (*) is to evaluate the progression free survival rate at 6 months, response rate, overall disease control rate, overall survival of BAY-43-9006 in soft tissue sarcoma patients.. (*) as per Protocol Amendment No. 1 of 16 April 2007 approved by local IEC on 24 July 2007 ...
The city of Tampa[http://www.visittampabay.com/] in Hillsborough County is the largest city in the greater Tampa Bay region of Florida, which has a combined population of 2.5 million.
6,7-Dihydro-5H-dibenz[c,e]azepines, a class of secondary amine incorporating a centre-axis chirality relay, can be prepared from N-(2-bromobenzyl)-N-(1-arylalkyl)methanesulfonamides via Pd-catalysed intramolecular direct arylation, and methylated at C(7) via the 5,7-trans diastereoselective addition of methy
Folk music--Newfoundland and Labrador--Greens Harbour; Folk songs, English--Newfoundland and Labrador--Greens Harbour; Carols, English--Newfoundland and Labrador--Greens Harbour; Folk music--Newfoundland and Labrador--Trinity Bay Region; Folk ...
Flying foxes are mammals, like humans, and belong to the Order Chiroptera (meaning hand-winged). Flying foxes play an important role in dispersing the pollen and fruit of many native trees, such as figs, palms, lilly-pillies and quandongs.
Principal Investigator:TOMOYOSE Taiki, Project Period (FY):2003 - 2004, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Surgical dentistry
Linear or multidimensional, crosslinking, solvent resistant oxazole, thiazole, or imidazole (i.e., heterocycle) oligomers and blends of the crosslinking oligomers and noncrosslinking comparable polymers are described. The oligomers are prepared by reacting tetraamines, diaminodiols, or diaminothiols (i.e. four-functional compounds) with poly-carboxylic acid halides, and crosslinking phenylimide end cap monomers in a suitable solvent under an inert atmosphere.
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details ...
Gilroy is in the southern part of Santa Clara County south of San Jose in California. It is in the South Bay region of the San Francisco Bay Area.
The largest-growing area in Queensland between 2006 and 2016 was North Lakes - Mango Hill (up by 22,000 people) in the Moreton Bay region north of Brisbane. Three of the five largest-growing areas in the state were located outside the Queensland capital, including Upper Coomera - Willow Vale (17,400) on the Gold Coast and Deeragun (14,200) in the outer suburbs of Townsville ...
Reversible down-regulation of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) is proposed to be an important cellular mechanism in tumor promotion. Gap junction function is modified by a variety of tumor promoters, including the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Treatment of cells with TPA results in the activation and subsequent depletion of the TPA-responsive protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms. TPA-induced degradation of the PKC isoforms α, δ and ϵ was recently shown to occur via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. In the present study we investigated the role of the proteasome in the TPA-induced modification of GJIC in IAR20 rat liver epithelial cells. TPA exposure of IAR20 cells induced hyperphosphorylation of gap junction protein connexin43 and inhibition of GJIC. Prolonged TPA treatment induced down-regulation of PKCα, δ and ϵ and a reduction in the total PKC activity, which was associated with recovery of GJIC. Co-treatment of IAR20 cells with TPA and the ...
Due to the important role of monocytes/macrophages in the pathogenesis of AIDS, potential drugs with anti-HIV activity in lymphocytes must also be effective in monocytes/macrophages. For testing the efficacy of antiviral substances, monocytes/macrophages from peripheral blood were infected, respectively, with highly replicating HIV1 and HIV2 strains, thereby providing an extremely sensitive system of testing. Azidothymidine was found to inhibit both HIV types at 0.04 microgram/ml. The polysulphated polyxylan, Hoe/Bay-946 (MW 6,000 Daltons), which acts through a different mechanism and is being tested in clinical pilot studies in Germany, was also found to be effective against HIV1 and HIV2 in macrophages at concentrations of 10-50 micrograms/ml. ...
Close The Infona portal uses cookies, i.e. strings of text saved by a browser on the users device. The portal can access those files and use them to remember the users data, such as their chosen settings (screen view, interface language, etc.), or their login data. By using the Infona portal the user accepts automatic saving and using this information for portal operation purposes. More information on the subject can be found in the Privacy Policy and Terms of Service. By closing this window the user confirms that they have read the information on cookie usage, and they accept the privacy policy and the way cookies are used by the portal. You can change the cookie settings in your browser. ...
At Sutter Health affiliates in the West Bay Region, equine therapy, guided imagery, genetic counseling, nutrition, meditation, massage, support groups, retreats and more offer cancer patients a holistic approach to healing beyond what chemotherapy and radiation can do for them.
Once upon a time, somebody created "The Food List Challenge," a selection of 100 foods and drinks that the author believed everyone should try before they die.. I looked through the list recently and discovered there were many I had not tried - and some that I didnt even know where I could try them at. So, I decided to find out:. 41. Fugu: I did not know what fugu was before looking it up, but it turns out Ive eaten a non-poisonous version of the Japanese pufferfish dish at Sugar Toad at the Hotel Arista, 2139 City Gate Lane, Naperville. A sugar toad refers to the northern puffer, which is non-poisonous and found in the Chesapeake Bay region. However, if youre looking for fugu, which is usually made from a super-poisonous pufferfish, then Leah A. Zeldes of Dining Chicago (who - by the way - has tried 98 of the 100 foods on this list) knows where you need to go - Ai Japanese Restaurant & Lounge, 358 W Ontario. Be sure to call ahead to see if they have any, though, since it seems to be offered ...
BAY-60-7550 is a potent PDE2 inhibitor with IC50 values of 2.0 nM (bovine) and 4.7 nM (human). BAY-60-7550 antagonizes oxidative stress-induced anxiety-like behavioral effects in mice by increasing cGMP signaling. Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are key regulatory enzymes of intracellular cAMP/cGMP levels. These second messengers play important regulatory roles in controlling steroidogenesis in the adrenal. Disruption of PDEs has been associated with a number of adrenal diseases
Agricultural science is a multidisciplinary program that studies biology, ecology, environmental effects, production techniques and the business of producing food for animals and humans. SVSU has two seperate ways for students to pursue studies in agriculture.. Located in the Great Lakes Bay region where agriculture is a prominent industry, SVSU offers an agricultural studies minor with two tracks. Students will specialize in one of two tracks: plant, animal and natural resources systems or the power, structural and technical systems track. The agricultural studies minor is commonly paired with a chemistry or biology major at SVSU.. Or, students may choose the "2+2" transfer plan with Michigan State University. SVSU students transfer to MSU to pursuit the Pre-Agriculture/ Natural Resources program.. ...
This is likely because it is plausible that two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are metabolized via the same pathway. ... The second epoxide is not hydrolysed immediately because it is localized next to a bay region, which shields the epoxide. This ... Harvey, R. G.; Cortez, C.; Jacobs, S. A. (1982). "Synthesis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons via a novel annelation method ... The sexhormone is, like 3-MC, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. 3-MC and estrogen bind to estrogenreceptors competitively, ...
... reduces the risk of skin tumorigenicity that is caused by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons like benzo(a)pyrene, a ... 5-oxide and the bay-region diol-epoxides of benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, and benzo(c)phenathrene). This data shows that ... myricetin is not unilaterally able to reduce the carcinogenic activity of all polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or even the more ... that myricetin was more effective in preventing mutagenesis initiated by certain carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ...
Creosote (high in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) from dumping and a major fire in 1963 played a major role in contaminating ... Both activities are vital to the region. Motor vehicles cross the main portion of the river using the Downtown Tunnel and the ... Chesapeake Bay: A Framework for Action. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Philadelphia, PA. September 1983 Elizabeth River ... The Elizabeth River is a tributary of the Chesapeake Bay and faces significant environmental pollution challenges of its own ...
Classified as a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), it is a colourless solid that is poorly soluble in most solvents. Impure ... "pseudo-bay region," in which the additional side is derived from the 5-membered ring. Such a dihydrodiol-epoxide would not be ... December 2005) "Carcinogenicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons" THE LANCET Oncology, vol.6, issue 12 J.E. Rice et al. (1st ... December 2005) "Carcinogenicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons" The Lancet Oncology, vol.6, issue 12 E.J. Lavoie et al. ( ...
Mutagenic PAHs, such as benzo[a]pyrene, usually have four or more aromatic rings as well as a "bay region", a structural pocket ... Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, also polyaromatic hydrocarbons or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons[1]) are ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.. *ATSDR - Toxicity of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons ... National Pollutant Inventory: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Fact Sheet. *Understanding Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons NASA ...
... is the trivial name for a very large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. Its formal name is benzo[10,11]phenanthro[2 ... The double bond of maleic anhydride forms two carbon-carbon bonds on the ends of the bay region, making a new six-membered ring ... Fetzer, J. C. (2000). The Chemistry and Analysis of the Large Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. New York: Wiley. ... Dicoronylene does undergo a Diels-Alder reaction with maleic anhydride on one or both of the central bay regions on either side ...
In its makeup, it often contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and trace heavy metals, both of which are suspected to be ... Estimates say that the depth of wood by-products in the region of the bay ranges from two feet to ten feet thick, on top of ... In dry dredging, an artificial barrier is built around the region to be worked on, then pumped dry. Then workers scrape off the ... The Ashland/Northern States Power Lakefront Superfund site is a contaminated region of the Wisconsin shoreline of Lake Superior ...
Benzo[c]fluorene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) with mutagenic activity. It is a component of coal tar, cigarette ... fluorene does not have a bay or fjord region it does undergo a similar transformation with a pseudo-bay region that reacts ... Seto H, Ohkubo T, Kanoh T, Koike M, Nakamura K, Kawahara Y (1993). "Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the ... Benzo[c]fluorene belongs to a group of compounds called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs and their derivatives are ...
There are unhealthy levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and mercury in the estuarine habitats of Castro Cove and ... NBC Bay Area reported that this was due to flaring. This refinery receives small quantities (relative to their other sources) ... of crude oil from the Amazon region of South America, according to the Borealis Centre for Environmental and Trade Research. ... Supporters of the Bay Trail along with then California Lieutenant Governor John Garamendi pushed Chevron in to accepting the ...
... and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), fire retardants, and other substances are resistant to breakdown. These ... Hypoxia is an increasingly common result of eutrophication in marine systems and can impact large areas of estuaries, bays, and ... is comparable to the area of New Jersey and has major detrimental consequences for fisheries in the region. Nitrogen is most ... Stevenson, J. Court; Piper, Catherine B.; Confer, Nedra (1979). Decline of Submerged Plants in Chesapeake Bay (Report). ...
... is a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons which have severely affected Atlantic salmon stocks in the region. Rivers ... It then flows east towards Dundalk Bay, straddling the border between Counties Monaghan, Louth and Armagh flowing through ... Runoff from illegal fuel laundering operations, carried out in the region, ... Inniskeen, Knockbridge, before meeting Dundalk Bay near Blackrock, County Louth. The Fane River is 38.25 miles long and drains ...
Silt and sediment from the harbor cointains heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, according to DEP officials. In ... "I have to go to the Chesapeake Bay to study them. I can't find them in the Sound." Polluted sediment from harbor, river and ... The installation is estimated to save the region in excess of $600 million a year in energy costs. The terminal would regasify ... A tunnel under the sound, as between Rye and Oyster Bay has also been proposed, to carry both freeway lanes and railroads. ...
Refractory DOM largely comprises highly conjugated molecules like Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or lignin. Refractory DOM ... While there are regions with local loss of CO2 to the atmosphere and hydrothermal processes, a net loss in the cycle does not ... The rivers that flow into Chesapeake Bay (Susquehanna, Potomac, and James rivers) input approximately 0.004 Gt (6.5 x 1010 ... in a 2004 study data showed a Revelle factor ranging from approximately 9 in low-latitude tropical regions to 15 in the ...
Maternal exposure through natural gas wells may come in the form of benzene, solvents, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs ... Thus, any effects air pollution has on human development in utero are of great concern to those who live in this region. ... where it went on to be ingested regularly by many villagers who used the fish living in the bay as a dietary staple. Soon, many ... polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, perchlorate PBDEs, compounds used as flame retardants, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane ( ...
... is an organic compound with formula C 10H 8. It is the simplest polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, and is a white ... "Termite 'mothball' keep insects at bay". Sci/Tech. BBC News. April 8, 1998. Daisy BH, Strobel GA, Castillo U, et al. (November ... 2008-09-20), "Evidence for the Naphthalene Cation in a Region of the Interstellar Medium with Anomalous Microwave Emission", ... naphthalene is classified as a benzenoid polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). There are two sets of equivalent hydrogen atoms ...
... petroleum products and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Cleaning of waste water in Saint Petersburg was started in 1979 and by ... The northern coast of the gulf is high and winding, with abundant small bays and skerries, but only a few large bays (Vyborg) ... oil from Volga region, and grains from many regions of Russia. Passenger transport on the gulf includes a number of ferry lines ... The average depth is 38 m (125 ft) with the maximum of 100 m (330 ft). The depth of the Neva Bay is less than 6 metres (20 ft ...
PLOS ONE: Dispersants as Used in Response to the MC252-Spill Lead to Higher Mobility of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Oil ... Experts: Health Hazards in Gulf Warrant Evacuations "Riki Ott: An Open Letter to US EPA, Region 6". Huffington Post. August 27 ... Three years after BP oil spill, USF research finds massive die-off , Tampa Bay Times Environmental Protection Agency, NCP ... James Avery, Humble Oil and Refining Company's public relations representative for the eastern region confirmed that following ...
... and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In 2012, the North Sea Foundation and the Plastic Soup Foundation launched an app ... Lawrence Region" (PDF). June 4, 2015. "Facial scrubs polluting Great Lakes with plastic". July 31, 2013. Retrieved February 1, ... Jerry Brown signs new laws East Bay Times. Phil Willon California lawmakers approve ban on plastic microbeads LA Times, 8 ... The beads can absorb and concentrate pollutants like pesticides and polycyclic hydrocarbons. Microbeads have been found to ...
... polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and heavy metals. (PAHs are found in combustion byproducts of gasoline, as well as in ... Some regions with especially cold winters provide electricity at most parking spots for engine block heaters, as antifreeze may ... These include failure to purchase a ticket as payment (if available)/not parking in a marked bay/other offenses. In the United ... with motorists paying in advance for the time required for the bay they are parked in. Pango (a play on "pay and go"), a ...
Petroleum, which comprises hydrocarbon compound contaminants such as PAHs (Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), has been ... Considered one of the most ecologically sensitive regions in the world, the Niger Delta mangrove forest is situated within a ... One study analyzing local species dependency on mangrove populations in Pagbilao Bay, Quezon, discovered that nearly 128 fish ... Sustainable Management of Mangrove Coastal Environments in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria: Role of Remote Sensing and GIS. ...
... "the development of cancerous tumors in fish exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments." These high-risk ... This was done in shallow regions were direct placement was possible. In Cold Spring, New York, in the Hudson River, sediment ... used for stabilization in two projects along with granular media for the ISC constructed at Sheboygan River and in Eitrheim Bay ...
... polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), petroleum hydrocarbons (motor oil and fuel), and pesticides (including insecticides). ... The cause of pre-spawn mortality for the sockeye salmon in the Fraser River, BC, and Bristol Bay, Alaska, can be attributed to ... This occurrence has been observed in much of the Puget Sound region of the Pacific Northwest. During fall migration, salmonids ... Parking lot sealcoat: an unrecognized source of urban polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Environmental Science & Technology 39: ...
This time, the study looked at polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) (PM2.5) which is found in coal, tar, and incomplete ... Both the EPA and the Port of Los Angeles are partners of the San Pedro Bay Ports Clean Air Action Plan, a sweeping plan aimed ... The Paris Agreement creates policies and regulations for the sustainable development of all regions of the globe with aims of ... "Effect of Prenatal Exposure to Airborne Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons on Neurodevelopment in the First 3 Years of Life among ...
... polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, dioxins and furans, and heavy metals. Each of these pollutants ... The first fire, near Fingal Bay, burned 184 ha (450 acres). The second fire, ignited by powerlines arcing in high winds near ... were deployed to the fires in the remote region. During a 70-day period, the smaller fires merged and burned 165,806 ha ( ... The fire would eventually burn over 2,600 ha (6,400 acres) and impact property in Cams Wharf, Catherine Hill Bay, Lake Munmorah ...
... polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), chlorinated benzenes, and BTEX compounds (benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, xylene). In ... Although it is near the Finger Lakes region, it is not traditionally counted as one of the Finger Lakes. Onondaga Lake is a ... The park offers seven miles of shoreline, with a variety of areas for family picnics, including developed areas in Willow Bay ... Jesuit missionaries visiting the Syracuse region in the same time period were the first to report on salty brine springs around ...
... organic gases and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. World organizations and international agencies, like the IEA, are concerned ... It is a relatively cheap fuel, with some of the largest deposits in regions that are stable politically, such as China, India ... at a facility in Baglan Bay, Wales. The turbines are fueled either with natural gas, syngas or fuel oil. While more efficient ...
... hydrocarbons • and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons • other acute and chronic toxicants[14] ... In the early 19th century, the Hudson's Bay Company built a trading post at Lac La Biche, and the locals hunted, fished and ... 5- Free Entry - The conflict over land use priorities in the Chilcotin-Cariboo region was generated by a provision in the BC ... The "tailings" from the bitumen retrieval and refining processes include sand, silt and clay mixed with leftover hydrocarbons ...
... polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). As of 2008, Mussel Watch monitors approximately ... An example of this is in Lavaca Bay, Texas, which is a site that has been contaminated due to chronic mercury releases from a ... A complete list of Mussel Watch regions follows; Great Lakes (WI, IL, IN, MI, OH and NY) Northwest (OR, WA and AK) Northern ... By monitoring the mercury levels in oysters over several years it was discovered that the mercury content in the bay was ...
Bay-Region, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon*Bay-Region, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon. *Bay Region, Polycyclic Aromatic ... "Bay-Region, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon" by people in this website by year, and whether "Bay-Region, Polycyclic Aromatic ... "Bay-Region, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Bay-Region, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon" by people in Profiles. ...
Toxicity of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) benzo[c]phenanthrene compared to a bay region diol-epoxide of benzo[a] ... Toxicity of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Who Is at Risk of Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)? ... Toxicity of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Where Are Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Found? Learning Upon ... Toxicity of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) What Are the Routes of Exposure for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs ...
Stereospecific winding of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons into Trinacria propellers. Chemistry: A European Journal 23(61), pp ... A twisted bay-substituted quaterrylene phosphorescing in the NIR spectral region. Helvetica Chimica Acta 100(11), article ... Extended O-doped polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Angewandte Chemie - International Edition 55(20), pp. 5947-5951. (10.1002/ ... Stereospecific winding of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons into Trinacria propellers. Chemistry: A European Journal 23(61), pp ...
Purchase Metabolic Activation of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780080238357, ... Research on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pertaining to the Bay-region theory is also presented. ... Metabolic Activation of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons deals with the metabolic activation of polynuclear aromatic ... Metabolic Activation of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons 1st Edition. 0.0 star rating Write a review ...
To estimate the severity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in the upper sediment of the Beijiang River, 42 ... sources of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with particulate matter in the Chesapeake Bay region. ... Distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Daliao River Estuary of Liaodong Bay, Bohai Sea (China). Marine ... Multivariate assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments of the Beijiang, a tributary of the Pearl ...
Additional work has addressed polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and pesticides. Much ... in the Lake Michigan and Chesapeake Bay regions, respectively. The Agency is interested in proposals to reduce uncertainties in ... air pollutants in the Lake Michigan and Chesapeake Bay regions. Ecological Effects ... Proposals that focus on specific regions are encouraged. Duration of awards may be up to 3 years. 2. The Exposure of Children ...
Glutathione conjugation of bay- and fjord-region diol epoxides of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by glutathione transferases ... Glutathione S-transferase A1-1-catalysed conjugation of bay and fjord region diol epoxides or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ... Inhibition of the mutagenicity of bay-region diol epoxides of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by naturally occurring plant ... Detoxification of optically active bay- and fjord-region polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon dihydrodiol epoxides by human ...
Phenanthrene is the simplest polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) containing a bay region, a feature closely associated with ...
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are ubiquitous ... Dickhut RM, Gustafson KE (1995) Atmospheric washout of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Southern Chesapeake Bay region. ... Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and many halogenated substances, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and ... Dvorská A, Komprdová K, Lammel G, Klánová J, Plachá H (2012) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in background air in central ...
Mutagenic PAHs, such as benzo[a]pyrene, usually have four or more aromatic rings as well as a "bay region", a structural pocket ... Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, also polyaromatic hydrocarbons or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons[1]) are ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.. *ATSDR - Toxicity of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons ... National Pollutant Inventory: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Fact Sheet. *Understanding Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons NASA ...
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are widespread environmental contaminants that require metabolic activation in order to induce ... The bay region theory of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon carcinogenesis, in: "Polycyclic Hydrocarbons and Carcinogenesis11, R. ... A. Dipple, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon carcinogenesis: An Introduction, in: "Polycyclic Hydrocarbons and Carcinogenesis", R ... Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts: Formation, detection and characterization, in: "Polycyclic Hydrocarbons and ...
Diels-Alder Cycloaddition of Acetylene Gas to a Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Bay Region Chem. Commun.48, 8102-8104. ... Fort, E. H.; Scott, L. T. (2012) Facile Air-Oxidation of Large Aromatic Hydrocarbon Bay Regions to Bay Region Quinones. ... Ippoliti, J. Thomas; Joshua Speros; Schewe, Scott R.; Warner, Robert W.; Dan Everson, "Polymers having lipophilic hydrocarbon ... Fort, E. H. "Investigating the mechanism of aryl-alkyne cyclization of azaborine containing aromatics." Funded at $50,000. ...
Weis, L. M., et al. Bay or Baylike Regions of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Were Potent Inhibitors of Gap Intercellular ... GJs and Cxs have been used in toxicology assays of carcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), which are GJ ... In the Layout menu, draw region of the plate to be read. ...
Potency equivalency factors for some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon derivatives. Regul ... Cytochromes P450 oxidize PAHs to generate epoxides in the bay region of PAHs (2-4) . Epoxide hydrolase converts epoxides to ... Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), including 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and benzo(a)pyrene (BP), are ... DMBA is metabolically activated to bay-region epoxides that react with purines in DNA, leading to tumorigenesis and ...
This is likely because it is plausible that two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are metabolized via the same pathway. ... The second epoxide is not hydrolysed immediately because it is localized next to a bay region, which shields the epoxide. This ... Harvey, R. G.; Cortez, C.; Jacobs, S. A. (1982). "Synthesis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons via a novel annelation method ... The sexhormone is, like 3-MC, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. 3-MC and estrogen bind to estrogenreceptors competitively, ...
... polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. The designations α and β denote opposite faces of the hydrocarbon in the racemic compounds. ... Keywords: PAH, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon; DB[a,h]Acr, dibenz[a,h]acridine; dihydrodiols, the trans-dihydroxydihydro ... Only DB[a,h]Acr, (-)-DB[a,h]Acr (10R,11R)-dihydrodiol and the bay region (+)-(8R,9S,10S,11R)-diol epoxide-2 were highly active ... These results are consistent with previous studies which showed that the corresponding bay region RSSR diol epoxides of benzo[a ...
... sources of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with particulate matter in the Chesapeake Bay region. RM ... Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) distributions and associations with organic matter in surface waters of the York River, ... Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition of aquatic and terrestrial plants of the San Francisco Bay estuarine system. JE ... A geochemical record of eutrophication and anoxia in Chesapeake Bay sediments: anthropogenic influence on organic matter ...
Inhibition of the mutagenicity of bay-region diol epoxides of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by naturally occurring plant ...
Automative sources of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with particulate matter in the Chesapeake Bay ... region. Environmental Science and Technology. 34:4635-4640.. * Guinan, J., Charlesworth, M., Service, M., Oliver, T. (2001). ... Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) form a ubiquitous class of environmental chemical pollutants. These are multi-ringed ... Savinov, V. M., Savinova, T. N., Carroll, J., Matishov, G. G., Dahle, S. and Naess, K. (2000). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ...
Inhibition of the mutagenicity of bay-region diolepoxides of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by naturally occurring plant ...
Glutathione conjugation of bay- and fjord-region diol epoxides of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by glutathione transferases ... R-absolute configuration at the benzylic oxirane carbon in the fjord-region) followed by GSTM1-1 (25-fold increase) and GSTP1-1 ...
... is the smallest PAH to contain a bay region, a feature closely associated with carcinogenicity 11 12. ... Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) comprise a class of chemicals composed of two or more fused aromatic rings. Since PAHs ... Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the work atmosphere. II. Determination in a coke plant. Scand J Work Environ Health. 1978;4 ... Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the work atmosphere. I. Determination in an aluminum reduction plant. Scand J Work Environ ...
Human exposure and dosimetry of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urine from Xuan Wei, China with high lung cancer mortality ... the simplest PAH containing a bay region, phenanthrene, undergoes sequential metabolism to a diol epoxide. Thus, it is a useful ... A urinary metabolite of phenanthrene as a biomarker of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolic activation in workers exposed ... a potential biomarker for assessing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2003;12:1501-8 ...
Urinary and Genetic Biomonitoring of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Egyptian Coke Oven Workers: Associations between ... Keywords: Bay-Region, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon; 1-hydroxypyrene-glucuronide [Supplementary concept]; DNA adducts; 8-oxo- ... Leukocyte 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and aromatic DNA adduct in coke-oven workers with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure. ... Excretion of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene in relation to the penetration routes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Polycyclic ...
Bay-Region, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon; Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1; DNA adducts; Polymorphism, genetic; X-ray repair cross ... Urinary and Genetic Biomonitoring of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Egyptian Coke Oven Workers: Associations between ... Coke oven workers are exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with possible genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. ...
  • Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus, coupled with exposure to aflatoxins in the diet, likely contributes to the high risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in People's Republic of China and other regions of the world ( 3 , 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Effect of prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposure on birth outcomes: the Polish mother and child cohort study. (biu-grimmer.de)
  • Survey report: control technology evaluation for controlling worker exposure to asphalt fumes from roofing kettles: kettle operated using an afterburner system at Tampa Bay Technical High School, and West Park Village at West Chase, Tampa, Florida. (cdc.gov)
  • Chesapeake Bay Fish-osprey (Pandion halietus) food chain: Evaluation of contaminant exposure and genetic damage. (vims.edu)
  • It is the nation's seventh largest estuary and among them the second most important seafood producer, behind only the Chesapeake Bay. (edf.org)
  • 300,000 deaths annually in the People's Republic of China, principally in the coastal and southern regions of the country ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Mangrove forests are among the most productive coastal ecosystems along the coastline of tropical and subtropical regions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Nayband Bay, as a sensitive coastal region, provides with some ecologically important habitats such as coral reefs, seagrass beds, and mangrove forests. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Barataria Bay, Louisiana, was one of the most heavily oiled coastal areas from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, and the new study shows that half of the dead dolphins examined from Barataria Bay that stranded between June 2010 and November 2012 had a thin adrenal gland cortex, indicative of adrenal insufficiency. (earthprotect.com)
  • In comparison, only 7 percent of the dead stranded reference dolphins, collected from other coastal regions outside the Deepwater Horizon oil spill area and time frame, had a thin adrenal cortex. (earthprotect.com)
  • Control costs, operation, and permitting issues for non-chemical plant control: case studies in the San Francisco Bay-Delta Region, California. (sfei.org)
  • Persistent pesticides are still a problem in areas highly dependent on agricultural goods, such as in the Central and South American Regions. (unep.org)
  • Due to its high biodiversity, living resources, urban and industrial expansion and energy resources, this region has been considered strategic in the national plans for the social and economic development of Mexico. (frontiersin.org)
  • Edward B. Flint in our laboratory discovered in 1987 that hydrocarbons irradiated with ultrasound provide a most striking result: emitted light similar in color to a flame from a gas stove. (thunderbolts.info)
  • We have previously evaluated two chemopreventive strategies through randomized clinical trials in the Qidong region that sought to attenuate the toxic manifestations of aflatoxins by ( a ) blocking carcinogen bioavailability and ( b ) altering the metabolic phenotype of exposed individuals, thereby enhancing the detoxication and elimination of aflatoxin. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Corexit 7664's point of difference was described by research chemist Dr Edward Corino to be its water base, where previous dispersants had been hydrocarbon-based and highly toxic. (wikipedia.org)
  • therefore in this molecule the outer rings have greater aromatic character whereas the central ring is less aromatic and therefore more reactive. (wikipedia.org)
  • W. M. Baird and P. Brookes, Isolation of the hydrocarbon-deoxyribonucleoside products from the DNA of mouse embryo cells treated in culture with 7-methylbenz(a)anthracene- 3 H, Cancer Res. (springer.com)