A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)
Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.
1,2-Benzphenanthrenes. POLYCYCLIC COMPOUNDS obtained from coal tar.
A concave exterior region on some POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS that have three phenyl rings in a non-linear arrangement.
A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a public health concern because of its possible effects on industrial workers, as an environmental pollutant, an as a component of tobacco smoke.
A group of condensed ring hydrocarbons.
A greasy substance with a smoky odor and burned taste created by high temperature treatment of BEECH and other WOOD; COAL TAR; or resin of the CREOSOTE BUSH. It contains CRESOLS and POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS which are CARCINOGENS. It has been widely used as wood preservative and in PESTICIDES and had former use medicinally in DISINFECTANTS; LAXATIVES; and DERMATOLOGIC AGENTS.
Four fused benzyl rings with three linear and one angular, that can be viewed as a benzyl-phenanthrenes. Compare with NAPHTHACENES which are four linear rings.
Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in the form of an unsaturated, usually hexagonal ring structure. The compounds can be single ring, or double, triple, or multiple fused rings.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind certain aryl hydrocarbons, translocate to the nucleus, and activate transcription of particular DNA segments. AH receptors are identified by their high-affinity binding to several carcinogenic or teratogenic environmental chemicals including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in cigarette smoke and smog, heterocyclic amines found in cooked foods, and halogenated hydrocarbons including dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls. No endogenous ligand has been identified, but an unknown natural messenger with a role in cell differentiation and development is suspected.
The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.
A class of chemicals that contain an anthracene ring with a naphthalene ring attached to it.
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
A by-product of the destructive distillation of coal used as a topical antieczematic. It is an antipruritic and keratoplastic agent used also in the treatment of psoriasis and other skin conditions. Occupational exposure to soots, tars, and certain mineral oils is known to be carcinogenic according to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985) (Merck Index, 11th ed).
A liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase capable of biotransforming xenobiotics such as polycyclic hydrocarbons and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons into carcinogenic or mutagenic compounds. They have been found in mammals and fish. This enzyme, encoded by CYP1A1 gene, can be measured by using ethoxyresorufin as a substrate for the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity.
A residue of coal, left after dry (destructive) distillation, used as a fuel.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.
Tricyclic ethylene-bridged naphthalene derivatives. They are found in petroleum residues and coal tar and used as dye intermediates, in the manufacture of plastics, and in insecticides and fungicides.
7,8,8a,9a-Tetrahydrobenzo(10,11)chryseno (3,4-b)oxirene-7,8-diol. A benzopyrene derivative with carcinogenic and mutagenic activity.
Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.
The conjugation of exogenous substances with various hydrophilic substituents to form water soluble products that are excretable in URINE. Phase II modifications include GLUTATHIONE conjugation; ACYLATION; and AMINATION. Phase II enzymes include GLUTATHIONE TRANSFERASE and GLUCURONOSYLTRANSFERASE. In a sense these reactions detoxify phase I reaction products.
An area of water mostly surrounded by land, usually smaller than a gulf, and affording access to the sea.
A chemical by-product that results from burning or incinerating chlorinated industrial chemicals and other hydrocarbons. This compound is considered an environmental toxin, and may pose reproductive, as well as, other health risks for animals and humans.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
A carcinogen that is often used in experimental cancer studies.
A natural fuel formed by partial decomposition of vegetable matter under certain environmental conditions.
Release of oil into the environment usually due to human activity.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A family of diphenylenemethane derivatives.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A group of compounds with three aromatic rings joined in linear arrangement.
Benzopyrenes saturated in any two adjacent positions and substituted with two hydroxyl groups in any position. The majority of these compounds have carcinogenic or mutagenic activity.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.
Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)
Complex petroleum hydrocarbons consisting mainly of residues from crude oil distillation. These liquid products include heating oils, stove oils, and furnace oils and are burned to generate energy.
The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.
Two-ring crystalline hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar. They are used as intermediates in chemical synthesis, as insect repellents, fungicides, lubricants, preservatives, and, formerly, as topical antiseptics.
Chlorinated hydrocarbons containing heteroatoms that are present as contaminants of herbicides. Dioxins are carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. They have been banned from use by the FDA.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
7,12-Dimethylbenzanthracene. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in tobacco smoke that is a potent carcinogen.
Organic compounds containing a BENZENE ring attached to a flavone group. Some of these are potent arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase inhibitors. They may also inhibit the binding of NUCLEIC ACIDS to BENZOPYRENES and related compounds. The designation includes all isomers; the 7,8-isomer is most frequently encountered.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria characterized by an outer membrane that contains glycosphingolipids but lacks lipopolysaccharide. They have the ability to degrade a broad range of substituted aromatic compounds.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
A body of water located at the southeastern corner of North America. It is bordered by the states to the north of Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas; by five Mexican states to the west: Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Tabasco, Campeche, Yucatan; and by Cuba to the southeast.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.
High temperature destruction of waste by burning with subsequent reduction to ashes or conversion to an inert mass.
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator is a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF containing protein that forms a complex with DIOXIN RECEPTOR. The complex binds xenobiotic regulatory elements and activates transcription of a variety of genes including UDP GLUCURONOSYLTRANSFERASE. AhR nuclear translocator is also a subunit of HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1.
Naphthalene derivatives carrying one or more hydroxyl (-OH) groups at any ring position. They are often used in dyes and pigments, as antioxidants for rubber, fats, and oils, as insecticides, in pharmaceuticals, and in numerous other applications.
A polyaromatic hydrocarbon inducer of P4501A1 and P4501A2 cytochromes. (Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1994 Dec:207(3):302-308)
A tough, malleable, iron-based alloy containing up to, but no more than, two percent carbon and often other metals. It is used in medicine and dentistry in implants and instrumentation.
Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.
A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Santo Domingo. With Haiti, it forms the island of Hispaniola - the Dominican Republic occupying the eastern two thirds, and Haiti, the western third. It was created in 1844 after a revolt against the rule of President Boyer over the entire island of Hispaniola, itself visited by Columbus in 1492 and settled the next year. Except for a brief period of annexation to Spain (1861-65), it has been independent, though closely associated with the United States. Its name comes from the Spanish Santo Domingo, Holy Sunday, with reference to its discovery on a Sunday. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p338, 506 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p151)
Non-heme iron-containing enzymes that incorporate two atoms of OXYGEN into the substrate. They are important in biosynthesis of FLAVONOIDS; GIBBERELLINS; and HYOSCYAMINE; and for degradation of AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.
The contamination of indoor air.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.
Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.
Waste products which threaten life, health, or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, disposed of, or otherwise managed.
Residue generated from combustion of coal or petroleum.
Family of small, surface-dwelling fish that inhabit fresh and brackish waters, and coastal marine areas.
The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.
Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.
Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.
The science concerned with celestial bodies and the observation and interpretation of the radiation received in the vicinity of the earth from the component parts of the universe (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.
Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.
A cytochrome P450 enzyme subtype that has specificity for relatively planar heteroaromatic small molecules, such as CAFFEINE and ACETAMINOPHEN.
A plant species of the family AQUIFOLIACEAE. An infusion of the leaves is commonly drunk in South America for stimulating effect in much the same manner as coffee is in other cultures.
Enzymes that catalyze reversibly the formation of an epoxide or arene oxide from a glycol or aromatic diol, respectively.
Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.
Supplies used in building.
Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
Mixtures of many components in inexact proportions, usually natural, such as PLANT EXTRACTS; VENOMS; and MANURE. These are distinguished from DRUG COMBINATIONS which have only a few components in definite proportions.
Compounds having the nitro group, -NO2, attached to carbon. When attached to nitrogen they are nitramines and attached to oxygen they are NITRATES.
A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.
A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.
The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A drug-metabolizing enzyme found in the hepatic, placental and intestinal microsomes that metabolizes 7-alkoxycoumarin to 7-hydroxycoumarin. The enzyme is cytochrome P-450- dependent.
Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
Diaza derivative of cholesterol which acts as a hypocholesteremic agent by blocking delta-24-reductase, which causes the accumulation of desmosterol.
Relating to the size of solids.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.
Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.
The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.
Mice selectively bred for hypersusceptibility to two-stage chemical skin carcinogenesis. They are also hypersusceptible to UV radiation tumorigenesis with single high-dose, but not chronic low-dose, exposures. SENCAR (SENsitive to CARcinogenesis) mice are used in research as an animal model for tumor production.
Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.
A class of compounds that contain a -NH2 and a -NO radical. Many members of this group have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.
Aggregates of matter in outer space, such as stars, planets, comets, etc. and the properties and processes they undergo.
The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)
Hydrocarbon rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.
A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.
Uptake of substances through the SKIN.
Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Analogs or derivatives of prostaglandin A that do not occur naturally in the body. They do not include the product of the chemical synthesis of hormonal PGA.
Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.
A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.
Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.
A plant family of the order Rhizophorales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida, that includes mangrove trees.
An extraction method that separates analytes using a solid phase and a liquid phase. It is used for preparative sample cleanup before analysis by CHROMATOGRAPHY and other analytical methods.
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
A glutathione transferase that catalyzes the conjugation of electrophilic substrates to GLUTATHIONE. This enzyme has been shown to provide cellular protection against redox-mediated damage by FREE RADICALS.
A widely used industrial solvent.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An amorphous form of carbon prepared from the incomplete combustion of animal or vegetable matter, e.g., wood. The activated form of charcoal is used in the treatment of poisoning. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A mixture of liquid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. It is used as laxative, lubricant, ointment base, and emollient.
Organic compounds containing the radical -CSNH2.
Viscous materials composed of complex, high-molecular-weight compounds derived from the distillation of petroleum or the destructive distillation of wood or coal. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the METHYLATION of GLYCINE using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE to form SARCOSINE with the concomitant production of S-ADENOSYLHOMOCYSTEINE.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The N-glucuronide conjugate of cotinine is a major urinary metabolite of NICOTINE. It thus serves as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco SMOKING. It has CNS stimulating properties.
Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
A genotoxicological technique for measuring DNA damage in an individual cell using single-cell gel electrophoresis. Cell DNA fragments assume a "comet with tail" formation on electrophoresis and are detected with an image analysis system. Alkaline assay conditions facilitate sensitive detection of single-strand damage.
Unstable isotopes of lead that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Pb atoms with atomic weights 194-203, 205, and 209-214 are radioactive lead isotopes.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
A solventless sample preparation method, invented in 1989, that uses a fused silica fiber which is coated with a stationary phase. It is used for sample cleanup before using other analytical methods.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Polymeric derivatives of GALLIC ACID that are esters of a sugar.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.
The contribution to barometric PRESSURE of gaseous substance in equilibrium with its solid or liquid phase.
An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.
A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Substances and materials manufactured for use in various technologies and industries and for domestic use.
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A high-molecular-weight polymeric elastomer derived from the milk juice (LATEX) of HEVEA brasiliensis and other trees and plants. It is a substance that can be stretched at room temperature to at least twice its original length and after releasing the stress, retract rapidly, and recover its original dimensions fully.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Inland bodies of still or slowly moving FRESH WATER or salt water, larger than a pond, and supplied by RIVERS and streams.
A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-448 (P-450) enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of benzopyrene to 3-hydroxybenzopyrene in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. Also acts on certain anthracene derivatives. An aspect of EC 1.14.14.1.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A 3-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase which catalyzes the reversible reduction of the active androgen, DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE to 5 ALPHA-ANDROSTANE-3 ALPHA,17 BETA-DIOL. It also has activity towards other 3-alpha-hydroxysteroids and on 9-, 11- and 15- hydroxyprostaglandins. The enzyme is B-specific in reference to the orientation of reduced NAD or NADPH.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with bay-like regions inhibited gap junctional intercellular communication and stimulated MAPK activity. (1/8)

Many polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known carcinogens. A considerable amount of research has been devoted to predicting the genotoxic, tumor-initiating potential of PAHs based on chemical structure. However, information on the correlation of structure with the non-genetoxic, epigenetic events of tumor promotion is sparse. PAHs containing a bay or bay-like region were shown to be potent inhibitors of gap-junctional intercellular communication (GJIC), an epigenetic event involved in the removal of an initiated cell from growth suppression. We tested the epigenetic toxicity of PAHs containing bay-like regions by comparing the effects of methylated vs. chlorinated isomers of anthracene on the temporal activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and the regulation of GJIC. Specifically, we used anthracene, 1-methylanthracene, 2-methylanthracene, 9-methylanthracene, 9,10-dimethylanthracene, 1-chloroanthracene, 2-chloroanthracene, and 9-chloroanthracene. We determined the effect of these compounds on GJIC and on the activation of extracellular receptor kinase (ERK 1 and 2), a MAPK, in F344 rat liver epithelial cells. Results showed that bay or bay-like regions, formed by either chlorine or a methyl group, reversibly inhibited GJIC at the same doses, time, and time of recovery, whereas the linear-planar isomers had no effect on GJIC. Similarly, the GJIC-inhibitory isomers also induced the phosphorylation of ERK 1 and ERK 2, while the non-inhibitory isomers had no effect on the activation of these MAPKs. MAPK activation occurred 10-20 min after the inhibition of GJIC, which indicates that MAPK is not involved in the initial regulation of GJIC; instead altered GJIC may be affecting MAPK activation. The present study revealed that there are structural determinants of PAHs, which clearly affect epigenetic events known to be involved in the non-genetoxic steps of tumor promotion. These events are the release of a cell from growth suppression involving the reduction of GJIC, followed by the activation of intracellular mitogenic events.  (+info)

Three-dimensional structure of anti-5,6-dimethylchrysene-1, 2-dihydrodiol-3,4-epoxide: a diol epoxide with a bay region methyl group. (2/8)

The three-dimensional structure of a dihydrodiol epoxide of 5, 6-dimethylchrysene was elucidated by X-ray diffraction techniques. The effects of the steric overcrowding by the 5-methyl group in the bay region of this compound are described. The carbon atom of the 5-methyl group is found to lie out of the plane of the aromatic system, thereby avoiding the nearer C-H group of the epoxide ring; this C-H hydrogen atom is pushed in the opposite direction. As a result, the molecule is distorted so that the relative orientations of the epoxide group and the aromatic ring systems are very different for the diol epoxides of (nearly planar) benzo[a]pyrene (studied by Neidle and co-workers) and (distorted) 5, 6-dimethylchrysene (described here). The main effect of the 5-methyl group is to change the relative angle between the epoxide-bearing ring (the site of attack when the diol epoxide acts as an alkylating agent) and the aromatic ring system (which is presumed to lie partially between the DNA bases in the DNA adduct that is about to be formed). This may favor some specific alkylation geometry.  (+info)

Tumorigenicity of four optically active bay-region 3,4-diol 1, 2-epoxides and other derivatives of the nitrogen heterocycle dibenz[c,h]acridine on mouse skin and in newborn mice. (3/8)

The nitrogen heterocycle dibenz[c,h]acridine (DB[c,h]ACR) and the enantiomers of the diastereomeric pair of bay-region 3,4-diol 1, 2-epoxides as well as other bay-region epoxides and dihydrodiol derivatives of this hydrocarbon have been evaluated for tumorigenicity on mouse skin and in the newborn mouse. On mouse skin, a single topical application of 50 or 200 nmol of compound was followed 10 days later by twice-weekly applications of the tumor promoter 12-O:-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate for 20 weeks. DB[c, h]ACR and the four optically pure, bay-region 3,4-diol-1,2-epoxide isomers all had significant tumor- initiating activity. The isomer with (1R,2S,3S,4R) absolute configuration [(+)-DE-2] was the most active diol epoxide isomer. The (-)-(3R,4R)-dihydrodiol of DB[c, h]ACR, the expected metabolic precursor of the bay-region (+)-DE-2, was 4- to 6-fold more tumorigenic than its corresponding (+)-enantiomer. In tumorigenicity studies in newborn mice, a total dose of 70-175 nmol of DB[c,h]ACR or one of its derivatives was injected i.p. on days 1, 8 and 15 of life, and tumorigenic activity was determined when the mice were 36-39 weeks old. DB[c,h]ACR produced a significant number of pulmonary tumors and also produced hepatic tumors in male mice. Of the four optically active bay-region diol epoxides, only (+)-DE-2 and (+)-DE-1 with (1R,2S,3S,4R) and (1S, 2R,3S,4R) absolute configuration, respectively, produced a significant tumor incidence. At an equivalent dose, the (+)-DE-2 isomer produced several-fold more pulmonary tumors and hepatic tumors than the (+)-DE-1 isomer. The (-)-(3R,4R)-dihydrodiol, metabolic precursor of the bay-region (+)-DE-2, was strongly active and induced an equal number of pulmonary and hepatic tumors as did DB[c,h]ACR. The (+)-(3S,4S) dihydrodiol was less active. The bay-region (+)-(1R,2S)-epoxide of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro DB[c,h]ACR was strongly tumorigenic in newborn mice whereas its (-)-(1S, 2R)-enantiomer was inactive. This contrasts with the data on mouse skin where both enantiomers had substantial tumorigenic activity. In summary, the bay-region (+)-(1R,2S,3S,4R)-3,4-diol 1,2-epoxide of DB[c,h]ACR was the most tumorigenic of the four optically active bay-region diol epoxides of DB[c,h]ACR on mouse skin and in the newborn mouse. These results with a nitrogen heterocycle are similar to earlier data indicating high tumorigenic activity for the R,S,S,R bay-region diol epoxides of several carbocyclic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.  (+info)

Preferential glutathione conjugation of a reverse diol epoxide compared to a bay region diol epoxide of phenanthrene in human hepatocytes: relevance to molecular epidemiology studies of glutathione-s-transferase polymorphisms and cancer. (4/8)

 (+info)

Studies of the binding of diolepoxide metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to DNA using electrofluorescence polarization spectroscopy. (5/8)

In the electrofluorescence method, a solution of DNA with covalently bound polycyclic hydrocarbons is placed in an electric field, and changes in the intensity of polarized fluorescence are observed. Under the correct conditions, these charges can be used to determine a value for the angle psi between the long axis of the hydrocarbon molecule and the axis of the DNA helix. For DNA or poly(dA-dT) treated with each stereoisomer of anti-benzo[c]phenanthrene diolepoxide, psi ranged from 55 degrees to 61 degrees, consistent with a mixture of quasi-intercalated adenine adducts and externally bound guanine adducts. Similar results were obtained with another set of 'fjord-region' diolepoxides, derived from benzo[c]chrysene. Adducts in DNA treated with diolepoxides derived from chrysene, 5-methylchrysene or 6-methylchrysene gave psi of about 53 degrees, so the predominant adducts are externally bound, probably in the minor groove of DNA.  (+info)

Bay or baylike regions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were potent inhibitors of Gap junctional intercellular communication. (6/8)

Many polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known carcinogens, and a considerable amount of research has been devoted to predicting the tumor-initiating potential of PAHs based on chemical structure. However, there has been little research into the effects of PAHs on the epigenetic events of tumor promotion and no structural correlation has been made thereof. Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) activity was used in this study as an epigenetic biomarker to determine the structure-activity relationships of twelve different PAHs. The PAHs used were naphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, anthracene, 1-methylanthracene, 2-methylanthracene, 9-methylanthracene, 9, 10-dimethylanthracene, phenanthrene, fluorene, 1-methylfluorene, and fluoranthene. Results showed that PAHs containing bay or baylike regions inhibited GJIC more than did the linear PAHs. The nonnaphthalene PAHs were not cytotoxic as determined by a vital dye uptake assay, but the naphthalene compounds were cytotoxic at the higher doses, indicating that the down regulation of GJIC by these naphthalenes could be a consequence of general membrane damage. Inhibition of GJIC by all the inhibitory PAHs was reversed when the cells were refreshed with PAH-free growth medium. Inhibition of GJIC occurred within 0.5-5 min and correlated with the aqueous solubility of the PAHs. The present study revealed that there are structural determinants of epigenetic toxicity as determined by GJIC activity.  (+info)

Comparative mouse skin tumorigenicity and induction of Ha-ras mutations by bay region diol epoxides of 5-methylchrysene and 5,6-dimethylchrysene. (7/8)

We compared the tumor-initiating activities toward mouse skin of two structurally related polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon diol epoxides: racemic anti-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-5,6-dimethylchrysene-1,2-diol-3,4-epoxide (5,6-diMeCDE) and racemic anti-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-5-methylchrysene-1,2-diol-3,4-epoxide (5-MeCDE). Tumors induced by these diol epoxides were analysed for mutations in the Ha-ras gene. 5,6-diMeCDE is derived from the non-planar parent compound 5,6-dimethylchrysene, and reacts to approximately equal extents with dA and dG in DNA, whereas 5-MeCDE is derived from a nearly planar parent compound, 5-methylchrysene, and reacts mainly with dG in DNA. 5,6-diMeCDE, at initiating doses of 33, 100 or 400 nmol per mouse, induced 1.2, 2.2 and 6.2 skin tumors per mouse, respectively. It was significantly less tumorigenic than 5-MeCDE which induced 3.1, 7.5 and 9.1 skin tumors per mouse at the same doses. Tumors induced by 5,6-diMeCDE had a large number of CAA-->CTA mutations in codon 61 of the Ha-ras gene: 50, 55 and 75% of the tumors analysed had this mutation at the 33, 100 and 400 nmol doses. No mutations were found in codons 12 and 13 in the tumors induced by 5,6-diMeCDE. In contrast, CAA-->CTA mutations in codon 61 were rarely seen in tumors induced by 5-MeCDE. At the highest dose of 5-MeCDE, 20% of the tumors analysed had mutations at G of codons 12 and 13. The results of this comparative study support the hypothesis that mutations in the Ha-ras gene in mouse skin tumors induced by PAH diol epoxides occur as a result of their direct reaction with the gene. However, pathways other than the commonly observed Ha-ras codon 61 mutations are clearly important in mouse skin tumorigenesis by these diol epoxides.  (+info)

Detoxification of optically active bay- and fjord-region polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon dihydrodiol epoxides by human glutathione transferase P1-1 expressed in Chinese hamster V79 cells. (8/8)

Dihydrodiol epoxides (DEs) are important carcinogenic metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The metabolic formation of four stereoisomeric DEs (a pair of optically active diastereomers termed as syn- and anti-form) is possible. Glutathione tranferases (GSTs) have been demonstrated to catalyze the detoxification of DEs. Purified GSTs display remarkable differences in catalytic efficiencies towards bay- and fjord-region DEs along with a high degree of regio- and stereoselectivity. Here we determined to which extent heterologously expressed human GSTP1-1, a major GST isoform in lung, affects the mutagenicity of stereoisomeric bay-region DEs of benzo[a]pyrene in Chinese hamster V79 cells. To evaluate the influence of sterical crowding in the substrate on the activity of GSTP-1, the study was extended to the strongly mutagenic fjord-region (-)-anti-DEs of benzo[c]phenanthrene and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene. GSTP1-1,reduced preferentially the mutagenicity (studied at the hprt locus) of (+)-anti and (+)-syn-DEs of benzo[a]pyrene (by 66 and 67%) as compared with the corresponding (-)-anti- and (-)-syn-enantiomers (by 15 and 13%). These results are in line with previous studies on the enantioselectivity of purified GSTP1-1 towards the DE isomers of benzo[a]pyrene and benzo[c]phenanthrene showing that enantiomers with (R)-configuration at the benzylic oxiranyl carbon are better substrates than those with (S)-configuration. Interestingly, the (-)-anti-DEs of benzo[c]phenanthrene and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene were efficiently detoxified by GSTP-1-1 in the constructed cell line (reduction of mutagenicity by 66 and 64%). This study demonstrates that differences in the caalytic activity seen for purified GST towards individual mutagens do not necessarily reflect the detoxification of DEs by the same enzyme in a living cell and provides further evidence that specific human GSTs play a role in the detoxification of DEs of PAHs.  (+info)

BAY-598 ((S)-N-[1-{N′-Cyano-N-[3-(difluoromethoxy)phenyl]carbamimidoyl}-3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-4-yl]-N-ethyl-2-hydroxyacetamide);≥98% HPLC; This compound is a featured product for Gene Regulation research; BAY-598 is a
McLaren Bay Region in Bay City, MI - Get directions, phone number, research physicians, and compare hospital ratings for McLaren Bay Region on Healthgrades.
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. BAY-678 ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
Atuveciclib Racemate (BAY-1143572 Racemate) is the racemate mixture of Atuveciclib. Atuveciclib is a potent and highly selective, oral P-TEFb/CDK9 inhibitor which supresses CDK9/CycT1 with an IC50 of 13 nM. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
Jill shares her emotional story of what happened when she went into labor and the all-hands-on-deck efforts of McLaren Bay Region medical staff when things didnt go as planned.
Triazine is the chemical species of six-membered heterocyclic ring compound with three nitrogens replacing carbon-hydrogen units in the benzene ring structure. The names of the three isomers indicate which of the carbon-hydrogen units on the benzene ring position of the molecule have been replaced by nitrogens, called 1,2,3-triazine, 1,2,4-triazine, and 1,3,5-triazine respectively. Symmetrical 1,3,5-triazine is the common. Triazines are prepared from 2-azidocyclopropene through thermal rearrangement (1,2,3-triazine), from 1,2-dicarbonyl compound with amidrazone by condensation reaction (1,2,4-triazine) and from cyanic acid amide by trimerization (1,3,5-triazine). Pyridine is the aromatic nitrogen heterocycle compound having only one nitrogen, and diazines are with 2 nitrogen atoms and tetrazines are with 4 nitrogen atoms on the benzene ring system. Triazines are weak base. Triazines have much weaker resonance energy than benzene, so nucleophilic substitution is preferred than electrophilic ...
Constrained geometry catalysts (CGC) are known to be active in the polymerization and copolymerization of alkenes with a distinct control over polymer tacticity. The tethering of one ¿5-cyclopentadienyl moiety and one pendant donor gives these compounds an accessible metal center as well as ability to maintain their structure throughout the catalytic process. Complexes of this type typically feature one pendant amido donor. Replacement of the pendant amido donor with a nitrogen heterocycle such as an indolyl- or pyrrolyl-group should result in electrophilic metal centers due to reduced N ¿ M p donation, a consequence of electron delocalization of the nitrogen lone pair in the aromatic system. This dissertation reports the development of a new series of constrained geometry ligands that feature indolyl- and pyrrolyl- donor moieties. In chapter 2, the synthesis and characterization of a series of acetal precursors and their corresponding di(3-methylindolyl)ethane and dipyrrolylethane constrained ...
McLaren urological services offer treatment for disorders of the kidneys, bladder, urinary tract, and male reproductive organs. Common conditions such as kidney stones, incontinence, cancer of the bladder, and male infertility, are treated.
This is a pilot study using AMS to examine PhIP bioavailability, and adduct formation with DNA and protein in five human volunteers after the administration of a defined dietary-relevant dose of [14C]PhIP. Despite the fact that the subjects were undergoing surgery to remove tumors, the data presented are crucial to assess whether PhIP at dietary levels of exposure may be involved in the initiation of colon cancer in humans. Moreover, this study provides a means to validate biomarkers for use in molecular epidemiology studies.. PhIP adducts with protein and DNA were measured by AMS. Although AMS analyses offer no structural information, plasma samples were extensively dialyzed, Hb, and protein from tissues repeatedly solvent extracted and DNA extensively purified to ensure that only covalently bound PhIP was analyzed. Although the major DNA adduct formed by PhIP in laboratory animals and a minor adduct with albumin formed in vitro have been characterized (27, 28, 29) , investigations to determine ...
Wacholder et al., Assessing the Probability That a Positive Report is False: An Approach for Molecular Epidemiology Studies, Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Vol. 96, No. 6, March 17, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tumorigenicity of 5-Methylchrysene Dihydrodiols and Dihydrodiol Epoxides in Newborn Mice and on Mouse Skin. AU - Hecht, Stephen S.. AU - Radok, Lynn. AU - Amin, Shantu. AU - Huie, Keith. AU - Melikian, Assieh A.. AU - Hoffmann, Dietrich. AU - Pataki, John. AU - Harvey, Ronald G.. PY - 1985/4/1. Y1 - 1985/4/1. N2 - 5-Methylchrysene, (±-trans-1,2-dihydro-1,2-dihydroxy-5-methylchrysene, (±-trans-7,8-dihydro-7,8-dihydroxy-5-methyl-chrysene, (±)-trans-1,2-dihydroxy-anti-3,4-epoxy-1,2,3,4-tetra-hydro-5-methylchrysene (anti-DE-l), (±trans-1,2-dihydroxy-«yr?-3,4-epoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-5-methylchrysene (syn-DE-l), and (±trans-7,8-dihydroxy-anti-9,10-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-5-methylchrysene (anti-DE-ll) were tested for tumorigenicity in newborn mice and for tumor-initiating activity on mouse skin. In newborn mice, a total dose of 56 nmol of anti-DE-l induced 4.6 lung tumors/mouse and 1.2 liver tumors/mouse. These incidences were significantly higher than observed for any of the ...
BAY-678 | HNE inhibitor | BAY678 | BAY 678 | CAS [675103-36-3] | Axon 2822 | Axon Ligand™ with >99% purity available from supplier Axon Medchem, prime source of life science reagents for your research
As the only hospital located in Inglewood, California, Centinela Hospital Medical Center is known for its exceptional expertise and care. Each year, the hospital serves more than 140,000 patients and their families from Los Angeles and the South Bay regions.. ...
How one woman transformed the marshy, wooded Chesapeake Bay region, first a gateway through which slave traders brought Africans, into a route to liberation.
Drinking of alcoholic beverages; Newfoundland and Labrador; Trinity Bay Region.; Rural population; Alcohol use; Newfoundland and Labrador; Trinity Bay Region; Drinking of alcoholic beverages; Newfoundland and Labrador; Bonavista Bay Region ...
M. K. Lakshman, A. Deb, R. R. Chamala, P. Pradhan, R. Pratap. Direct arylation of 6 phenylpurine and 6-arylpurine nucleosides by ruthenium-catalyzed C-H bond activation, Angewandte Chemie, International Edition 2011, 50, 11400-11404. DOI: 10.1002/anie.20110403. R. Kumar, P. Pradhan and B. Zajc. Facile synthesis of 4-vinyl- and 4-fluorovinyl-1, 2, 3-triazoles via bifunctional click-olefination reagents. (2011) Chem. Commun. 47, 3891-3893.. V.S. Balachandran, S. R. Jadhav, P. Pradhan, S. De Carlo and G. John. Adhesive Vesicles through Adaptive Response of a Biobased Surfactant. (2010). Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 4, 9509.. Synthesis of N6,N6-Dialkyladenine Nucleosides Using Hexaalkylphosphorus Triamides Produced in Situ. M. K. Lakshman A. Choudhury, S. Bae, E. Rochttis, P. Pradhan, A. Kumar (2009) Eur. J. Org. Chem. 152-159.. Palladium-Catalyzed Synthesis of Nucleoside Adducts from Bay and Fjord Region Diol Epoxides. E. Champeil, P. Pradhan and M. K. Lakshman (2007) J. Org. Chem. 72(14) pp 5035 - ...
The aim of this study (*) is to evaluate the progression free survival rate at 6 months, response rate, overall disease control rate, overall survival of BAY-43-9006 in soft tissue sarcoma patients.. (*) as per Protocol Amendment No. 1 of 16 April 2007 approved by local IEC on 24 July 2007 ...
The city of Tampa[http://www.visittampabay.com/] in Hillsborough County is the largest city in the greater Tampa Bay region of Florida, which has a combined population of 2.5 million.
PURPOSE To elucidate the role of metabolic dysregulation and associated DNA methylation changes on breast cancer risk and aggressive subtypes among Nigerian women. We describe the design and methods of a collaborative molecular epidemiology study of breast cancer in Nigerian hospitals. METHODS The Mechanisms for Novel and Established Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in Women of Nigerian Descent (MEND) study was designed as a matched case-control study of 350 patients, age 18 to 75 years, with newly diagnosed, treatment-naïve breast cancer and 350 age-matched healthy controls from surrounding geographic areas. Patients with breast cancer seen for initial diagnosis at four large tertiary hospitals in southwest Nigeria and one affiliated private hospital were recruited. Healthy female controls were selected from a cohort of 4,000 healthy women recruited as part of the Human Heredity and Health (H3) in Africa Chronic Kidney Disease Case-Control Study in Nigeria. Tumor and adjacent normal tissue, and blood
Upregulation of gap junctional intercellular communication and connexin 43 expression by cyclic-AMP and all-trans-retinoic acid is associated with glutathione depletion and chemosensitivity in neuroblastoma cells.
6,7-Dihydro-5H-dibenz[c,e]azepines, a class of secondary amine incorporating a centre-axis chirality relay, can be prepared from N-(2-bromobenzyl)-N-(1-arylalkyl)methanesulfonamides via Pd-catalysed intramolecular direct arylation, and methylated at C(7) via the 5,7-trans diastereoselective addition of methy
Folk music--Newfoundland and Labrador--Greens Harbour; Folk songs, English--Newfoundland and Labrador--Greens Harbour; Carols, English--Newfoundland and Labrador--Greens Harbour; Folk music--Newfoundland and Labrador--Trinity Bay Region; Folk ...
Kerryn Pollock, Hawkes Bay region - Facts and figures, Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/hawkes-bay-region/page-15 (accessed 14 April 2021). Story by Kerryn Pollock, published 13 Aug 2009, updated 1 Jul 2015. ...
The region is situated on the east coast of the North Island. It bears the former name of what is now Hawke Bay, a large semi-circular bay that extends for 100 kilometres from northeast to southwest from Mahia Peninsula to Cape Kidnappers. The Hawkes Bay Region includes the hilly coastal land around the northern and central bay, the floodplains of the Wairoa River in the north, the wide fertile Heretaunga Plains around Hastings in the south, and a hilly interior stretching up into the Kaweka and Ruahine Ranges. The prominent peak Taraponui is located inland. Five major rivers flow to the Hawkes Bay coast. From north to south, they are the Wairoa River, Mohaka River, Tutaekuri River, Ngaruroro River and Tukituki River. Lake Waikaremoana, situated in northern Hawkes Bay, roughly 35 km from the coast, is the largest lake in Hawkes Bay, the 4th largest in the North Island and the 16th largest in New Zealand. The regional council area consists of the territorial authorities of Wairoa District, ...
Flying foxes are mammals, like humans, and belong to the Order Chiroptera (meaning hand-winged). Flying foxes play an important role in dispersing the pollen and fruit of many native trees, such as figs, palms, lilly-pillies and quandongs.
While climate change is the most probable explanation for this phenomenon, the lack of long term climatic data for the area makes it impossible for the researchers to officially confirm this. Professor Payette notes, however, that the average annual temperature of the northern sites he has studied for over 20 years has increased by 2 degrees Celsius. If this trend keeps up, what is left of the palsas in the James Bay bogs will disappear altogether in the near future, and it is likely that the permafrost will suffer the same fate, concludes the researcher affiliated to the Centre détudes nordiques ...
Principal Investigator:TOMOYOSE Taiki, Project Period (FY):2003 - 2004, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Surgical dentistry
Linear or multidimensional, crosslinking, solvent resistant oxazole, thiazole, or imidazole (i.e., heterocycle) oligomers and blends of the crosslinking oligomers and noncrosslinking comparable polymers are described. The oligomers are prepared by reacting tetraamines, diaminodiols, or diaminothiols (i.e. four-functional compounds) with poly-carboxylic acid halides, and crosslinking phenylimide end cap monomers in a suitable solvent under an inert atmosphere.
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details ...
Gilroy is in the southern part of Santa Clara County south of San Jose in California. It is in the South Bay region of the San Francisco Bay Area.
The largest-growing area in Queensland between 2006 and 2016 was North Lakes - Mango Hill (up by 22,000 people) in the Moreton Bay region north of Brisbane. Three of the five largest-growing areas in the state were located outside the Queensland capital, including Upper Coomera - Willow Vale (17,400) on the Gold Coast and Deeragun (14,200) in the outer suburbs of Townsville ...
Reversible down-regulation of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) is proposed to be an important cellular mechanism in tumor promotion. Gap junction function is modified by a variety of tumor promoters, including the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Treatment of cells with TPA results in the activation and subsequent depletion of the TPA-responsive protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms. TPA-induced degradation of the PKC isoforms α, δ and ϵ was recently shown to occur via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. In the present study we investigated the role of the proteasome in the TPA-induced modification of GJIC in IAR20 rat liver epithelial cells. TPA exposure of IAR20 cells induced hyperphosphorylation of gap junction protein connexin43 and inhibition of GJIC. Prolonged TPA treatment induced down-regulation of PKCα, δ and ϵ and a reduction in the total PKC activity, which was associated with recovery of GJIC. Co-treatment of IAR20 cells with TPA and the ...
Due to the important role of monocytes/macrophages in the pathogenesis of AIDS, potential drugs with anti-HIV activity in lymphocytes must also be effective in monocytes/macrophages. For testing the efficacy of antiviral substances, monocytes/macrophages from peripheral blood were infected, respectively, with highly replicating HIV1 and HIV2 strains, thereby providing an extremely sensitive system of testing. Azidothymidine was found to inhibit both HIV types at 0.04 microgram/ml. The polysulphated polyxylan, Hoe/Bay-946 (MW 6,000 Daltons), which acts through a different mechanism and is being tested in clinical pilot studies in Germany, was also found to be effective against HIV1 and HIV2 in macrophages at concentrations of 10-50 micrograms/ml. ...
Close The Infona portal uses cookies, i.e. strings of text saved by a browser on the users device. The portal can access those files and use them to remember the users data, such as their chosen settings (screen view, interface language, etc.), or their login data. By using the Infona portal the user accepts automatic saving and using this information for portal operation purposes. More information on the subject can be found in the Privacy Policy and Terms of Service. By closing this window the user confirms that they have read the information on cookie usage, and they accept the privacy policy and the way cookies are used by the portal. You can change the cookie settings in your browser. ...
At Sutter Health affiliates in the West Bay Region, equine therapy, guided imagery, genetic counseling, nutrition, meditation, massage, support groups, retreats and more offer cancer patients a holistic approach to healing beyond what chemotherapy and radiation can do for them.
Once upon a time, somebody created The Food List Challenge, a selection of 100 foods and drinks that the author believed everyone should try before they die.. I looked through the list recently and discovered there were many I had not tried - and some that I didnt even know where I could try them at. So, I decided to find out:. 41. Fugu: I did not know what fugu was before looking it up, but it turns out Ive eaten a non-poisonous version of the Japanese pufferfish dish at Sugar Toad at the Hotel Arista, 2139 City Gate Lane, Naperville. A sugar toad refers to the northern puffer, which is non-poisonous and found in the Chesapeake Bay region. However, if youre looking for fugu, which is usually made from a super-poisonous pufferfish, then Leah A. Zeldes of Dining Chicago (who - by the way - has tried 98 of the 100 foods on this list) knows where you need to go - Ai Japanese Restaurant & Lounge, 358 W Ontario. Be sure to call ahead to see if they have any, though, since it seems to be offered ...
BAY-60-7550 is a potent PDE2 inhibitor with IC50 values of 2.0 nM (bovine) and 4.7 nM (human). BAY-60-7550 antagonizes oxidative stress-induced anxiety-like behavioral effects in mice by increasing cGMP signaling. Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are key regulatory enzymes of intracellular cAMP/cGMP levels. These second messengers play important regulatory roles in controlling steroidogenesis in the adrenal. Disruption of PDEs has been associated with a number of adrenal diseases
The structure of a PAH influences whether and how the individual compound is carcinogenic.[72][76] Some carcinogenic PAHs are genotoxic and induce mutations that initiate cancer; others are not genotoxic and instead affect cancer promotion or progression.[76][77]. PAHs that affect cancer initiation are typically first chemically modified by enzymes into metabolites that react with DNA, leading to mutations. When the DNA sequence is altered in genes that regulate cell replication, cancer can result. Mutagenic PAHs, such as benzo[a]pyrene, usually have four or more aromatic rings as well as a bay region, a structural pocket that increases reactivity of the molecule to the metabolizing enzymes.[78] Mutagenic metabolites of PAHs include diol epoxides, quinones, and radical PAH cations.[78][79][80] These metabolites can bind to DNA at specific sites, forming bulky complexes called DNA adducts that can be stable or unstable.[74][81] Stable adducts may lead to DNA replication errors, while unstable ...
Agricultural science is a multidisciplinary program that studies biology, ecology, environmental effects, production techniques and the business of producing food for animals and humans. SVSU has two seperate ways for students to pursue studies in agriculture.. Located in the Great Lakes Bay region where agriculture is a prominent industry, SVSU offers an agricultural studies minor with two tracks. Students will specialize in one of two tracks: plant, animal and natural resources systems or the power, structural and technical systems track. The agricultural studies minor is commonly paired with a chemistry or biology major at SVSU.. Or, students may choose the 2+2 transfer plan with Michigan State University. SVSU students transfer to MSU to pursuit the Pre-Agriculture/ Natural Resources program.. ...
This is likely because it is plausible that two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are metabolized via the same pathway. ... The second epoxide is not hydrolysed immediately because it is localized next to a bay region, which shields the epoxide. This ... Harvey, R. G.; Cortez, C.; Jacobs, S. A. (1982). "Synthesis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons via a novel annelation method ... The sexhormone is, like 3-MC, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. 3-MC and estrogen bind to estrogenreceptors competitively, ...
... reduces the risk of skin tumorigenicity that is caused by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons like benzo(a)pyrene, a ... 5-oxide and the bay-region diol-epoxides of benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, and benzo(c)phenathrene). This data shows that ... myricetin is not unilaterally able to reduce the carcinogenic activity of all polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or even the more ... that myricetin was more effective in preventing mutagenesis initiated by certain carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ...
Creosote (high in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) from dumping and a major fire in 1963 played a major role in contaminating ... Both activities are vital to the region. Motor vehicles cross the main portion of the river using the Downtown Tunnel and the ... Chesapeake Bay: A Framework for Action. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Philadelphia, PA. September 1983 Elizabeth River ... The Elizabeth River is a tributary of the Chesapeake Bay and faces significant environmental pollution challenges of its own ...
... polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, DDT and heavy metals. The eastern shore of the bay was remediated starting in 2008 to remove ... The region is a part of the traditional land of the Wann-gal people who lived in Homebush Bay thousands of years ago and ... polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, DDT and heavy metals. Remediation from 2008-2010 removed about 75% of the dioxin from the bay ... As a result, the bay forms part of the geographical boundary between the Greater Western Sydney region in the west, and the ...
Mutagenic PAHs, such as benzo[a]pyrene, usually have four or more aromatic rings as well as a "bay region", a structural pocket ... Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Fact Sheet Understanding Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons NASA Spitzer Space Telescope ... Dipple, A. (1985). "Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Carcinogenesis". Polycyclic Hydrocarbons and Carcinogenesis. ACS Symposium ... A polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) is a hydrocarbon-a chemical compound containing only carbon and hydrogen-that is ...
... is the trivial name for a very large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. Its formal name is benzo[10,11]phenanthro[2 ... The double bond of maleic anhydride forms two carbon-carbon bonds on the ends of the bay region, making a new six-membered ring ... Fetzer, J. C. (2000). The Chemistry and Analysis of the Large Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. New York: Wiley.. ... Dicoronylene does undergo a Diels-Alder reaction with maleic anhydride on one or both of the central bay regions on either side ...
Benzo[c]fluorene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) with mutagenic activity. It is a component of coal tar, cigarette ... fluorene does not have a bay or fjord region it does undergo a similar transformation with a pseudo-bay region that reacts ... Seto H, Ohkubo T, Kanoh T, Koike M, Nakamura K, Kawahara Y (1993). "Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the ... Benzo[c]fluorene belongs to a group of compounds called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs and their derivatives are ...
... or more precisely contorted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ... The region of a contorted molecule having saturated hydrogens and carbons is known as bay region (having white spheres or ... Larsen, c.b (2012). "Curved Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons-A Discipline Still in Its Infancy". ChemInform. 43 (39): 49-55. ... Sun, c.h (2006). "Nonplanar distortions and strain energies of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon". The Journal of Physical ...
Abundant fossil charcoal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have been found. The number of coarse fossil charcoal particles ( ... the Fore-Sudetic Monocline region must have been an extensive bay similar to Lake Maracaibo in Venezuela. The basin's shore ... The region has the remains of the Wrêczyca River, which was active for most of the Pliensbachian/Toarcian period. At the Brody- ... Later, larger studies note the influence of fires on the region. The Kaszewy coals, found in an approximately 150-metre (490 ft ...
... covers in-situ about 130,000 m3 of sediments contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and contain about 500,000 m3 ... The bay was named Burlington Bay in 1792 by John Graves Simcoe, the first lieutenant governor of Upper Canada, for the former ... "Burlington Canal Lift Bridge - Ontario Region - PSPC". www.tpsgc-pwgsc.gc.ca. Retrieved 17 April 2018. "Daily News (Kingston, ... The bay today is crossed by two highways: 403 & Queen Elizabeth Way (QEW). The Burlington Bay James N. Allan Skyway (nicknamed ...
... and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), fire retardants, and other substances are resistant to breakdown. These ... Hypoxia is an increasingly common result of eutrophication in marine systems and can impact large areas of estuaries, bays, and ... is comparable to the area of New Jersey and has major detrimental consequences for fisheries in the region. Nitrogen is most ... Stevenson, J. Court; Piper, Catherine B.; Confer, Nedra (1979). Decline of Submerged Plants in Chesapeake Bay (Report). ...
There are unhealthy levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and mercury in the estuarine habitats of Castro Cove and ... NBC Bay Area reported that this was due to flaring. 2019-20 incidents KGO, local news station, counted a total of 38 flaring ... This refinery receives small quantities (relative to their other sources) of crude oil from the Amazon region of South America ... Beyaert also states that there had previously been discussions to give land north of I-580 for free under an East Bay rails to ...
... is a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons which have severely affected Atlantic salmon stocks in the region. Rivers ... Monaghan to Dundalk Bay in Co. Louth, Ireland. Originating in Lough Ross on the border of County Monaghan and County Armagh, ... Runoff from illegal fuel laundering operations, carried out in the region, ... before meeting Dundalk Bay near Blackrock, County Louth. The Fane River is 38.25 miles long and drains an area of 350 km2 The ...
Refractory DOM largely comprises highly conjugated molecules like Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or lignin. Refractory DOM ... While there are regions with local loss of CO2 to the atmosphere and hydrothermal processes, a net loss in the cycle does not ... The rivers that flow into Chesapeake Bay (Susquehanna, Potomac, and James rivers) input approximately 0.004 Gt (6.5 x 1010 ... in a 2004 study data showed a Revelle factor ranging from approximately 9 in low-latitude tropical regions to 15 in the ...
Silt and sediment from the harbor contains heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, according to DEP officials. In ... A tunnel under the sound, as between Rye and Oyster Bay has also been proposed, to carry both freeway lanes and railroads. ... The installation is estimated to save the region in excess of $600 million a year in energy costs. The terminal would regasify ... The classification of 'juridical bay' means that the states, and not the federal government, have jurisdiction over the Long ...
2013). "Compound- and Mixture-Specific Differences in Resistance to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and PCB-126 among Fundulus ... Genetic fragments such as pseudogenes, regions of DNA that are orthologous to a gene in a related organism, but are no longer ... in Shinnecock Bay. This pattern along the sampled bodies of waters infers a direct correlation of selective pressures leading ... A similar study was also done regarding the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that pollute the waters of the Elizabeth ...
Laboratory experiments found that at levels as low as one part per billion, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are toxic for ... The region is a habitat for salmon, sea otters, seals, and seabirds. The oil, originally extracted at the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field ... More than 11,000 Alaska residents, along with some Exxon employees, worked throughout the region to try to restore the ... "Properties of Prudhoe Bay (2004) (ESTS #679)" (PDF). Environment and Climate Change Canada. Government of Canada. 2004. ...
"Dispersants as Used in Response to the MC252-Spill Lead to Higher Mobility of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Oil- ... "Riki Ott: An Open Letter to US EPA, Region 6". Huffington Post. August 27, 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-05. "US points to 'gross ... "Deepwater Horizon oil, dispersant toxic to coral in Keys". Tampa Bay Times. January 9, 2013. Ritchie, Kim B.; Miller, Allison; ... "Three years after BP oil spill, USF research finds massive die-off". Tampa Bay Times. April 4, 2013. "Environmental Protection ...
... in this case by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and coincides with the high incidence of this disease in humans residing in ... Whales in James Bay that spend winter months within the basin, could be a distinct group from those in Hudson Bay. The ... They live in all the seas of the world and share the same habitat as belugas in the sub-Arctic region. Attacks on belugas by ... The populations living in the Ungava Bay and the eastern and western sides of Hudson Bay overwinter together beneath the sea ...
Maternal exposure through natural gas wells may come in the form of benzene, solvents, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs ... Thus, any effects air pollution has on human development in utero are of great concern to those who live in this region. ... where it went on to be ingested regularly by many villagers who used the fish living in the bay as a dietary staple. Soon, many ... polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, perchlorate PBDEs, compounds used as flame retardants, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane ( ...
... is an organic compound with formula C 10H 8. It is the simplest polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, and is a white ... Weinheim: Wiley-VCH.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link). "Termite 'mothball' keep insects at bay". Sci/Tech. BBC News. ... 2008-09-20), "Evidence for the Naphthalene Cation in a Region of the Interstellar Medium with Anomalous Microwave Emission", ... naphthalene is classified as a benzenoid polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). The eight carbons that are not shared by the ...
... petroleum products and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Cleaning of waste water in Saint Petersburg was started in 1979 and by ... The northern coast of the gulf is high and winding, with abundant small bays and skerries, but only a few large bays (Vyborg) ... oil from Volga region, and grains from many regions of Russia. Passenger transport on the gulf includes a number of ferry lines ... The average depth is 38 m (125 ft) with the maximum of 115 m (377 ft). The depth of the Neva Bay is less than 6 metres (20 ft ...
Between May and June 2010, the spill waters contained 40 times more polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) than before the ... off the Tampa Bay region. According to researchers, there is "some evidence it may have caused lesions in fish caught in that ... "Oil from BP spill pushed onto shelf off Tampa Bay by underwater currents, study finds". Tampa Bay Times. 20 August 2013. Viegas ... It was first thought that oil had not reached as far as Tampa Bay, Florida; however, a study done in 2013 found that one of the ...
... by-products of combustion such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, dioxins and furans are found in ships and pose a great ... Impact of ship breaking on marine fish diversity of the Bay of Bengal.DFID SUFER Project, Dhaka, Bangladesh. 46 pp. Siddiquee, ... "Evidence for Major Emissions of PCBs in the West African Region". Environmental Science & Technology. 45 (4): 1349-1355. ... The plastic almost always contains regulated hazardous waste (e.g., asbestos, PCBs, hydrocarbons) and cannot be melted down. ...
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). *RNA world hypothesis. *Spectroscopy. *Tholin. *. Category:Astrochemistry. *. Astronomy ... By region. *In Cheshire. *In Ghana. *San Francisco Bay. Culture. *Salt in the Bible ...
Petroleum, which comprises hydrocarbon compound contaminants such as PAHs (Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), has been ... Considered one of the most ecologically sensitive regions in the world, the Niger Delta mangrove forest is situated within a ... One study analyzing local species dependency on mangrove populations in Pagbilao Bay, Quezon, discovered that nearly 128 fish ... Sustainable Management of Mangrove Coastal Environments in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria: Role of Remote Sensing and GIS. ...
It consists of large amounts of coal tar which has high concentrations of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The ... In comparison to the Port of Thunder Bay, Ontario's second busiest port, Hamilton is much more reliant on the steel industry ... is a port authority that controls the ports in both Hamilton and Oshawa in the Golden Horseshoe region of Ontario, Canada. It ... In 2018 approximately 60% of Hamilton's tonnage was steel industry inputs and products and 85% of Thunder Bay's tonnage was ...
... "the development of cancerous tumors in fish exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments." These high-risk ... This was done in shallow regions were direct placement was possible. In Cold Spring, New York, in the Hudson River, sediment ... used for stabilization in two projects along with granular media for the ISC constructed at Sheboygan River and in Eitrheim Bay ...
Formation of stable DNA adducts and apurinic sites upon metabolic activation of bay and fjord region polycyclic aromatic ... of stable DNA adducts and apurinic sites upon metabolic activation of bay and fjord region polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ... of stable DNA adducts and apurinic sites upon metabolic activation of bay and fjord region polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ...
Bay-Region, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon*Bay-Region, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon. *Bay Region, Polycyclic Aromatic ... "Bay-Region, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon" by people in this website by year, and whether "Bay-Region, Polycyclic Aromatic ... "Bay-Region, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Bay-Region, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon" by people in Profiles. ...
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): What Are Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)? ... Structural Formulas of Selected Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). The arrows indicate bay regions. ... What Are Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)?. ... polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons,. *polynuclear aromatics ( ...
Toxicity of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) benzo[c]phenanthrene compared to a bay region diol-epoxide of benzo[a] ... Toxicity of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Who Is at Risk of Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)? ... Toxicity of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Where Are Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Found? Learning Upon ... Toxicity of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) What Are the Routes of Exposure for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs ...
Stereospecific winding of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons into Trinacria propellers. Chemistry: A European Journal 23(61), pp ... A twisted bay-substituted quaterrylene phosphorescing in the NIR spectral region. Helvetica Chimica Acta 100(11), article ... Extended O-doped polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Angewandte Chemie - International Edition 55(20), pp. 5947-5951. (10.1002/ ... Stereospecific winding of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons into Trinacria propellers. Chemistry: A European Journal 23(61), pp ...
Purchase Metabolic Activation of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780080238357, ... Research on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pertaining to the Bay-region theory is also presented. ... Metabolic Activation of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons deals with the metabolic activation of polynuclear aromatic ... Metabolic Activation of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons 1st Edition. 0.0 star rating Write a review ...
Reactivity and Tumorigenicity of Bay-Region Diol Epoxides Derived from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons ... H-2 Modulation of Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylase Induction and the Mutagenicity of Benzo(a)Pyrene after 3-Methylcholanthrene ... Stereoselectivity of Rat Liver Cytochrome P-450 Isozymes: Direct Determination of Enantiomeric Composition of K-Region Epoxides ...
To estimate the severity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in the upper sediment of the Beijiang River, 42 ... sources of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with particulate matter in the Chesapeake Bay region. ... Distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Daliao River Estuary of Liaodong Bay, Bohai Sea (China). Marine ... Multivariate assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments of the Beijiang, a tributary of the Pearl ...
This is likely because it is plausible that two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are metabolized via the same pathway. ... The second epoxide is not hydrolysed immediately because it is localized next to a bay region, which shields the epoxide. This ... Harvey, R. G.; Cortez, C.; Jacobs, S. A. (1982). "Synthesis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons via a novel annelation method ... The sexhormone is, like 3-MC, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. 3-MC and estrogen bind to estrogenreceptors competitively, ...
Additional work has addressed polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and pesticides. Much ... in the Lake Michigan and Chesapeake Bay regions, respectively. The Agency is interested in proposals to reduce uncertainties in ... air pollutants in the Lake Michigan and Chesapeake Bay regions. Ecological Effects ... Proposals that focus on specific regions are encouraged. Duration of awards may be up to 3 years. 2. The Exposure of Children ...
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are ubiquitous ... Dickhut RM, Gustafson KE (1995) Atmospheric washout of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Southern Chesapeake Bay region. ... Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and many halogenated substances, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and ... Dvorská A, Komprdová K, Lammel G, Klánová J, Plachá H (2012) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in background air in central ...
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are widespread environmental contaminants that require metabolic activation in order to induce ... The bay region theory of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon carcinogenesis, in: "Polycyclic Hydrocarbons and Carcinogenesis11, R. ... A. Dipple, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon carcinogenesis: An Introduction, in: "Polycyclic Hydrocarbons and Carcinogenesis", R ... Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts: Formation, detection and characterization, in: "Polycyclic Hydrocarbons and ...
Glutathione conjugation of bay- and fjord-region diol epoxides of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by glutathione transferases ... Glutathione S-transferase A1-1-catalysed conjugation of bay and fjord region diol epoxides or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ... Inhibition of the mutagenicity of bay-region diol epoxides of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by naturally occurring plant ... Detoxification of optically active bay- and fjord-region polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon dihydrodiol epoxides by human ...
Phenanthrene is the simplest polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) containing a bay region, a feature closely associated with ...
Inhibition of the mutagenicity of bay-region diol-epoxides of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by phenolic plant flavonoids. ... III WOCMAP Congress on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants-Volume 1: Bioprospecting and Ethnopharmacology. Chiang Mai: Acta ... Further in silico molecular docking simulations showed that ellagic acid could bind within the ATP-binding region of the VEGFR- ... The term "phenolic" or "polyphenol" is chemically defined as a molecule, which possesses at least one aromatic ring (phenol) or ...
Myricetin reduces the risk of skin tumorigenicity that is caused by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons like benzo(a)pyrene, a ... 5-oxide and the bay-region diol-epoxides of benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, and benzo(c)phenathrene). This data shows that ... myricetin is not unilaterally able to reduce the carcinogenic activity of all polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or even the more ... that myricetin was more effective in preventing mutagenesis initiated by certain carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ...
Diels-Alder Cycloaddition of Acetylene Gas to a Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Bay Region Chem. Commun.48, 8102-8104. ... Fort, E. H.; Scott, L. T. (2012) Facile Air-Oxidation of Large Aromatic Hydrocarbon Bay Regions to Bay Region Quinones. ... Ippoliti, J. Thomas; Joshua Speros; Schewe, Scott R.; Warner, Robert W.; Dan Everson, "Polymers having lipophilic hydrocarbon ... Fort, E. H. "Investigating the mechanism of aryl-alkyne cyclization of azaborine containing aromatics." Funded at $50,000. ...
Weis, L. M., et al. Bay or Baylike Regions of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Were Potent Inhibitors of Gap Intercellular ... GJs and Cxs have been used in toxicology assays of carcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), which are GJ ... In the Layout menu, draw region of the plate to be read. ...
Potency equivalency factors for some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon derivatives. Regul ... Cytochromes P450 oxidize PAHs to generate epoxides in the bay region of PAHs (2-4) . Epoxide hydrolase converts epoxides to ... Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), including 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and benzo(a)pyrene (BP), are ... DMBA is metabolically activated to bay-region epoxides that react with purines in DNA, leading to tumorigenesis and ...
... polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. The designations α and β denote opposite faces of the hydrocarbon in the racemic compounds. ... Keywords: PAH, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon; DB[a,h]Acr, dibenz[a,h]acridine; dihydrodiols, the trans-dihydroxydihydro ... Only DB[a,h]Acr, (-)-DB[a,h]Acr (10R,11R)-dihydrodiol and the bay region (+)-(8R,9S,10S,11R)-diol epoxide-2 were highly active ... These results are consistent with previous studies which showed that the corresponding bay region RSSR diol epoxides of benzo[a ...
... sources of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with particulate matter in the Chesapeake Bay region. RM ... Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) distributions and associations with organic matter in surface waters of the York River, ... Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition of aquatic and terrestrial plants of the San Francisco Bay estuarine system. JE ... A geochemical record of eutrophication and anoxia in Chesapeake Bay sediments: anthropogenic influence on organic matter ...
Inhibition of the mutagenicity of bay-region diol epoxides of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by naturally occurring plant ...
... is the smallest PAH to contain a bay region, a feature closely associated with carcinogenicity 11 12. ... Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) comprise a class of chemicals composed of two or more fused aromatic rings. Since PAHs ... Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the work atmosphere. II. Determination in a coke plant. Scand J Work Environ Health. 1978;4 ... Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the work atmosphere. I. Determination in an aluminum reduction plant. Scand J Work Environ ...
Automative sources of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with particulate matter in the Chesapeake Bay ... region. Environmental Science and Technology. 34:4635-4640.. * Guinan, J., Charlesworth, M., Service, M., Oliver, T. (2001). ... Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) form a ubiquitous class of environmental chemical pollutants. These are multi-ringed ... Savinov, V. M., Savinova, T. N., Carroll, J., Matishov, G. G., Dahle, S. and Naess, K. (2000). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ...
Mutagenic PAHs, such as benzo[a]pyrene, usually have four or more aromatic rings as well as a "bay region", a structural pocket ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.. *ATSDR - Toxicity of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons ... National Pollutant Inventory: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Fact Sheet. *Understanding Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons NASA ... Dipple, A. (1985). "Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Carcinogenesis". Polycyclic Hydrocarbons and Carcinogenesis. ACS Symposium ...
Glutathione conjugation of bay- and fjord-region diol epoxides of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by glutathione transferases ... R-absolute configuration at the benzylic oxirane carbon in the fjord-region) followed by GSTM1-1 (25-fold increase) and GSTP1-1 ...
Inhibition of the mutagenicity of bay-region diolepoxides of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by naturally occurring plant ...
Human exposure and dosimetry of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urine from Xuan Wei, China with high lung cancer mortality ... the simplest PAH containing a bay region, phenanthrene, undergoes sequential metabolism to a diol epoxide. Thus, it is a useful ... A urinary metabolite of phenanthrene as a biomarker of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolic activation in workers exposed ... a potential biomarker for assessing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2003;12:1501-8 ...
Urinary and Genetic Biomonitoring of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Egyptian Coke Oven Workers: Associations between ... Keywords: Bay-Region, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon; 1-hydroxypyrene-glucuronide [Supplementary concept]; DNA adducts; 8-oxo- ... Leukocyte 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and aromatic DNA adduct in coke-oven workers with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure. ... Excretion of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene in relation to the penetration routes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Polycyclic ...
Bay-Region, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon; Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1; DNA adducts; Polymorphism, genetic; X-ray repair cross ... Urinary and Genetic Biomonitoring of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Egyptian Coke Oven Workers: Associations between ... Coke oven workers are exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with possible genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. ...
  • Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): What Are Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)? (cdc.gov)
  • Structural Formulas of Selected Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). (cdc.gov)
  • To estimate the severity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in the upper sediment of the Beijiang River, 42 sediment samples were analyzed for the presence of 16 key PAHs using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. (springer.com)
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are ubiquitous and toxic contaminants. (springer.com)
  • The present research investigation was aimed at monitoring the levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Korean ambient air, pine needle, and soil. (bioline.org.br)
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) form a ubiquitous class of environmental chemical pollutants. (bioline.org.br)
  • PAHs are uncharged, non-polar molecules, with distinctive properties due in part to the delocalized electrons in their aromatic rings. (wikipedia.org)
  • We investigated the utility of unmetabolized naphthalene (Nap) and phenanthrene (Phe) in urine as surrogates for exposures to mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) comprise a class of chemicals composed of two or more fused aromatic rings. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Coke oven workers are exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with possible genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. (theijoem.com)
  • Many of these compounds are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which are complex mixtures of more than 100 compounds that contain fused benzene rings. (theijoem.com)
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) biodegradation in contaminated sediment is an attractive remediation technique and its success depends on the optimal condition for the PAH-degrading isolates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aims of the current study was to isolate and identify PAHs-degrading bacteria from surface sediments of Nayband Bay and to evaluate the efficiency of statistically based experimental design for the optimization of phenanthrene (Phe) and Fluorene (Flu) biodegradation performed by enriched consortium. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are aromatic hydrocarbons with two or more fused benzene rings. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), n-alkanes, petroleum biomarkers, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in the intertidal sediments of Burrard Inlet, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. (bvsalud.org)
  • This is the first study using PAHs metabolites in S. magellanicus to assess the bioavailability of these compounds in coastal regions. (bvsalud.org)
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in the coastal region of Nemrut Bay, Eastern Aegean. (bvsalud.org)
  • The concentration and composition characteristics of 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the samples were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The diagnostic ratio and principal component analysis method were used to determine the source of PAHs pollution. (bvsalud.org)
  • One family of these chemicals that are ubiquitous in the environment is polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are released into the environment as a result of petrogenic and pyrolytic processes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • ABSTRACT: The objective of the current research is carrying out the evaluation of the distribution,source, and environmental health risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) compounds in soil samples taken from the vicinity of Tehran-Semnan road, Iran. (ac.ir)
  • 3] J.-H. Sun, G.-L. Wang, Y. Chai, G. Zhang, J. Li, J. Feng, Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Henan reach of the Yellow River, Middle China, Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety , 72(5) (2009) 1614-1624. (ac.ir)
  • Shi, J. Mao, Y. Liu, Characterization and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments in the Yellow River Estuary, China, Environmental earth sciences , 71(2) (2014) 873-883. (ac.ir)
  • Carcinogenic activity of many polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is mainly attributed to their respective diol epoxides, which can be classified as either bay or fjord region depending upon the location of the epoxide function. (elsevier.com)
  • DNA damage in breast cancer is induced by prolonged exposure to estrogens, such as 17β-estradiol, daily social/psychological stressors, and environmental chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocyclic amines (HCAs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as well as their aza and sulfur analogs are widely prevalent in the environment and many members of this family are metabolized to ultimate carcinogens . (cuny.edu)
  • These enzymes are highly inducible by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), such as 3-methylcholanthrene and BaP [ 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Research shows that fire affected areas in Southern California, including those in the WUI, contained increased concentrations of contaminants including nutrients (e.g. nitrates and phosphorus), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), copper, zinc, mercury, lead, and other metals. (ca.gov)
  • Due to the ability of white-rot fungi (WRF) to degrade extremely recalcitrant contaminants (e.g., high-molecular-weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated dibenzo- p -dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), work on fungus-based remediation has focused on the treatment of soils contaminated with these types of chemicals. (asmscience.org)
  • In other mammals, exposure to petroleum-based polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, known as PAHs, through inhalation or aspiration of oil products can lead to injured lungs and altered immune function, both of which can increase an animal's susceptibility to primary bacterial pneumonia. (earthprotect.com)
  • Since then, additional substances such as carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and certain brominated flame-retardents, as well as organometallic compounds such as tributyltin (TBT) have been added to the list of Persistent Organic Pollutants ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Persistent_Organic_Pollutant ). (unep.org)
  • GC/MS quantitative results concluded that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were present in the sediment. (waikato.ac.nz)
  • Due to the absence of the most resilient PAHs benzo(a)anthracene and chrysene in the 27 samples characterise Rena oil, is likely that phenanthrene and pyrene have come from other hydrocarbon sources such as stormwater outfalls. (waikato.ac.nz)
  • Methylcholanthrene is a highly carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon produced by burning organic compounds at very high temperatures[clarification needed]. (wikipedia.org)
  • The designations α and β denote opposite faces of the hydrocarbon in the racemic compounds. (oup.com)
  • The simplest of such chemicals are naphthalene , having two aromatic rings, and the three-ring compounds anthracene and phenanthrene . (wikipedia.org)
  • Besides, these compounds absorbed with micro particles might be spread out over a wide region associated with particles' movement and diffusion. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • The metabolically formed compounds that cause adverse biological effects are the 4 isomeric bay or fjord region diol epoxides shown in Figure 1. (cuny.edu)
  • Personal breathing zone and area air samples were collected and analyzed for total particulate (TP), benzene soluble fraction (BSF) of the TP, and total polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC). (cdc.gov)
  • Various areas of Antarctica have been contaminated with diesel fuel, which contains harmful compounds such as heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). (frontiersin.org)
  • Aquatic regions, which are particularly surrounded by populated and industrialized areas, easily accumulate toxic trace substances, including heavy metals, organochlorine compounds (e.g. (scirp.org)
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments and mussels of the western Mediterranean Sea. (springer.com)
  • Investigation of anthropogenic and natural organic inputs in estuarine sediments using hydrocarbon markers (NAH, LAB, PAH). (springer.com)
  • Content analysis and assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments from Beijaing River, China. (springer.com)
  • In conclusion our results showed that, indigenous bacteria from mangrove surface sediments of Nayband Bay have high potential to degrade Flu and Phe with the best results achieved when enriched consortium was used. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A preliminary study on a petrochemical harbor as a potential source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) to surface sediments of Guajará bay, located in Belém City, Pará State, Brazil, over the last 10 years is presented here. (scielo.br)
  • The priority PAH with low molecular weight represented 54.4% of the total abundance and indicate that the main source of contamination of the sediments was petrogenic, indicative of the relevant contribution of the petrochemical harbor activity to the input of PAH to Guajará bay. (scielo.br)
  • Research focus on PAH in Guajará bay sediments is still incipient and, for the most part, only available in the theses and dissertations of Lima (2009) , Sodré (2014) and Santos (2014) . (scielo.br)
  • 6] M. Raza, M.P. Zakaria, N.R. Hashim, U.H. Yim, N. Kannan, S.Y. Ha, Composition and source identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mangrove sediments of Peninsular Malaysia: indication of anthropogenic input, Environmental earth sciences , 70(6) (2013) 2425-2436. (ac.ir)
  • The Zn concentration in sediments in the 1980s-2000s was considerably higher than the background concentration, suggesting tha t there remain important sources of Zn in the bay. (scirp.org)
  • This tends to support the hypothesis that river bottom sediments, which were contaminated with Zn in the untreated effluents from electroplating plants in the past, are the principal sources of anthropogenic Zn in Tokyo Bay in the 1980s-2000s. (scirp.org)
  • Identification of Hydrocarbon Sources in the Benthic Sediments of Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska Following the EXXON VALDEZ Oil Spill. (bowdoin.edu)
  • The Natural Petroleum Hydrocarbon Background in Subtidal Sediments of Prince William Sound, Alaska. (bowdoin.edu)
  • An estimate of the annual input of natural petroleum hydrocarbons to seafloor sediments in Prince William Sound, Alaska. (bowdoin.edu)
  • Conditions for sample preparation and HPLC/MS-MS-analysis of bulky adducts to serum albumin with diolepoxides of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as models. (biu-grimmer.de)
  • This book begins with a brief review of the early work on the mechanism of chemical carcinogenesis by polynuclear hydrocarbons, followed by a detailed survey of pertinent literature in the field. (elsevier.com)
  • R. G. Harvey, "Polycyclic Hydrocarbons and Carcinogenesis", American Chemical Society Symposium Series 283, American Chemical Society, Washington D.C. (1985). (springer.com)
  • Polycyclic Hydrocarbons and Carcinogenesis 11 , R. G. Harvey, ed. (springer.com)
  • Polycyclic Hydrocarbons and Carcinogenesis", R. G. Harvey, ed. (springer.com)
  • Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Carcinogenesis: Structure-Activity Relationships", B. D. Silverman and S. K. Yang, eds. (springer.com)
  • DMBA is metabolically activated to bay-region epoxides that react with purines in DNA, leading to tumorigenesis and carcinogenesis (6) . (aacrjournals.org)
  • A suggested mechanism describes the potential role of the heterocyclic amines (HACs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAs) in carcinogenesis induced by DNA mutation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Jiang, "Abstract 3471: reciprocal roles of cytochromes P4501A1 and 1A2 in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-mediated tumorigenesis in mice: implications for lung cancer in humans," Cancer Research, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Surface sediment samples, collected at 5 sites in the bay, near Miramar Petrochemical Harbor (TEMIR), were extracted and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector. (scielo.br)
  • Sediment quality in the Los Angeles and Long Beach Harbor area of southern California, USA, was assessed from 1992 to 1997 as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board's Bay Protection and Toxic Cleanup Program and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Status and Trends Program. (calstate.edu)
  • High flows can transport sediment-bound pollutants to nearby waterways (gullies, canals, creeks, and rivers) and accumulate downstream in larger waterways, reservoirs, and the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Bay-Delta. (ca.gov)
  • This study has set the foundations on understanding the geotechnical effects of spilled oil and coastal sediment interactions in the Bay of Plenty. (waikato.ac.nz)
  • This study evaluated the sources of Zn pollution in Tokyo Bay, Japan, on the basis of δ 66 Zn in a sediment core. (scirp.org)
  • Hence, the history of pollution by these metals has frequently been recorded in sediment cores from closed aquatic regions such as bays and lakes. (scirp.org)
  • Phenanthrene is the simplest polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) containing a bay region, a feature closely associated with carcinogenicity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Residents of Qidong, People's Republic of China, are at high risk for development of hepatocellular carcinoma, in part due to consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated foods, and are exposed to high levels of phenanthrene, a sentinel of hydrocarbon air toxics. (aacrjournals.org)
  • There has been a proposal that non-planarity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons may influence their DNA adduct forming abilities and the net biological effect of the DNA adducts. (cuny.edu)
  • One of the most widely studied carcinogenic hydrocarbons is benzo-(a)pyrene (BaP). (springer.com)
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), including 7,12-dimethylbenz( a )anthracene (DMBA) and benzo( a )pyrene (BP), are environmental carcinogens (1) . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Myricetin reduces the risk of skin tumorigenicity that is caused by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons like benzo(a)pyrene, a highly carcinogenic compound. (wikipedia.org)
  • This test showed that myricetin was more effective in preventing mutagenesis initiated by certain carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (benzo(a)pyrene, dibenzo(a,h)pyrene, and dibenzo(a,i)pyrene) as compared to others in which it was less effective in preventing against mutagenesis (benzo(a)pyrene 4, 5-oxide and the bay-region diol-epoxides of benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, and benzo(c)phenathrene). (wikipedia.org)
  • This data shows that myricetin is not unilaterally able to reduce the carcinogenic activity of all polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or even the more specific subclass of benzo(a)pyrenes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The present study has been undertaken to examine whether exposure to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compound influences the metabolism of fluoranthene (FLA), another PAH compound. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Objectives: This study was carried out in order to estimate atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations and sources using pine needles as a passive air sampler (PAS) in urban (Pyeongtaek), semirural (Anseong) and rural (Jincheon) sites. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Atmospheric polycyclic hydrocarbons : source attribution, emission factors and regulation. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - Environmental implications. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • This work is meant to be a reference study, which characterizes various geospatial properties of the ATTO footprint region and shows how the human-made transformation of Amazonia may impact future atmospheric observations at ATTO. (copernicus.org)
  • Metabolic Activation of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons deals with the metabolic activation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and covers topics ranging from the cytotoxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic effects of arene oxides to the role of secondary metabolites as ultimate carcinogens. (elsevier.com)
  • The mechanism of binding of metabolites derived from polynuclear hydrocarbons to key cellular sites is also discussed. (elsevier.com)
  • Bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on São Paulo state coast (southeastern Brazil) was evaluated through the analysis of biliary metabolites in Spheniscus magellanicus (n = 79). (bvsalud.org)
  • Differences in the catalytic efficiencies of allelic variants of glutathione transferase P1-1 towards carcinogenic diol epoxides of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. (nih.gov)
  • Glutathione conjugation of bay- and fjord-region diol epoxides of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by glutathione transferases M1-1 and P1-1. (nih.gov)
  • Activity of four allelic forms of glutathione S-transferase hGSTP1-1 for diol epoxides of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. (nih.gov)
  • Role of arginine 216 in catalytic activity of murine Alpha class glutathione transferases mGSTAl-1 and mGSTA2-2 toward carcinogenic diol epoxides of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. (nih.gov)
  • Detoxication of carcinogenic fjord-region diol epoxides of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by glutathione transferase P1-1 variants and glutathione. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, the PGS system appears to be more selective than does the cytochrome P-450 system in the activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to mutagenic products, activating only those dihydrodiols with adjacent double bonds in the bay region from which the bay-region diol-epoxides are formed. (mysciencework.com)
  • The site boundaries are Mount Hope Bay and a petroleum terminal to the west, Church Street to the east, State Avenue to the north, and Lepes Road to the south. (cdc.gov)
  • These studies have increasingly pointed to the presence of petroleum hydrocarbons as being the most significant cause of the illnesses and deaths plaguing the Gulf's dolphin population. (earthprotect.com)
  • 1997) Petroleum hydrocarbons and their effects in subtidal regions after major oil spills. (bowdoin.edu)
  • Gas chromatography determined the removal rate percentage of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) in the soil. (ac.ir)
  • This enzyme is strongly induced by many different chemical agents, including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p -dioxin (TCDD), which binds to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). (biomedcentral.com)
  • This induction is directed by a ligand-activated transcriptional factor named aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) [ 8 , 9 ], known as a dioxin receptor. (biomedcentral.com)
  • polynuclear hydrocarbons. (cdc.gov)
  • A, S. Takashi, Y. Masahiro and K. Yasushi, 1992, Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon concentration and mutagenic activity in soils sampled at roadsides, J. Japan Soc. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Selective activation of some dihydrodiols of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to mutagenic products by prostaglandin synthetase. (mysciencework.com)
  • 2009). Levels, composition profiles and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban soil of Shanghai, China. (springer.com)
  • A report released by the federal Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) says that residents living within a 36-acre area of Tiverton could have been exposed to soil contaminated with arsenic, lead, mercury, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the past and present. (cdc.gov)
  • 2003. Incomplete degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil inoculated with wood-rotting fungi and their effect on the indigenous soil bacteria. (asmscience.org)
  • Residents living within a 36-acre area of Tiverton, R.I., may have been exposed to arsenic, lead, mercury, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, says a final public health consultation released today by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). (cdc.gov)
  • ATSDR categorized the Bay Street Tiverton Study Area as an "indeterminate public health hazard" because critical information is lacking. (cdc.gov)
  • For more information, community members can contact ATSDR Environmental Health Scientist Jane Zhu toll-free, at 1-888-422-8737 or Kate Robbins, ATSDR Region 1 regional representative, at 617-918-1493. (cdc.gov)
  • 2000). Automotive sources of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with particulate matter in the Chesapeake Bay region. (springer.com)
  • Lee, M. L., N. Novotny and K. D. Bartle, 1976, Gas chromatography/mass spectromatric and nuclear magnetic resonance determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocabons in airborne particulate, Anal. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • W. M. Baird and P. Brookes, Isolation of the hydrocarbon-deoxyribonucleoside products from the DNA of mouse embryo cells treated in culture with 7-methylbenz(a)anthracene- 3 H, Cancer Res. (springer.com)
  • Sources of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban stormwater runoff. (springer.com)
  • 1996. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading capabilities of Phanerochate laevis HHB-1625 and its extracellular ligninolytic enzymes. (asmscience.org)
  • On the other hand, the IA variant was approximately 1.6- and 3.5-fold more efficient than VA and VV isoforms, respectively, in catalyzing the GSH conjugation of fjord region isomer (±)-anti-B[c]C-9,10-diol-11,12-epoxide. (elsevier.com)
  • Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus, coupled with exposure to aflatoxins in the diet, likely contributes to the high risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in People's Republic of China and other regions of the world ( 3 , 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Effect of prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposure on birth outcomes: the Polish mother and child cohort study. (biu-grimmer.de)
  • Survey report: control technology evaluation for controlling worker exposure to asphalt fumes from roofing kettles: kettle operated using an afterburner system at Tampa Bay Technical High School, and West Park Village at West Chase, Tampa, Florida. (cdc.gov)
  • Source apportionment of ambient non-methane hydrocarbons in Hong Kong: application of a principal component analysis/absolute principal component scores (PCA/APCS) receptor model. (springer.com)
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are widespread environmental contaminants that require metabolic activation in order to induce biological effects 1 . (springer.com)
  • 2019. Leveraging fluorescent emission to unitary yield: dimerization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons . (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • Pollution sources identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of soils in Tianjin area, China. (springer.com)
  • The same is true for the countries that produce these chemicals such as in the East Asian region. (unep.org)
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are well-established environmental carcinogens likely to be causative agents for some human cancers. (bvsalud.org)
  • Pollutants in Hong Kong soils: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. (springer.com)
  • Carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons induce CYP1A1 in human cells via a p53-dependent mechanism. (biu-grimmer.de)
  • The terms polyaromatic hydrocarbon [1] or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon [2] are also used for this concept. (wikipedia.org)
  • A polyaromatic hydrocarbon may have rings of various sizes, including some that are not aromatic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chander, V., M. L. James and K. F. Sheldon, 1994, Size distributions of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and elemental carbon. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • We have previously evaluated two chemopreventive strategies through randomized clinical trials in the Qidong region that sought to attenuate the toxic manifestations of aflatoxins by ( a ) blocking carcinogen bioavailability and ( b ) altering the metabolic phenotype of exposed individuals, thereby enhancing the detoxication and elimination of aflatoxin. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In geometrical regions, the formulas involve elementary and inside boundary layers, well-known special functions (Fresnel integral and generalized Fresnel integral), and are applicable in the radiating near field. (saladgaffe.ml)
  • These findings support those of a 2011 health assessment of live dolphins in Barataria Bay, Louisiana, a heavily oiled area during the spill which showed those resident dolphins had poor health, adrenal disease, and lung disease. (earthprotect.com)
  • By definition, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have multiple cycles, precluding benzene from being considered a PAH. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to Clar's rule, [17] the resonance structure of a PAH that has the largest number of disjoint aromatic pi sextets -i.e. benzene -like moieties-is the most important for the characterization of the properties of that PAH. (wikipedia.org)