A proteolytic enzyme obtained from the venom of fer-de-lance (Bothrops atrox). It is used as a plasma clotting agent for fibrinogen and for the detection of fibrinogen degradation products. The presence of heparin does not interfere with the clotting test. Hemocoagulase is a mixture containing batroxobin and factor X activator. EC 3.4.21.-.
The calcium salt of gluconic acid. The compound has a variety of uses, including its use as a calcium replenisher in hypocalcemic states.
Venoms from snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae or pit vipers, found mostly in the Americas. They include the rattlesnake, cottonmouth, fer-de-lance, bushmaster, and American copperhead. Their venoms contain nontoxic proteins, cardio-, hemo-, cyto-, and neurotoxins, and many enzymes, especially phospholipases A. Many of the toxins have been characterized.
Two small peptide chains removed from the N-terminal segment of the alpha chains of fibrinogen by the action of thrombin during the blood coagulation process. Each peptide chain contains 18 amino acid residues. In vivo, fibrinopeptide A is used as a marker to determine the rate of conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin by thrombin.
Limbless REPTILES of the suborder Serpentes.
A genus of poisonous snakes of the VIPERIDAE family. About 50 species are known and all are found in tropical America and southern South America. Bothrops atrox is the fer-de-lance and B. jararaca is the jararaca. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336)
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Antisera used to counteract poisoning by animal VENOMS, especially SNAKE VENOMS.
The formation of clumps of RED BLOOD CELLS under low or non-flow conditions, resulting from the attraction forces between the red blood cells. The cells adhere to each other in rouleaux aggregates. Slight mechanical force, such as occurs in the circulation, is enough to disperse these aggregates. Stronger or weaker than normal aggregation may result from a variety of effects in the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE or in BLOOD PLASMA. The degree of aggregation is affected by ERYTHROCYTE DEFORMABILITY, erythrocyte membrane sialylation, masking of negative surface charge by plasma proteins, etc. BLOOD VISCOSITY and the ERYTHROCYTE SEDIMENTATION RATE are affected by the amount of erythrocyte aggregation and are parameters used to measure the aggregation.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.
The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).
The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
A species of THIOCAPSA which is facultatively aerobic and chemotrophic and which can utilize thiosulfate. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
Methods utilizing the principles of MICROFLUIDICS for sample handling, reagent mixing, and separation and detection of specific components in fluids.
Volume of circulating ERYTHROCYTES . It is usually measured by RADIOISOTOPE DILUTION TECHNIQUE.
Living facilities for humans.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A protease of broad specificity, obtained from dried pancreas. Molecular weight is approximately 25,000. The enzyme breaks down elastin, the specific protein of elastic fibers, and digests other proteins such as fibrin, hemoglobin, and albumin. EC 3.4.21.36.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of proteins, including elastin. It cleaves preferentially bonds at the carboxyl side of Ala and Val, with greater specificity for Ala. EC 3.4.21.37.
Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
A serine protease found in the azurophil granules of NEUTROPHILS. It has an enzyme specificity similar to that of chymotrypsin C.
Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.
Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Electric power supply devices which convert biological energy, such as chemical energy of metabolism or mechanical energy of periodic movements, into electrical energy.
Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.
Enlargement of air spaces distal to the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES where gas-exchange normally takes place. This is usually due to destruction of the alveolar wall. Pulmonary emphysema can be classified by the location and distribution of the lesions.
The excision of lung tissue including partial or total lung lobectomy.
Solutions or mixtures of toxic and nontoxic substances elaborated by snake (Ophidia) salivary glands for the purpose of killing prey or disabling predators and delivered by grooved or hollow fangs. They usually contain enzymes, toxins, and other factors.
A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.
The process of the interaction of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS that results in an insoluble FIBRIN clot.
Agents that cause clotting.
A group of compounds consisting in part of two rings sharing one atom (usually a carbon) in common.
The geographical area of Asia comprising BORNEO; BRUNEI; CAMBODIA; INDONESIA; LAOS; MALAYSIA; the MEKONG VALLEY; MYANMAR (formerly Burma), the PHILIPPINES; SINGAPORE; THAILAND; and VIETNAM.
The field of biology which deals with the process of the growth and differentiation of an organism.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Short-term debt obligations and assets occurring in the regular course of operational transactions.
Graphic representations, especially of the face, of real persons, usually posed, living or dead. (From Thesaurus for Graphic Materials II, p540, 1995)
A series of 7 virulent phages which infect E. coli. The T-even phages T2, T4; (BACTERIOPHAGE T4), and T6, and the phage T5 are called "autonomously virulent" because they cause cessation of all bacterial metabolism on infection. Phages T1, T3; (BACTERIOPHAGE T3), and T7; (BACTERIOPHAGE T7) are called "dependent virulent" because they depend on continued bacterial metabolism during the lytic cycle. The T-even phages contain 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in place of ordinary cytosine in their DNA.
A network of cross-linked hydrophilic macromolecules used in biomedical applications.
Bites by snakes. Bite by a venomous snake is characterized by stinging pain at the wound puncture. The venom injected at the site of the bite is capable of producing a deleterious effect on the blood or on the nervous system. (Webster's 3d ed; from Dorland, 27th ed, at snake, venomous)
Venoms from SNAKES of the viperid family. They tend to be less toxic than elapid or hydrophid venoms and act mainly on the vascular system, interfering with coagulation and capillary membrane integrity and are highly cytotoxic. They contain large amounts of several enzymes, other factors, and some toxins.
Serum globulins with high molecular weight. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.
A tricarbocyanine dye that is used diagnostically in liver function tests and to determine blood volume and cardiac output.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum usually sensed as heat. Infrared wavelengths are longer than those of visible light, extending into the microwave frequencies. They are used therapeutically as heat, and also to warm food in restaurants.
Glycoproteins with a molecular weight of approximately 620,000 to 680,000. Precipitation by electrophoresis is in the alpha region. They include alpha 1-macroglobulins and alpha 2-macroglobulins. These proteins exhibit trypsin-, chymotrypsin-, thrombin-, and plasmin-binding activity and function as hormonal transporters.
All blood proteins except albumin ( = SERUM ALBUMIN, which is not a globulin) and FIBRINOGEN (which is not in the serum). The serum globulins are subdivided into ALPHA-GLOBULINS; BETA-GLOBULINS; and GAMMA-GLOBULINS on the basis of their electrophoretic mobilities. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

The contribution of residues 192 and 193 to the specificity of snake venom serine proteinases. (1/50)

Snake venom serine proteinases, which belong to the subfamily of trypsin-like serine proteinases, exhibit a high degree of sequence identity (60-66%). Their stringent macromolecular substrate specificity contrasts with that of the less specific enzyme trypsin. One of them, the plasminogen activator from Trimeresurus stejnegeri venom (TSV-PA), which shares 63% sequence identity with batroxobin, a fibrinogen clotting enzyme from Bothrops atrox venom, specifically activates plasminogen to plasmin like tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), even though it exhibits only 23% sequence identity with t-PA. This study shows that TSV-PA, t-PA, and batroxobin are quite different in their specificity toward small chromogenic substrates, TSV-PA being less selective than t-PA, and batroxobin not being efficient at all. The specificity of TSV-PA, with respect to t-PA and batroxobin, was investigated further by site-directed mutagenesis in the 189-195 segment, which forms the basement of the S(1) pocket of TSV-PA and presents a His at position 192 and a unique Phe at position 193. This study demonstrates that Phe(193) plays a more significant role than His(192) in determining substrate specificity and inhibition resistance. Interestingly, the TSV-PA variant F193G possesses a 8-9-fold increased activity for plasminogen and becomes sensitive to bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor.  (+info)

Prevention of rat cerebral aneurysm formation by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase. (2/50)

BACKGROUND: Cerebral saccular aneurysm is a major cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage, one of the cerebrovascular diseases with the highest mortality. The mechanisms underlying the development of aneurysms, however, still remain unclear. We have made a series of reports on an animal model of experimentally induced cerebral aneurysms that resemble human cerebral aneurysms in their location and morphology, suggesting that the arterial wall degeneration associated with aneurysm formation develops near the apex of arterial bifurcation as a result of an increase in wall shear stress. Using the animal model and human specimens, we examined the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the degenerative changes and cerebral aneurysm formation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Inducible NO synthase (iNOS) was immunohistochemically located at the orifice of human and rat aneurysms. Nitrotyrosine distribution was also seen in the human aneurysm. Although no iNOS immunostaining was found in normal arteries, iNOS immunoreactivity was observed in parallel with the development of early aneurysmal changes in rats. In contrast, during the early development of aneurysm, endothelial NOS immunostaining in the endothelium was weakened compared with that in the control arteries. An NOS inhibitor, aminoguanidine, attenuated both early aneurysmal changes and the incidence of induced aneurysms. A defibrinogenic agent, batroxobin, which may diminish shear stress by reduction of blood viscosity, prevented iNOS induction as well as early aneurysmal changes. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence suggests that NO, particularly that derived from iNOS, is a key requirement for the development of cerebral aneurysm. The iNOS induction may be caused by an increase in shear stress near the apex.  (+info)

Effect of batroxobin against dog heart ischemia/reperfusion injury. (3/50)

AIM: To study the effect of batroxobin(Bat) on dog heart ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. METHODS: Dog heart I/R injury was induced by occluding the left anterior descending coronary artery for 30 min and restoring blood perfusion for 90 min. Bat was intravenously injected before heart ischemia and 15 min before reperfusion. Plasma creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and myocardial malondiaedehyde (MDA) concentrations were measured. The pathologic changes of I/R myocardium were observed. RESULTS: Bat reduced the mortality rate of I/R dog (I/R group 65.0% vs Bat-I group 30.0% and Bat-II group 28.6%, P < 0.05). Myocytes of I/R heart showed intracellular edema, damaged mitochondria, and concentrated nucleus. Bat decreased these changes. In Bat-I and Bat-II group, plasma CK and LDH level were reduced, the +dp/dtmax and -dp/dtmax at 30 min after ischemia and 90 min after reperfusion were elevated, and left ventricular end dilation pressure (LVEDP) was lowered. The myocardial MDA contents were decreased by 42.3% and 38.1% (P < 0.01) in Bat-I and Bat-II group, respectively. CONCLUSION: Bat may exert an apparent role against dog heart ischemia/reperfusion injury and improve myocardial function.  (+info)

Influence of batroxobin on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in gerbils. (4/50)

AIM: To study the effects of batroxobin (Bat) on neurons survival, neurobehavioral test, ATP levels and hydroxyl radical outputs in hippocampus during forebrain ischemia-reperfusion in gerbils. METHODS: The forebrain ischemia was induced by occluding the bilateral common carotid arteries for 10 min in gerbils, and ATP levels and 2, 3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) outputs were assayed by HPLC. The neurons survival were assessed by histology, and behavioral tests of gerbils were assessed by open field test. RESULTS: The number of neurons survival in Ir at d 7 postischemic insult were (7 +/- 4)% of sham-operated gerbils, much less than that in Bat (45 +/- 16)%. The levels of explore activities of ischemic gerbils was 175% and 159% of sham-operated gerbils at d 3 and d 6 postischemic insult, much more than that in Bat (120% d 3 and 140% d 6). Hippocampal ATP levels in Ir were 64% of sham-operated gerbils at reperfusion 60 min, much less than that in Bat I and II (82% and 89% respectively). The hippocampal 2,3-DHBA outputs in Ir increased by 4.5 folds of sham-operated gerbils at reperfusion 60 min, but the 2,3-DHBA outputs in Bat I and Bat II were only 2.6 and 2.4 folds respectively. CONCLUSION: Bat possesses the inhibitory effects on DND and OH. production following cerebral ischemia-reperfusion in gerbils.  (+info)

GAP-43 expression and pathological changes of temporal infarction in rats and effects of batroxobin. (5/50)

To study the changes of the expression of growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) and pathology in temporal infarction of rats photochemically induced and the effects of batroxobin. METHODS: Immunohistochemical technique and hematoxylin-eosin stain was used to show the changes of the expression of GAP-43 and pathology. RESULTS: In infarction group, GAP-43 expression was markedly increased on the infarction and surrounding tissues at 24 h cerebral infarction. The expression reached peak level at 72 h after cerebral infarction and was decreased at 7 d after cerebral infarction. However, in batroxobin-treated group, GAP-43 expression was increased and the pathological changes were much slight as compared with infarction group. CONCLUSION: The expression of GAP-43 increases in infarction of temporal neocortex and batroxobin promotes the expression of GAP-43 and ameliorates the pathological changes in infarction of temporal neocortex.  (+info)

Recombinant BbetaArg14His fibrinogen implies participation of N-terminus of Bbeta chain in desA fibrin polymerization. (6/50)

We synthesized BbetaArg14His fibrinogen with histidine substituted for arginine at the Bbeta thrombin-cleavage site. This substitution led to a 300-fold decrease in the rate of thrombin-catalyzed fibrinopeptide B (FpB, Bbeta 1-14) release, whereas the rate of FpA release was normal with either thrombin or the FpA-specific enzyme, batroxobin. Both thrombin- and batroxobincatalyzed polymerization of BbetaArg14His fibrinogen were significantly impaired, with a longer lag time, slower rate of lateral aggregation, and decreased final turbidity. Moreover, desA monomer polymerization was similarly impaired, demonstrating that the histidine substitution itself, and not the lack of FpB cleavage, caused the abnormal polymerization of BbetaArg14His fibrin. Scanning electron microscopy showed BbetaArg14His fibrin fibers were thinner than normal (BbetaArg14His, approximately 70 nm; normal, approximately 100 nm; P <.0001), as expected from the decreased final turbidity. We conclude that the N-terminus of the Bbeta chain is involved in the lateral aggregation of normal desAprotofibrils and that the Arg-->His substitution disrupts these interactions in BbetaArg14His fibrinogen.  (+info)

Thrombolytic actions of reptilase. (7/50)

In thrombolytic model in vitro, reptilase (Rep, defibrase) did not show appreciable thrombolytic actions on red and white thrombi. After daily iv infusion of Rep 0.25 IU for 10 d, the time of 50% lysis of euglobulin (ELT1/2) was shortened from 9.3 +/- 0.8 to 6.7 +/- 1.0 h (P < 0.01), alteplase activity was increased from 1.9 +/- 0.7 to 3.7 +/- 0.9 IU.ml-1, and plasminogen inactivator (PI) activity reduced from 4.3 +/- 0.6 to 1.8 +/- 0.9 AU.ml-1 (all P < 0.01). The findings indicate that the thrombolytic action of Rep shown in vivo may not be from the direct action on thrombi but from the influence on alteplase and PI activity.  (+info)

Detection of soluble intermediates of the fibrinogen-fibrin conversion using erythrocytes coated with fibrin monomers. (8/50)

The presence of minimal amounts of fibrinogen-fibrin intermediates in human plasma was visualized by an agglutination reaction of glutaraldehyde-treated human erythrocytes coated with purified fibrin monomers. A degree of monomer coating was established which produced erythrocytes not agglutinated by normal plasma but by plasma containing minimal amounts of soluble complexes of fibrinogen with fibrin monomers. Under standardized conditions of coating, erythrocyte concentration, temperature, pH, and incubation time, the agglutination time varied with the ratio of soluble fibrin to fibrinogen in plasma. The test was sensitive down to a soluble fibrin concentration of 0.675% of the plasma fibrinogen concentration. Early fibrinogen and fibrin degradation products (FDP) in the plasma led to a prolongation of the agglutination time at a concentration of more than 16 mg/100 ml. Late FDP in a concentration of 100 mg/100 ml did not convert a positive test to negative. The test was not affected by heparin and protamine at concentrations of up to 12.5 and 50 NIH units/ml, respectively.  (+info)

Batroxobin, also known as reptilase, is a snake venom produced by Bothrops atrox and Bothrops moojeni, venomous species of pit viper found east of the Andes in South America. It is a hemotoxin which acts as a serine protease closely related to thrombin, and has been the subject of many medical studies as a replacement of thrombin. Different enzymes, isolated from different species of Bothrops, have been called batroxobin, but unless stated otherwise, this article covers the batroxobin produced by B. moojeni, as this is the most studied variety. Bothrops atrox was described by Carl Linnaeus as early as 1758, but batroxobin, the active compound in its venom, was first described only in 1954 by H. Bruck and G. Salem. In the years following, this first description of batroxobin was shown to have several uses in surgery. Because of the increasing interest in the properties of batroxobin, several studies on its hemostatic effect and coagulation have been published. More recently, in 1979, a German ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of single intravenous administration of batroxobin on erythrocyte aggregability in patients with acute-stage cerebral infarction. AU - Tanahashi, N.. AU - Fukuuchi, Y.. AU - Tomita, M.. AU - Kobari, M.. AU - Takeda, H.. AU - Yokoyama, M.. AU - Itoh, D.. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - We examined the effect of defibrinogenation with batroxobin on the erythrocyte aggregability (RBC-A) in 16 patients with cerebral infarction during the acute phase (less than 72 hours after onset). Eight patients received a single intravenous administration of 10 units of batroxobin (BU), while the other 8 patients received 5 BU. The RBC-A was examined using the whole-blood erythrocyte aggregometer developed by us (Am. J. Physiol. 251, H1205-H1210, 1986) with concomitant measurement of the hematocrit, albumin:globulin ratio and concentration of fibrinogen. The RBC-A values before, and at 1,2, and 7 days after 10 BU administration were 0.154±0.017/s, 0.117±0.029/s (76% of the value before ...
Its interesting that you can take something so deadly and turn it into something that has the potential to save lives, said Rice chemist Jeffrey Hartgerink.. Batroxobin is a haemotoxin that has similar properties to thrombin, a naturally occurring enzyme in humans that plays an important role in clotting. First recognised in 1936 for its coagulant capabilities, batroxobin is particularly useful for treating patients who have taken the anti-coagulant drug heparin.. Theres a lot of different things that can trigger blood coagulation, but when youre on heparin, most of them dont work, or they work slowly or poorly, Hartgerink said in a statement.. This is important because surgical bleeding in patients taking heparin can be a serious problem. The use of batroxobin allows us to get around this problem because it can immediately start the clotting process, regardless of whether heparin is there or not.. ...
Introduction: Snake venom is adapted saliva that is formed by distinct glands of only certain species of snakes. The gland which secretes ...
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2014 (English)In: Journal of Investigative Dermatology, ISSN 0022-202X, E-ISSN 1523-1747, Vol. 134, S81-S81 p.Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published ...
Safety of percutaneous injection of bovine dermal crosslinked collagen for glottic insufficiency.: Patients on warfarin are candidates for injection laryngoplas
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The thrombin time (TT), also known as the thrombin clotting time (TCT) is a blood test that measures the time it takes for a clot to form in the plasma of a blood sample containing anticoagulant, after an excess of thrombin has been added. It is used to diagnose blood coagulation disorders and to assess the effectiveness of fibrinolytic therapy. This test is repeated with pooled plasma from normal patients. The difference in time between the test and the normal indicates an abnormality in the conversion of fibrinogen (a soluble protein) to fibrin, an insoluble protein. The thrombin time compares the rate of clot formation to that of a sample of normal pooled plasma. Thrombin is added to the samples of plasma. If the time it takes for the plasma to clot is prolonged, a quantitative (fibrinogen deficiency) or qualitative (dysfunctional fibrinogen) defect is present. In blood samples containing heparin, a substance derived from snake venom called batroxobin (formerly reptilase) is used instead of ...
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Envenomation by Bothrops species results, among other symptoms, in hemostatic disturbances. These changes can be ascribed to the presence of enzymes, primarily serine proteinases some of which are structurally similar to thrombin and specifically cleave fibrinogen releasing fibrinopeptides. A rapid, three-step, chromatographic procedure was developed to routinely purify serine proteinases from the venoms of Bothrops alternatus and Bothrops moojeni. The serine proteinase from B. alternatus displays an apparent molecular mass of similar to 32 kDa whereas the two closely related serine proteinases from B. moojeni display apparent molecular masses of similar to 32 kDa and similar to 35 kDa in SDS-PAGE gels. The partial sequences indicated that these enzymes share high identity with serine proteinases from the venoms of other Bothrops species. These proteins coagulate plasma and possess fibrinogenolytic activity but lack fibrinolytic activity. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.. ...
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Fibrin formation and turnover are intimately associated with inflammation and wound healing. To explore whether fibrin(ogen)-derived peptides exert direct effects upon cells involved in inflammation and tissue repair we examined the capacity of human fibrinopeptide B (hFpB), a thrombin-derived proteolytic cleavage product of the fibrinogen B beta-chain, to stimulate neutrophils (PMN), monocytes, and fibroblasts. hFpB caused directed cell migration of PMN and fibroblasts that was optimal at approximately 10(-8) M. This chemotactic activity was blocked by preincubating hFpB with antiserum to hFpB. hFpB was not chemotactic for monocytes. The chemotactic potency of hFpB for PMN was equivalent to that of anaphylatoxin from the fifth component of human complement (C5a), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), and formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP), and for fibroblasts its chemotactic activity was comparable to that of platelet-derived growth factor. hFpB did not interact with PMN receptors for C5a, LTB4, or ...
Fibrin formation and turnover are intimately associated with inflammation and wound healing. To explore whether fibrin(ogen)-derived peptides exert direct effects upon cells involved in inflammation and tissue repair we examined the capacity of human fibrinopeptide B (hFpB), a thrombin-derived proteolytic cleavage product of the fibrinogen B beta-chain, to stimulate neutrophils (PMN), monocytes, and fibroblasts. hFpB caused directed cell migration of PMN and fibroblasts that was optimal at approximately 10(-8) M. This chemotactic activity was blocked by preincubating hFpB with antiserum to hFpB. hFpB was not chemotactic for monocytes. The chemotactic potency of hFpB for PMN was equivalent to that of anaphylatoxin from the fifth component of human complement (C5a), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), and formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP), and for fibroblasts its chemotactic activity was comparable to that of platelet-derived growth factor. hFpB did not interact with PMN receptors for C5a, LTB4, or ...
Calcium Gluconate Injection, USP is a sterile, nonpyrogenic supersaturated solution of calcium gluconate for intravenous use only.. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Mortality in Acute Cerebral Infarction in Young Adults-A Ten-Year Experience. AU - Biller, José. AU - Adams, Harold P.. AU - Bruno, Askiel. AU - Love, Betsy B.. AU - Marsh, E. Eugene. PY - 1991/1/1. Y1 - 1991/1/1. N2 - We reviewed the one-month mortality among 213 patients aged fifteen to forty-five years (mean thirty-five) with acute cerebral infarction (CI) evaluated during the period July 1, 1977, to February 1, 1988. Atherosclerotic cerebral infarction (ACI) was diagnosed in 59 (27.7%) patients, 53 (24.9%) had non- atherosclerotic vasculopathies (NAV); 46 (21.6%) had cardioembolic infarcts (CEI). Hematologically related disorders were diagnosed in 30 (14.1%) patients; the cause of CI could not be established in 25 (11.7%) patients. Fourteen patients (9 men, 5 women, mean age 34.8 years), (6.6%) died within thirty days of their CI: 7 had CEI (7/46, 15.2%); 4 had ACI (4/59, 6.7%); and 3 had NAV (3/53, 5.6%). Our data suggest that young patients with acute CI have a thirty-day ...
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HF is acid that quickly penetrates the skin and proceeds to take calcium from tissues including bone. Calcium Gluconate gel works by stopping HF from taking calcium from tissues by providing alternative calcium so that HF takes calcium from the gluconate rather than the bones.. ...
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Glucalcium information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by Renaudin Laboratoire, Glucalcium indications, usages and related health products lists
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This applet helps determine the appropriate amount of Calcium Gluconate (10% sln) to add to an IV to give the desired amount of calcium in mEq/kg/day. The user determines the dose, size of the IV bag, the rate, The applet gives the mEq, mg and cc of Calcium Gluconate to add to that bag. ...
This applet helps determine the appropriate amount of Calcium Gluconate (10% sln) to add to an IV to give the desired amount of calcium in mEq/kg/day. The user determines the dose, size of the IV bag, the rate, The applet gives the mEq, mg and cc of Calcium Gluconate to add to that bag. ...
Bone mineral component; cofactor in enzymatic reactions, essential for neurotransmission, muscle contraction, and many signal transduction pathways ...
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RATIONALE: Calcium gluconate and magnesium sulfate may prevent or lessen neurotoxicity caused by oxaliplatin. It is not yet known whether calcium gluconate and magnesium sulfate are more effective than a placebo in preventing neurotoxicity caused by oxaliplatin in patients receiving combination chemotherapy.. PURPOSE: This randomized phase III trial is studying calcium gluconate and magnesium sulfate to see how well they work compared to a placebo in preventing neurotoxicity caused by oxaliplatin in patients receiving combination chemotherapy for stage II, stage III, or stage IV colorectal cancer that has been completely removed by surgery. ...
RATIONALE: Calcium gluconate and magnesium sulfate may prevent or lessen neurotoxicity caused by oxaliplatin. It is not yet known whether calcium gluconate and magnesium sulfate are more effective than a placebo in preventing neurotoxicity caused by oxaliplatin in patients receiving combination chemotherapy.. PURPOSE: This randomized phase III trial is studying calcium gluconate and magnesium sulfate to see how well they work compared to a placebo in preventing neurotoxicity caused by oxaliplatin in patients receiving combination chemotherapy for stage II, stage III, or stage IV colorectal cancer that has been completely removed by surgery. ...
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Research Report on EMEA (Europe, Middle East and Africa) 10% Calcium Gluconate Market Report 2017. The Report includes market price, demand, trends, size, Share, Growth, Forecast, Analysis & Overview.
Watson Pharma Calcium Gluconate Tablets 10GR/650MG 1000/Bt - Model 772806 : This product is a non stock item that must be ordered from the manufactur
Bee venom (BV) is used to treat many diseases and exhibits anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, antimutagenic, radioprotective, anti-nociceptive immunity promoting, hepatocyte protective and anti-cancer activity. According to the literature, BV contains several enzymes, including phospholipase A2 (PLA2), phospholipase B, hyaluronidase, acid phosphatase and α-glucosidase. Recent studies have also reported the detection of different classes of enzymes in BV, including esterases, proteases and peptidases, protease inhibitors and other important enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Nevertheless, the physiochemical properties and functions of each enzyme class and their mechanisms remain unclear. Various pharmacotherapeutic effects of some of the BV enzymes have been reported in several studies. At present, ongoing research aims to characterize each enzyme and elucidate their specific biological roles. This review gathers all the current knowledge on BV enzymes and their specific mechanisms in ...
Sadler WD, et al. Calcium Channel Blocker Intoxication: A Critical Care Transport Perspective. Air Medical Journal 40: 69-72, No. 1, Jan-Feb 2021. Available from: URL: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.amj.2020.11.004 ...
Hyperkalemia is a serious condition that is caused by excess amounts of the mineral potassium in the bloodstream. Left untreated, hyperkalemia can lead to...
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Comment wbnitride SNF 2009-11-16 10:51:19: Calcium Gluconate leak uli at snf.stanford.edu Last message date: Mon Nov 23 14:13:00 PST 2009 ...
The snake venom gland is a specialized organ, which synthesizes and secretes the complex and abundant toxin proteins. Though gene expression in the snake venom gland has been extensively studied, the focus has been on the components of the venom. As far as the molecular mechanism of toxin secretion and metabolism is concerned, we still knew a little. Therefore, a fundamental question being arisen is what genes are expressed in the snake venom glands besides many toxin components? To examine extensively the transcripts expressed in the venom gland of Deinagkistrodon acutus and unveil the potential of its products on cellular structure and functional aspects, we generated 8696 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from a non-normalized cDNA library. All ESTs were clustered into 3416 clusters, of which 40.16% of total ESTs belong to recognized toxin-coding sequences; 39.85% are similar to cellular transcripts; and 20.00% have no significant similarity to any known sequences. By analyzing cellular functional
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A membrane protease possessing thrombin-like activity was purified to homogeneity from mitochondria of rat submaxillary gland. The molecular mass of the enzyme was determined to be 45 kDa by SDS/PAGE under reducing conditions and by gel filtration on a Sephadex G-100 column. The enzyme is a glycoprotein and has an isoelectric point of 3.25. Maximum activity was observed at pH 10.5. Inhibition by di-isopropyl fluorophosphate, benzamidine, aprotinin and antipain suggested the enzyme to be a serine protease. Other inhibitors such as EDTA, soya-bean trypsin inhibitor, lima-bean trypsin inhibitor, TosLysCH2Cl and chymostatin did not alter the activity. The enzyme showed affinity towards different synthetic substrates (p-nitroanilide derivatives) containing arginine at the P1 position. Kinetic studies revealed that kcat./Km was highest with the substrate N-Bz-Phe-Val-Arg-p-nitroanilide. The enzyme exhibits significant plasma-coagulating activity. The coagulation initiated by the enzyme was not altered ...
A congenital dysfibrinogenemia was found in a 32-year-old asymptomatic female and her immediate family. The propositus, apparently a heterozygote for the abnormality, characteristically showed defective release of fibrinopeptide A from half of her fi
Description: Subject matter wherein the peptide composition is related to fibrinopeptides, blood-coagulation factors or derivative ...
Blood clots perform an essential mechanical task, yet the mechanical behavior of fibrin fibers, which form the structural framework of a clot, is largely unknown. By using combined atomic force‐fluorescence microscopy, we determined the elastic limit and extensibility of individual fibers. Fibrin fibers can be strained 180% (2.8-fold extension) without sustaining permanent lengthening, and they can be strained up to 525% (average 330%) before rupturing. This is the largest extensibility observed for protein fibers. The data imply that fibrin monomers must be able to undergo sizeable, reversible structural changes and that deformations in clots can be accommodated by individual fiber stretching.. ...
Page 2 - This week I had and immediate post op emergent aortic valve replacement. He came back on Epi, Dopamine, Levophed and insulin drips. We started amniodarone soon after. Amongst other interventions we
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KUR-112 is a parathyroid hormone-fibrin-based product. It is intended to be applied as a single percutaneous injection into solitary bone cysts and could therefore become a simpler, minimally invasive treatment for this rare condition.. KUR-112 has received Orphan Drug Designation in the US and Europe, which entitles the sponsor to receive assistance in the development process, exemption from application fees and several years of marketing exclusivity following approval. In October 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration granted Rare Pediatric Disease Designation.. The program has completed non-clinical testing. Kuros is currently evaluating the development options for KUR-112.. ...
Discover Lifes page about the biology, natural history, ecology, identification and distribution of Agkistrodon contortrix image
Discover Lifes page about the biology, natural history, ecology, identification and distribution of Agkistrodon contortrix image
Batroxobin has a similar action to thrombin but unlike thrombin it is not inhibited by heparin. Normal values for thrombin time ... If batroxobin is used, the time should be between 15 and 20 seconds. Thrombin time can be prolonged by heparin, fibrin ... In blood samples containing heparin, a substance derived from snake venom called batroxobin (formerly reptilase) is used ...
Batroxobin (INN) Bavisant (INN, (USAN) Bavituximab (USAN, INN) Baxitozine (INN) Baycol BayGam BayHep B Baypress BayRab BayTet ...
... a is the activated form of the coagulation factor thrombokinase, known eponymously as Stuart-Prower factor. Factor X is an enzyme, a serine endopeptidase, which plays a key role at several stages of the coagulation system. Factor X is synthesized in the liver. The most commonly used anticoagulants in clinical practice, warfarin and the heparin series of anticoagulants and fondaparinux, act to inhibit the action of Factor Xa in various degrees. Traditional models of coagulation developed in the 1960s envisaged two separate cascades, the extrinsic (tissue factor (TF)) pathway and the intrinsic pathway. These pathways converge to a common point, the formation of the Factor Xa/Va complex which together with calcium and bound on a phospholipids surface generate thrombin (Factor IIa) from prothrombin (Factor II). A new model, the cell-based model of anticoagulation appears to explain more fully the steps in coagulation. This model has three stages: 1) initiation of coagulation on TF-bearing ...
Symptoms of mild cinchonism (which may occur from standard therapeutic doses of quinine) include flushed and sweaty skin, ringing of the ears (tinnitus), blurred vision, impaired hearing, confusion, reversible high-frequency hearing loss, headache, abdominal pain, rashes, drug-induced lichenoid reaction (lichenoid photosensitivity),[1] vertigo, dizziness, dysphoria, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Large doses of quinine may lead to severe (but reversible) symptoms of cinchonism: skin rashes, deafness, somnolence, diminished visual acuity or blindness, anaphylactic shock, and disturbances in heart rhythm or conduction, and death from cardiotoxicity (damage to the heart). Quinine may also trigger a rare form of hypersensitivity reaction in malaria patients, termed blackwater fever, that results in massive hemolysis, hemoglobinemia, hemoglobinuria, and kidney failure.[citation needed] Most symptoms of cinchonism (except in severe cases) are reversible and disappear once quinine is withdrawn. ...
Luo C, Thielens NM, Gagnon J, Gal P, Sarvari M, Tseng Y, Tosi M, Zavodszky P, Arlaud GJ, Schumaker VN (May 1992). "Recombinant human complement subcomponent C1s lacking beta-hydroxyasparagine, sialic acid, and one of its two carbohydrate chains still reassembles with C1q and C1r to form a functional C1 complex". Biochemistry. 31 (17): 4254-62. doi:10.1021/bi00132a015. PMID 1533159 ...
... is a condition or a process in which an organism becomes chemically harmed severely (poisoned) by a toxic substance or venom of an animal.[1] Acute poisoning is exposure to a poison on one occasion or during a short period of time. Symptoms develop in close relation to the degree of exposure. Absorption of a poison is necessary for systemic poisoning (that is, in the blood throughout the body). In contrast, substances that destroy tissue but do not absorb, such as lye, are classified as corrosives rather than poisons. Furthermore, many common household medications are not labeled with skull and crossbones, although they can cause severe illness or even death. In the medical sense, toxicity and poisoning can be caused by less dangerous substances than those legally classified as a poison. Toxicology is the study and practice of the symptoms, mechanisms, diagnosis, and treatment of poisoning. Chronic poisoning is long-term repeated or continuous exposure to a poison where symptoms do not ...
... (TXA) is a medication used to treat or prevent excessive blood loss from major trauma, post partum bleeding, surgery, tooth removal, nose bleeds, and heavy menstruation.[1][2] It is also used for hereditary angioedema.[1][3] It is taken either by mouth or injection into a vein.[1]. Side effects are rare.[3] Some include changes in color vision, blood clots and allergic reactions.[3] Greater caution is recommended in people with kidney disease.[4] Tranexamic appears to be safe for use during pregnancy and breastfeeding.[3][5] Tranexamic acid is in the antifibrinolytic family of medications.[4]. Tranexamic acid was discovered in 1962 by Utako Okamoto.[6] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.[7] Tranexamic acid is available as a generic medication.[8] The wholesale cost in the developing world is about 4.38 to 4.89 USD for a course of treatment.[9] In the United States a course of ...
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... can be measured by its effects on the target (organism, organ, tissue or cell). Because individuals typically have different levels of response to the same dose of a toxic substance, a population-level measure of toxicity is often used which relates the probabilities of an outcome for a given individual in a population. One such measure is the LD50. When such data does not exist, estimates are made by comparison to known similar toxic things, or to similar exposures in similar organisms. Then, "safety factors" are added to account for uncertainties in data and evaluation processes. For example, if a dose of a toxic substance is safe for a laboratory rat, one might assume that one tenth that dose would be safe for a human, allowing a safety factor of 10 to allow for interspecies differences between two mammals; if the data are from fish, one might use a factor of 100 to account for the greater difference between two chordate classes (fish and mammals). Similarly, an extra protection ...
More than 64,000 Americans died from drug overdoses in 2016.[1] Since 2000, the US drug overdose death rate has gone from 6.2 per 100,000 people in 2000 to 14.7 per 100,000 in 2014.[17] The National Center for Health Statistics report that 19,250 people died of accidental poisoning in the U.S. in the year 2004 (8 deaths per 100,000 population).[18] In 2008 testimony before a Senate subcommittee, Leonard J. Paulozzi,[19] a medical epidemiologist at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention stated that in 2005 more than 22,000 American lives were lost due to overdoses, and the number is growing rapidly. Paulozzi also testified that all available evidence suggests that unintentional overdose deaths are related to the increasing use of prescription drugs, especially opioid painkillers.[20] However, the vast majority of overdoses are also attributable to alcohol. It is very rare for a victim of an overdose to have consumed just one drug. Most overdoses occur when drugs are ingested in ...
Protein HtrA2, also known as Omi, is a mitochondrially-located serine protease. The human protein Serine protease HTRA2, mitochondrial is 49kDa in size and composed of 458 amino acids. The peptide fragment of 1-31 amino acid is the mitochondrial transition sequence, fragment 32-133 amino acid is propertied, and 134-458 is the mature protein Serine protease HTRA2, mitochondrial, and its theoretical pI of this protein is 6.12.[10] HtrA2 shows similarities with DegS, a bacterial protease present in the periplasm of gram-negative bacteria. Structurally, HtrA2 is a trimeric molecule with central protease domains and a carboxy-terminal PDZ domain, which is characteristic of the HtrA family. The PDZ domain preferentially binds C-terminus of the protein substrate and modulate the proteolytic activity of the trypsin-like protease domain.[11] ...
In biology, poisons are substances that cause disturbances in organisms, usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when an organism absorbs a sufficient quantity.[1][2] The fields of medicine (particularly veterinary) and zoology often distinguish a poison from a toxin, and from a venom. Toxins are poisons produced by organisms in nature, and venoms are toxins injected by a bite or sting (this is exclusive to animals). The difference between venom and other poisons is the delivery method. Industry, agriculture, and other sectors employ poisonous substances for reasons other than their toxicity. Most poisonous industrial compounds have associated material safety data sheets and are classed as hazardous substances. Hazardous substances are subject to extensive regulation on production, procurement and use in overlapping domains of occupational safety and health, public health, drinking water quality standards, air pollution and environmental protection. Due to the ...
Seol JH, Woo SK, Jung EM, Yoo SJ, Lee CS, Kim KJ, Tanaka K, Ichihara A, Ha DB, Chung CH (April 1991). "Protease Do is essential for survival of Escherichia coli at high temperatures: its identity with the htrA gene product". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 176 (2): 730-6. doi:10.1016/s0006-291x(05)80245-1. PMID 2025286 ...
... includes four (4) syndromes that share some common features and are primarily associated with bivalve molluscs (such as mussels, clams, oysters and scallops.)[1] These shellfish are filter feeders and, therefore, accumulate toxins produced by microscopic algae, such as cyanobacteria, diatoms and dinoflagellates. ...
... (DSP) is one of the four recognized symptom types of shellfish poisoning, the others being paralytic shellfish poisoning, neurotoxic shellfish poisoning and amnesic shellfish poisoning. As the name suggests, this syndrome manifests itself as intense diarrhea and severe abdominal pains. Nausea and vomiting may sometimes occur too. DSP and its symptoms usually set in within about half an hour of ingesting infected shellfish, and last for about one day. A recent case in France, though, with 20 people consuming oysters manifested itself after 36 hours. The causative poison is okadaic acid, which inhibits intestinal cellular de-phosphorylation.[1] This causes the cells to become very permeable to water and causes profuse, intense diarrhea with a high risk of dehydration. As no life-threatening symptoms generally emerge from this, no fatalities from DSP have ever been recorded. ...
A trypsin inhibitor (TI) is a protein and a type of serine protease inhibitor (serpin) that reduces the biological activity of trypsin by controlling the activation and catalytic reactions of proteins.[1] Trypsin is an enzyme involved in the breakdown of many different proteins, primarily as part of digestion in humans and other animals such as monogastrics and young ruminants. When trypsin inhibitor is consumed it acts as an irreversible and competitive substrate.[2] It competes with proteins to bind to trypsin and therefore renders it unavailable to bind with proteins for the digestion process.[1] As a result, protease inhibitors that interfere with digestion activity have an antinutritional effect. Therefore, trypsin inhibitor is considered an anti-nutritional factor or ANF.[3] Additionally, trypsin inhibitor partially interferes with chymotrypsin function. Trypsinogen is an inactive form of trypsin, its inactive form ensures protein aspects of the body, such as the pancreas and muscles, are ...
Zinc has been used therapeutically at a dose of 150 mg/day for months and in some cases for years, and in one case at a dose of up to 2000 mg/day zinc for months.[7][8][9][10][11] A decrease in copper levels and hematological changes have been reported; however, those changes were completely reversed with the cessation of zinc intake.[9] However, zinc has been used as zinc gluconate and zinc acetate lozenges for treating the common cold[12] and therefore the safety of usage at about 100 mg/day level is a relevant question. Thus, given that doses of over 150 mg/day for months to years has caused no permanent harm in many cases, a one-week usage of about 100 mg/day of zinc in the form of lozenges would not be expected to cause serious or irreversible adverse health issues in most persons. Unlike iron, the elimination of zinc is concentration-dependent.[13] ...
As of 2012, rFVIIa is not supported by the evidence for treating most cases of major bleeding.[1] There is a significant risk of arterial thrombosis with its use and thus, other than in those with factor VII deficiency, it should only be given in clinical trials.[1] Recombinant human factor VII, while initially looking promising in intracerebral hemorrhage, failed to show benefit following further study and is no longer recommended.[2][3] In people with hemophilia type A and B who have a deficiency of factors VIII and IX, these two factors are administered for controlling bleeding or as prophylaxis medication before starting surgeries. However, in some cases they subsequently develop neutralizing antibodies, called inhibitors, against the drug. These inhibitors often increase over time and inhibit the action of coagulation in the body. rFVIIa, which is an activated form of factor VII, bypasses factors VIII and IX and causes coagulation without the need for factors VIII and IX. It can't be given ...
Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a unique peptide released by the duodenal "I cells" in response to chyme containing high fat or protein content. Unlike secretin, which is an endocrine hormone, CCK actually works via stimulation of a neuronal circuit, the end-result of which is stimulation of the acinar cells to release their content.[5] CCK also increases gallbladder contraction, causing release of pre-stored bile into the cystic duct, and eventually into the common bile duct and via the ampulla of Vater into the second anatomic position of the duodenum. CCK also decreases the tone of the sphincter of Oddi, which is the sphincter that regulates flow through the ampulla of Vater. CCK also decreases gastric activity and decreases gastric emptying, thereby giving more time to the pancreatic juices to neutralize the acidity of the gastric chyme ...
ಹೆಚ್ಚಿನ ಹಾವಿನ ಕಡಿತಗಳು ವಿಷಕಾರಿಯಾದ ಹಾವಿನಿಂದಾಗುತ್ತದೆ. ಪ್ರಪಂಚದಾದ್ಯಂತ 3,000 ಹಾತಿಯ ಹಾವುಗಳು ಪತ್ತೆಯಾಗಿವೆ, ಅದರಲ್ಲಿ 5 ಪ್ರತಿಶತ ಹಾವುಗಳನ್ನು ಮಾತ್ರ ಮಾನವನಿಗೆ ಅಪಯಕಾರಿ ಎಂದು ಪರಿಗಣಿಸಲಾಗಿದೆ.[೧][೪][೪೮] ಅಂಟಾರ್ಟಿಕಾವನ್ನು ಹೊರತುಡಿಸಿ ಉಳಿದೆಲ್ಲೆಡೆ ಹಾವುಗಳು ಕಂಡುಬರುತ್ತದೆ.[೧] ಅನೇಕ ಕಡೆಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಹರಡಿರುವ ವಿವಿಧತೆಯನ್ನು ಹೊಂದಿರುವ ಹಾವಿನ ಕುಟುಂಬವೆಂದರೆ ಕೊಲುಬ್ರಿಡ್‌ಗಳು, ಇವು ಸುಮಾರು 700 ವಿಷಕಾರಿ ಜಾತಿಗಳಿವೆ,[೪೯] ಆದರೆ ಕೇವಲ ಐದು ...
Batroxobin, a toxin from a snake venom, clots platelet-rich plasma without affecting platelet functions (lyses fibrinogen). ...
The fibrinogen concentrations before, and at 1, 2, and 7 days after the batroxobin were 364±81 mg/dl, 150±35 mg/dl (41%, P,0.01 ... The fibrinogen concentrations before, and at 1, 2, and 7 days after the batroxobin were 318±57 mg/dl, 255±60 mg/dl (80%, P,0.01 ... The fibrinogen concentrations before, and at 1, 2, and 7 days after the batroxobin were 364±81 mg/dl, 150±35 mg/dl (41%, P,0.01 ... The fibrinogen concentrations before, and at 1, 2, and 7 days after the batroxobin were 318±57 mg/dl, 255±60 mg/dl (80%, P,0.01 ...
The use of batroxobin allows us to get around this problem because it can immediately start the clotting process, regardless of ... The snake venom batroxobin is combined with nanofibre hydrogels from the Rice lab. According to the researchers, it is first ... While batroxobin has already been approved by the FDA, SB50 will have to undergo significant further testing before it gets ... Batroxobin is a haemotoxin that has similar properties to thrombin, a naturally occurring enzyme in humans that plays an ...
Batroxobin has a similar action to thrombin but unlike thrombin it is not inhibited by heparin. Normal values for thrombin time ... If batroxobin is used, the time should be between 15 and 20 seconds. Thrombin time can be prolonged by heparin, fibrin ... In blood samples containing heparin, a substance derived from snake venom called batroxobin (formerly reptilase) is used ...
Learn more about Anti-Batroxobin Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody. We enable science by offering product choice, services, process ...
The separation of the fibrin monomer from the Batroxobin in a liquid 100 produced in the second chamber 34 through the action ... 1-10 can be omitted as the chemical or biochemical agent, e.g., Batroxobin immobilized in Aqarose gel, is provided in a ... After the extraction of Fibrin from the plasma, conversion of Fibrin into Fibrin 1, and linking of Fibrin 1 to Batroxobin, the ... As the plasma which is transferred from the first chamber 32 to the second chamber 34 is contacted with the Batroxobin ...
Batroxobin (INN) Bavisant (INN, (USAN) Bavituximab (USAN, INN) Baxitozine (INN) Baycol BayGam BayHep B Baypress BayRab BayTet ...
Batroxobin. No approved indications. Batroxobin is a defibrongenating agent which has been observed to reduce fibrinogen levels ...
Batroxobin. The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aminosalicylic Acid is combined with Batroxobin.. ...
Ancrod - Batroxobin. Other. Acrosin - Prolyl endopeptidase - Pronase - Proprotein convertases (1, 2) - Subtilisin/Furin - ...
Ancrod - Batroxobin. Other. Acrosin - Prolyl endopeptidase - Pronase - Proprotein convertases (1, 2) - Subtilisin/Furin - ...
Batroxobin [‎1]‎. Battered Women [‎62]‎. Bayes Theorem [‎3]‎. BCG Vaccine [‎220]‎. Bed Occupancy [‎7]‎. ...
Batroxobin in combination with anticoagulation may promote venous sinus recanalization in cerebral venous thrombosis: A real- ... 4. Batroxobin in combination with anticoagulation may promote venous sinus recanalization in cerebral venous thrombosis: A real ... who underwent batroxobin treatment in combination with anticoagulation.A total of 31 CVT patients were enrolled in this real- ... Batroxobin may promote venous sinus recanalization and attenuate CVT-induced stenosis. Further randomized study of this ...
Effects of batroxobin and electric cauterization on vascular remodeling of rabbit with a removal of carotid arterial adventitia ... Effects of Batroxobin on distal anastomotic intimal hyperplasia after expanded polytetrafluoroethylene bypass grafting in dog ... The topically hemostatic effects of batroxobin on the carotid arteries adventitia removal rabbit]. ...
These activators are known in the art and include thrombin, batroxobin (such as that from B. Moojeni, B. Maranhao, B. atrox, B ... Other substances, including thrombin receptor agonists and batroxobin, can also be used to activate fibrinogen. If fibrin is ...
Batroxobin binds fibrin with higher affinity and promotes clot expansion to a greater extent than thrombin. ...
Batroxobin Anemia Aplastic Fibrinolysis Afibrinogenemia Myelodysplastic syndromes This is a preview of subscription content, ... Zeng Z, Xiao P, Chen J, Wei Y (2009) Are batroxobin agents effective for perioperative hemorrhage in thoracic surgery? A ... Feasibility of treating hyperfibrinogenemia with intermittently administered batroxobin in patients with ischemic stroke/ ...
Batroxobin]] }},noinclude> [[Category:Drug templates,{{PAGENAME}}]] ,/noinclude> Templates used on this page: ...
Molecular modelling of batroxobin on kallikreins Lorraine Earps, Peter M. Shoolingin-Jordan ...
20831989 - Batroxobin for prevention of restenosis in diabetic patients after infrapopliteal arter.... 23891409 - Cirrhosis as ...
Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of batroxobin in Beagle dog].. Zi-Hua Zheng, Xiao-Xia Zhu, Hui Gan, Ruo-Lan Gu, Zhuo-Na ... Healthy Beagle dogs were administrated with batroxobin by intravenous infusion at high, medium and low doses. The study of ... Especially, the D-dimmer levels and the batroxobin concentration in plasma after intravenous infusion of the drug were ... The results of pharmacodynamics showed that D-dimmer level increased significantly after the administration of batroxobin, ...
Batroxobin Reagent1. Test Thrombin Reagent1. Thromboclotin®1. Factor Deficient Reagents. Factor II-Dade Innovin1. Factor II- ...
The researchers also tested several other options: the hydrogel without batroxobin, the batroxobin without the hydrogel, a ... Batroxobin was recognized for its properties as a coagulant-a substance that encourages blood to clot-in 1936. It has been used ... "Batroxobin is also an enzyme with similar function to thrombin, but its function is not blocked by heparin. This is important ... While batroxobin is already approved, the hydrogel has not yet won approval, a process he expects will take several more years ...
This is achieved by adding reptilase (batroxobin), which generates fibrin without platelet activation, and factor [XIII.. Point ...
Batroxobin is a thrombin-like proteolytic enzyme isolated from the venom of Bothrops atrox. It splits the 16 Arg-17 Gly bond in ... Batroxobin can be used to determine fibrinogen in plasma, to measure the batroxobin clotting time (Reptilase time) as a heparin ... Hence, Batroxobin is used to determine fibrinogen in plasma, to measure a batroxobin clotting time as a heparin-insensitive ... Batroxobin is a thrombin-like proteolytic enzyme isolated from the venom of Bothrops atrox. It splits the 16 Arg-17 Gly bond in ...
The medicine Defibrase is the trade name given to batroxobin and is isolated from the venom of Bothrops moojeni. It functions ... The batroxobin from the snake Bothrops atrox is patented as Reptilase and used as a hemostatic drug. ... The medicine Defibrase is the trade name given to batroxobin and is isolated from the venom of Bothrops moojeni. It functions ...
BATROXOBIN, a thrombin-like enzyme unaffected by the presence of heparin, may be used in place of thrombin. ...
1st International Reference Reagent for Batroxobin, 2nd IS for Ancrod. Subcommittee. NIBSC Personnel. Participants. WHO ...
Effects of Batroxobin on the Hemorheology in Nude Mire with Gastric and Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma. BAN Xing-min, ZHOU Lei, HUANG ...
... batroxobin, cercarial proteinase of Schistosoma mansonii, brinase, Serratia spp. E15proteinase, Staphylococcus aureus "acid" ...
... chitosan or batroxobin (Textor & Tablin 2013). Side effects associated with thrombin as an activator for intra-articular- ...
  • The snake venom batroxobin is combined with nanofibre hydrogels from the Rice lab. (theengineer.co.uk)
  • Though inspired by snake venom, the batroxobin used by the Rice team is actually harvested from genetically modified bacteria and then purified to avoid contaminants. (theengineer.co.uk)
  • SB50 takes the powerful clotting ability of this snake venom and makes it far more effective by delivering it in an easily localised hydrogel that prevents possible unwanted systemic effects from using batroxobin alone. (theengineer.co.uk)
  • First recognised in 1936 for its coagulant capabilities, batroxobin is particularly useful for treating patients who have taken the anti-coagulant drug heparin. (theengineer.co.uk)
  • The use of batroxobin allows us to get around this problem because it can immediately start the clotting process, regardless of whether heparin is there or not. (theengineer.co.uk)
  • Batroxobin is a haemotoxin that has similar properties to thrombin, a naturally occurring enzyme in humans that plays an important role in clotting. (theengineer.co.uk)
  • We examined the effect of defibrinogenation with batroxobin on the erythrocyte aggregability (RBC-A) in 16 patients with cerebral infarction during the acute phase (less than 72 hours after onset). (elsevier.com)
  • Eight patients received a single intravenous administration of 10 units of batroxobin (BU), while the other 8 patients received 5 BU. (elsevier.com)
  • We conclude that a single intravenous administration of batroxobin at 10 BU reduced the RBC-A in patients with cerebral infarction during the acute phase in accordance with a decrease in the fibrinogen level. (elsevier.com)
  • This is achieved by adding reptilase (batroxobin), which generates fibrin without platelet activation, and factor [XIII. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Hence, Batroxobin is used to determine fibrinogen in plasma, to measure a ''batroxobin clotting time'' as a heparin-insensitive parallel to the thrombin time, to investigate dysfibrinogenemia, and to test the contractile system of platelets. (creativebiomart.net)
  • For the study, published in ACS Biomaterials Science and Engineering , researchers combined batroxobin with their synthetic, self-assembling nanofibers, which can be loaded into a syringe and injected at the site of a wound, where they reassemble themselves into a gel. (futurity.org)
  • In blood samples containing heparin, a substance derived from snake venom called batroxobin (formerly reptilase) is used instead of thrombin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The batroxobin from the snake Bothrops atrox is patented as Reptilase and used as a hemostatic drug. (creative-enzymes.com)
  • APC-Resistence), Pefakit PiCT (Control of anticoagulatolytic activity), Pefakit in-TDT (kinetic determination of thrombin production), Pefakit Reptilase Time (Batroxobin). (loxo.de)
  • We conclude that a single intravenous administration of batroxobin at 10 BU reduced the RBC-A in patients with cerebral infarction during the acute phase in accordance with a decrease in the fibrinogen level. (elsevier.com)
  • It splits the 16 Arg-17 Gly bond in the Aα-chain of fibrinogen and causes the release of fibrinopeptide A and the formation of fibrin I monomer or Des-AA-monomer which spontaneously aggregates into a clot of fibrin I. Batroxobin also induces the release of tPA from endothelium. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Due to its specific action on fibrinogen and its ability to clot platelet-rich plasma without affecting the integrity and functions of the platelets, and thanks to its insensitivity to thrombin inhibitors, batroxobin has found several applications as a tool in blood coagulation research and diagnosis. (creativebiomart.net)
  • We found that thrombin-catalyzed polymerization of gammaD298,301A fibrinogen was modestly impaired, whereas batroxobin-catalyzed polymerization was significantly impaired relative to normal fibrinogen. (proteopedia.org)
  • First recognised in 1936 for its coagulant capabilities, batroxobin is particularly useful for treating patients who have taken the anti-coagulant drug heparin. (theengineer.co.uk)
  • SB50 takes the powerful clotting ability of this snake venom and makes it far more effective by delivering it in an easily localised hydrogel that prevents possible unwanted systemic effects from using batroxobin alone. (theengineer.co.uk)
  • The hydrogel called SB50 incorporates batroxobin, a venom produced by two species of South American pit viper. (futurity.org)
  • The researchers also tested several other options: the hydrogel without batroxobin, the batroxobin without the hydrogel, a current clinical hemostat known as GelFoam and an alternative self-assembling hemostat known as Puramatrix and found that none were as effective, especially in the presence of anti-coagulants. (futurity.org)
  • While batroxobin is already approved, the hydrogel has not yet won approval, a process he expects will take several more years of testing. (futurity.org)
  • Hartgerink and his team developed a nanofiber hydrogel that features batroxobin, a venom found in two species of South American pit viper. (newatlas.com)
  • Batroxobin is already approved for use by the US Food and Drug Administration, though Rice's new hydrogel is not. (newatlas.com)
  • The snake venom batroxobin is combined with nanofibre hydrogels from the Rice lab. (theengineer.co.uk)
  • Though inspired by snake venom, the batroxobin used by the Rice team is actually harvested from genetically modified bacteria and then purified to avoid contaminants. (theengineer.co.uk)
  • Batroxobin is a thrombin-like proteolytic enzyme isolated from the venom of Bothrops atrox. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Batroxobin is a serine protease derived from the venom of Bothrops atrox. (creativebiomart.net)
  • The medicine Defibrase is the trade name given to batroxobin and is isolated from the venom of Bothrops moojeni. (creative-enzymes.com)
  • Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of cDNA for batroxobin, a thrombin-like snake venom enzyme. (we-rock.cc)
  • Batroxobin is a haemotoxin that has similar properties to thrombin, a naturally occurring enzyme in humans that plays an important role in clotting. (theengineer.co.uk)
  • Batroxobin is also an enzyme with similar function to thrombin, but its function is not blocked by heparin. (futurity.org)
  • The treatment of DVT with batroxobin and anticoagulants was effective and safe. (labome.ru)
  • Positive results were reported favoring systemic steroids, intratympanic [inside the inner ear] steroids, batroxobin, magnesium, vitamin E and hyperbaric oxygen, although there were serious limitations in each study with a positive finding. (news-medical.net)
  • The topically hemostatic effects of batroxobin on the carotid arteries adventitia removal rabbit]. (nih.gov)
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate cerebral venous recanalization with magnetic resonance black-blood thrombus imaging (MRBTI) in patients with cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) who underwent batroxobin treatment in combination with anticoagulation.A total of 31 CVT patients were enrolled in this real-world registry study. (tripdatabase.com)
  • While batroxobin has already been approved by the FDA, SB50 will have to undergo significant further testing before it gets approval for clinical use. (theengineer.co.uk)
  • The batroxobin combined with the hydrogels isn't taken directly from snakes, Hartgerink says. (futurity.org)
  • We examined the effect of defibrinogenation with batroxobin on the erythrocyte aggregability (RBC-A) in 16 patients with cerebral infarction during the acute phase (less than 72 hours after onset). (elsevier.com)
  • Batroxobin in combination with anticoagulation may promote venous sinus recanalization in cerebral venous thrombosis: A real-world experience. (tripdatabase.com)
  • Zeng Z, Xiao P, Chen J, Wei Y (2009) Are batroxobin agents effective for perioperative hemorrhage in thoracic surgery? (springer.com)
  • Batroxobin (2 U) could reduce the perioperative blood loss in patients with LMWH who had undergone the total hip replacement operation but did not show adverse effect on DVT. (bvsalud.org)
  • If batroxobin is used, the time should be between 15 and 20 seconds. (wikipedia.org)
  • The blood-clogging abilities of batroxobin were first discovered in 1936 and in the time since it has been used in therapies to treat thrombosis and to control bleeding during surgeries. (newatlas.com)
  • Batroxobin was recognized for its properties as a coagulant-a substance that encourages blood to clot-in 1936. (futurity.org)
  • Effects of batroxobin and electric cauterization on vascular remodeling of rabbit with a removal of carotid arterial adventitia]. (nih.gov)
  • Effects of Batroxobin on distal anastomotic intimal hyperplasia after expanded polytetrafluoroethylene bypass grafting in dog common carotid artery]. (nih.gov)
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  • Abstract Background The aim of this study was to use transmission electron microscopy to describe the ultrastructural characteristics of clots obtained from canine and feline platelet concentrates (PC) that had been activated with calcium gluconate (CG) or CG plus batroxobin (CGB). (temoa.info)