A proteolytic enzyme obtained from the venom of fer-de-lance (Bothrops atrox). It is used as a plasma clotting agent for fibrinogen and for the detection of fibrinogen degradation products. The presence of heparin does not interfere with the clotting test. Hemocoagulase is a mixture containing batroxobin and factor X activator. EC 3.4.21.-.
The calcium salt of gluconic acid. The compound has a variety of uses, including its use as a calcium replenisher in hypocalcemic states.
Venoms from snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae or pit vipers, found mostly in the Americas. They include the rattlesnake, cottonmouth, fer-de-lance, bushmaster, and American copperhead. Their venoms contain nontoxic proteins, cardio-, hemo-, cyto-, and neurotoxins, and many enzymes, especially phospholipases A. Many of the toxins have been characterized.
Two small peptide chains removed from the N-terminal segment of the alpha chains of fibrinogen by the action of thrombin during the blood coagulation process. Each peptide chain contains 18 amino acid residues. In vivo, fibrinopeptide A is used as a marker to determine the rate of conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin by thrombin.
Limbless REPTILES of the suborder Serpentes.
A genus of poisonous snakes of the VIPERIDAE family. About 50 species are known and all are found in tropical America and southern South America. Bothrops atrox is the fer-de-lance and B. jararaca is the jararaca. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336)
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Antisera used to counteract poisoning by animal VENOMS, especially SNAKE VENOMS.
An adverse drug interaction characterized by altered mental status, autonomic dysfunction, and neuromuscular abnormalities. It is most frequently caused by use of both serotonin reuptake inhibitors and monoamine oxidase inhibitors, leading to excess serotonin availability in the CNS at the serotonin 1A receptor.
A homolog of ERGONOVINE containing one more CH2 group. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Compounds that specifically inhibit the reuptake of serotonin in the brain.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
A chemically heterogeneous group of drugs that have in common the ability to block oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. (From Gilman, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p414)
Drugs that block the transport of adrenergic transmitters into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. The tricyclic antidepressants (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) and amphetamines are among the therapeutically important drugs that may act via inhibition of adrenergic transport. Many of these drugs also block transport of serotonin.

The contribution of residues 192 and 193 to the specificity of snake venom serine proteinases. (1/50)

Snake venom serine proteinases, which belong to the subfamily of trypsin-like serine proteinases, exhibit a high degree of sequence identity (60-66%). Their stringent macromolecular substrate specificity contrasts with that of the less specific enzyme trypsin. One of them, the plasminogen activator from Trimeresurus stejnegeri venom (TSV-PA), which shares 63% sequence identity with batroxobin, a fibrinogen clotting enzyme from Bothrops atrox venom, specifically activates plasminogen to plasmin like tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), even though it exhibits only 23% sequence identity with t-PA. This study shows that TSV-PA, t-PA, and batroxobin are quite different in their specificity toward small chromogenic substrates, TSV-PA being less selective than t-PA, and batroxobin not being efficient at all. The specificity of TSV-PA, with respect to t-PA and batroxobin, was investigated further by site-directed mutagenesis in the 189-195 segment, which forms the basement of the S(1) pocket of TSV-PA and presents a His at position 192 and a unique Phe at position 193. This study demonstrates that Phe(193) plays a more significant role than His(192) in determining substrate specificity and inhibition resistance. Interestingly, the TSV-PA variant F193G possesses a 8-9-fold increased activity for plasminogen and becomes sensitive to bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor.  (+info)

Prevention of rat cerebral aneurysm formation by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase. (2/50)

BACKGROUND: Cerebral saccular aneurysm is a major cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage, one of the cerebrovascular diseases with the highest mortality. The mechanisms underlying the development of aneurysms, however, still remain unclear. We have made a series of reports on an animal model of experimentally induced cerebral aneurysms that resemble human cerebral aneurysms in their location and morphology, suggesting that the arterial wall degeneration associated with aneurysm formation develops near the apex of arterial bifurcation as a result of an increase in wall shear stress. Using the animal model and human specimens, we examined the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the degenerative changes and cerebral aneurysm formation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Inducible NO synthase (iNOS) was immunohistochemically located at the orifice of human and rat aneurysms. Nitrotyrosine distribution was also seen in the human aneurysm. Although no iNOS immunostaining was found in normal arteries, iNOS immunoreactivity was observed in parallel with the development of early aneurysmal changes in rats. In contrast, during the early development of aneurysm, endothelial NOS immunostaining in the endothelium was weakened compared with that in the control arteries. An NOS inhibitor, aminoguanidine, attenuated both early aneurysmal changes and the incidence of induced aneurysms. A defibrinogenic agent, batroxobin, which may diminish shear stress by reduction of blood viscosity, prevented iNOS induction as well as early aneurysmal changes. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence suggests that NO, particularly that derived from iNOS, is a key requirement for the development of cerebral aneurysm. The iNOS induction may be caused by an increase in shear stress near the apex.  (+info)

Effect of batroxobin against dog heart ischemia/reperfusion injury. (3/50)

AIM: To study the effect of batroxobin(Bat) on dog heart ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. METHODS: Dog heart I/R injury was induced by occluding the left anterior descending coronary artery for 30 min and restoring blood perfusion for 90 min. Bat was intravenously injected before heart ischemia and 15 min before reperfusion. Plasma creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and myocardial malondiaedehyde (MDA) concentrations were measured. The pathologic changes of I/R myocardium were observed. RESULTS: Bat reduced the mortality rate of I/R dog (I/R group 65.0% vs Bat-I group 30.0% and Bat-II group 28.6%, P < 0.05). Myocytes of I/R heart showed intracellular edema, damaged mitochondria, and concentrated nucleus. Bat decreased these changes. In Bat-I and Bat-II group, plasma CK and LDH level were reduced, the +dp/dtmax and -dp/dtmax at 30 min after ischemia and 90 min after reperfusion were elevated, and left ventricular end dilation pressure (LVEDP) was lowered. The myocardial MDA contents were decreased by 42.3% and 38.1% (P < 0.01) in Bat-I and Bat-II group, respectively. CONCLUSION: Bat may exert an apparent role against dog heart ischemia/reperfusion injury and improve myocardial function.  (+info)

Influence of batroxobin on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in gerbils. (4/50)

AIM: To study the effects of batroxobin (Bat) on neurons survival, neurobehavioral test, ATP levels and hydroxyl radical outputs in hippocampus during forebrain ischemia-reperfusion in gerbils. METHODS: The forebrain ischemia was induced by occluding the bilateral common carotid arteries for 10 min in gerbils, and ATP levels and 2, 3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) outputs were assayed by HPLC. The neurons survival were assessed by histology, and behavioral tests of gerbils were assessed by open field test. RESULTS: The number of neurons survival in Ir at d 7 postischemic insult were (7 +/- 4)% of sham-operated gerbils, much less than that in Bat (45 +/- 16)%. The levels of explore activities of ischemic gerbils was 175% and 159% of sham-operated gerbils at d 3 and d 6 postischemic insult, much more than that in Bat (120% d 3 and 140% d 6). Hippocampal ATP levels in Ir were 64% of sham-operated gerbils at reperfusion 60 min, much less than that in Bat I and II (82% and 89% respectively). The hippocampal 2,3-DHBA outputs in Ir increased by 4.5 folds of sham-operated gerbils at reperfusion 60 min, but the 2,3-DHBA outputs in Bat I and Bat II were only 2.6 and 2.4 folds respectively. CONCLUSION: Bat possesses the inhibitory effects on DND and OH. production following cerebral ischemia-reperfusion in gerbils.  (+info)

GAP-43 expression and pathological changes of temporal infarction in rats and effects of batroxobin. (5/50)

To study the changes of the expression of growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) and pathology in temporal infarction of rats photochemically induced and the effects of batroxobin. METHODS: Immunohistochemical technique and hematoxylin-eosin stain was used to show the changes of the expression of GAP-43 and pathology. RESULTS: In infarction group, GAP-43 expression was markedly increased on the infarction and surrounding tissues at 24 h cerebral infarction. The expression reached peak level at 72 h after cerebral infarction and was decreased at 7 d after cerebral infarction. However, in batroxobin-treated group, GAP-43 expression was increased and the pathological changes were much slight as compared with infarction group. CONCLUSION: The expression of GAP-43 increases in infarction of temporal neocortex and batroxobin promotes the expression of GAP-43 and ameliorates the pathological changes in infarction of temporal neocortex.  (+info)

Recombinant BbetaArg14His fibrinogen implies participation of N-terminus of Bbeta chain in desA fibrin polymerization. (6/50)

We synthesized BbetaArg14His fibrinogen with histidine substituted for arginine at the Bbeta thrombin-cleavage site. This substitution led to a 300-fold decrease in the rate of thrombin-catalyzed fibrinopeptide B (FpB, Bbeta 1-14) release, whereas the rate of FpA release was normal with either thrombin or the FpA-specific enzyme, batroxobin. Both thrombin- and batroxobincatalyzed polymerization of BbetaArg14His fibrinogen were significantly impaired, with a longer lag time, slower rate of lateral aggregation, and decreased final turbidity. Moreover, desA monomer polymerization was similarly impaired, demonstrating that the histidine substitution itself, and not the lack of FpB cleavage, caused the abnormal polymerization of BbetaArg14His fibrin. Scanning electron microscopy showed BbetaArg14His fibrin fibers were thinner than normal (BbetaArg14His, approximately 70 nm; normal, approximately 100 nm; P <.0001), as expected from the decreased final turbidity. We conclude that the N-terminus of the Bbeta chain is involved in the lateral aggregation of normal desAprotofibrils and that the Arg-->His substitution disrupts these interactions in BbetaArg14His fibrinogen.  (+info)

Thrombolytic actions of reptilase. (7/50)

In thrombolytic model in vitro, reptilase (Rep, defibrase) did not show appreciable thrombolytic actions on red and white thrombi. After daily iv infusion of Rep 0.25 IU for 10 d, the time of 50% lysis of euglobulin (ELT1/2) was shortened from 9.3 +/- 0.8 to 6.7 +/- 1.0 h (P < 0.01), alteplase activity was increased from 1.9 +/- 0.7 to 3.7 +/- 0.9 IU.ml-1, and plasminogen inactivator (PI) activity reduced from 4.3 +/- 0.6 to 1.8 +/- 0.9 AU.ml-1 (all P < 0.01). The findings indicate that the thrombolytic action of Rep shown in vivo may not be from the direct action on thrombi but from the influence on alteplase and PI activity.  (+info)

Detection of soluble intermediates of the fibrinogen-fibrin conversion using erythrocytes coated with fibrin monomers. (8/50)

The presence of minimal amounts of fibrinogen-fibrin intermediates in human plasma was visualized by an agglutination reaction of glutaraldehyde-treated human erythrocytes coated with purified fibrin monomers. A degree of monomer coating was established which produced erythrocytes not agglutinated by normal plasma but by plasma containing minimal amounts of soluble complexes of fibrinogen with fibrin monomers. Under standardized conditions of coating, erythrocyte concentration, temperature, pH, and incubation time, the agglutination time varied with the ratio of soluble fibrin to fibrinogen in plasma. The test was sensitive down to a soluble fibrin concentration of 0.675% of the plasma fibrinogen concentration. Early fibrinogen and fibrin degradation products (FDP) in the plasma led to a prolongation of the agglutination time at a concentration of more than 16 mg/100 ml. Late FDP in a concentration of 100 mg/100 ml did not convert a positive test to negative. The test was not affected by heparin and protamine at concentrations of up to 12.5 and 50 NIH units/ml, respectively.  (+info)

Batroxobin is a serine protease enzyme that is isolated from the venom of Bothrops atrox, also known as the South American fer-de-lance snake. It has thrombin-like activity and can induce fibrinogen to form fibrin, which is an important step in blood clotting. Batroxobin is used medically as a defibrinating agent to treat conditions such as snake envenomation, cerebral infarction, and arterial thrombosis. It may also be used for research purposes to study hemostasis and coagulation.

Calcium gluconate is a medical compound that is used primarily as a medication to treat conditions related to low calcium levels in the body (hypocalcemia) or to prevent calcium deficiency. It is also used as an antidote for treating poisoning from certain chemicals, such as beta-blockers and fluoride.

Calcium gluconate is a form of calcium salt, which is combined with gluconic acid, a natural organic acid found in various fruits and honey. This compound has a high concentration of calcium, making it an effective supplement for increasing calcium levels in the body.

In medical settings, calcium gluconate can be administered orally as a tablet or liquid solution, or it can be given intravenously (directly into a vein) by a healthcare professional. The intravenous route is typically used in emergency situations to quickly raise calcium levels and treat symptoms of hypocalcemia, such as muscle cramps, spasms, or seizures.

It's important to note that while calcium gluconate can be beneficial for treating low calcium levels, it should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare provider, as improper use or overdose can lead to serious side effects, including kidney damage and heart problems.

Crotalid venoms are the toxic secretions produced by the members of the Crotalinae subfamily, also known as pit vipers. This group includes rattlesnakes, cottonmouths (or water moccasins), and copperheads, which are native to the Americas, as well as Old World vipers found in Asia and Europe, such as gaboon vipers and saw-scaled vipers.

Crotalid venoms are complex mixtures of various bioactive molecules, including enzymes, proteins, peptides, and other low molecular weight components. They typically contain a variety of pharmacologically active components, such as hemotoxic and neurotoxic agents, which can cause extensive local tissue damage, coagulopathy, cardiovascular dysfunction, and neuromuscular disorders in the victim.

The composition of crotalid venoms can vary significantly between different species and even among individual specimens within the same species. This variability is influenced by factors such as geographic location, age, sex, diet, and environmental conditions. As a result, the clinical manifestations of crotalid envenomation can be highly variable, ranging from mild local reactions to severe systemic effects that may require intensive medical treatment and supportive care.

Crotalid venoms have been the subject of extensive research in recent years due to their potential therapeutic applications. For example, certain components of crotalid venoms have shown promise as drugs for treating various medical conditions, such as cardiovascular diseases, pain, and inflammation. However, further studies are needed to fully understand the mechanisms of action of these venom components and to develop safe and effective therapies based on them.

Fibrinopeptide A is a small protein molecule that is cleaved and released from the larger fibrinogen protein during the blood clotting process. Specifically, it is removed by the enzyme thrombin as part of the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin, which is the main structural component of a blood clot. The measurement of Fibrinopeptide A in the blood can be used as a marker for ongoing thrombin activation and fibrin formation, which are key events in coagulation and hemostasis. Increased levels of Fibrinopeptide A may indicate abnormal or excessive blood clotting, such as in disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) or deep vein thrombosis (DVT).

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "snakes" is not a medical term. It refers to a group of legless reptiles that can be found on every continent except Antarctica. If you have any questions about snakes in a different context, please provide more information and I'll do my best to help!

"Bothrops" is a genus of venomous snakes commonly known as lancehead vipers, found primarily in Central and South America. The name "Bothrops" comes from the Greek words "bothros," meaning pit, and "ops," meaning face, referring to the deep pits on the sides of their heads that help them detect heat and locate prey. These snakes are known for their aggressive behavior and potent venom, which can cause severe pain, swelling, tissue damage, and potentially life-threatening systemic effects if left untreated.

The genus "Bothrops" includes over 30 species of pit vipers, many of which are considered medically important due to their ability to inflict serious envenomations in humans. Some notable examples include Bothrops asper (the terciopelo or fer-de-lance), Bothrops atrox (the common lancehead), and Bothrops jararaca (the jararaca).

If you encounter a snake of this genus, it is essential to seek medical attention immediately if bitten, as the venom can cause significant harm if not treated promptly.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Antivenins, also known as antivenoms, are medications created specifically to counteract venomous bites or stings from various creatures such as snakes, spiders, scorpions, and marine animals. They contain antibodies that bind to and neutralize the toxic proteins present in venom. Antivenins are usually made by immunizing large animals (like horses) with small amounts of venom over time, which prompts the animal's immune system to produce antibodies against the venom. The antibody-rich serum is then collected from the immunized animal and purified for use as an antivenin.

When administered to a victim who has been envenomated, antivenins work by binding to the venom molecules, preventing them from causing further damage to the body's tissues and organs. This helps minimize the severity of symptoms and can save lives in life-threatening situations. It is essential to seek immediate medical attention if bitten or stung by a venomous creature, as antivenins should be administered as soon as possible for optimal effectiveness.

Serotonin syndrome is a potentially life-threatening condition that arises from excessive serotonergic activity in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system. It is typically caused by the interaction of medications, illicit substances, or dietary supplements that increase serotonin levels or enhance serotonin receptor sensitivity.

The diagnostic criteria for serotonin syndrome include:

1. Presence of a serotonergic medication or drug known to cause the syndrome
2. Development of neuromuscular abnormalities, such as hyperreflexia, myoclonus, tremor, rigidity, or akathisia
3. Autonomic dysfunction, including diaphoresis, tachycardia, hypertension, dilated pupils, and hyperthermia
4. Mental status changes, such as agitation, confusion, hallucinations, or coma
5. Symptoms that develop rapidly, usually within hours of a change in serotonergic medication or dosage

Serotonin syndrome can range from mild to severe, with the most severe cases potentially leading to respiratory failure, rhabdomyolysis, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and death. Treatment typically involves discontinuation of the offending agent(s), supportive care, and pharmacologic interventions such as cyproheptadine or cooling measures for hyperthermia.

Methylergonovine is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called ergot alkaloids. It is primarily used to prevent and treat uterine bleeding after childbirth. Medically, it is defined as a semi-synthetic ergopeptide analog with oxytocic properties, which stimulates myometrial contractions and reduces postpartum hemorrhage.

Methylergonovine works by stimulating the smooth muscle of the uterus, causing it to contract. This helps to return the uterus to its pre-pregnancy size and also helps to control bleeding after childbirth. It is important to note that methylergonovine should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider, as it can have serious side effects if not used properly.

Serotonin uptake inhibitors (also known as Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors or SSRIs) are a class of medications primarily used to treat depression and anxiety disorders. They work by increasing the levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain that helps regulate mood, appetite, and sleep, among other functions.

SSRIs block the reuptake of serotonin into the presynaptic neuron, allowing more serotonin to be available in the synapse (the space between two neurons) for binding to postsynaptic receptors. This results in increased serotonergic neurotransmission and improved mood regulation.

Examples of SSRIs include fluoxetine (Prozac), sertraline (Zoloft), paroxetine (Paxil), citalopram (Celexa), and escitalopram (Lexapro). These medications are generally well-tolerated, with side effects that may include nausea, headache, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, and increased anxiety or agitation. However, they can have serious interactions with other medications, so it is important to inform your healthcare provider of all medications you are taking before starting an SSRI.

Serotonin, also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), is a monoamine neurotransmitter that is found primarily in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, blood platelets, and the central nervous system (CNS) of humans and other animals. It is produced by the conversion of the amino acid tryptophan to 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), and then to serotonin.

In the CNS, serotonin plays a role in regulating mood, appetite, sleep, memory, learning, and behavior, among other functions. It also acts as a vasoconstrictor, helping to regulate blood flow and blood pressure. In the GI tract, it is involved in peristalsis, the contraction and relaxation of muscles that moves food through the digestive system.

Serotonin is synthesized and stored in serotonergic neurons, which are nerve cells that use serotonin as their primary neurotransmitter. These neurons are found throughout the brain and spinal cord, and they communicate with other neurons by releasing serotonin into the synapse, the small gap between two neurons.

Abnormal levels of serotonin have been linked to a variety of disorders, including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and migraines. Medications that affect serotonin levels, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), are commonly used to treat these conditions.

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of drugs that work by blocking the action of monoamine oxidase, an enzyme found in the brain and other organs of the body. This enzyme is responsible for breaking down certain neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine, which are chemicals that transmit signals in the brain.

By inhibiting the action of monoamine oxidase, MAOIs increase the levels of these neurotransmitters in the brain, which can help to alleviate symptoms of depression and other mood disorders. However, MAOIs also affect other chemicals in the body, including tyramine, a substance found in some foods and beverages, as well as certain medications. As a result, MAOIs can have serious side effects and interactions with other substances, making them a less commonly prescribed class of antidepressants than other types of drugs.

MAOIs are typically used as a last resort when other treatments for depression have failed, due to their potential for dangerous interactions and side effects. They require careful monitoring and dosage adjustment by a healthcare provider, and patients must follow strict dietary restrictions while taking them.

Adrenergic uptake inhibitors are a class of medications that work by blocking the reuptake of neurotransmitters, such as norepinephrine and dopamine, into the presynaptic neuron. This results in an increase in the amount of neurotransmitter available to bind to postsynaptic receptors, leading to an enhancement of adrenergic transmission.

These medications are used in the treatment of various medical conditions, including depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and narcolepsy. Some examples of adrenergic uptake inhibitors include:

* Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs): These medications, such as imipramine and amitriptyline, were developed in the 1950s and are used to treat depression, anxiety disorders, and chronic pain.
* Selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs): These medications, such as venlafaxine and duloxetine, were developed in the 1990s and are used to treat depression, anxiety disorders, and chronic pain.
* Norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors (NDRIs): These medications, such as bupropion, are used to treat depression and ADHD.

It's important to note that these medications can have side effects and should be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider.

... also has a high Kd value for binding both forms yA/yA and yA/y'. The bindings sites of batroxobin and thrombin ... The venom batroxobin also induces clots, but does this with or without tissue damage. This is because batroxobin isn't ... Batroxobin is excreted by the liver, kidney and spleen. The excretion of batroxobin can be detected by small metabolite ... Batroxobin is a protein of the serine protease family. Batroxobin is closely related in physiological function and molecular ...
Alternatively, batroxobin is also used as a topical hemostatic by its rapid local clot-expansion action. Nolan C, Hall LS, ... Itoh N, Tanaka N, Funakoshi I, Kawasaki T, Mihashi S, Yamashina I (June 1988). "Organization of the gene for batroxobin, a ... Vu, TT; Stafford, AR; Leslie, BA; Kim, PY; Fredenburgh, JC; Weitz, JI (7 June 2013). "Batroxobin binds fibrin with higher ... Examples include ancrod and batroxobin, two serine proteases from snakes that have been used in medical preparations.[citation ...
Batroxobin has a similar action to thrombin but unlike thrombin it is not inhibited by heparin. Normal values for thrombin time ... If batroxobin is used, the time should be between 15 and 20 seconds. Thrombin time can be prolonged by heparin, fibrin ... In blood samples containing heparin, a substance derived from snake venom called batroxobin (formerly reptilase) is used ...
Batroxobin, another medical snake venom serine protease ""Eye On" report: Neurobiological Technologies, Inc" (PDF). Prohost ...
Batroxobin, a toxin from a snake venom, clots platelet-rich plasma without affecting platelet functions (cleaves fibrinogen). ...
Batroxobin from B atrox is used as a drug called "Reptilase" that is used to stop bleeding, while batroxobin from B moojeni is ... Batroxobin, is a serine protease found in snake venom produced by Bothrops atrox and Bothrops moojeni, venomous species of pit ... It is also used in a system called "Vivostat", where a person's blood is taken just before surgery and exposed to batroxobin; ...
Coagulation factor X B02BD14 Susoctocog alfa B02BD30 Thrombin B02BX01 Etamsylate B02BX02 Carbazochrome B02BX03 Batroxobin ...
... batroxobin), derived from this snake's venom, is used in modern medical laboratories to measure fibrinogen levels and blood ...
... batroxobin MeSH D08.811.277.656.300.775 - streptokinase MeSH D08.811.277.656.300.775.075 - anistreplase MeSH D08.811.277.656. ...
... batroxobin MeSH D20.888.850.960.200.210 - crotoxin MeSH D20.944.380 - hazardous waste MeSH D20.944.380.638 - radioactive waste ...
... batroxobin MeSH D23.946.833.850.960.200.210 - crotoxin MeSH D23.946.896.980 - virulence factors, bordetella MeSH D23.946. ...
Batroxobin (INN) Bavisant (INN, (USAN) Bavituximab (USAN, INN) Baxitozine (INN) Baycol BayGam BayHep B Baypress BayRab BayTet ...
Batroxobin also has a high Kd value for binding both forms yA/yA and yA/y. The bindings sites of batroxobin and thrombin ... The venom batroxobin also induces clots, but does this with or without tissue damage. This is because batroxobin isnt ... Batroxobin is excreted by the liver, kidney and spleen. The excretion of batroxobin can be detected by small metabolite ... Batroxobin is a protein of the serine protease family. Batroxobin is closely related in physiological function and molecular ...
Batroxobin can be used to determine fibrinogen in plasma, to measure the batroxobin clotting time (Reptilase® time) as a ... batroxobin has found several applications as a tool in blood coagulation research and diagnosis. ...
Batroxobins dosage details are as follows: Dose Single Dose Frequency Route Instructions ...
The fibrinogen concentrations before, and at 1, 2, and 7 days after the batroxobin were 364±81 mg/dl, 150±35 mg/dl (41%, P,0.01 ... The fibrinogen concentrations before, and at 1, 2, and 7 days after the batroxobin were 318±57 mg/dl, 255±60 mg/dl (80%, P,0.01 ... The fibrinogen concentrations before, and at 1, 2, and 7 days after the batroxobin were 364±81 mg/dl, 150±35 mg/dl (41%, P,0.01 ... The fibrinogen concentrations before, and at 1, 2, and 7 days after the batroxobin were 318±57 mg/dl, 255±60 mg/dl (80%, P,0.01 ...
Ancrod - Batroxobin. Other. Acrosin - Prolyl endopeptidase - Pronase - Proprotein convertases (1, 2) - Subtilisin/Furin - ...
The beneficial effect of Batroxobin on blood loss reduction in spinal fusion surgery: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, ...
The hemotoxin batroxobin, also known as reptilase, was added to activate BMAC (from the iliac crest) to produce an adhesive ...
Batroxobin - isolated from South American pit vipers - treats patients with thrombosis.. The jararaca - a type of Brazilian pit ...
Nagabhushan RM, Shetty AP, Dumpa SR, Effectiveness and Safety of Batroxobin, Tranexamic Acid and a Combination in Reduction of ...
Batroxobin native protein Brand:. Prospec. Product type:. Proteins. 96,67 € Add to cart More ...
Species variants of the enzyme include ANCROD (Agkistrodon rhodostoma (Malayan pit viper)); BATROXOBIN from Bothrops atrox; and ... Species variants of the enzyme include ANCROD (Agkistrodon rhodostoma (Malayan pit viper)); BATROXOBIN from Bothrops atrox; and ...
Many cases of serotonin toxicity occur in people who have ingested drug combinations that synergistically increase synaptic serotonin.[10] It may also occur due to an overdose of a single serotonergic agent.[27] The combination of monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) with precursors such as L-tryptophan or 5-hydroxytryptophan pose a particularly acute risk of life-threatening serotonin syndrome.[28] The case of combination of MAOIs with tryptamine agonists (commonly known as ayahuasca) can present similar dangers as their combination with precursors, but this phenomenon has been described in general terms as the cheese effect. Many MAOIs irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. It can take at least four weeks for this enzyme to be replaced by the body in the instance of irreversible inhibitors.[29] With respect to tricyclic antidepressants, only clomipramine and imipramine have a risk of causing SS.[30] Many medications may have been incorrectly thought to cause SS. For example, some case reports ...
BATROXOBIN. RESTLESS LEGS. RESTLESS LEGS SYNDROME. RHIZOBIUM MELILOTI. SINORHIZOBIUM MELILOTI. RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL, U1. ...
BATROXOBIN. RESTLESS LEGS. RESTLESS LEGS SYNDROME. RHIZOBIUM MELILOTI. SINORHIZOBIUM MELILOTI. RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL, U1. ...
BATROXOBIN. RESTLESS LEGS. RESTLESS LEGS SYNDROME. RHIZOBIUM MELILOTI. SINORHIZOBIUM MELILOTI. RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL, U1. ...
BATROXOBIN. RESTLESS LEGS. RESTLESS LEGS SYNDROME. RHIZOBIUM MELILOTI. SINORHIZOBIUM MELILOTI. RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL, U1. ...
BATROXOBIN. RESTLESS LEGS. RESTLESS LEGS SYNDROME. RHIZOBIUM MELILOTI. SINORHIZOBIUM MELILOTI. RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL, U1. ...
BATROXOBIN. RESTLESS LEGS. RESTLESS LEGS SYNDROME. RHIZOBIUM MELILOTI. SINORHIZOBIUM MELILOTI. RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL, U1. ...
BATROXOBIN. RESTLESS LEGS. RESTLESS LEGS SYNDROME. RHIZOBIUM MELILOTI. SINORHIZOBIUM MELILOTI. RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL, U1. ...
BATROXOBIN. RESTLESS LEGS. RESTLESS LEGS SYNDROME. RHIZOBIUM MELILOTI. SINORHIZOBIUM MELILOTI. RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL, U1. ...
BATROXOBIN. RESTLESS LEGS. RESTLESS LEGS SYNDROME. RHIZOBIUM MELILOTI. SINORHIZOBIUM MELILOTI. RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL, U1. ...
BATROXOBIN. RESTLESS LEGS. RESTLESS LEGS SYNDROME. RHIZOBIUM MELILOTI. SINORHIZOBIUM MELILOTI. RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL, U1. ...
BATROXOBIN. RESTLESS LEGS. RESTLESS LEGS SYNDROME. RHIZOBIUM MELILOTI. SINORHIZOBIUM MELILOTI. RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL, U1. ...
The CA-660 analyser is a compact, fully automated coagulation analyser system which utilises the proven optical detection technology and the same reagent system of Sysmex coagulation family analysers. It (Sysmex CA-660 Analyser) offers high performance automation for both routine specialty haemostasis testing such as D-dimer and von Willebrand Factor activity. Combining the simplicity of use and diagnostic power, the laboratory can be confident that they continuously stay ahead in haemostasis testing with the Sysmex CA-660 analyser ...
Batroxobin Generic * Bavencio Brand * Baxedin Brand * Baypress Brand * BCAD 1 Brand * Beacons DQ Loz Brand ...
Batroxobin Time (Seconds). Factor Deficient Reagents. *Extrinsic Factors II, V, VII und X (PT based) ...
Serine proteases (Crotalase, Batroxobin) Cytotoxic. Antitumor. Inhibits tumor growth. Crotalus adamanteus, Bothrops moojeni. ...
Batroxobin Maranhao 100BU 8-101-04, 8-101-06, 8-101-06. ... Batroxobin 6-VEN-BATRO-50. Crotalus durissus terrificus venom ...
There are many but three commonly used agents are: (1) Batroxobin from snake species Bothrops atrox; (2) Ancrod from snake ...
  • After cleaving the fusion protein, the recombinant batroxobin could be isolated by electrophoresis and it was then successfully refolded to produce biologically active batroxobin. (wikipedia.org)
  • More recently, in 1979, a German study showed the uses of batroxobin (reptilase clot retraction test) as a replacement test for the more commonly used thrombin time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Batroxobin can be used to determine fibrinogen in plasma, to measure the batroxobin clotting time (Reptilase® time) as a heparin-insensitive parallel to the thrombin time, to investigate dysfibrinogenemias, and to test the contractile system of platelets. (cryopep.com)
  • Batroxobin is a protein of the serine protease family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Results: Using batroxobin as a snake venom serine protease model, two structurally similar inhibitor peptides were identified. (fapesp.br)
  • Batroxobin, also known as reptilase, is a snake venom enzyme with Venombin A activity produced by Bothrops atrox and Bothrops moojeni, venomous species of pit viper found east of the Andes in South America. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different enzymes, isolated from different species of Bothrops, have been called batroxobin, but unless stated otherwise, this article covers the batroxobin produced by B. moojeni, as this is the most studied variety. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bothrops atrox was described by Carl Linnaeus as early as 1758, but batroxobin, the active compound in its venom, was first described only in 1954 by H. Bruck and G. Salem. (wikipedia.org)
  • Batroxobin that is naturally extracted from the snake venom is mainly obtained from the snake Bothrops moojeni. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the batroxobin isolated from venom is highly irregular in quality, it is now more often synthesized in organisms using Bothrops moojeni cDNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The structure and working mechanism of batroxobin extracted from the Bothrops moojeni have been thoroughly studied. (wikipedia.org)
  • As such, the structure of Bothrops moojeni batroxobin is further elucidated. (wikipedia.org)
  • These studies have mostly been performed by biologically synthesizing batroxobin from Bothrops moojeni cDNA, and analyzing this product and using homology models based on other proteases, such as thrombin and trypsin, among others. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the cDNA nucleotide sequence of batroxobin from Bothrops moojeni was determined back in 1986, a research group from the Kyoto Sangyo university successfully expressed the cDNA for batroxobin in E. Coli in 1990 The recognition sequence for thrombin was used to obtain mature batroxobin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, batroxobin is used for defibrinogenation of plasma. (cryopep.com)
  • We examined the effect of defibrinogenation with batroxobin on the erythrocyte aggregability (RBC-A) in 16 patients with cerebral infarction during the acute phase (less than 72 hours after onset). (elsevierpure.com)
  • This study showed that it was possible to produce batroxobin using micro-organisms, a method which was more promising than isolating the enzyme from extracted snake venom. (wikipedia.org)
  • BATROXOBIN, a thrombin-like enzyme unaffected by the presence of heparin, may be used in place of thrombin. (lookformedical.com)
  • MW(Da) : 43 000 Due to its specification on fibrinogen (cleaves alpha chain) and its ability to clot platelet-rich plasma without affecting the integrity and functions of platelets, and thanks to its insensitivity to thrombin inhibitors, batroxobin has found several applications as a tool in blood coagulation research and diagnosis. (cryopep.com)
  • A sticky clot like chewing gum (Batroxobin) was added to the BMC intra-operatively as an alternative to thrombin. (orthohealing.com)
  • The structure of batroxobin has been studied by various research groups throughout the years. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2004, a research group from Korea produced batroxobin by expressing it in the yeast species Pichia pastoris. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eight patients received a single intravenous administration of 10 units of batroxobin (BU), while the other 8 patients received 5 BU. (elsevierpure.com)
  • We conclude that a single intravenous administration of batroxobin at 10 BU reduced the RBC-A in patients with cerebral infarction during the acute phase in accordance with a decrease in the fibrinogen level. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Batroxobin - isolated from South American pit vipers - treats patients with thrombosis. (labonline.com.au)
  • Batroxobin is closely related in physiological function and molecular size to thrombin. (wikipedia.org)
  • These studies have mostly been performed by biologically synthesizing batroxobin from Bothrops moojeni cDNA, and analyzing this product and using homology models based on other proteases, such as thrombin and trypsin, among others. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the cDNA nucleotide sequence of batroxobin from Bothrops moojeni was determined back in 1986, a research group from the Kyoto Sangyo university successfully expressed the cDNA for batroxobin in E. Coli in 1990 The recognition sequence for thrombin was used to obtain mature batroxobin. (wikipedia.org)
  • A study by Ha et al indicated that when measuring functional fibrinogen in plasma, a batroxobin-based assay can serve as a good alternative to the traditional thrombin-based fibrinogen test. (medscape.com)
  • Bivalirudin and other anticoagulants that target thrombin were found not to interfere with the batroxobin-based test. (medscape.com)
  • Batroxobin Based Method to Measure Fibrinogen to Overcome Interfering Effects of New Anticoagulant Agents Targeting Thrombin. (medscape.com)
  • Low-molecular-weight heparin and batroxobin were administered instead. (medscape.com)
  • Called batroxobin, the enzyme is already in clinical use for another condition. (eurekalert.org)
  • Batroxobin obtained from certain subspecies exhibits the hemostatic efficacy, whereas the protein obtained from other subspecies exhibits the cleavage of fibrinogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hemocoagulase is a mixture containing batroxobin and factor X activator. (nih.gov)
  • This study showed that it was possible to produce batroxobin using micro-organisms, a method which was more promising than isolating the enzyme from extracted snake venom. (wikipedia.org)
  • A later molecular modelling study from 1998 used the homology between glandular kallikrein from the mouse and batroxobin, which is about 40%, to propose a 3D structure for biologically active batroxobin. (wikipedia.org)
  • After cleaving the fusion protein, the recombinant batroxobin could be isolated by electrophoresis and it was then successfully refolded to produce biologically active batroxobin. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, batroxobin promotes the release of tissue type 1 plasminogen activator from endothelial cells and enhances its activity, reduces the amount of type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor and inhibits its activity, and transforms plasminogen into active plasmin. (medscape.com)
  • Batroxobin can lower whole blood viscosity and inhibit red cell agglutination, thereby reducing vascular resistance and improving microcirculation. (medscape.com)
  • The structure of batroxobin has been studied by various research groups throughout the years. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of the increasing interest in the properties of batroxobin, several studies on its hemostatic effect and coagulation have been published. (wikipedia.org)