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BIIR 561 CL: a novel combined antagonist of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors and voltage-dependent sodium channels with anticonvulsive and neuroprotective properties. (1/132)Antagonists of glutamate receptors of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) subtype, as well as of voltage-gated sodium channels, exhibit anticonvulsive and neuroprotective properties in vivo. One can postulate that a compound that combines both principles might be useful for the treatment of disorders of the central nervous system, like focal or global ischemia. Here, we present data on the effects of dimethyl-(2-[2-(3-phenyl-[1,2, 4]oxadiazol-5-yl)-phenoxy]ethyl)-amine hydrochloride (BIIR 561 CL) on neuronal AMPA receptors and voltage-dependent sodium channels. BIIR 561 CL inhibited AMPA receptor-mediated membrane currents in cultured cortical neurons with an IC50 value of 8.5 microM. The inhibition was noncompetitive. In a cortical wedge preparation, BIIR 561 CL reduced AMPA-induced depolarizations with an IC50 value of 10.8 microM. In addition to the effects on the glutamatergic system, BIIR 561 CL inhibited binding of radiolabeled batrachotoxin to rat brain synaptosomal membranes with a Ki value of 1.2 microM. The compound reduced sodium currents in voltage-clamped cortical neurons with an IC50 value of 5.2 microM and inhibited the veratridine-induced release of glutamate from rat brain slices with an IC50 value of 2.3 microM. Thus, BIIR 561 CL inhibited AMPA receptors and voltage-gated sodium channels in a variety of preparations. BIIR 561 CL suppressed tonic seizures in a maximum electroshock model in mice with an ED50 value of 2.8 mg/kg after s.c. administration. In a model of focal ischemia in mice, i.p. administration of 6 or 60 mg/kg BIIR 561 CL reduced the area of the infarcted cortical surface. These data show that BIIR 561 CL is a combined antagonist of AMPA receptors and voltage-gated sodium channels with promising anticonvulsive and neuroprotective properties. (+info)
Pharmacological properties of trimebutine and N-monodesmethyltrimebutine. (2/132)Trimebutine [2-dimethylamino-2-phenylbutyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate hydrogen maleate (TMB)] has been demonstrated to be active for relieving abdominal pain in humans. To better understand its mechanism of action, we have tested TMB; nor-TMB, its main metabolite in humans; and their respective stereoisomers for their affinity toward sodium channels labeled by [3H]batrachotoxin, their effect on sodium, potassium, and calcium currents in rat dorsal root ganglia neurons, and their effect on veratridine-induced glutamate release from rat spinal cord slices. TMB has also been tested in an animal model of local anesthesia. TMB (Ki = 2.66 +/- 0.15 microM) and nor-TMB (Ki = 0.73 +/- 0.02 microM) displaced [3H]batrachotoxin from its binding site with affinities similar to that of bupivacaine (Ki = 7.1 +/- 0.9 microM). nor-TMB was found to block veratridine-induced glutamate release with an IC50 value of 8.5 microM, which is very similar to that of bupivacaine (IC50 = 8.2 microM); the effect of TMB was limited to 50% inhibition at 100 microM. TMB and nor-TMB blocked sodium currents in sensory neurons from rat dorsal root ganglia (IC50 = 0.83 +/- 0.09 and 1.23 +/- 0.19 microM, respectively), whereas no effect was observed on calcium currents at the same concentrations. A limited effect was observed on potassium currents (IC50 = 23 +/- 6 at 10 microM) for TMB. In vivo, when tested in the rabbit corneal reflex, TMB displayed a local anesthetic activity 17-fold more potent than that of lidocaine. (+info)
Batrachotoxin-resistant Na+ channels derived from point mutations in transmembrane segment D4-S6. (3/132)Local anesthetics (LAs) block voltage-gated Na+ channels in excitable cells, whereas batrachotoxin (BTX) keeps these channels open persistently. Previous work delimited the LA receptor within the D4-S6 segment of the Na+ channel alpha-subunit, whereas the putative BTX receptor was found within the D1-S6. We mutated residues at D4-S6 critical for LA binding to determine whether such mutations modulate the BTX phenotype in rat skeletal muscle Na+ channels (mu1/rSkm1). We show that mu1-F1579K and mu1-N1584K channels become completely resistant to 5 microM BTX. In contrast, mu1-Y1586K channels remain BTX-sensitive; their fast and slow inactivation is eliminated by BTX after repetitive depolarization. Furthermore, we demonstrate that cocaine elicits a profound time-dependent block after channel activation, consistent with preferential LA binding to BTX-modified open channels. We propose that channel opening promotes better exposure of receptor sites for binding with BTX and LAs, possibly by widening the bordering area around D1-S6, D4-S6, and the pore region. The BTX receptor is probably located at the interface of D1-S6 and D4-S6 segments adjacent to the LA receptor. These two S6 segments may appose too closely to bind BTX and LAs simultaneously when the channel is in its resting closed state. (+info)
Point mutations at N434 in D1-S6 of mu1 Na(+) channels modulate binding affinity and stereoselectivity of local anesthetic enantiomers. (4/132)Voltage-gated Na(+) channels are the primary targets of local anesthetics (LAs). Amino acid residues in domain 4, transmembrane segment 6 (D4-S6) form part of the LA binding site. LAs inhibit binding of the neurotoxin batrachotoxin (BTX). Parts of the BTX binding site are located in D1-S6 and D4-S6. The affinity of BTX-resistant Na(+) channels mutated in D1-S6 (mu1-N434K, mu1-N437K) toward several LAs is significantly decreased. We have studied how residue mu1-N434 influences LA binding. By using site-directed mutagenesis, we created mutations at mu1-N434 that vary the hydrophobicity, aromaticity, polarity, and charge and investigated their influence on state-dependent binding and stereoselectivity of bupivacaine. Wild-type and mutant channels were transiently expressed in human embryonic kidney 293t cells and investigated under whole-cell voltage-clamp. For resting channels, bupivacaine enantiomers showed a higher potency in all mutant channels compared with wild-type channels. These changes were not well correlated with the physical properties of the substituted residues. Stereoselectivity was small and almost unchanged. In inactivated channels, the potency of bupivacaine was increased in mutations containing a quadrupole of an aromatic group (mu1-N434F, mu1-N434W, mu1-N434Y), a polar group (mu1-N434C), or a negative charge (mu1-N434D) and was decreased in a mutation containing a positive charge (mu1-N434K). In mutation mu1-N434R, containing the positively charged arginine, the potency of S(-)-bupivacaine was selectively decreased, resulting in a stereoselectivity (stereopotency ratio) of 3. Similar results were observed with cocaine but not with RAC 109 enantiomers. We propose that in inactivated channels, residue mu1-N434 interacts directly with the positively charged moiety of LAs and that D1-S6 and D4-S6 form a domain-interface site for binding of BTX and LAs in close proximity. (+info)
Cooperative activation of action potential Na+ ionophore by neurotoxins. (5/132)Four neurotoxins that activate the action potential Na+ ionophore of electrically excitable neuroblastoma cells interact with two distinct classes of sites, one specific for the alkaloids veratridine, batrachotoxin, and aconitine, and the second specific for scorpion toxin. Positive heterotropic cooperativity is observed between toxins bound at these two classes of sites. Tetrodotoxin is a noncompetitive inhibitor of activation by each of these toxins (KI = 4-8 nM). These results suggest the existence of three functionally separable components of the action potential Na+ ionophore: two regulatroy components, which bind activating neurotoxins and interact allosterically in controlling the activity of a third ion-transport component, which binds tetrodotoxin. (+info)
Rapid and slow voltage-dependent conformational changes in segment IVS6 of voltage-gated Na(+) channels. (6/132)Mutations in segment IVS6 of voltage-gated Na(+) channels affect fast-inactivation, slow-inactivation, local anesthetic action, and batrachotoxin (BTX) action. To detect conformational changes associated with these processes, we substituted a cysteine for a valine at position 1583 in the rat adult skeletal muscle sodium channel alpha-subunit, and examined the accessibility of the substituted cysteine to modification by 2-aminoethyl methanethiosulfonate (MTS-EA) in excised macropatches. MTS-EA causes an irreversible reduction in the peak current when applied both internally and externally, with a reaction rate that is strongly voltage-dependent. The rate increased when exposures to MTS-EA occurred during brief conditioning pulses to progressively more depolarized voltages, but decreased when exposures occurred at the end of prolonged depolarizations, revealing two conformational changes near site 1583, one coupled to fast inactivation, and one tightly associated with slow inactivation. Tetraethylammonium, a pore blocker, did not affect the reaction rate from either direction, while BTX, a lipophilic activator of sodium channels, completely prevented the modification reaction from occurring from either direction. We conclude that there are two inactivation-associated conformational changes in the vicinity of site 1583, that the reactive site most likely faces away from the pore, and that site 1583 comprises part of the BTX receptor. (+info)
Betaxolol, a beta(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist, reduces Na(+) influx into cortical synaptosomes by direct interaction with Na(+) channels: comparison with other beta-adrenoceptor antagonists. (7/132)Betaxolol, a beta(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist used for the treatment of glaucoma, is known to be neuroprotective in paradigms of ischaemia/excitotoxicity. In this study, we examined whether betaxolol and other beta-adrenoceptor antagonists interact directly with neurotoxin binding to sites 1 and 2 of the voltage-sensitive sodium channel (Na(+) channel) in rat cerebrocortical synaptosomes. Betaxolol inhibited specific [(3)H]-batrachotoxinin-A 20-alpha-benzoate ([(3)H]-BTX-B) binding to neurotoxin site 2 in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC(50) value of 9.8 microM. Comparison of all the beta-adrenoceptor antagonists tested revealed a potency order of propranolol>betaxolol approximately levobetaxolol>levobunolol approximately carteolol>/=timolol>atenolol. None of the drugs caused a significant inhibition of [(3)H]-saxitoxin binding to neurotoxin receptor site 1, even at concentrations as high as 250 microM. Saturation experiments showed that betaxolol increased the K(D) of [(3)H]-BTX-B binding but had no effect on the B(max). The association kinetics of [(3)H]-BTX-B were unaffected by betaxolol, but the drug significantly accelerated the dissociation rate of the radioligand. These findings argue for a competitive, indirect, allosteric mode of inhibition of [(3)H]-BTX-B binding by betaxolol. Betaxolol inhibited veratridine-stimulated Na(+) influx in rat cortical synaptosomes with an IC(50) value of 28. 3 microM. Carteolol, levobunolol, timolol and atenolol were significantly less effective than betaxolol at reducing veratridine-evoked Na(+) influx. The ability of betaxolol to interact with neurotoxin site 2 of the Na(+) channel and inhibit Na(+) influx may have a role in its neuroprotective action in paradigms of excitotoxicity/ischaemia and in its therapeutic effect in glaucoma. (+info)
Residues in Na(+) channel D3-S6 segment modulate both batrachotoxin and local anesthetic affinities. (8/132)Batrachotoxin (BTX) alters the gating of voltage-gated Na(+) channels and causes these channels to open persistently, whereas local anesthetics (LAs) block Na(+) conductance. The BTX and LA receptors have been mapped to several common residues in D1-S6 and D4-S6 segments of the Na(+) channel alpha-subunit. We substituted individual residues with lysine in homologous segment D3-S6 of the rat muscle mu1 Na(+) channel from F1274 to N1281 to determine whether additional residues are involved in BTX and LA binding. Two mutant channels, mu1-S1276K and mu1-L1280K, when expressed in mammalian cells, become completely resistant to 5 microM BTX during repetitive pulses. The activation and/or fast inactivation gating of these mutants is substantially different from that of wild type. These mutants also display approximately 10-20-fold reduction in bupivacaine affinity toward their inactivated state but show only approximately twofold affinity changes toward their resting state. These results demonstrate that residues mu1-S1276 and mu1-L1280 in D3-S6 are critical for both BTX and LA binding interactions. We propose that LAs interact readily with these residues from D3-S6 along with those from D1-S6 and D4-S6 in close proximity when the Na(+) channel is in its inactivated state. Implications of this state-dependent binding model for the S6 alignment are discussed. (+info)
Batrachotoxins are a group of neurotoxic peptides that are found in the skin secretions of certain species of frogs, particularly those in the genera Phyllobates and Dendrobates. These toxins are highly potent and can cause paralysis, respiratory failure, and even death in humans and other animals if ingested or inhaled. In the medical field, batrachotoxins have been studied for their potential use as a tool for understanding the mechanisms of action of neurotoxic compounds and for developing new treatments for neurological disorders. They have also been used in research on the development of new painkillers and anti-inflammatory drugs. However, it is important to note that batrachotoxins are highly toxic and should only be handled by trained professionals in a controlled laboratory setting. Ingestion or exposure to these toxins can be extremely dangerous and can cause serious health problems or even death.
In the medical field, amphibians are a group of cold-blooded vertebrates that include frogs, toads, salamanders, and newts. They are characterized by their moist skin, which helps them breathe through their skin as well as through their lungs. Amphibians are also known for their ability to live both on land and in water, and for their metamorphic life cycle, which involves a transformation from a larval stage to an adult stage. In medicine, amphibians are sometimes used in research to study various biological processes, such as development, genetics, and disease. However, they are not commonly used in medical treatments.
Amphibian - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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- Its poison, batrachotoxin, can kill many small animals or humans. (peoriazoo.org)
- The Colombian poison dart frog Phyllobates terribilis holds enough batrachotoxin (BTX) in its skin to kill more than 20,000 mice. (chemistryworld.com)
- The poison, called the batrachotoxin, is so intense that it can kill 10 grown men within seconds! (topbest.ph)
- The late John Daly, of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, was at times an "Indiana Jones" kind of scientist who periodically traveled deep into the Amazon to discover and characterize structurally and biologically new natural products (NPs), such as batrachotoxin, the toxic substance in frog skin used for poison arrows there. (nih.gov)
- Most of my research on avian chemical defense has focused on two genera, Pitohui and Ifrita , which comprise seven endemic New Guinean passerine species that carry potent steroidal alkaloid neurotoxins known as batrachotoxins. (calacademy.org)
- This golden frog secretes two most poisonous toxins namely, alkaloid toxin and batrachotoxin . (animalspal.com)