Batrachotoxins: Batrachotoxin is the 20-alpha-bromobenzoate of batrachotoxin A; they are toxins from the venom of a small Colombian frog, Phyllobates aurotaenia, cause release of acetylcholine, destruction of synaptic vesicles and depolarization of nerve and muscle fibers.Scorpion Venoms: Venoms from animals of the order Scorpionida of the class Arachnida. They contain neuro- and hemotoxins, enzymes, and various other factors that may release acetylcholine and catecholamines from nerve endings. Of the several protein toxins that have been characterized, most are immunogenic.Scorpions: Arthropods of the order Scorpiones, of which 1500 to 2000 species have been described. The most common live in tropical or subtropical areas. They are nocturnal and feed principally on insects and other arthropods. They are large arachnids but do not attack man spontaneously. They have a venomous sting. Their medical significance varies considerably and is dependent on their habits and venom potency rather than on their size. At most, the sting is equivalent to that of a hornet but certain species possess a highly toxic venom potentially fatal to humans. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, p417; Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p503)Saxitoxin: A compound that contains a reduced purine ring system but is not biosynthetically related to the purine alkaloids. It is a poison found in certain edible mollusks at certain times; elaborated by GONYAULAX and consumed by mollusks, fishes, etc. without ill effects. It is neurotoxic and causes RESPIRATORY PARALYSIS and other effects in MAMMALS, known as paralytic SHELLFISH poisoning.Sodium Channels: Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Ion Channel Gating: The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels: A family of membrane proteins that selectively conduct SODIUM ions due to changes in the TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE. They typically have a multimeric structure with a core alpha subunit that defines the sodium channel subtype and several beta subunits that modulate sodium channel activity.NAV1.2 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel: A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that mediates the sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Defects in the SCN2A gene which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel are associated with benign familial infantile seizures type 3, and early infantile epileptic encephalopathy type 11.NAV1.6 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel: A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype found widely expressed in neurons of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Defects in the SCN8A gene which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel are associated with ATAXIA and cognitive deficits.Sodium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.Veratridine: A benzoate-cevane found in VERATRUM and Schoenocaulon. It activates SODIUM CHANNELS to stay open longer than normal.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.VeratrineTetrodotoxin: An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Privacy: The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Licensure: The legal authority or formal permission from authorities to carry on certain activities which by law or regulation require such permission. It may be applied to licensure of institutions as well as individuals.Neurotoxicity Syndromes: Neurologic disorders caused by exposure to toxic substances through ingestion, injection, cutaneous application, or other method. This includes conditions caused by biologic, chemical, and pharmaceutical agents.Vocalization, Animal: Sounds used in animal communication.Singing: Modulation of human voice to produce sounds augmented by musical tonality and rhythm.AccidentsNeurotoxins: Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.Finches: Common name for small PASSERIFORMES in the family Fringillidae. They have a short stout bill (BEAK) adapted for crushing SEEDS. Some species of Old World finches are called CANARIES.Songbirds: PASSERIFORMES of the suborder, Oscines, in which the flexor tendons of the toes are separate, and the lower syrinx has 4 to 9 pairs of tensor muscles inserted at both ends of the tracheal half rings. They include many commonly recognized birds such as CROWS; FINCHES; robins; SPARROWS; and SWALLOWS.Astronomy: The science concerned with celestial bodies and the observation and interpretation of the radiation received in the vicinity of the earth from the component parts of the universe (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Saturn: The sixth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its twelve natural satellites include Phoebe and Titan.Planets: Celestial bodies orbiting around the sun or other stars.Moon: The natural satellite of the planet Earth. It includes the lunar cycles or phases, the lunar month, lunar landscapes, geography, and soil.Jupiter: The fifth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its sixteen natural satellites include Callisto, Europa, Ganymede, and Io.Mars: The fourth planet in order from the sun. Its two natural satellites are Deimos and Phobos. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the solar system.Venus: The second planet in order from the sun. It has no known natural satellites. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the solar system.Dental Devices, Home Care: Devices used in the home by persons to maintain dental and periodontal health. The devices include toothbrushes, dental flosses, water irrigators, gingival stimulators, etc.Oral Hygiene: The practice of personal hygiene of the mouth. It includes the maintenance of oral cleanliness, tissue tone, and general preservation of oral health.Umbellularia: A plant genus in the LAURACEAE family. The tree, Umbellularia californica (Hook. & Arn.) Nutt., is known for aromatic leaves used in SPICES having a similar flavor to LAURUS.Rhodobacter: A genus of gram-negative bacteria widely distributed in fresh water as well as marine and hypersaline habitats.Alteromonas: A genus of gram-negative, straight or curved rods which are motile by means of a single, polar flagellum. Members of this genus are found in coastal waters and the open ocean. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Sequoia: A plant genus of the family TAXODIACEAE known for including some of the tallest trees.Cytophaga: A genus of gram-negative gliding bacteria found in SOIL; HUMUS; and FRESHWATER and marine habitats.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Quail: Common name for two distinct groups of BIRDS in the order GALLIFORMES: the New World or American quails of the family Odontophoridae and the Old World quails in the genus COTURNIX, family Phasianidae.Turkeys: Large woodland game BIRDS in the subfamily Meleagridinae, family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. Formerly they were considered a distinct family, Melegrididae.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.TurkeyVomiting: The forcible expulsion of the contents of the STOMACH through the MOUTH.Poisons: Substances which, when ingested, inhaled, or absorbed, or when applied to, injected into, or developed within the body in relatively small amounts may, by their chemical action, cause damage to structure or disturbance of function. (From Dorland, 27th ed)

BIIR 561 CL: a novel combined antagonist of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors and voltage-dependent sodium channels with anticonvulsive and neuroprotective properties. (1/132)

Antagonists of glutamate receptors of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) subtype, as well as of voltage-gated sodium channels, exhibit anticonvulsive and neuroprotective properties in vivo. One can postulate that a compound that combines both principles might be useful for the treatment of disorders of the central nervous system, like focal or global ischemia. Here, we present data on the effects of dimethyl-(2-[2-(3-phenyl-[1,2, 4]oxadiazol-5-yl)-phenoxy]ethyl)-amine hydrochloride (BIIR 561 CL) on neuronal AMPA receptors and voltage-dependent sodium channels. BIIR 561 CL inhibited AMPA receptor-mediated membrane currents in cultured cortical neurons with an IC50 value of 8.5 microM. The inhibition was noncompetitive. In a cortical wedge preparation, BIIR 561 CL reduced AMPA-induced depolarizations with an IC50 value of 10.8 microM. In addition to the effects on the glutamatergic system, BIIR 561 CL inhibited binding of radiolabeled batrachotoxin to rat brain synaptosomal membranes with a Ki value of 1.2 microM. The compound reduced sodium currents in voltage-clamped cortical neurons with an IC50 value of 5.2 microM and inhibited the veratridine-induced release of glutamate from rat brain slices with an IC50 value of 2.3 microM. Thus, BIIR 561 CL inhibited AMPA receptors and voltage-gated sodium channels in a variety of preparations. BIIR 561 CL suppressed tonic seizures in a maximum electroshock model in mice with an ED50 value of 2.8 mg/kg after s.c. administration. In a model of focal ischemia in mice, i.p. administration of 6 or 60 mg/kg BIIR 561 CL reduced the area of the infarcted cortical surface. These data show that BIIR 561 CL is a combined antagonist of AMPA receptors and voltage-gated sodium channels with promising anticonvulsive and neuroprotective properties.  (+info)

Pharmacological properties of trimebutine and N-monodesmethyltrimebutine. (2/132)

Trimebutine [2-dimethylamino-2-phenylbutyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate hydrogen maleate (TMB)] has been demonstrated to be active for relieving abdominal pain in humans. To better understand its mechanism of action, we have tested TMB; nor-TMB, its main metabolite in humans; and their respective stereoisomers for their affinity toward sodium channels labeled by [3H]batrachotoxin, their effect on sodium, potassium, and calcium currents in rat dorsal root ganglia neurons, and their effect on veratridine-induced glutamate release from rat spinal cord slices. TMB has also been tested in an animal model of local anesthesia. TMB (Ki = 2.66 +/- 0.15 microM) and nor-TMB (Ki = 0.73 +/- 0.02 microM) displaced [3H]batrachotoxin from its binding site with affinities similar to that of bupivacaine (Ki = 7.1 +/- 0.9 microM). nor-TMB was found to block veratridine-induced glutamate release with an IC50 value of 8.5 microM, which is very similar to that of bupivacaine (IC50 = 8.2 microM); the effect of TMB was limited to 50% inhibition at 100 microM. TMB and nor-TMB blocked sodium currents in sensory neurons from rat dorsal root ganglia (IC50 = 0.83 +/- 0.09 and 1.23 +/- 0.19 microM, respectively), whereas no effect was observed on calcium currents at the same concentrations. A limited effect was observed on potassium currents (IC50 = 23 +/- 6 at 10 microM) for TMB. In vivo, when tested in the rabbit corneal reflex, TMB displayed a local anesthetic activity 17-fold more potent than that of lidocaine.  (+info)

Batrachotoxin-resistant Na+ channels derived from point mutations in transmembrane segment D4-S6. (3/132)

Local anesthetics (LAs) block voltage-gated Na+ channels in excitable cells, whereas batrachotoxin (BTX) keeps these channels open persistently. Previous work delimited the LA receptor within the D4-S6 segment of the Na+ channel alpha-subunit, whereas the putative BTX receptor was found within the D1-S6. We mutated residues at D4-S6 critical for LA binding to determine whether such mutations modulate the BTX phenotype in rat skeletal muscle Na+ channels (mu1/rSkm1). We show that mu1-F1579K and mu1-N1584K channels become completely resistant to 5 microM BTX. In contrast, mu1-Y1586K channels remain BTX-sensitive; their fast and slow inactivation is eliminated by BTX after repetitive depolarization. Furthermore, we demonstrate that cocaine elicits a profound time-dependent block after channel activation, consistent with preferential LA binding to BTX-modified open channels. We propose that channel opening promotes better exposure of receptor sites for binding with BTX and LAs, possibly by widening the bordering area around D1-S6, D4-S6, and the pore region. The BTX receptor is probably located at the interface of D1-S6 and D4-S6 segments adjacent to the LA receptor. These two S6 segments may appose too closely to bind BTX and LAs simultaneously when the channel is in its resting closed state.  (+info)

Point mutations at N434 in D1-S6 of mu1 Na(+) channels modulate binding affinity and stereoselectivity of local anesthetic enantiomers. (4/132)

Voltage-gated Na(+) channels are the primary targets of local anesthetics (LAs). Amino acid residues in domain 4, transmembrane segment 6 (D4-S6) form part of the LA binding site. LAs inhibit binding of the neurotoxin batrachotoxin (BTX). Parts of the BTX binding site are located in D1-S6 and D4-S6. The affinity of BTX-resistant Na(+) channels mutated in D1-S6 (mu1-N434K, mu1-N437K) toward several LAs is significantly decreased. We have studied how residue mu1-N434 influences LA binding. By using site-directed mutagenesis, we created mutations at mu1-N434 that vary the hydrophobicity, aromaticity, polarity, and charge and investigated their influence on state-dependent binding and stereoselectivity of bupivacaine. Wild-type and mutant channels were transiently expressed in human embryonic kidney 293t cells and investigated under whole-cell voltage-clamp. For resting channels, bupivacaine enantiomers showed a higher potency in all mutant channels compared with wild-type channels. These changes were not well correlated with the physical properties of the substituted residues. Stereoselectivity was small and almost unchanged. In inactivated channels, the potency of bupivacaine was increased in mutations containing a quadrupole of an aromatic group (mu1-N434F, mu1-N434W, mu1-N434Y), a polar group (mu1-N434C), or a negative charge (mu1-N434D) and was decreased in a mutation containing a positive charge (mu1-N434K). In mutation mu1-N434R, containing the positively charged arginine, the potency of S(-)-bupivacaine was selectively decreased, resulting in a stereoselectivity (stereopotency ratio) of 3. Similar results were observed with cocaine but not with RAC 109 enantiomers. We propose that in inactivated channels, residue mu1-N434 interacts directly with the positively charged moiety of LAs and that D1-S6 and D4-S6 form a domain-interface site for binding of BTX and LAs in close proximity.  (+info)

Cooperative activation of action potential Na+ ionophore by neurotoxins. (5/132)

Four neurotoxins that activate the action potential Na+ ionophore of electrically excitable neuroblastoma cells interact with two distinct classes of sites, one specific for the alkaloids veratridine, batrachotoxin, and aconitine, and the second specific for scorpion toxin. Positive heterotropic cooperativity is observed between toxins bound at these two classes of sites. Tetrodotoxin is a noncompetitive inhibitor of activation by each of these toxins (KI = 4-8 nM). These results suggest the existence of three functionally separable components of the action potential Na+ ionophore: two regulatroy components, which bind activating neurotoxins and interact allosterically in controlling the activity of a third ion-transport component, which binds tetrodotoxin.  (+info)

Rapid and slow voltage-dependent conformational changes in segment IVS6 of voltage-gated Na(+) channels. (6/132)

Mutations in segment IVS6 of voltage-gated Na(+) channels affect fast-inactivation, slow-inactivation, local anesthetic action, and batrachotoxin (BTX) action. To detect conformational changes associated with these processes, we substituted a cysteine for a valine at position 1583 in the rat adult skeletal muscle sodium channel alpha-subunit, and examined the accessibility of the substituted cysteine to modification by 2-aminoethyl methanethiosulfonate (MTS-EA) in excised macropatches. MTS-EA causes an irreversible reduction in the peak current when applied both internally and externally, with a reaction rate that is strongly voltage-dependent. The rate increased when exposures to MTS-EA occurred during brief conditioning pulses to progressively more depolarized voltages, but decreased when exposures occurred at the end of prolonged depolarizations, revealing two conformational changes near site 1583, one coupled to fast inactivation, and one tightly associated with slow inactivation. Tetraethylammonium, a pore blocker, did not affect the reaction rate from either direction, while BTX, a lipophilic activator of sodium channels, completely prevented the modification reaction from occurring from either direction. We conclude that there are two inactivation-associated conformational changes in the vicinity of site 1583, that the reactive site most likely faces away from the pore, and that site 1583 comprises part of the BTX receptor.  (+info)

Betaxolol, a beta(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist, reduces Na(+) influx into cortical synaptosomes by direct interaction with Na(+) channels: comparison with other beta-adrenoceptor antagonists. (7/132)

Betaxolol, a beta(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist used for the treatment of glaucoma, is known to be neuroprotective in paradigms of ischaemia/excitotoxicity. In this study, we examined whether betaxolol and other beta-adrenoceptor antagonists interact directly with neurotoxin binding to sites 1 and 2 of the voltage-sensitive sodium channel (Na(+) channel) in rat cerebrocortical synaptosomes. Betaxolol inhibited specific [(3)H]-batrachotoxinin-A 20-alpha-benzoate ([(3)H]-BTX-B) binding to neurotoxin site 2 in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC(50) value of 9.8 microM. Comparison of all the beta-adrenoceptor antagonists tested revealed a potency order of propranolol>betaxolol approximately levobetaxolol>levobunolol approximately carteolol>/=timolol>atenolol. None of the drugs caused a significant inhibition of [(3)H]-saxitoxin binding to neurotoxin receptor site 1, even at concentrations as high as 250 microM. Saturation experiments showed that betaxolol increased the K(D) of [(3)H]-BTX-B binding but had no effect on the B(max). The association kinetics of [(3)H]-BTX-B were unaffected by betaxolol, but the drug significantly accelerated the dissociation rate of the radioligand. These findings argue for a competitive, indirect, allosteric mode of inhibition of [(3)H]-BTX-B binding by betaxolol. Betaxolol inhibited veratridine-stimulated Na(+) influx in rat cortical synaptosomes with an IC(50) value of 28. 3 microM. Carteolol, levobunolol, timolol and atenolol were significantly less effective than betaxolol at reducing veratridine-evoked Na(+) influx. The ability of betaxolol to interact with neurotoxin site 2 of the Na(+) channel and inhibit Na(+) influx may have a role in its neuroprotective action in paradigms of excitotoxicity/ischaemia and in its therapeutic effect in glaucoma.  (+info)

Residues in Na(+) channel D3-S6 segment modulate both batrachotoxin and local anesthetic affinities. (8/132)

Batrachotoxin (BTX) alters the gating of voltage-gated Na(+) channels and causes these channels to open persistently, whereas local anesthetics (LAs) block Na(+) conductance. The BTX and LA receptors have been mapped to several common residues in D1-S6 and D4-S6 segments of the Na(+) channel alpha-subunit. We substituted individual residues with lysine in homologous segment D3-S6 of the rat muscle mu1 Na(+) channel from F1274 to N1281 to determine whether additional residues are involved in BTX and LA binding. Two mutant channels, mu1-S1276K and mu1-L1280K, when expressed in mammalian cells, become completely resistant to 5 microM BTX during repetitive pulses. The activation and/or fast inactivation gating of these mutants is substantially different from that of wild type. These mutants also display approximately 10-20-fold reduction in bupivacaine affinity toward their inactivated state but show only approximately twofold affinity changes toward their resting state. These results demonstrate that residues mu1-S1276 and mu1-L1280 in D3-S6 are critical for both BTX and LA binding interactions. We propose that LAs interact readily with these residues from D3-S6 along with those from D1-S6 and D4-S6 in close proximity when the Na(+) channel is in its inactivated state. Implications of this state-dependent binding model for the S6 alignment are discussed.  (+info)

*Batrachotoxin

... R is more toxic than related batrachotoxin A. Structural changes in nerves and muscles are due to a massive ... Batrachotoxin kills by permanently blocking nerve signal transmission to the muscles. Batrachotoxin binds to and irreversibly ... However, this limits the amount of batrachotoxin available for research as 10,000 frogs yielded only 180 mg of batrachotoxin. ... In fact, batrachotoxin was able to be partially hydrolyzed using sodium hydroxide into a material with identical TLC and color ...

*Phyllobates sp. aff. aurotaenia

Its skin contains batrachotoxins, extremely potent neurotoxic alkaloids. When in contact with the skin, batrachotoxins seep ... Alkaloid batrachotoxins can be stored by frogs for years after the frog is deprived of the food-based source, and such toxins ...

*Blue-capped ifrit

Batrachotoxin Toxic birds BirdLife International (2012). "Ifrita kowaldi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1 ... 2004). "Melyrid beetles (Choresine): A putative source for the batrachotoxin alkaloids found in poison-dart frogs and toxic ... sequesters batrachotoxin in its skin and feathers, which causes numbness and tingling to those who handle the bird. The toxin ...

*Cardiotoxicity

Batrachotoxin Heart failure Drug interaction Huang, C.; Zhang, X.; Ramil, J. M.; Rikka, S.; Kim, L.; Lee, Y.; Gude, N. A.; ...

*Pitohui

Piper, 2007) Batrachotoxin Toxic birds "Taxonomy 3.1-3.5 « IOC World Bird List". www.worldbirdnames.org. Retrieved 2017-01-29 ... The birds probably do not produce batrachotoxin themselves. The toxins most likely come from the beetle genus Choresine, part ... a putative source for the batrachotoxin alkaloids found in poison-dart frogs and toxic passerine birds". Proceedings of the ... contain powerful neurotoxic alkaloids of the batrachotoxin group (also secreted by the Colombian poison dart frogs, genus ...

*Zygacine

... like veratridine and batrachotoxin. Zygacine can be lethal when entering the body orally or intravenously. It was first ...

*Pumiliotoxin

... s are much weaker than batrachotoxins, ranging between 100 and 1000 times less poisonous. There are three different ...

*Phyllobates bicolor

Research is being conducted to determine medicinal uses for this batrachotoxin. As with all dart frogs, captive-raised ...

*Synaptic vesicle

Some neurotoxins, such as batrachotoxin, are known to destroy synaptic vesicles. The tetanus toxin damages vesicle-associated ...

*Epibatidine

Arrow poison Batrachotoxin (and closely related Homobatrachotoxin) Tetrodotoxin Phantasmidine Fitch, R. W.; Spande, T. F.; ...

*Histrionicotoxins

High concentrations of HTX have been demonstrated to have antagonistic effects on batrachotoxin. Histrionicotoxin is relatively ...

*Kinetic resolution

Kurosu, M.; Kishi, Y. (1998). "A Novel Example for Optical Resolution of Racemic Ketones Originating from Batrachotoxin ...

*Veratridine

"Activation of the action potential Na+ ionophore of cultured neuroblastoma cells by veratridine and batrachotoxin" (pdf). J. ...

*Procainamide

It induces rapid block of the batrachotoxin (BTX)-activated sodium channels of the heart muscle and acts as antagonist to long- ... Procainamide is also known to induce a voltage-dependent open channel block on the batrachotoxin (BTX)-activated sodium ... Zamponi, Gerald W. (1993). "Dual Actions of Procainamide on Batrachotoxin-activated Sodium Channels: Open Channel Block and ... "Dual actions of procainamide on batrachotoxin-activated sodium channels: open channel block and prevention of inactivation". ...

*Müllerian mimicry

... batrachotoxin, in their feathers and skin. This combination of facts implies that the populations in these zones of overlap ...

*Fauna of New Guinea

Later, they learned that the feathers and other organs of the pitohui were found to contain batrachotoxin. Since then, six ...

*Toxic bird

The pitohui, the ifrita, and the rufous or little shrikethrush sequester batrachotoxin in their skin and feathers. The African ...

*Golden poison frog

Alkaloid batrachotoxins can be stored by frogs for years after the frog is deprived of a food-based source, and such toxins do ... Batrachotoxin attacks the sodium channels of nerve cells, but the frog has special sodium channels the poison cannot harm. ... Batrachotoxin is only found in three poisonous frogs from Colombia (genus Phyllobates), nine birds from Papua New Guinea ( ... Since easily purchased foods are not rich in the alkaloids required to produce batrachotoxins, captive frogs do not produce ...

*Golfodulcean poison frog

Scientists have not determined the batrachotoxin source for any species of the genus Phyllobates, although toxic birds from New ... a putative source for the batrachotoxin alkaloids found in poison-dart frogs and toxic passerine birds". Proceedings of the ... Guinea likely get batrachotoxin from a small beetle of the family Melyridae. P. vittatus is a fairly large poison frog, ...

*Yellow-banded poison dart frog

"Melyrid beetles (Choresine): A putative source for the batrachotoxin alkaloids found in poison-dart frogs and toxic passerine ...

*Mimic poison frog

2004). Melyrid beetles (Choresine): A putative source for the batrachotoxin alkaloids found in poison-dart frogs and toxic ...

*Neurotoxicity

Batrachotoxin Cytotoxicity Multiple chemical sensitivity Nephrotoxicity Ototoxicity Penitrem A Excitotoxicity Toxicity Cunha- ...

*Antillatoxin

... itself is an allosteric agonist for the action of batrachotoxin, and becomes even more effective when combined ...

*Little shrikethrush

One of these specimens contained traces of batrachotoxins (BTXs) similar to those found in the secretions of Central and South ...

*Yoshito Kishi

... batrachotoxin and many others. Kishi has also contributed to the development of new chemical reactions including the Nozaki- ...
0069] Blockade of voltage-sensitive sodium channels was studied by investigating [3H] batrachotoxinin A 20-R-benzoate ([3H]BTX) displacement binding to whole brain membranes. Animals were decapitated and their brains quickly removed. Membrane preparation and binding assays were performed essentially as previously described (Shimidzu et al., 1997). Brains (without cerebellum) were homogenised in 10 vol 0.32 M sucrose, 1 mM EDTA, 1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin (BSA), 5 mM HEPES/TRIS pH 7.4 with a Teflon homogeniser (8 strokes at 400 r.p.m). After a 10 min centrifugation at 1,000 g the supernatants were centrifuged for 20 min at 39,000 g and pellets were homogenised with 20 vol or 40 vol Na+-free buffer, respectively for [3H]-batrachotoxinin A 20-alpha-benzoate ([3H]-BTX) binding assays. Na+-free buffer had the following composition (in mM): 130 choline chloride, 0.8 MgSO4, 5.4 KCl, 5.5 D-glucose, 50 HEPES/TRIS, pH 7.4. The homogenate was centrifuged for 20 min at 39,000 g and the resultant pellets ...
Elin E.A.; Grishin E.V.; Leonov V.N.; Prosolova T.K.; Soldatov N.M.; Torgov I.V.; Myasoedov N.F.; Shevchenko V.P., 1983: Synthesis and biological activity of 7 8 di hydro batrachotoxinin derivatives interacting with fast sodium channels
The alkaloid ervatamine blocks the voltage-sensitive Na+ conductance. EC50 for different cell lines and for synaptosomes range between 1-3 and 5-12 µM. The toxic compound also alters the K+ conductance, although less efficiently than the Na+ conductance. Epiervatamine, a structural analogue of ervatamine, is 4-8 times more potent than ervatamine. Dose-response curves for ervatamine and epiervatamine show that the compounds bind to a single class of binding sites. Competition experiments with a radiolabeled tetrodotoxin (TTX) derivative indicate that these binding sites are distinct from the TTX receptor site. Ervatamine and epiervatamine seem to inhibit the Na+ current (or Na+ flux) by acting on the channel-gating mechanism. 22Na+ uptake measurements with neuroblastoma cells show that epiervatamine is a competitive inhibitor of the action of batrachotoxin, a well known specific activator of the Na+ channel. The dissociation constant of epiervatamine from its receptor site is 1.7 µM, very ...
Batrachotoxin (BTX), from South American frogs of the genusPhyllobates, irreversibly activates voltage-gated sodium channels. Previous work demonstrated that a phenylalanine residue approximately halfway through pore-lining transmembrane segment IVS6 is a critical determinant of channel sensitivity to BTX. In this study, we introduced a series of mutations at this site in the Nav1.3 sodium channel, expressed wild-type and mutant channels inXenopus laevis oocytes, and examined their sensitivity to BTX using voltage clamp recording. We found that substitution of either alanine or isoleucine strongly reduced channel sensitivity to toxin, whereas cysteine, tyrosine, or tryptophan decreased toxin action only modestly. These data suggest an electrostatic ligand-receptor interaction at this site, possibly involving a charged tertiary amine on BTX. We then used a mutant channel (mutant F1710C) with intermediate toxin sensitivity to examine the properties of the toxin-receptor reaction in more detail. In ...
BTX this week introduced MicroPoration, a new method for non viral transfections. With this new method, transfection takes place in the actual pipette tip.
Leonard B Weinstock MD is a Gastroenterologist who practices in Saint Louis, MO. Get a full report about this doctors background by clicking here.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Voltage-dependent sodium channel function is regulated through membrane mechanics. AU - Shcherbatko, Anatoly. AU - Ono, Fumihito. AU - Mandel, Gail. AU - Brehm, Paul. PY - 1999/10. Y1 - 1999/10. N2 - Cut-open recordings from Xenopus oocytes expressing either nerve (PN1) or skeletal muscle (SkM1) Na+ channel α subunits revealed slow inactivation onset and recovery kinetics of inward current. In contrast, recordings using the macropatch configuration resulted in an immediate negative shift in the voltage-dependence of inactivation and activation, as well as time-dependent shifts in kinetics when compared to cut-open recordings. Specifically, a slow transition from predominantly slow onset and recovery to exclusively fast onset and fast recovery from inactivation occurred. The shift to fast inactivation was accelerated by patch excision and by agents that disrupted microtubule formation. Application of positive pressure to cell-attached macropatch electrodes prevented the shift in ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Vascular smooth muscle contraction induced by Na+ channel activators, veratridine and batrachotoxin. AU - Shinjo(H), Masayoshi. AU - Toshio, Nakaki. AU - Yukari, Otsuka. AU - Nobuyuki, Sasakawa. AU - Ryuichi, Kato. PY - 1991/11/26. Y1 - 1991/11/26. N2 - The effects of the sodium channel activators veratridine and batrachotoxin on isolated rat aorta were investigated. Veratridine caused gradual contraction, independent of the presence of endolhelium, with an EC50 of 35 μM. Batrachotoxin (1 μM) also induced contraction. Both effects were completely inhibited by the sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin (1 μM). The veratridine (60 μM)-induced contraction was inhibited by nifedipine (0.1 μM). In the absence of extracellular Ca2+, veratridine (60 μm) did not cause contraction. Sodium nitroprusside (80 nM), acetylcholine (10 μM) and isoproterenol (1 μM) caused relaxation of rings precontracted with veratridine (60 μM). An inhibitor of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) ...
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Background: Mutations in voltage gated brain sodium channel Nav1.1 have been linked to many disorders, including Generalized Epilepsy with Febrile Seizures Plus (GEFS+) and Severe Myoclonic Epilepsy of Infancy (SMEI). Recent studies have identified TTX- sensitive Nav1.1 brain sodium channels in the SA node and ventricular T-tubules of the heart, though their role in cardiac function is still controversial. We tested the functional significance of Nav1.1 sodium channels in the heart by creating a novel knock-in of human epilepsy GEFS+ mutation SCN1A-R1648H at the Scn1a locus of a C57BL/6J X 129 mouse.. Method: In vivo 2-D echocardiography was performed on 2 week old (juvenile) and 8 week old (adult) wild-type and heterozygote (Scn1aRH/+) mice after extracardiac neuronal block through intraperitoneal injections of atropine and propranolol (2.5mg/kg each). Calcium and contractility studies on adult ventricular cardiomyocytes isolated from the wild type and Scn1aRH/+ mice paced at 0.5Hz were ...
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Definition of benzocaine in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is benzocaine? Meaning of benzocaine as a legal term. What does benzocaine mean in law?
Neurons process and transmit information in the form of electrical signals. Their electrical excitability is due to the presence of voltage-sensitive ion channels in the neuronal plasma membrane. In recent years, the voltage-sensitive sodium channel of mammalian brain has become the first of these important neuronal components to be studied at the molecular level. This article describes the distribution of sodium channels among the functional compartments of the neuron and reviews work leading to the identification, purification, and characterization of this membrane glycoprotein.. ...
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Sodium channels expressed in cardiac muscle cells are resistant to nanomolar concentrations of TTX, and require micromolar concentrations for inhibition. On the other hand, these channels are more sensitive to inhibition by lidocaine than are CNS channels.. The receptor sites for these toxins are formed by amino acid residues in the pore loops and immediately on the extracellular side of the pore loops at the outer end of the pore. Neurotoxin receptor site 2 binds a family of lipid-soluble toxins, including batrachotoxin, veratridine, aconitine, and grayanotoxin, which enhance activation of sodium channels. Photoaffinity labeling and mutagenesis studies implicate transmembrane segments IS6 and IVS6 in the receptor site for batrachotoxin [815]. Neurotoxin receptor site 3 binds the alpha-scorpion toxins and sea anemone toxins, which slow the coupling of sodium channel activation to inactivation. These peptide toxins bind to a complex receptor site that includes the S3-S4 loop at the outer end of ...
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Gellens ME, George AL, Chen LQ, Chahine M, Horn R, Barchi RL, Kallen RG. Primary structure and functional expression of the human cardiac tetrodotoxin-insensitive voltage-dependent sodium channel. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1992;89(2):554-8. ...
REST target genes were identified originally by the presence of a similar putative repressor-binding motif in genes encoding two neuronal-specific proteins, the voltage-dependent sodium channel and the synaptic protein, SCG10. Promoter fragments of these genes bound the REST repressor in vitro, and reporter genes containing the promoter were derepressed after loss of REST function in transient transfection analyses of non-neuronal cells (Chong et al., 1995; Schoenherr and Anderson, 1995; Schoenherr et al., 1996). These first studies suggested that REST-repressed genes were required for synaptic function, but whether other aspects of the neuronal phenotype were under REST control was not explored. Since that time, it has been suggested, primarily based on bioinformatics approaches, that many other synaptic proteins, as well as proteins involved in neurosecretion, are under REST control (Lunyak et al., 2002; Bruce et al., 2004; Sun et al., 2005; Johnson et al., 2006; Mortazavi et al., 2006; Wu and ...
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Learn about the potential side effects of Hurricaine (benzocaine). Includes common and rare side effects information for consumers and healthcare professionals.
Selective conversion of bio-derived ethanol to benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX) is desirable for producing renewable BTX. In this work, we show that addition of Ga to H-ZSM-5 leads to a two-fold increase in the BTX yield as compared with H-ZSM-5 when ethanol is converted over these zeolites at 450 °C and a 2017 Green Chemistry Hot Articles
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Batrachotoxin - WikipediaBatrachotoxin - Wikipedia

Batrachotoxin R is more toxic than related batrachotoxin A. Structural changes in nerves and muscles are due to a massive ... Batrachotoxin kills by permanently blocking nerve signal transmission to the muscles. Batrachotoxin binds to and irreversibly ... However, this limits the amount of batrachotoxin available for research as 10,000 frogs yielded only 180 mg of batrachotoxin. ... In fact, batrachotoxin was able to be partially hydrolyzed using sodium hydroxide into a material with identical TLC and color ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Batrachotoxin

Batrachotoxin - definition of batrachotoxin by The Free DictionaryBatrachotoxin - definition of batrachotoxin by The Free Dictionary

batrachotoxin synonyms, batrachotoxin pronunciation, batrachotoxin translation, English dictionary definition of batrachotoxin ... batrachotoxin. Also found in: Medical, Wikipedia.. Related to batrachotoxin: saxitoxin. ba·tra·cho·tox·in. (bə-trăk′ə-tŏk′sĭn, ... Keywords: Batrachotoxin, radical mediated reaction, nBu3SnH, AIBN, alkynyl stannanes.. Towards the Synthesis of Batrachotoxin- ... Batrachotoxin - definition of batrachotoxin by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/batrachotoxin ...
more infohttps://www.thefreedictionary.com/batrachotoxin

Towards the Synthesis of Batrachotoxin-Formation of Alkynyl Stannanes. - Free Online LibraryTowards the Synthesis of Batrachotoxin-Formation of Alkynyl Stannanes. - Free Online Library

Chemistry Alkynes Chemical properties Batrachotoxins Chemical research Chemical synthesis Research ... Towards the Synthesis of Batrachotoxin-Formation of Alkynyl Stannanes.(Report) by Journal of the Chemical Society of Pakistan ... The batrachotoxin family includes batrachotoxin 1, homo-batrachotoxin 2, batrachotoxinin-A 3 and pseudobatrachotoxin (unstable ... The famous neurotoxin batrachotoxin 1 is a member of a family of steroidal alkaloids called batrachotoxins. The structure of 1 ...
more infohttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Towards+the+Synthesis+of+Batrachotoxin-Formation+of+Alkynyl+Stannanes-a0355629602

batrachotoxin | Ligand page | IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGYbatrachotoxin | Ligand page | IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY

batrachotoxin ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs. ...
more infohttp://guidetopharmacology.org/GRAC/LigandDisplayForward?ligandId=2619

Plus itPlus it

The pharmacology of batrachotoxin. VII. Structure-activity relationships and the effects of pH.. J E Warnick, E X Albuquerque, ... The pharmacology of batrachotoxin. VII. Structure-activity relationships and the effects of pH.. J E Warnick, E X Albuquerque, ... The pharmacology of batrachotoxin. VII. Structure-activity relationships and the effects of pH.. J E Warnick, E X Albuquerque, ... The effects of the depolarizing agent, batrachotoxin (BTX), and of various analogs were studied on rat phrenic nerve-diaphragm ...
more infohttp://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/193/1/232

Plus itPlus it

Batrachotoxin and alpha-scorpion toxin stabilize the open state of single voltage-gated sodium channels.. M E OLeary and B K ... Batrachotoxin and alpha-scorpion toxin stabilize the open state of single voltage-gated sodium channels.. M E OLeary and B K ... Batrachotoxin and alpha-scorpion toxin stabilize the open state of single voltage-gated sodium channels.. M E OLeary and B K ... Batrachotoxin and alpha-scorpion toxin stabilize the open state of single voltage-gated sodium channels. ...
more infohttp://molpharm.aspetjournals.org/content/36/5/789

The Batrachotoxin Receptor on the Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel is Guarded by the Channel Activation Gate | Molecular...The Batrachotoxin Receptor on the Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel is Guarded by the Channel Activation Gate | Molecular...

The Batrachotoxin Receptor on the Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel is Guarded by the Channel Activation Gate. Hong-Ling Li, David ... The Batrachotoxin Receptor on the Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel is Guarded by the Channel Activation Gate. Hong-Ling Li, David ... The Batrachotoxin Receptor on the Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel is Guarded by the Channel Activation Gate. Hong-Ling Li, David ... Batrachotoxin (BTX), from South American frogs of the genusPhyllobates, irreversibly activates voltage-gated sodium channels. ...
more infohttp://molpharm.aspetjournals.org/content/61/4/905.abstract

Vascular smooth muscle contraction induced by Na<sup>+</sup> channel activators, veratridine and...Vascular smooth muscle contraction induced by Na<sup>+</sup> channel activators, veratridine and...

Batrachotoxin (1 μM) also induced contraction. Both effects were completely inhibited by the sodium channel blocker ... Vascular smooth muscle contraction induced by Na+ channel activators, veratridine and batrachotoxin. / Shinjo(H), Masayoshi; ... Batrachotoxin (1 μM) also induced contraction. Both effects were completely inhibited by the sodium channel blocker ... Batrachotoxin (1 μM) also induced contraction. Both effects were completely inhibited by the sodium channel blocker ...
more infohttps://keio.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/vascular-smooth-muscle-contraction-induced-by-nasupsup-channel-ac

Gating kinetics of batrachotoxin-modified sodium channels in neuroblastoma cells determined from single-channel measurements<...Gating kinetics of batrachotoxin-modified sodium channels in neuroblastoma cells determined from single-channel measurements<...

Gating kinetics of batrachotoxin-modified sodium channels in neuroblastoma cells determined from single-channel measurements. ... Huang L-Y, Moran N, Ehrenstein G. Gating kinetics of batrachotoxin-modified sodium channels in neuroblastoma cells determined ... Gating kinetics of batrachotoxin-modified sodium channels in neuroblastoma cells determined from single-channel measurements. ... Huang, L-Y, Moran, N & Ehrenstein, G 1984, Gating kinetics of batrachotoxin-modified sodium channels in neuroblastoma cells ...
more infohttps://researchexperts.utmb.edu/en/publications/gating-kinetics-of-batrachotoxin-modified-sodium-channels-in-neur

The worlds 5 deadliest poisons - Business InsiderThe world's 5 deadliest poisons - Business Insider

3. Batrachotoxin. Flickr/Lwp Kommunikáció Weve all heard of South American Indians using venom-tipped blowpipes to hunt their ... Batrachotoxin kills by interfering with sodium ion channels in the cells of muscles and nerves, jamming them open so that they ... Maitotoxin is the most lethal of these substances, reckoned to have a LD50 about an order of magnitude less than batrachotoxin ... The most toxic, however, come from the skins of tiny frogs - and the deadliest of all is Batrachotoxin. ...
more infohttps://www.businessinsider.com/the-worlds-5-deadliest-poisons-2016-4

10 Dangerous Chemicals You Should Avoid10 Dangerous Chemicals You Should Avoid

Batrachotoxin is the nasty alkaloid used for poison darts. The molecule is the most potent non-peptide poisons known to man, ...
more infohttps://www.thoughtco.com/dangerous-chemicals-to-avoid-609291

Najbolj smrtonosni strupi na svetuNajbolj smrtonosni strupi na svetu

3. Batrachotoxin. Weve all heard of South American Indians using venom-tipped blowpipes to hunt their prey. Curare is the best ... Batrachotoxin kills by interfering with sodium ion channels in the cells of muscles and nerves, jamming them open so that they ... Maitotoxin is the most lethal of these substances, reckoned to have a LD50 about an order of magnitude less than batrachotoxin ... The most toxic, however, come from the skins of tiny frogs - and the deadliest of all is Batrachotoxin. ...
more infohttps://kvarkadabra.net/2016/04/pet-najbolj-smrtonosnih-strupov/

Phyllobates sp. aff. aurotaenia - WikipediaPhyllobates sp. aff. aurotaenia - Wikipedia

Its skin contains batrachotoxins, extremely potent neurotoxic alkaloids. When in contact with the skin, batrachotoxins seep ... Alkaloid batrachotoxins can be stored by frogs for years after the frog is deprived of the food-based source, and such toxins ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phyllobates_sp._aff._aurotaenia

Alkaloids - Wikimedia CommonsAlkaloids - Wikimedia Commons

Français : Un alkaloïde est une molécule organique à base dazote et possédant des effets pharmacologiques sur lêtre humain et sur dautres animaux ...
more infohttps://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Alkaloid

Category:Alcohols - Wikimedia CommonsCategory:Alcohols - Wikimedia Commons

Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. ...
more infohttps://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Alcohols

Bad Fish by Pedro Castillo on PreziBad Fish by Pedro Castillo on Prezi

Symptoms:Batrachotoxin. Lips and fingers were numb after handling the bird and wiping his mouth. These were minor symptoms and ... Diagnosis of Multiple Conditions:Batrachotoxin. Bill found a bird (pitohui) n Papua New Guinea Inside one of the feathers that ... Tests/Procedures Performed: Batrachotoxin. Symptoms:Tetrodotoxin. None simply because his symptoms didnt escalate further then ...
more infohttps://prezi.com/8zjsjkmyom2b/bad-fish/

Neurotoxicity FlashcardsNeurotoxicity Flashcards

batrachotoxin. Definition. most lethal toxin of any known animal (open nueronal Na channel and polarization cannot occur no ...
more infohttps://www.flashcardmachine.com/neurotoxicity.html

Encyclopedia of Toxicology - Elsevier Science & Technology - Literati by CredoEncyclopedia of Toxicology - Elsevier Science & Technology - Literati by Credo

Batrachotoxin. *BCNU (Bischloroethyl Nitrosourea). *Behavioral Toxicology. *Belladonna Alkaloids. *Benchmark Dose. *Benfluralin ...
more infohttps://corp.credoreference.com/component/booktracker/edition/9864.html

Naturally nasty: the top 10 natural ingredients you need to avoidNaturally nasty: the top 10 natural ingredients you need to avoid

5. Batrachotoxin: Frogs are cute except for maybe the poison dart frog that makes one of the most toxic compounds known. ... Batrachotoxins are naturally produced by certain species of frogs, beetles and birds. If you get some of the compound in you, ...
more infohttp://thebeautybrains.com/2008/09/naturally-nasty-the-top-10-natural-ingredients-you-need-to-avoid/

Fernbank Science Center - Just For Teachers NewsletterFernbank Science Center - Just For Teachers Newsletter

Previous Issue:Batrachotoxin (BTX). Of the Month Archives. Fernbank Science Center, 156 Heaton Park Drive, Atlanta, GA 30307 ...
more infohttp://fsc.fernbank.edu/Newsletter/issues/October2015.html

US6955813B2 - Therapy for injured muscles 
        - Google PatentsUS6955813B2 - Therapy for injured muscles - Google Patents

Batrachotoxin. Presynaptic. Sodium Channel Activator. Benzylpiperidines. Synaptic Cleft. ACh Esterase Inhibitors. ( ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/US6955813B2/en

https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/308864.phphttps://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/308864.php

Batrachotoxins are some of the most toxic natural substances known to man. Colombian arrow frogs are coated with the same ... Batrachotoxins also have significant effects on the heart muscles, causing abnormal rhythmic patterns and, eventually, cardiac ... The bird consumes beetles of the genus Choresine, which contain high levels of homobatrachotoxins, a type of batrachotoxin - ... By snacking on these poisonous beetles, the bird manages to assimilate the batrachotoxins into its skin and feathers. This ...
more infohttps://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/308864.php

Table of Contents - April 01, 1975, 193 (1) | Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental TherapeuticsTable of Contents - April 01, 1975, 193 (1) | Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics

The pharmacology of batrachotoxin. VII. Structure-activity relationships and the effects of pH. J E Warnick, E X Albuquerque, R ...
more infohttp://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/193/1

work - kelsey brookeswork - kelsey brookes

Batrachotoxin, 2017. Golden Mean (0X), 2017. A Line Through the Rainbow (Blue to Green), 2017 ...
more infohttp://www.kelseybrookes.com/portfolio
  • Batrachotoxin 1 tends to affect the nervous system by causing the irreversible opening of Na+ channels in the nerves causing a change in ion selectivity of the ion channel by increasing the permeability of the channel toward larger cations, which results in depolarization of nerves leading to failure of nerve impulse transmission . (thefreelibrary.com)
  • And because it also deadens nerve endings, batrachotoxin has potential as an ingredient in anesthetics. (mentalfloss.com)
  • The original assay of impulse blockade was complemented by experiments testing the competitive displacement of radiolabeled batrachotoxin ( 3 H-BTX) from the Na + channels in rat brain synaptosomes. (asahq.org)
  • The combined effects of batrachotoxin (BTX) and either scorpion (Leiurus quinquestriatus quinquestriatus) venom (LqqV) or alpha-scorpion toxin (alpha-LqqTX) purified from LqqV on single voltage-gated Na channels were studied in planar lipid bilayers. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Batrachotoxin (BTX) irreversibly binds to the Na+ channels which causes a conformational change in the channels that forces the sodium channels to remain open. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interestingly, batrachotoxin not only keeps voltage-gated sodium channels open, but it also reduces the single-channel conductance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Batrachotoxin and alpha-scorpion toxin stabilize the open state of single voltage-gated sodium channels. (aspetjournals.org)
  • When in contact with the skin, batrachotoxins seep through open wounds and, in some cases, skin pores, and prevent nerves from transmitting impulses, leaving the muscles in an inactive state of contraction. (wikipedia.org)
  • In fact, batrachotoxin was able to be partially hydrolyzed using sodium hydroxide into a material with identical TLC and color reactions as batrachotoxinin A. The structure of batrachotoxin was established in 1969 through chemical recombination of both fragments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Batrachotoxin also alters the ion selectivity of the ion channel by increasing the permeability of the channel toward larger cations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Huang, L-Y , Moran, N & Ehrenstein, G 1984, ' Gating kinetics of batrachotoxin-modified sodium channels in neuroblastoma cells determined from single-channel measurements ', Biophysical Journal , vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 313-322. (utmb.edu)