The immersion or washing of the body or any of its parts in water or other medium for cleansing or medical treatment. It includes bathing for personal hygiene as well as for medical purposes with the addition of therapeutic agents, such as alkalines, antiseptics, oil, etc.
A species of METHYLOCOCCUS which forms capsules and is capable of autotrophic carbon dioxide fixation. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
Therapy by various hot or warm baths in natural mineral waters, spas, or "cures". It includes not only bathing in, but also drinking the waters, but it does not include whirlpool baths (HYDROTHERAPY).
A family of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria utilizing only one-carbon organic compounds and isolated from in soil and water.
Therapy of sitting in a hot steamy room followed by a cool bath or shower.
A chronic inflammatory condition affecting the axial joints, such as the SACROILIAC JOINT and other intervertebral or costovertebral joints. It occurs predominantly in young males and is characterized by pain and stiffness of joints (ANKYLOSIS) with inflammation at tendon insertions.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Drugs designed and synthesized, often for illegal street use, by modification of existing drug structures (e.g., amphetamines). Of special interest are MPTP (a reverse ester of meperidine), MDA (3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine), and MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine). Many drugs act on the aminergic system, the physiologically active biogenic amines.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
The placing of a body or a part thereof into a liquid.
Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Straight tubes commencing in the radiate part of the kidney cortex where they receive the curved ends of the distal convoluted tubules. In the medulla the collecting tubules of each pyramid converge to join a central tube (duct of Bellini) which opens on the summit of the papilla.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
Compounds based on benzene fused to oxole. They can be formed from methylated CATECHOLS such as EUGENOL.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
The U-shaped portion of the renal tubule in the KIDNEY MEDULLA, consisting of a descending limb and an ascending limb. It is situated between the PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE and the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
An element of the alkaline earth group of metals. It has an atomic symbol Ba, atomic number 56, and atomic weight 138. All of its acid-soluble salts are poisonous.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
An inhibitor of anion conductance including band 3-mediated anion transport.
A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.
External application of water for therapeutic purposes.
Propiophenones are a group of synthetic compounds characterized by a phenone functional group attached to a propyl chain, which have been used in various applications including as intermediates in chemical synthesis and as pharmaceutical ingredients with sedative and hypnotic properties.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Coating with a metal or alloy by electrolysis.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from the UHF (ultrahigh frequency) radio waves and extending into the INFRARED RAYS frequencies.
A non-penetrating amino reagent (commonly called SITS) which acts as an inhibitor of anion transport in erythrocytes and other cells.
Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.
Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
The pit in the center of the ABDOMINAL WALL marking the point where the UMBILICAL CORD entered in the FETUS.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.
A potassium-selective ion channel blocker. (From J Gen Phys 1994;104(1):173-90)
An isoquinoline alkaloid obtained from Dicentra cucullaria and other plants. It is a competitive antagonist for GABA-A receptors.
Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).
Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)
'Swimming pools' in a medical context typically refers to man-made bodies of water designed for swimming and other recreational activities, which can also serve as potential reservoirs for various infectious diseases if not properly maintained, including those transmitted through waterborne pathogens, fecal contamination, or poor water chemistry.
Death that occurs as a result of anoxia or heart arrest, associated with immersion in liquid.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Inorganic compounds that contain barium as an integral part of the molecule.
Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
Tetraethylammonium compounds refer to a group of organic salts containing the tetraethylammonium ion (N(C2H5)4+), which is characterized by four ethyl groups bonded to a central nitrogen atom, and are commonly used in research and medicine as pharmacological tools for studying ion channels.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
One of the POTASSIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS, with secondary effect on calcium currents, which is used mainly as a research tool and to characterize channel subtypes.
Drugs that bind to and activate excitatory amino acid receptors.
The therapeutic use of mud in packs or baths taking advantage of the absorptive qualities of the mud. It has been used for rheumatism and skin problems.
Infections with bacteria of the family FLAVOBACTERIACEAE.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
A sulfamyl diuretic.
A potent excitatory amino acid antagonist with a preference for non-NMDA iontropic receptors. It is used primarily as a research tool.
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
Inflammation of the joints of the SPINE, the intervertebral articulations.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.
The D-enantiomer is a potent and specific antagonist of NMDA glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE). The L form is inactive at NMDA receptors but may affect the AP4 (2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate; APB) excitatory amino acid receptors.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
An antidiabetic sulfonylurea derivative with actions similar to those of chlorpropamide.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
Quinoxalines are heterocyclic organic compounds consisting of a benzene fused to a pyrazine ring, which have been studied for their potential antibacterial, antifungal, and anticancer properties.

Comparisons between hemodynamics, during and after bathing, and prognosis in patients with myocardial infarction. (1/178)

The purpose of this study was to establish the safest way to bathe patients with myocardial infarction (MI) through measuring the hemodynamics during and after bathing. Seventy patients with MI were bathed supine in a Hubbard tank filled with 42 degrees C tap water for 5 min. The subjects were divided into 2 groups depending on their hemodynamic values 10 min after bathing: pulmonary capillary wedge pressure unchanged even after bathing (group A), and decreased pressure after bathing (group B). The left ventricular ejection fraction of group B was significantly higher than that of group A: 53.6% vs. 39.7%, respectively (p<0.01). The physical work capacity of group B was significantly higher at 5.6 METs, than that of group A with 4.5 METs (p<0.05). During the average of their 37-month follow-up period, there were 3 cardiac events in group B and 6 in group A. There were 2 cardiac events during bathing, both of which occurred in group A. When patients with MI take a bath, it is essential to closely monitor them, especially to those patients with lower cardiac function, because they have a higher possibility of a cardiac event.  (+info)

Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of the temperature-dependent dermal absorption of chloroform by humans following bath water exposures. (2/178)

The kinetics of chloroform in the exhaled breath of human volunteers exposed skin-only via bath water (concentrations < 100 ppb) were analyzed using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. Significant increases in exhaled chloroform (and thus bioavailability) were observed as exposure temperatures were increased from 30 to 40 degrees C. The blood flows to the skin and effective skin permeability coefficients (Kp) were both varied to reflect the temperature-dependent changes in physiology and exhalation kinetics. At 40 degrees C, no differences were observed between males and females. Therefore, Kps were determined (approximately 0.06 cm/hr) at a skin blood flow rate of 18% of the cardiac output. At 30 and 35 degrees C, males exhaled more chloroform than females, resulting in lower effective Kps calculated for females. At these lower temperatures, the blood flow to the skin was also reduced. Total amounts of chloroform absorbed averaged 41.9 and 43.6 microg for males and 11.5 and 39.9 microg for females exposed at 35 and 40 degrees C, respectively. At 30 degrees C, only 2/5 males and 1/5 females had detectable concentrations of chloroform in their exhaled breath. For perspective, the total intake of chloroform would have ranged from 79-194 microg if the volunteers had consumed 2 liters of water orally at the concentrations used in this study. Thus, the relative contribution of dermal uptake of chloroform to the total body burdens associated with bathing for 30 min and drinking 2 liters of water (ignoring contributions from inhalation exposures) was predicted to range from 1 to 28%, depending on the temperature of the bath.  (+info)

Outbreak of boils in an Alaskan village: a case-control study. (3/178)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether taking steam baths was associated with furunculosis and to evaluate possible risk factors for the occurrence of boils during a large outbreak in Alaska. DESIGN: A cohort study of village residents, a case-control study, and assessment of environmental cultures taken from steam baths. SETTING: Village in southwestern Alaska. PARTICIPANTS: 1 adult member from 77 of the 92 households in the village was interviewed; 115 residents with at least one boil occurring between January 1 and December 12, 1996 were considered to be cases; 209 residents without a boil acted as the control group. All 459 village residents were included in the cohort study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Rate of infection among all residents and residents who regularly took steam baths, risk factors for infection, and relative risk of infection. RESULTS: 115 people (25%) had had at least one boil. Men were more likely to have had a boil than women (relative risk 1.5; 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 2.2). The highest rate of infection was among people ages 25-34 years (32/76; 42%). No children younger than 2 years had had boils. Boils were associated with using a steam bath (odds ratio 8.1; 3.3 to 20.1). Among those who used a steam bath, the likelihood of developing boils was reduced by routinely sitting on a towel while bathing, which women were more likely to do, and bathing with fewer than 8 people. Of the 93 samples taken from steam baths, one Staphylococcus aureus isolate was obtained from a bench in an outer dressing room. CONCLUSION: Using a steam bath was associated with developing boils in this outbreak in a village in Alaska. People should be advised to sit on towels while using steam baths.  (+info)

The role of fomites in the transmission of vaginitis. (4/178)

A role for fomites such as toilet seats in the transmission of vaginitis has never been proved or disproved. A compilation of clinical data from a university community showed that the organisms found in vaginal cultures of patients with vaginitis were, in order of frequency. Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, beta-hemolytic streptococci, Hemophilus vaginalis and Trichomonas vaginalis. In a concurrent bacteriologic survey of washroom fixtures, staphylococci and other micrococci were isolated most frequently. The overt pathogens associated with vaginitis were never found, and gram-negative organisms appeared to be suppressed by the disinfectant used by the cleaning staff. It is clear that fomites are not an important mode of transmission in vaginitis, although a search for specific pathogens on toilets is to be continued.  (+info)

Japanese paediatricians' judgement of the appropriateness of bathing for children with colds. (5/178)

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the decisions which Japanese paediatricians make regarding bathing a child with a common cold. METHODS: A total of 486 printed questionnaires were mailed to paediatricians systematically sampled from the list of members of the Japanese Pediatric Association. The questionnaire included two main questions. (i) Do you permit a 2- to 4-year-old child with a common cold to take a bath? (ii) If the answer to (i) was 'yes', what conditions should limit bathing of such children, and if the answer was 'no', why do you forbid bathing? In addition, the questionnaire included the age and sex of the practitioner, and the type and location of the practice. RESULTS: A total of 269 paediatricians returned questionnaires (response rate 55%); of these, 88% permitted a child with a cold to take a bath. Of these paediatricians, 5% permitted it without any conditions. The main conditions for taking a bath indicated by these paediatricians were 'no fever' (72%), 'not in a severe physical condition' (27%) and 'after 2 or 3 days from onset' (19%). Thirty-nine paediatricians indicated a specific body temperature at which bathing was appropriate. One-third of these paediatricians did not permit bathing at body temperatures above 38 degrees C. Of the 31 paediatricians (12%) who answered that a child with a cold should not take a bath, 61% were concerned for the physical well-being of the child. However, 29% provided no supporting evidence. CONCLUSIONS: Japanese paediatricians' judgements concerning bathing of a child with a cold are related to the effects of bathing on physical condition. Bathing immersed up to the neck does not always affect physical conditions. It is necessary to establish appropriate parental and patient education concerning bathing of children with colds.  (+info)

Long-term efficacy of radon spa therapy in rheumatoid arthritis--a randomized, sham-controlled study and follow-up. (6/178)

OBJECTIVE: To quantify the efficacy of a series of baths containing natural radon and carbon dioxide (1.3 kBq/l, 1.6 g carbon dioxide/l on average) versus artificial carbon dioxide baths alone in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. SUBJECTS: Sixty patients participating in an in-patient rehabilitation programme including a series of 15 baths were randomly assigned to two groups. DESIGN: Pain intensity (100 mm visual analogue scale) and functional restrictions [Keitel functional test, Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales (AIMS questionnaire)] were measured at baseline, after completion of treatment and 3 and 6 months thereafter. To investigate whether the overall value of the outcomes was the same in both groups, the overall mean was analysed by Student's t-test for independent samples. RESULTS: The two groups showed a similar baseline situation. After completion of treatment, relevant clinical improvements were observed in both groups, with no notable group differences. However, the follow-up revealed sustained effects in the radon arm, and a return to baseline levels in the sham arm. After 6 months, marked between-group differences were found for both end-points (pain intensity: -16.9%, 95% confidence interval -27.6 to -6.2%; AIMS score: 0.57, 95% confidence interval 0.16 to 0.98). The between-group differences were statistically significant for both overall means (pain intensity, P: = 0.04; AIMS, P: = 0.01). CONCLUSION: Marked short-term improvements in both groups at the end of treatment may have masked potential specific therapeutic effects of radon baths. However, after 6 months of follow-up the effects were lasting only in patients of the radon arm. This suggests that this component of the rehabilitative intervention can induce beneficial long-term effects.  (+info)

Effects of bathing and hot footbath on sleep in winter. (7/178)

The effects of daily bathing and hot footbath (immersion of feet in hot water) in winter on the sleep behavior of nine healthy female volunteers were studied. Subjects were assigned to three sleep conditions: sleep after bathing (Condition B), sleep after hot footbath (Condition F), and sleep without either treatment (Control). Polysomnograms (consisting of electroencephalograph, electrooculograph, and electromyograph) were obtained, and body movements during sleep were measured while monitoring both the rectal and skin temperatures of subjects. In addition, subjective sleep sensations were obtained with a questionnaire answered immediately by the subjects on awakening. The rectal temperature increased by approximately 1.0 degree C under Condition B, but this elevation was not observed under Condition F compared with Control. In contrast, the respective increases in the mean skin temperature of participants subjected to bathing and hot footbath were greater than those of Control, although these temperature differences became negligible 2 h after subjects went to bed. The sleep onset latency was shortened under both conditions compared with Control. Body movements during the first 30 min of sleep in Control were greater than under the other conditions. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep decreased under Condition B compared with Condition F, and stage 3 was greater under the latter condition compared with Control. As such, the subjective sleep sensations were better under the two treatment conditions. These results suggest that both daily bathing and hot footbath before sleeping facilitates earlier sleep onset. A hot footbath is especially recommendable for the handicapped, elderly, and disabled, who are unable to enjoy regular baths easily and safely.  (+info)

Exposure to Schistosoma mansoni infection in a rural area of Brazil. I: water contact. (8/178)

The study of water contact patterns in rural Brazil presents unique challenges due to widely dispersed settlement patterns, the ubiquity of water contact sites, and the privatization of water resources. This study addresses these challenges by comparing the two most widely used methods of assessing water contact behaviour: direct observation and survey. The results of a 7-day direct observation of water contact were compared with water contact surveys administered 1 week after and then 1 year after the direct observation study. The direct observation study recorded a water contact rate higher than reported by other investigators (3.2 contacts per person per day); however, 75% of these contacts were for females and consisted mainly of domestic activities occurring around the household. A comparison of the frequency of water contact activities between the direct observation and the two surveys revealed several important points. First, no significant differences were found between methods for routine water contact activities (e.g. bathing), indicating that participants were able to accurately self-report some types of water contact activities. Second, significant differences were found in the recording of water contact activities that took place outside the observation area, indicating that direct observation may under-report water contact activities in areas where contact sites are dispersed widely. Third, significant differences between the direct observation and the survey method were more common for males than for females, indicating that the combination of widespread water contact sites and gender-specific division of labour may result in under-reporting of male contacts by direct observation methods. In short, despite the limitations in the recording of duration and body exposure, the survey method may more accurately record the frequency of water contact activities than direct observation methods in areas of widely dispersed water contact sites. Hence, surveys may be more suitable for the unique challenges of water contact in rural areas of Brazil.  (+info)

A bath generally refers to the act of immersing or cleaning the body in a mixture of water and sometimes other substances, such as soap or essential oils. In a medical context, there are several types of therapeutic baths that may be prescribed for various purposes:

1. Sitz bath: A shallow bath that only covers the hips and buttocks, used to treat conditions like hemorrhoids, anal fissures, or other localized infections.
2. Hydrotherapy bath: A therapeutic bath using water at different temperatures, pressures, or with added substances (e.g., Epsom salts, essential oils) for relaxation, pain relief, or to improve circulation and promote healing.
3. Balneotherapy: The use of mineral-rich waters from natural springs or artificial mineral baths for therapeutic purposes, often used in the treatment of skin conditions, arthritis, or musculoskeletal disorders.
4. Medicated bath: A bath with added medical substances (e.g., medicated oils, salts) to treat various skin conditions, promote relaxation, or relieve pain.
5. Whirlpool bath: A therapeutic bath using water jets to create a swirling motion and provide hydrotherapy benefits for relaxation, pain relief, or improved circulation.

It is essential to follow medical advice when taking therapeutic baths, as incorrect usage can lead to adverse effects.

"Methylococcus capsulatus" is a species of gram-negative, facultatively aerobic, methane-oxidizing bacteria that belongs to the family Methylococcaceae. These bacteria are characterized by their ability to use methane as their sole source of carbon and energy for growth, a process known as methanotrophy. "Methylococcus capsulatus" is commonly found in freshwater and terrestrial environments, such as soil, lakes, and rivers.

The bacteria are spherical to oval-shaped and are surrounded by a distinct, protective outer layer called a capsule, which gives the species its name "capsulatus." The cells can exist as single cells or in pairs, and they may form aggregates when grown in culture. They are able to grow at a wide range of temperatures, from 4°C to 37°C, making them adaptable to various environmental conditions.

"Methylococcus capsulatus" has attracted interest for its potential use in bioremediation and waste treatment due to its ability to consume methane, a potent greenhouse gas. Additionally, the bacteria have been studied as a source of single-cell protein and other valuable bioproducts.

Balneology is a branch of medicine that deals with the therapeutic use of bathing, particularly in natural mineral waters or medicinal mud. It involves the study and application of various methods of hydrotherapy, including the use of hot springs, mineral baths, and other types of water-based treatments to promote health, prevent illness, and alleviate symptoms of certain medical conditions.

Balneotherapy is a common form of treatment used in balneology, which involves immersing the body in warm or hot mineral waters, often with the addition of therapeutic agents such as mud or essential oils. The minerals present in these waters can have various beneficial effects on the body, including improving circulation, reducing inflammation, and promoting relaxation.

Balneology is often used to treat a variety of conditions, including arthritis, rheumatism, skin disorders, respiratory ailments, and stress-related disorders. It can also be used as a form of preventative medicine, helping to boost the immune system and improve overall health and wellbeing.

Methylococcaceae is a family of bacteria that have the ability to oxidize methane as their source of carbon and energy. These bacteria are also known as methanotrophs. They are gram-negative, aerobic, and typically occur in freshwater and marine environments. The family includes several genera such as Methylococcus, Methylomonas, and Methylothermus. These bacteria play an important role in the global carbon cycle by converting methane, a potent greenhouse gas, into carbon dioxide.

A steam bath is not explicitly defined in traditional medical textbooks or resources. However, it is a common wellness practice that involves exposure to warm, humid air within an enclosed space, typically called a "steam room." The temperature in a steam bath usually ranges from 100°F to 115°F (38°C to 46°C), with a high relative humidity of around 100%.

Steam baths can have some potential health benefits, such as:

1. Promoting relaxation and stress reduction
2. Easing muscle tension and joint pain
3. Improving circulation and cardiovascular function
4. Supporting skin health by opening pores and promoting detoxification through perspiration
5. Alleviating respiratory congestion and symptoms of colds or allergies

However, it is essential to consult with a healthcare professional before participating in steam baths, especially for individuals with pre-existing medical conditions like heart disease, high blood pressure, respiratory issues, or pregnancy. Prolonged exposure to high temperatures can lead to dehydration, dizziness, or heat exhaustion.

Ankylosing spondylitis is a type of inflammatory arthritis that primarily affects the spine, although other joints can also be involved. It causes swelling in the spinal joints (vertebrae) that can lead to stiffness and pain. Over time, some of these joints may grow together, causing new bone formation and resulting in a rigid spine. This fusion of the spine is called ankylosis.

The condition typically begins in the sacroiliac joints, where the spine connects to the pelvis. From there, it can spread up the spine and potentially involve other areas of the body such as the eyes, heart, lungs, and gastrointestinal system.

Ankylosing spondylitis has a strong genetic link, with most people carrying the HLA-B27 gene. However, not everyone with this gene will develop the condition. It primarily affects males more often than females and tends to start in early adulthood.

Treatment usually involves a combination of medication, physical therapy, and exercise to help manage pain, maintain mobility, and prevent deformity. In severe cases, surgery may be considered.

Membrane potential is the electrical potential difference across a cell membrane, typically for excitable cells such as nerve and muscle cells. It is the difference in electric charge between the inside and outside of a cell, created by the selective permeability of the cell membrane to different ions. The resting membrane potential of a typical animal cell is around -70 mV, with the interior being negative relative to the exterior. This potential is generated and maintained by the active transport of ions across the membrane, primarily through the action of the sodium-potassium pump. Membrane potentials play a crucial role in many physiological processes, including the transmission of nerve impulses and the contraction of muscle cells.

Designer drugs are synthetic or chemically altered substances that are designed to mimic the effects of controlled substances. They are often created in clandestine laboratories and marketed as legal alternatives to illegal drugs. These drugs are called "designer" because they are intentionally modified to avoid detection and regulation by law enforcement agencies and regulatory bodies.

Designer drugs can be extremely dangerous, as their chemical composition is often unknown or only partially understood. They may contain potentially harmful impurities or variations that can lead to unpredictable and sometimes severe health consequences. Examples of designer drugs include synthetic cannabinoids (such as "Spice" or "K2"), synthetic cathinones (such as "bath salts"), and novel psychoactive substances (NPS).

It is important to note that while some designer drugs may be legal at the time they are manufactured and sold, their possession and use may still be illegal under federal or state laws. Additionally, many designer drugs have been made illegal through scheduling by the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) or through legislation specifically targeting them.

Patch-clamp techniques are a group of electrophysiological methods used to study ion channels and other electrical properties of cells. These techniques were developed by Erwin Neher and Bert Sakmann, who were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1991 for their work. The basic principle of patch-clamp techniques involves creating a high resistance seal between a glass micropipette and the cell membrane, allowing for the measurement of current flowing through individual ion channels or groups of channels.

There are several different configurations of patch-clamp techniques, including:

1. Cell-attached configuration: In this configuration, the micropipette is attached to the outer surface of the cell membrane, and the current flowing across a single ion channel can be measured. This configuration allows for the study of the properties of individual channels in their native environment.
2. Whole-cell configuration: Here, the micropipette breaks through the cell membrane, creating a low resistance electrical connection between the pipette and the inside of the cell. This configuration allows for the measurement of the total current flowing across all ion channels in the cell membrane.
3. Inside-out configuration: In this configuration, the micropipette is pulled away from the cell after establishing a seal, resulting in the exposure of the inner surface of the cell membrane to the solution in the pipette. This configuration allows for the study of the properties of ion channels in isolation from other cellular components.
4. Outside-out configuration: Here, the micropipette is pulled away from the cell after establishing a seal, resulting in the exposure of the outer surface of the cell membrane to the solution in the pipette. This configuration allows for the study of the properties of ion channels in their native environment, but with the ability to control the composition of the extracellular solution.

Patch-clamp techniques have been instrumental in advancing our understanding of ion channel function and have contributed to numerous breakthroughs in neuroscience, pharmacology, and physiology.

Electrophysiology is a branch of medicine that deals with the electrical activities of the body, particularly the heart. In a medical context, electrophysiology studies (EPS) are performed to assess abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias) and to evaluate the effectiveness of certain treatments, such as medication or pacemakers.

During an EPS, electrode catheters are inserted into the heart through blood vessels in the groin or neck. These catheters can record the electrical activity of the heart and stimulate it to help identify the source of the arrhythmia. The information gathered during the study can help doctors determine the best course of treatment for each patient.

In addition to cardiac electrophysiology, there are also other subspecialties within electrophysiology, such as neuromuscular electrophysiology, which deals with the electrical activity of the nervous system and muscles.

Electric stimulation, also known as electrical nerve stimulation or neuromuscular electrical stimulation, is a therapeutic treatment that uses low-voltage electrical currents to stimulate nerves and muscles. It is often used to help manage pain, promote healing, and improve muscle strength and mobility. The electrical impulses can be delivered through electrodes placed on the skin or directly implanted into the body.

In a medical context, electric stimulation may be used for various purposes such as:

1. Pain management: Electric stimulation can help to block pain signals from reaching the brain and promote the release of endorphins, which are natural painkillers produced by the body.
2. Muscle rehabilitation: Electric stimulation can help to strengthen muscles that have become weak due to injury, illness, or surgery. It can also help to prevent muscle atrophy and improve range of motion.
3. Wound healing: Electric stimulation can promote tissue growth and help to speed up the healing process in wounds, ulcers, and other types of injuries.
4. Urinary incontinence: Electric stimulation can be used to strengthen the muscles that control urination and reduce symptoms of urinary incontinence.
5. Migraine prevention: Electric stimulation can be used as a preventive treatment for migraines by applying electrical impulses to specific nerves in the head and neck.

It is important to note that electric stimulation should only be administered under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional, as improper use can cause harm or discomfort.

Calcium is an essential mineral that is vital for various physiological processes in the human body. The medical definition of calcium is as follows:

Calcium (Ca2+) is a crucial cation and the most abundant mineral in the human body, with approximately 99% of it found in bones and teeth. It plays a vital role in maintaining structural integrity, nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, hormonal secretion, blood coagulation, and enzyme activation.

Calcium homeostasis is tightly regulated through the interplay of several hormones, including parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin, and vitamin D. Dietary calcium intake, absorption, and excretion are also critical factors in maintaining optimal calcium levels in the body.

Hypocalcemia refers to low serum calcium levels, while hypercalcemia indicates high serum calcium levels. Both conditions can have detrimental effects on various organ systems and require medical intervention to correct.

Chlorides are simple inorganic ions consisting of a single chlorine atom bonded to a single charged hydrogen ion (H+). Chloride is the most abundant anion (negatively charged ion) in the extracellular fluid in the human body. The normal range for chloride concentration in the blood is typically between 96-106 milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L).

Chlorides play a crucial role in maintaining electrical neutrality, acid-base balance, and osmotic pressure in the body. They are also essential for various physiological processes such as nerve impulse transmission, maintenance of membrane potentials, and digestion (as hydrochloric acid in the stomach).

Chloride levels can be affected by several factors, including diet, hydration status, kidney function, and certain medical conditions. Increased or decreased chloride levels can indicate various disorders, such as dehydration, kidney disease, Addison's disease, or diabetes insipidus. Therefore, monitoring chloride levels is essential for assessing a person's overall health and diagnosing potential medical issues.

In medical terms, "immersion" is not a term with a specific clinical definition. However, in general terms, immersion refers to the act of placing something or someone into a liquid or environment completely. In some contexts, it may be used to describe a type of wound care where the wound is covered completely with a medicated dressing or solution. It can also be used to describe certain medical procedures or therapies that involve submerging a part of the body in a liquid, such as hydrotherapy.

Oxygenases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of molecular oxygen (O2) into their substrates. They play crucial roles in various biological processes, including the biosynthesis of many natural products, as well as the detoxification and degradation of xenobiotics (foreign substances).

There are two main types of oxygenases: monooxygenases and dioxygenases. Monooxygenases introduce one atom of molecular oxygen into a substrate while reducing the other to water. An example of this type of enzyme is cytochrome P450, which is involved in drug metabolism and steroid hormone synthesis. Dioxygenases, on the other hand, incorporate both atoms of molecular oxygen into their substrates, often leading to the formation of new carbon-carbon bonds or the cleavage of existing ones.

It's important to note that while oxygenases are essential for many life-sustaining processes, they can also contribute to the production of harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS) during normal cellular metabolism. An imbalance in ROS levels can lead to oxidative stress and damage to cells and tissues, which has been linked to various diseases such as cancer, neurodegeneration, and cardiovascular disease.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

Potassium is a essential mineral and an important electrolyte that is widely distributed in the human body. The majority of potassium in the body (approximately 98%) is found within cells, with the remaining 2% present in blood serum and other bodily fluids. Potassium plays a crucial role in various physiological processes, including:

1. Regulation of fluid balance and maintenance of normal blood pressure through its effects on vascular tone and sodium excretion.
2. Facilitation of nerve impulse transmission and muscle contraction by participating in the generation and propagation of action potentials.
3. Protein synthesis, enzyme activation, and glycogen metabolism.
4. Regulation of acid-base balance through its role in buffering systems.

The normal serum potassium concentration ranges from 3.5 to 5.0 mEq/L (milliequivalents per liter) or mmol/L (millimoles per liter). Potassium levels outside this range can have significant clinical consequences, with both hypokalemia (low potassium levels) and hyperkalemia (high potassium levels) potentially leading to serious complications such as cardiac arrhythmias, muscle weakness, and respiratory failure.

Potassium is primarily obtained through the diet, with rich sources including fruits (e.g., bananas, oranges, and apricots), vegetables (e.g., leafy greens, potatoes, and tomatoes), legumes, nuts, dairy products, and meat. In cases of deficiency or increased needs, potassium supplements may be recommended under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Electric conductivity, also known as electrical conductance, is a measure of a material's ability to allow the flow of electric current through it. It is usually measured in units of Siemens per meter (S/m) or ohm-meters (Ω-m).

In medical terms, electric conductivity can refer to the body's ability to conduct electrical signals, which is important for various physiological processes such as nerve impulse transmission and muscle contraction. Abnormalities in electrical conductivity can be associated with various medical conditions, including neurological disorders and heart diseases.

For example, in electrocardiography (ECG), the electric conductivity of the heart is measured to assess its electrical activity and identify any abnormalities that may indicate heart disease. Similarly, in electromyography (EMG), the electric conductivity of muscles is measured to diagnose neuromuscular disorders.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Rabbits" is a common name used to refer to the Lagomorpha species, particularly members of the family Leporidae. They are small mammals known for their long ears, strong legs, and quick reproduction.

However, if you're referring to "rabbits" in a medical context, there is a term called "rabbit syndrome," which is a rare movement disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements of the fingers, resembling those of a rabbit chewing. It is also known as "finger-chewing chorea." This condition is usually associated with certain medications, particularly antipsychotics, and typically resolves when the medication is stopped or adjusted.

Potassium channels are membrane proteins that play a crucial role in regulating the electrical excitability of cells, including cardiac, neuronal, and muscle cells. These channels facilitate the selective passage of potassium ions (K+) across the cell membrane, maintaining the resting membrane potential and shaping action potentials. They are composed of four or six subunits that assemble to form a central pore through which potassium ions move down their electrochemical gradient. Potassium channels can be modulated by various factors such as voltage, ligands, mechanical stimuli, or temperature, allowing cells to fine-tune their electrical properties and respond to different physiological demands. Dysfunction of potassium channels has been implicated in several diseases, including cardiac arrhythmias, epilepsy, and neurodegenerative disorders.

An action potential is a brief electrical signal that travels along the membrane of a nerve cell (neuron) or muscle cell. It is initiated by a rapid, localized change in the permeability of the cell membrane to specific ions, such as sodium and potassium, resulting in a rapid influx of sodium ions and a subsequent efflux of potassium ions. This ion movement causes a brief reversal of the electrical potential across the membrane, which is known as depolarization. The action potential then propagates along the cell membrane as a wave, allowing the electrical signal to be transmitted over long distances within the body. Action potentials play a crucial role in the communication and functioning of the nervous system and muscle tissue.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Collecting kidney tubules, also known as collecting ducts, are the final portion of the renal tubule in the nephron of the kidney. They collect filtrate from the distal convoluted tubules and glomeruli and are responsible for the reabsorption of water and electrolytes back into the bloodstream under the influence of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and aldosterone. The collecting ducts then deliver the remaining filtrate to the ureter, which transports it to the bladder for storage until urination.

Bicarbonates, also known as sodium bicarbonate or baking soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3. In the context of medical definitions, bicarbonates refer to the bicarbonate ion (HCO3-), which is an important buffer in the body that helps maintain normal pH levels in blood and other bodily fluids.

The balance of bicarbonate and carbonic acid in the body helps regulate the acidity or alkalinity of the blood, a condition known as pH balance. Bicarbonates are produced by the body and are also found in some foods and drinking water. They work to neutralize excess acid in the body and help maintain the normal pH range of 7.35 to 7.45.

In medical testing, bicarbonate levels may be measured as part of an electrolyte panel or as a component of arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis. Low bicarbonate levels can indicate metabolic acidosis, while high levels can indicate metabolic alkalosis. Both conditions can have serious consequences if not treated promptly and appropriately.

Benzodioxoles are chemical compounds that consist of a benzene ring (a six-carbon cyclic structure with alternating double bonds) linked to two oxide groups through methane bridges. They can be found naturally in some plants, such as nutmeg and tea, but they are also synthesized for use in various pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs.

In the medical field, benzodioxoles are used in the synthesis of certain drugs, including some antimicrobials, antihelmintics (drugs that treat parasitic worm infections), and muscle relaxants. However, they are perhaps best known for their use as a structural component in certain illicit drugs, such as ecstasy (MDMA) and related substances.

It's important to note that while benzodioxoles themselves may have some medical uses, many of the drugs that contain this structure can be dangerous when used improperly or without medical supervision.

I must clarify that the term "Guinea Pigs" is not typically used in medical definitions. However, in colloquial or informal language, it may refer to people who are used as the first to try out a new medical treatment or drug. This is known as being a "test subject" or "in a clinical trial."

In the field of scientific research, particularly in studies involving animals, guinea pigs are small rodents that are often used as experimental subjects due to their size, cost-effectiveness, and ease of handling. They are not actually pigs from Guinea, despite their name's origins being unclear. However, they do not exactly fit the description of being used in human medical experiments.

Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter, a type of chemical messenger that transmits signals across a chemical synapse from one neuron (nerve cell) to another "target" neuron, muscle cell, or gland cell. It is involved in both peripheral and central nervous system functions.

In the peripheral nervous system, acetylcholine acts as a neurotransmitter at the neuromuscular junction, where it transmits signals from motor neurons to activate muscles. Acetylcholine also acts as a neurotransmitter in the autonomic nervous system, where it is involved in both the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems.

In the central nervous system, acetylcholine plays a role in learning, memory, attention, and arousal. Disruptions in cholinergic neurotransmission have been implicated in several neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and myasthenia gravis.

Acetylcholine is synthesized from choline and acetyl-CoA by the enzyme choline acetyltransferase and is stored in vesicles at the presynaptic terminal of the neuron. When a nerve impulse arrives, the vesicles fuse with the presynaptic membrane, releasing acetylcholine into the synapse. The acetylcholine then binds to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane, triggering a response in the target cell. Acetylcholine is subsequently degraded by the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which terminates its action and allows for signal transduction to be repeated.

The Loop of Henle, also known as the Henle's loop or nephron loop, is a hairpin-shaped structure in the nephrons of the mammalian kidney. It is a part of the renal tubule and plays a crucial role in concentrating urine and maintaining water-electrolyte balance in the body.

The Loop of Henle consists of two main segments: the thin descending limb, which dips into the medulla of the kidney, and the thick ascending limb, which returns to the cortex. The loop is responsible for creating a concentration gradient in the medullary interstitium, allowing for the reabsorption of water from the filtrate in the collecting ducts under the influence of antidiuretic hormone (ADH).

In summary, the Loop of Henle is a vital component of the kidney's nephron that facilitates urine concentration and helps regulate fluid balance in the body.

Smooth muscle, also known as involuntary muscle, is a type of muscle that is controlled by the autonomic nervous system and functions without conscious effort. These muscles are found in the walls of hollow organs such as the stomach, intestines, bladder, and blood vessels, as well as in the eyes, skin, and other areas of the body.

Smooth muscle fibers are shorter and narrower than skeletal muscle fibers and do not have striations or sarcomeres, which give skeletal muscle its striped appearance. Smooth muscle is controlled by the autonomic nervous system through the release of neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine and norepinephrine, which bind to receptors on the smooth muscle cells and cause them to contract or relax.

Smooth muscle plays an important role in many physiological processes, including digestion, circulation, respiration, and elimination. It can also contribute to various medical conditions, such as hypertension, gastrointestinal disorders, and genitourinary dysfunction, when it becomes overactive or underactive.

Synaptic transmission is the process by which a neuron communicates with another cell, such as another neuron or a muscle cell, across a junction called a synapse. It involves the release of neurotransmitters from the presynaptic terminal of the neuron, which then cross the synaptic cleft and bind to receptors on the postsynaptic cell, leading to changes in the electrical or chemical properties of the target cell. This process is critical for the transmission of signals within the nervous system and for controlling various physiological functions in the body.

Barium is a naturally occurring, silvery-white metallic chemical element with the symbol Ba and atomic number 56. In medical terms, barium is commonly used as a contrast agent in radiology, particularly in X-ray examinations such as an upper GI series or barium enema. The barium sulfate powder is mixed with water to create a liquid or thick paste that is swallowed or inserted through the rectum. This provides a white coating on the inside lining of the digestive tract, allowing it to be seen more clearly on X-ray images and helping doctors diagnose various conditions such as ulcers, tumors, or inflammation.

It's important to note that barium is not absorbed by the body and does not cause any harm when used in medical imaging procedures. However, if it is accidentally inhaled or aspirated into the lungs during administration, it can cause chemical pneumonitis, a potentially serious condition. Therefore, it should only be administered under the supervision of trained medical professionals.

Sodium is an essential mineral and electrolyte that is necessary for human health. In a medical context, sodium is often discussed in terms of its concentration in the blood, as measured by serum sodium levels. The normal range for serum sodium is typically between 135 and 145 milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L).

Sodium plays a number of important roles in the body, including:

* Regulating fluid balance: Sodium helps to regulate the amount of water in and around your cells, which is important for maintaining normal blood pressure and preventing dehydration.
* Facilitating nerve impulse transmission: Sodium is involved in the generation and transmission of electrical signals in the nervous system, which is necessary for proper muscle function and coordination.
* Assisting with muscle contraction: Sodium helps to regulate muscle contractions by interacting with other minerals such as calcium and potassium.

Low sodium levels (hyponatremia) can cause symptoms such as confusion, seizures, and coma, while high sodium levels (hypernatremia) can lead to symptoms such as weakness, muscle cramps, and seizures. Both conditions require medical treatment to correct.

Neurons, also known as nerve cells or neurocytes, are specialized cells that constitute the basic unit of the nervous system. They are responsible for receiving, processing, and transmitting information and signals within the body. Neurons have three main parts: the dendrites, the cell body (soma), and the axon. The dendrites receive signals from other neurons or sensory receptors, while the axon transmits these signals to other neurons, muscles, or glands. The junction between two neurons is called a synapse, where neurotransmitters are released to transmit the signal across the gap (synaptic cleft) to the next neuron. Neurons vary in size, shape, and structure depending on their function and location within the nervous system.

Potassium chloride is an essential electrolyte that is often used in medical settings as a medication. It's a white, crystalline salt that is highly soluble in water and has a salty taste. In the body, potassium chloride plays a crucial role in maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance, nerve function, and muscle contraction.

Medically, potassium chloride is commonly used to treat or prevent low potassium levels (hypokalemia) in the blood. Hypokalemia can occur due to various reasons such as certain medications, kidney diseases, vomiting, diarrhea, or excessive sweating. Potassium chloride is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and liquids, and it's usually taken by mouth.

It's important to note that potassium chloride should be used with caution and under the supervision of a healthcare provider, as high levels of potassium (hyperkalemia) can be harmful and even life-threatening. Hyperkalemia can cause symptoms such as muscle weakness, irregular heartbeat, and cardiac arrest.

Vasoconstriction is a medical term that refers to the narrowing of blood vessels due to the contraction of the smooth muscle in their walls. This process decreases the diameter of the lumen (the inner space of the blood vessel) and reduces blood flow through the affected vessels. Vasoconstriction can occur throughout the body, but it is most noticeable in the arterioles and precapillary sphincters, which control the amount of blood that flows into the capillary network.

The autonomic nervous system, specifically the sympathetic division, plays a significant role in regulating vasoconstriction through the release of neurotransmitters like norepinephrine (noradrenaline). Various hormones and chemical mediators, such as angiotensin II, endothelin-1, and serotonin, can also induce vasoconstriction.

Vasoconstriction is a vital physiological response that helps maintain blood pressure and regulate blood flow distribution in the body. However, excessive or prolonged vasoconstriction may contribute to several pathological conditions, including hypertension, stroke, and peripheral vascular diseases.

Perfusion, in medical terms, refers to the process of circulating blood through the body's organs and tissues to deliver oxygen and nutrients and remove waste products. It is a measure of the delivery of adequate blood flow to specific areas or tissues in the body. Perfusion can be assessed using various methods, including imaging techniques like computed tomography (CT) scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and perfusion scintigraphy.

Perfusion is critical for maintaining proper organ function and overall health. When perfusion is impaired or inadequate, it can lead to tissue hypoxia, acidosis, and cell death, which can result in organ dysfunction or failure. Conditions that can affect perfusion include cardiovascular disease, shock, trauma, and certain surgical procedures.

'4,4'-Diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-Disulfonic Acid' is a chemical compound that is often used in research and scientific studies. Its molecular formula is C14H10N2O6S2. This compound is a derivative of stilbene, which is a type of organic compound that consists of two phenyl rings joined by a ethylene bridge. In '4,4'-Diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-Disulfonic Acid', the hydrogen atoms on the carbon atoms of the ethylene bridge have been replaced with isothiocyanate groups (-N=C=S), and the phenyl rings have been sulfonated (introduction of a sulfuric acid group, -SO3H) to increase its water solubility.

This compound is often used as a fluorescent probe in biochemical and cell biological studies due to its ability to form covalent bonds with primary amines, such as those found on proteins. This property allows researchers to label and track specific proteins or to measure the concentration of free primary amines in a sample.

It is important to note that '4,4'-Diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-Disulfonic Acid' is a hazardous chemical and should be handled with care, using appropriate personal protective equipment and safety measures.

Amiloride is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called potassium-sparing diuretics. It works by preventing the reabsorption of salt and water in the kidneys, which helps to increase urine output and decrease fluid buildup in the body. At the same time, amiloride also helps to preserve the level of potassium in the body, which is why it is known as a potassium-sparing diuretic.

Amiloride is commonly used to treat high blood pressure, heart failure, and edema (fluid buildup) in the body. It is available in tablet form and is typically taken once or twice a day, with or without food. Common side effects of amiloride include headache, dizziness, and stomach upset.

It's important to note that amiloride can interact with other medications, including some over-the-counter products, so it's essential to inform your healthcare provider of all the medications you are taking before starting amiloride therapy. Additionally, regular monitoring of blood pressure, kidney function, and electrolyte levels is necessary while taking this medication.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

The proximal kidney tubule is the initial portion of the renal tubule in the nephron of the kidney. It is located in the renal cortex and is called "proximal" because it is closer to the glomerulus, compared to the distal tubule. The proximal tubule plays a crucial role in the reabsorption of water, electrolytes, and nutrients from the filtrate that has been formed by the glomerulus. It also helps in the secretion of waste products and other substances into the urine.

The proximal tubule is divided into two segments: the pars convoluta and the pars recta. The pars convoluta is the curved portion that receives filtrate from the Bowman's capsule, while the pars recta is the straight portion that extends deeper into the renal cortex.

The proximal tubule is lined with a simple cuboidal epithelium, and its cells are characterized by numerous mitochondria, which provide energy for active transport processes. The apical surface of the proximal tubular cells has numerous microvilli, forming a brush border that increases the surface area for reabsorption.

In summary, the proximal kidney tubule is a critical site for the reabsorption of water, electrolytes, and nutrients from the glomerular filtrate, contributing to the maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance in the body.

Serotonin, also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), is a monoamine neurotransmitter that is found primarily in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, blood platelets, and the central nervous system (CNS) of humans and other animals. It is produced by the conversion of the amino acid tryptophan to 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), and then to serotonin.

In the CNS, serotonin plays a role in regulating mood, appetite, sleep, memory, learning, and behavior, among other functions. It also acts as a vasoconstrictor, helping to regulate blood flow and blood pressure. In the GI tract, it is involved in peristalsis, the contraction and relaxation of muscles that moves food through the digestive system.

Serotonin is synthesized and stored in serotonergic neurons, which are nerve cells that use serotonin as their primary neurotransmitter. These neurons are found throughout the brain and spinal cord, and they communicate with other neurons by releasing serotonin into the synapse, the small gap between two neurons.

Abnormal levels of serotonin have been linked to a variety of disorders, including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and migraines. Medications that affect serotonin levels, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), are commonly used to treat these conditions.

Excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) are electrical signals that occur in the dendrites and cell body of a neuron, or nerve cell. They are caused by the activation of excitatory synapses, which are connections between neurons that allow for the transmission of information.

When an action potential, or electrical impulse, reaches the end of an axon, it triggers the release of neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft, the small gap between the presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes. The excitatory neurotransmitters then bind to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane, causing a local depolarization of the membrane potential. This depolarization is known as an EPSP.

EPSPs are responsible for increasing the likelihood that an action potential will be generated in the postsynaptic neuron. When multiple EPSPs occur simultaneously or in close succession, they can summate and cause a large enough depolarization to trigger an action potential. This allows for the transmission of information from one neuron to another.

It's important to note that there are also inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) which decrease the likelihood that an action potential will be generated in the postsynaptic neuron, by causing a local hyperpolarization of the membrane potential.

Muscle relaxation, in a medical context, refers to the process of reducing tension and promoting relaxation in the skeletal muscles. This can be achieved through various techniques, including progressive muscle relaxation (PMR), where individuals consciously tense and then release specific muscle groups in a systematic manner.

PMR has been shown to help reduce anxiety, stress, and muscle tightness, and improve overall well-being. It is often used as a complementary therapy in conjunction with other treatments for conditions such as chronic pain, headaches, and insomnia.

Additionally, muscle relaxation can also be facilitated through pharmacological interventions, such as the use of muscle relaxant medications. These drugs work by inhibiting the transmission of signals between nerves and muscles, leading to a reduction in muscle tone and spasticity. They are commonly used to treat conditions such as multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, and spinal cord injuries.

A synapse is a structure in the nervous system that allows for the transmission of signals from one neuron (nerve cell) to another. It is the point where the axon terminal of one neuron meets the dendrite or cell body of another, and it is here that neurotransmitters are released and received. The synapse includes both the presynaptic and postsynaptic elements, as well as the cleft between them.

At the presynaptic side, an action potential travels down the axon and triggers the release of neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft through exocytosis. These neurotransmitters then bind to receptors on the postsynaptic side, which can either excite or inhibit the receiving neuron. The strength of the signal between two neurons is determined by the number and efficiency of these synapses.

Synapses play a crucial role in the functioning of the nervous system, allowing for the integration and processing of information from various sources. They are also dynamic structures that can undergo changes in response to experience or injury, which has important implications for learning, memory, and recovery from neurological disorders.

Ion channels are specialized transmembrane proteins that form hydrophilic pores or gaps in the lipid bilayer of cell membranes. They regulate the movement of ions (such as sodium, potassium, calcium, and chloride) across the cell membrane by allowing these charged particles to pass through selectively in response to various stimuli, including voltage changes, ligand binding, mechanical stress, or temperature changes. This ion movement is essential for many physiological processes, including electrical signaling, neurotransmission, muscle contraction, and maintenance of resting membrane potential. Ion channels can be categorized based on their activation mechanisms, ion selectivity, and structural features. Dysfunction of ion channels can lead to various diseases, making them important targets for drug development.

Chloride channels are membrane proteins that form hydrophilic pores or gaps, allowing the selective passage of chloride ions (Cl-) across the lipid bilayer of cell membranes. They play crucial roles in various physiological processes, including regulation of neuronal excitability, maintenance of resting membrane potential, fluid and electrolyte transport, and pH and volume regulation of cells.

Chloride channels can be categorized into several groups based on their structure, function, and mechanism of activation. Some of the major classes include:

1. Voltage-gated chloride channels (ClC): These channels are activated by changes in membrane potential and have a variety of functions, such as regulating neuronal excitability and transepithelial transport.
2. Ligand-gated chloride channels: These channels are activated by the binding of specific ligands or messenger molecules, like GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) or glycine, and are involved in neurotransmission and neuromodulation.
3. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR): This is a chloride channel primarily located in the apical membrane of epithelial cells, responsible for secreting chloride ions and water to maintain proper hydration and mucociliary clearance in various organs, including the lungs and pancreas.
4. Calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs): These channels are activated by increased intracellular calcium concentrations and participate in various physiological processes, such as smooth muscle contraction, neurotransmitter release, and cell volume regulation.
5. Swelling-activated chloride channels (ClSwells): Also known as volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs), these channels are activated by cell swelling or osmotic stress and help regulate cell volume and ionic homeostasis.

Dysfunction of chloride channels has been implicated in various human diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, myotonia congenita, epilepsy, and certain forms of cancer.

Hydrotherapy is a type of physical therapy that involves the use of water for pain relief and treatment. The temperature and pressure of the water can be adjusted to help reduce inflammation, improve circulation, and promote relaxation. Common hydrotherapy techniques include whirlpool baths, hot and cold compresses, and underwater massage. Hydrotherapy is often used to treat a variety of conditions, including arthritis, fibromyalgia, and musculoskeletal injuries. It can also be helpful for rehabilitation after surgery or stroke.

Here are some specific ways that hydrotherapy may be beneficial:

* The buoyancy of water can help support weak muscles and reduce the impact on joints, making it easier to exercise and move around.
* The warmth of the water can help relax muscles and improve circulation, which can help reduce pain and stiffness.
* The hydrostatic pressure of water can help reduce swelling in the limbs by encouraging fluid to flow back into the veins.
* The resistance provided by water can help strengthen muscles and improve balance and coordination.

It's important to note that while hydrotherapy can be a helpful treatment option for many people, it may not be appropriate for everyone. If you have any health concerns or medical conditions, it's important to talk to your doctor before starting a new treatment regimen. They can help determine whether hydrotherapy is safe and suitable for you.

Propionophenones are a group of chemical compounds that contain a propanone (or methyl ketone) substituent and a phenyl group. In medical terms, some propionophenones have been used as pharmaceuticals, such as the antipsychotic drug perphenazine. However, it's important to note that not all propionophenones have medicinal uses, and some may even be harmful or toxic. Therefore, specific propionophenones should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis for their medical relevance or potential hazards.

GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) antagonists are substances that block the action of GABA, which is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. GABA plays a crucial role in regulating neuronal excitability and reducing the transmission of nerve impulses.

GABA antagonists work by binding to the GABA receptors without activating them, thereby preventing the normal function of GABA and increasing neuronal activity. These agents can cause excitation of the nervous system, leading to various effects depending on the specific type of GABA receptor they target.

GABA antagonists are used in medical treatments for certain conditions, such as sleep disorders, depression, and cognitive enhancement. However, they can also have adverse effects, including anxiety, agitation, seizures, and even neurotoxicity at high doses. Examples of GABA antagonists include picrotoxin, bicuculline, and flumazenil.

Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are a class of medications that work by inhibiting the influx of calcium ions into cardiac and smooth muscle cells. This action leads to relaxation of the muscles, particularly in the blood vessels, resulting in decreased peripheral resistance and reduced blood pressure. Calcium channel blockers also have anti-arrhythmic effects and are used in the management of various cardiovascular conditions such as hypertension, angina, and certain types of arrhythmias.

Calcium channel blockers can be further classified into two main categories based on their chemical structure: dihydropyridines (e.g., nifedipine, amlodipine) and non-dihydropyridines (e.g., verapamil, diltiazem). Dihydropyridines are more selective for vascular smooth muscle and have a greater effect on blood pressure than heart rate or conduction. Non-dihydropyridines have a more significant impact on cardiac conduction and contractility, in addition to their vasodilatory effects.

It is important to note that calcium channel blockers may interact with other medications and should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional. Potential side effects include dizziness, headache, constipation, and peripheral edema.

In a medical context, "hot temperature" is not a standard medical term with a specific definition. However, it is often used in relation to fever, which is a common symptom of illness. A fever is typically defined as a body temperature that is higher than normal, usually above 38°C (100.4°F) for adults and above 37.5-38°C (99.5-101.3°F) for children, depending on the source.

Therefore, when a medical professional talks about "hot temperature," they may be referring to a body temperature that is higher than normal due to fever or other causes. It's important to note that a high environmental temperature can also contribute to an elevated body temperature, so it's essential to consider both the body temperature and the environmental temperature when assessing a patient's condition.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

Electroplating is not a medical term, but rather a process used in the industrial field. It refers to the process of coating an electrically conductive object with a thin layer of metal through the use of an electrical current. This process involves immersing the object in a solution containing dissolved ions of the metal to be deposited, and then passing an electric current through the solution. The object serves as the cathode, and the metal ions are reduced at its surface, forming a thin layer of pure metal.

While electroplating is not directly related to medicine, it does have some medical applications. For example, medical devices such as pacemakers or implantable defibrillators may be coated with gold or other metals through electroplating to improve their biocompatibility and reduce the risk of corrosion or rejection by the body. Similarly, dental restorations may be electroplated with precious metals to enhance their strength and durability.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "microwaves" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from one meter to one millimeter; they are commonly used in communication devices and home appliances such as microwave ovens. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, please provide more context so I can give you a more accurate response.

4-Acetamido-4'-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid is a chemical compound that is often used in research and scientific studies. It is a type of stilbene derivative, which is a class of compounds characterized by the presence of a central double bond flanked by two phenyl rings.

In this particular compound, one of the phenyl rings has been substituted with an acetamido group (-NH-C(=O)CH3), while the other phenyl ring has been substituted with an isothiocyanato group (-N=C=S) and two sulfonic acid groups (-SO3H).

The compound is often used as a fluorescent probe in biochemical and cellular studies, as it exhibits strong fluorescence when bound to certain proteins or other biological molecules. It can be used to study the interactions between these molecules and to investigate their structure and function.

It's important to note that this compound is not approved for medical use in humans and should only be handled by trained professionals in a controlled laboratory setting.

Vasoconstrictor agents are substances that cause the narrowing of blood vessels by constricting the smooth muscle in their walls. This leads to an increase in blood pressure and a decrease in blood flow. They work by activating the sympathetic nervous system, which triggers the release of neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine and epinephrine that bind to alpha-adrenergic receptors on the smooth muscle cells of the blood vessel walls, causing them to contract.

Vasoconstrictor agents are used medically for a variety of purposes, including:

* Treating hypotension (low blood pressure)
* Controlling bleeding during surgery or childbirth
* Relieving symptoms of nasal congestion in conditions such as the common cold or allergies

Examples of vasoconstrictor agents include phenylephrine, oxymetazoline, and epinephrine. It's important to note that prolonged use or excessive doses of vasoconstrictor agents can lead to rebound congestion and other adverse effects, so they should be used with caution and under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Kidney tubules are the structural and functional units of the kidney responsible for reabsorption, secretion, and excretion of various substances. They are part of the nephron, which is the basic unit of the kidney's filtration and reabsorption process.

There are three main types of kidney tubules:

1. Proximal tubule: This is the initial segment of the kidney tubule that receives the filtrate from the glomerulus. It is responsible for reabsorbing approximately 65% of the filtrate, including water, glucose, amino acids, and electrolytes.
2. Loop of Henle: This U-shaped segment of the tubule consists of a thin descending limb, a thin ascending limb, and a thick ascending limb. The loop of Henle helps to concentrate urine by creating an osmotic gradient that allows water to be reabsorbed in the collecting ducts.
3. Distal tubule: This is the final segment of the kidney tubule before it empties into the collecting duct. It is responsible for fine-tuning the concentration of electrolytes and pH balance in the urine by selectively reabsorbing or secreting substances such as sodium, potassium, chloride, and hydrogen ions.

Overall, kidney tubules play a critical role in maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance, regulating acid-base balance, and removing waste products from the body.

Sodium Chloride is defined as the inorganic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions. It is commonly known as table salt or halite, and it is used extensively in food seasoning and preservation due to its ability to enhance flavor and inhibit bacterial growth. In medicine, sodium chloride is used as a balanced electrolyte solution for rehydration and as a topical wound irrigant and antiseptic. It is also an essential component of the human body's fluid balance and nerve impulse transmission.

Norepinephrine, also known as noradrenaline, is a neurotransmitter and a hormone that is primarily produced in the adrenal glands and is released into the bloodstream in response to stress or physical activity. It plays a crucial role in the "fight-or-flight" response by preparing the body for action through increasing heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and glucose availability.

As a neurotransmitter, norepinephrine is involved in regulating various functions of the nervous system, including attention, perception, motivation, and arousal. It also plays a role in modulating pain perception and responding to stressful or emotional situations.

In medical settings, norepinephrine is used as a vasopressor medication to treat hypotension (low blood pressure) that can occur during septic shock, anesthesia, or other critical illnesses. It works by constricting blood vessels and increasing heart rate, which helps to improve blood pressure and perfusion of vital organs.

Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. It plays a crucial role in regulating neuronal excitability and preventing excessive neuronal firing, which helps to maintain neural homeostasis and reduce the risk of seizures. GABA functions by binding to specific receptors (GABA-A, GABA-B, and GABA-C) on the postsynaptic membrane, leading to hyperpolarization of the neuronal membrane and reduced neurotransmitter release from presynaptic terminals.

In addition to its role in the central nervous system, GABA has also been identified as a neurotransmitter in the peripheral nervous system, where it is involved in regulating various physiological processes such as muscle relaxation, hormone secretion, and immune function.

GABA can be synthesized in neurons from glutamate, an excitatory neurotransmitter, through the action of the enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD). Once synthesized, GABA is stored in synaptic vesicles and released into the synapse upon neuronal activation. After release, GABA can be taken up by surrounding glial cells or degraded by the enzyme GABA transaminase (GABA-T) into succinic semialdehyde, which is further metabolized to form succinate and enter the Krebs cycle for energy production.

Dysregulation of GABAergic neurotransmission has been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, including epilepsy, anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbances. Therefore, modulating GABAergic signaling through pharmacological interventions or other therapeutic approaches may offer potential benefits for the treatment of these conditions.

Carbachol is a cholinergic agonist, which means it stimulates the parasympathetic nervous system by mimicking the action of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that is involved in transmitting signals between nerves and muscles. Carbachol binds to both muscarinic and nicotinic receptors, but its effects are more pronounced on muscarinic receptors.

Carbachol is used in medical treatments to produce miosis (pupil constriction), lower intraocular pressure, and stimulate gastrointestinal motility. It can also be used as a diagnostic tool to test for certain conditions such as Hirschsprung's disease.

Like any medication, carbachol can have side effects, including sweating, salivation, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, bradycardia (slow heart rate), and bronchoconstriction (narrowing of the airways in the lungs). It should be used with caution and under the supervision of a healthcare professional.

Excitatory amino acid antagonists are a class of drugs that block the action of excitatory neurotransmitters, particularly glutamate and aspartate, in the brain. These drugs work by binding to and blocking the receptors for these neurotransmitters, thereby reducing their ability to stimulate neurons and produce an excitatory response.

Excitatory amino acid antagonists have been studied for their potential therapeutic benefits in a variety of neurological conditions, including stroke, epilepsy, traumatic brain injury, and neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. However, their use is limited by the fact that blocking excitatory neurotransmission can also have negative effects on cognitive function and memory.

There are several types of excitatory amino acid receptors, including N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA), and kainite receptors. Different excitatory amino acid antagonists may target one or more of these receptor subtypes, depending on their specific mechanism of action.

Examples of excitatory amino acid antagonists include ketamine, memantine, and dextromethorphan. These drugs have been used in clinical practice for various indications, such as anesthesia, sedation, and treatment of neurological disorders. However, their use must be carefully monitored due to potential side effects and risks associated with blocking excitatory neurotransmission.

Potassium channel blockers are a class of medications that work by blocking potassium channels, which are proteins in the cell membrane that control the movement of potassium ions into and out of cells. By blocking these channels, potassium channel blockers can help to regulate electrical activity in the heart, making them useful for treating certain types of cardiac arrhythmias (irregular heart rhythms).

There are several different types of potassium channel blockers, including:

1. Class III antiarrhythmic drugs: These medications, such as amiodarone and sotalol, are used to treat and prevent serious ventricular arrhythmias (irregular heart rhythms that originate in the lower chambers of the heart).
2. Calcium channel blockers: While not strictly potassium channel blockers, some calcium channel blockers also have effects on potassium channels. These medications, such as diltiazem and verapamil, are used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure), angina (chest pain), and certain types of arrhythmias.
3. Non-selective potassium channel blockers: These medications, such as 4-aminopyridine and tetraethylammonium, have a broader effect on potassium channels and are used primarily in research settings to study the electrical properties of cells.

It's important to note that potassium channel blockers can have serious side effects, particularly when used in high doses or in combination with other medications that affect heart rhythms. They should only be prescribed by a healthcare provider who is familiar with their use and potential risks.

The umbilicus, also known as the navel, is the scar left on the abdominal wall after the removal of the umbilical cord in a newborn. The umbilical cord connects the developing fetus to the placenta in the uterus during pregnancy, providing essential nutrients and oxygen while removing waste products. After birth, the cord is clamped and cut, leaving behind a small stump that eventually dries up and falls off, leaving the umbilicus. In adults, it typically appears as a slight depression or dimple on the abdomen.

"Wistar rats" are a strain of albino rats that are widely used in laboratory research. They were developed at the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, USA, and were first introduced in 1906. Wistar rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not have a fixed set of genetic characteristics like inbred strains.

Wistar rats are commonly used as animal models in biomedical research because of their size, ease of handling, and relatively low cost. They are used in a wide range of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and behavioral studies. Wistar rats are also used in safety testing of drugs, medical devices, and other products.

Wistar rats are typically larger than many other rat strains, with males weighing between 500-700 grams and females weighing between 250-350 grams. They have a lifespan of approximately 2-3 years. Wistar rats are also known for their docile and friendly nature, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory setting.

Calcium channels are specialized proteins that span the membrane of cells and allow calcium ions (Ca²+) to flow in and out of the cell. They are crucial for many physiological processes, including muscle contraction, neurotransmitter release, hormone secretion, and gene expression.

There are several types of calcium channels, classified based on their biophysical and pharmacological properties. The most well-known are:

1. Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs): These channels are activated by changes in the membrane potential. They are further divided into several subtypes, including L-type, P/Q-type, N-type, R-type, and T-type. VGCCs play a critical role in excitation-contraction coupling in muscle cells and neurotransmitter release in neurons.
2. Receptor-operated calcium channels (ROCCs): These channels are activated by the binding of an extracellular ligand, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, to a specific receptor on the cell surface. ROCCs are involved in various physiological processes, including smooth muscle contraction and platelet activation.
3. Store-operated calcium channels (SOCCs): These channels are activated by the depletion of intracellular calcium stores, such as those found in the endoplasmic reticulum. SOCCs play a critical role in maintaining calcium homeostasis and signaling within cells.

Dysregulation of calcium channel function has been implicated in various diseases, including hypertension, arrhythmias, migraine, epilepsy, and neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, calcium channels are an important target for drug development and therapy.

In medicine, "absorption" refers to the process by which substances, including nutrients, medications, or toxins, are taken up and assimilated into the body's tissues or bloodstream after they have been introduced into the body via various routes (such as oral, intravenous, or transdermal).

The absorption of a substance depends on several factors, including its chemical properties, the route of administration, and the presence of other substances that may affect its uptake. For example, some medications may be better absorbed when taken with food, while others may require an empty stomach for optimal absorption.

Once a substance is absorbed into the bloodstream, it can then be distributed to various tissues throughout the body, where it may exert its effects or be metabolized and eliminated by the body's detoxification systems. Understanding the process of absorption is crucial in developing effective medical treatments and determining appropriate dosages for medications.

Enzyme inhibitors are substances that bind to an enzyme and decrease its activity, preventing it from catalyzing a chemical reaction in the body. They can work by several mechanisms, including blocking the active site where the substrate binds, or binding to another site on the enzyme to change its shape and prevent substrate binding. Enzyme inhibitors are often used as drugs to treat various medical conditions, such as high blood pressure, abnormal heart rhythms, and bacterial infections. They can also be found naturally in some foods and plants, and can be used in research to understand enzyme function and regulation.

A smooth muscle within the vascular system refers to the involuntary, innervated muscle that is found in the walls of blood vessels. These muscles are responsible for controlling the diameter of the blood vessels, which in turn regulates blood flow and blood pressure. They are called "smooth" muscles because their individual muscle cells do not have the striations, or cross-striped patterns, that are observed in skeletal and cardiac muscle cells. Smooth muscle in the vascular system is controlled by the autonomic nervous system and by hormones, and can contract or relax slowly over a period of time.

The kidney medulla is the inner portion of the renal pyramids in the kidney, consisting of multiple conical structures found within the kidney. It is composed of loops of Henle and collecting ducts responsible for concentrating urine by reabsorbing water and producing a hyperosmotic environment. The kidney medulla has a unique blood supply and is divided into an inner and outer zone, with the inner zone having a higher osmolarity than the outer zone. This region of the kidney helps regulate electrolyte and fluid balance in the body.

Tetraethylammonium (TEA) is not typically defined in the context of medical terminology, but rather it is a chemical compound with the formula (C2H5)4N+. It is used in research and development, particularly in the field of electrophysiology where it is used as a blocking agent for certain types of ion channels.

Medically, TEA may be mentioned in the context of its potential toxicity or adverse effects on the human body. Exposure to TEA can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, headache, dizziness, and confusion. Severe exposure can lead to more serious complications, including seizures, respiratory failure, and cardiac arrest.

Therefore, while Tetraethylammonium is not a medical term per se, it is important for healthcare professionals to be aware of its potential health hazards and take appropriate precautions when handling or working with this compound.

Bicuculline is a pharmacological agent that acts as a competitive antagonist at GABA-A receptors, which are inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors in the central nervous system. By blocking the action of GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) at these receptors, bicuculline can increase neuronal excitability and cause convulsions. It is used in research to study the role of GABAergic neurotransmission in various physiological processes and neurological disorders.

"Fish diseases" is a broad term that refers to various health conditions and infections affecting fish populations in aquaculture, ornamental fish tanks, or wild aquatic environments. These diseases can be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, or environmental factors such as water quality, temperature, and stress.

Some common examples of fish diseases include:

1. Bacterial diseases: Examples include furunculosis (caused by Aeromonas salmonicida), columnaris disease (caused by Flavobacterium columnare), and enteric septicemia of catfish (caused by Edwardsiella ictaluri).

2. Viral diseases: Examples include infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) in salmonids, viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), and koi herpesvirus (KHV).

3. Fungal diseases: Examples include saprolegniasis (caused by Saprolegnia spp.) and cotton wool disease (caused by Aphanomyces spp.).

4. Parasitic diseases: Examples include ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich), costia, trichodina, and various worm infestations such as anchor worms (Lernaea spp.) and tapeworms (Diphyllobothrium spp.).

5. Environmental diseases: These are caused by poor water quality, temperature stress, or other environmental factors that weaken the fish's immune system and make them more susceptible to infections. Examples include osmoregulatory disorders, ammonia toxicity, and low dissolved oxygen levels.

It is essential to diagnose and treat fish diseases promptly to prevent their spread among fish populations and maintain healthy aquatic ecosystems. Preventative measures such as proper sanitation, water quality management, biosecurity practices, and vaccination can help reduce the risk of fish diseases in both farmed and ornamental fish settings.

A microelectrode is a small electrode with dimensions ranging from several micrometers to a few tens of micrometers in diameter. They are used in various biomedical applications, such as neurophysiological studies, neuromodulation, and brain-computer interfaces. In these applications, microelectrodes serve to record electrical activity from individual or small groups of neurons or deliver electrical stimuli to specific neural structures with high spatial resolution.

Microelectrodes can be fabricated using various materials, including metals (e.g., tungsten, stainless steel, platinum), metal alloys, carbon fibers, and semiconductor materials like silicon. The design of microelectrodes may vary depending on the specific application, with some common types being sharpened metal wires, glass-insulated metal microwires, and silicon-based probes with multiple recording sites.

The development and use of microelectrodes have significantly contributed to our understanding of neural function in health and disease, enabling researchers and clinicians to investigate the underlying mechanisms of neurological disorders and develop novel therapies for conditions such as Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, and hearing loss.

I'm not able to provide a medical definition for "swimming pools" as it is not a term that is typically used in the medical field. However, swimming pools are bodies of water designed for swimming and other recreational activities. They can be found in various settings such as residential homes, community centers, hotels, and fitness clubs. Swimming pools can contain either chlorinated or saltwater and should be properly maintained to prevent the growth of harmful bacteria and algae that can cause illnesses.

If you have any medical concerns related to swimming or using swimming pools, I would recommend consulting with a healthcare professional for advice tailored to your specific situation.

Drowning is a process resulting in primary respiratory impairment from the direct or indirect immersion/submersion in a liquid medium. It can be classified as:

1. Death due to drowning, which is the wet form where water enters the lungs (drowning with respirations) and
2. Death due to asphyxia from lack of breathing while submerged in water (drowning without respirations).

The terms "wet," "dry," "active," "passive," "silent," or "smothering" drowning have been used historically but are no longer recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) or other experts because they can be misleading and do not contribute to the understanding or prevention of drowning.

The process of drowning can lead to various clinical presentations, ranging from mild respiratory symptoms to severe hypoxic injury and ultimately death. Factors such as the duration of submersion, the volume and temperature of the fluid, and the presence of other injuries or medical conditions can all influence the outcome.

It is important to note that drowning is a significant public health issue and a leading cause of accidental deaths worldwide, particularly among children and adolescents. Prevention efforts, such as water safety education, supervision, and barriers around bodies of water, are crucial in reducing the incidence of drowning.

Vasodilation is the widening or increase in diameter of blood vessels, particularly the involuntary relaxation of the smooth muscle in the tunica media (middle layer) of the arteriole walls. This results in an increase in blood flow and a decrease in vascular resistance. Vasodilation can occur due to various physiological and pathophysiological stimuli, such as local metabolic demands, neural signals, or pharmacological agents. It plays a crucial role in regulating blood pressure, tissue perfusion, and thermoregulation.

Temperature, in a medical context, is a measure of the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment. It is usually measured using a thermometer and reported in degrees Celsius (°C), degrees Fahrenheit (°F), or kelvin (K). In the human body, normal core temperature ranges from about 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F) when measured rectally, and can vary slightly depending on factors such as time of day, physical activity, and menstrual cycle. Elevated body temperature is a common sign of infection or inflammation, while abnormally low body temperature can indicate hypothermia or other medical conditions.

Methane is not a medical term, but it is a chemical compound that is often mentioned in the context of medicine and health. Medically, methane is significant because it is one of the gases produced by anaerobic microorganisms during the breakdown of organic matter in the gut, leading to conditions such as bloating, cramping, and diarrhea. Excessive production of methane can also be a symptom of certain digestive disorders like irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO).

In broader terms, methane is a colorless, odorless gas that is the primary component of natural gas. It is produced naturally by the decomposition of organic matter in anaerobic conditions, such as in landfills, wetlands, and the digestive tracts of animals like cows and humans. Methane is also a potent greenhouse gas with a global warming potential 25 times greater than carbon dioxide over a 100-year time frame.

Evoked potentials (EPs) are medical tests that measure the electrical activity in the brain or spinal cord in response to specific sensory stimuli, such as sight, sound, or touch. These tests are often used to help diagnose and monitor conditions that affect the nervous system, such as multiple sclerosis, brainstem tumors, and spinal cord injuries.

There are several types of EPs, including:

1. Visual Evoked Potentials (VEPs): These are used to assess the function of the visual pathway from the eyes to the back of the brain. A patient is typically asked to look at a patterned image or flashing light while electrodes placed on the scalp record the electrical responses.
2. Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials (BAEPs): These are used to evaluate the function of the auditory nerve and brainstem. Clicking sounds are presented to one or both ears, and electrodes placed on the scalp measure the response.
3. Somatosensory Evoked Potentials (SSEPs): These are used to assess the function of the peripheral nerves and spinal cord. Small electrical shocks are applied to a nerve at the wrist or ankle, and electrodes placed on the scalp record the response as it travels up the spinal cord to the brain.
4. Motor Evoked Potentials (MEPs): These are used to assess the function of the motor pathways in the brain and spinal cord. A magnetic or electrical stimulus is applied to the brain or spinal cord, and electrodes placed on a muscle measure the response as it travels down the motor pathway.

EPs can help identify abnormalities in the nervous system that may not be apparent through other diagnostic tests, such as imaging studies or clinical examinations. They are generally safe, non-invasive procedures with few risks or side effects.

Organ culture techniques refer to the methods used to maintain or grow intact organs or pieces of organs under controlled conditions in vitro, while preserving their structural and functional characteristics. These techniques are widely used in biomedical research to study organ physiology, pathophysiology, drug development, and toxicity testing.

Organ culture can be performed using a variety of methods, including:

1. Static organ culture: In this method, the organs or tissue pieces are placed on a porous support in a culture dish and maintained in a nutrient-rich medium. The medium is replaced periodically to ensure adequate nutrition and removal of waste products.
2. Perfusion organ culture: This method involves perfusing the organ with nutrient-rich media, allowing for better distribution of nutrients and oxygen throughout the tissue. This technique is particularly useful for studying larger organs such as the liver or kidney.
3. Microfluidic organ culture: In this approach, microfluidic devices are used to create a controlled microenvironment for organ cultures. These devices allow for precise control over the flow of nutrients and waste products, as well as the application of mechanical forces.

Organ culture techniques can be used to study various aspects of organ function, including metabolism, secretion, and response to drugs or toxins. Additionally, these methods can be used to generate three-dimensional tissue models that better recapitulate the structure and function of intact organs compared to traditional two-dimensional cell cultures.

Osmolar concentration is a measure of the total number of solute particles (such as ions or molecules) dissolved in a solution per liter of solvent (usually water), which affects the osmotic pressure. It is expressed in units of osmoles per liter (osmol/L). Osmolarity and osmolality are related concepts, with osmolarity referring to the number of osmoles per unit volume of solution, typically measured in liters, while osmolality refers to the number of osmoles per kilogram of solvent. In clinical contexts, osmolar concentration is often used to describe the solute concentration of bodily fluids such as blood or urine.

Ion transport refers to the active or passive movement of ions, such as sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), chloride (Cl-), and calcium (Ca2+) ions, across cell membranes. This process is essential for various physiological functions, including nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and maintenance of resting membrane potential.

Ion transport can occur through several mechanisms, including:

1. Diffusion: the passive movement of ions down their concentration gradient, from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
2. Facilitated diffusion: the passive movement of ions through specialized channels or transporters in the cell membrane.
3. Active transport: the energy-dependent movement of ions against their concentration gradient, requiring the use of ATP. This process is often mediated by ion pumps, such as the sodium-potassium pump (Na+/K+-ATPase).
4. Co-transport or symport: the coupled transport of two or more different ions or molecules in the same direction, often driven by an electrochemical gradient.
5. Counter-transport or antiport: the coupled transport of two or more different ions or molecules in opposite directions, also often driven by an electrochemical gradient.

Abnormalities in ion transport can lead to various medical conditions, such as cystic fibrosis (which involves defective chloride channel function), hypertension (which may be related to altered sodium transport), and certain forms of heart disease (which can result from abnormal calcium handling).

Ouabain is defined as a cardiac glycoside, a type of steroid, that is found in the seeds and roots of certain plants native to Africa. It is used in medicine as a digitalis-like agent to increase the force of heart contractions and slow the heart rate, particularly in the treatment of congestive heart failure and atrial fibrillation. Ouabain functions by inhibiting the sodium-potassium pump (Na+/K+-ATPase) in the cell membrane, leading to an increase in intracellular sodium and calcium ions, which ultimately enhances cardiac muscle contractility. It is also known as g-strophanthin or ouabaine.

"Newborn animals" refers to the very young offspring of animals that have recently been born. In medical terminology, newborns are often referred to as "neonates," and they are classified as such from birth until about 28 days of age. During this time period, newborn animals are particularly vulnerable and require close monitoring and care to ensure their survival and healthy development.

The specific needs of newborn animals can vary widely depending on the species, but generally, they require warmth, nutrition, hydration, and protection from harm. In many cases, newborns are unable to regulate their own body temperature or feed themselves, so they rely heavily on their mothers for care and support.

In medical settings, newborn animals may be examined and treated by veterinarians to ensure that they are healthy and receiving the care they need. This can include providing medical interventions such as feeding tubes, antibiotics, or other treatments as needed to address any health issues that arise. Overall, the care and support of newborn animals is an important aspect of animal medicine and conservation efforts.

Barium compounds are inorganic substances that contain the metallic element barium (Ba) combined with one or more other elements. Barium is an alkaline earth metal that is highly reactive and toxic in its pure form. However, when bound with other elements to form barium compounds, it can be used safely for various medical and industrial purposes.

In medicine, barium compounds are commonly used as a contrast material for X-ray examinations of the digestive system. When a patient swallows a preparation containing barium sulfate, the dense compound coats the lining of the esophagus, stomach, and intestines, making them visible on an X-ray image. This allows doctors to diagnose conditions such as ulcers, tumors, or blockages in the digestive tract.

Other barium compounds include barium carbonate, barium chloride, and barium hydroxide, which are used in various industrial applications such as drilling muds, flame retardants, and pigments for paints and plastics. However, these compounds can be toxic if ingested or inhaled, so they must be handled with care.

Alkaloids are a type of naturally occurring organic compounds that contain mostly basic nitrogen atoms. They are often found in plants, and are known for their complex ring structures and diverse pharmacological activities. Many alkaloids have been used in medicine for their analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and therapeutic properties. Examples of alkaloids include morphine, quinine, nicotine, and caffeine.

The hippocampus is a complex, curved formation in the brain that resembles a seahorse (hence its name, from the Greek word "hippos" meaning horse and "kampos" meaning sea monster). It's part of the limbic system and plays crucial roles in the formation of memories, particularly long-term ones.

This region is involved in spatial navigation and cognitive maps, allowing us to recognize locations and remember how to get to them. Additionally, it's one of the first areas affected by Alzheimer's disease, which often results in memory loss as an early symptom.

Anatomically, it consists of two main parts: the Ammon's horn (or cornu ammonis) and the dentate gyrus. These structures are made up of distinct types of neurons that contribute to different aspects of learning and memory.

Nitric oxide (NO) is a molecule made up of one nitrogen atom and one oxygen atom. In the body, it is a crucial signaling molecule involved in various physiological processes such as vasodilation, immune response, neurotransmission, and inhibition of platelet aggregation. It is produced naturally by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) from the amino acid L-arginine. Inhaled nitric oxide is used medically to treat pulmonary hypertension in newborns and adults, as it helps to relax and widen blood vessels, improving oxygenation and blood flow.

Gastrointestinal motility refers to the coordinated muscular contractions and relaxations that propel food, digestive enzymes, and waste products through the gastrointestinal tract. This process involves the movement of food from the mouth through the esophagus into the stomach, where it is mixed with digestive enzymes and acids to break down food particles.

The contents are then emptied into the small intestine, where nutrients are absorbed, and the remaining waste products are moved into the large intestine for further absorption of water and electrolytes and eventual elimination through the rectum and anus.

Gastrointestinal motility is controlled by a complex interplay between the autonomic nervous system, hormones, and local reflexes. Abnormalities in gastrointestinal motility can lead to various symptoms such as bloating, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or constipation.

Tetraethylammonium compounds refer to chemical substances that contain the tetraethylammonium cation (N(C2H5)4+). This organic cation is derived from tetraethylammonium hydroxide, which in turn is produced by the reaction of ethyl alcohol with ammonia and then treated with a strong acid.

Tetraethylammonium compounds are used in various biomedical research applications as they can block certain types of ion channels, making them useful for studying neuronal excitability and neurotransmission. However, these compounds have also been associated with toxic effects on the nervous system and other organs, and their use is therefore subject to strict safety regulations.

Biological transport refers to the movement of molecules, ions, or solutes across biological membranes or through cells in living organisms. This process is essential for maintaining homeostasis, regulating cellular functions, and enabling communication between cells. There are two main types of biological transport: passive transport and active transport.

Passive transport does not require the input of energy and includes:

1. Diffusion: The random movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until equilibrium is reached.
2. Osmosis: The diffusion of solvent molecules (usually water) across a semi-permeable membrane from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration.
3. Facilitated diffusion: The assisted passage of polar or charged substances through protein channels or carriers in the cell membrane, which increases the rate of diffusion without consuming energy.

Active transport requires the input of energy (in the form of ATP) and includes:

1. Primary active transport: The direct use of ATP to move molecules against their concentration gradient, often driven by specific transport proteins called pumps.
2. Secondary active transport: The coupling of the movement of one substance down its electrochemical gradient with the uphill transport of another substance, mediated by a shared transport protein. This process is also known as co-transport or counter-transport.

4-Aminopyridine is a type of medication that is used to treat symptoms of certain neurological disorders, such as multiple sclerosis or spinal cord injuries. It works by blocking the action of potassium channels in nerve cells, which helps to improve the transmission of nerve impulses and enhance muscle function.

The chemical name for 4-Aminopyridine is 4-AP or fampridine. It is available as a prescription medication in some countries and can be taken orally in the form of tablets or capsules. Common side effects of 4-Aminopyridine include dizziness, lightheadedness, and numbness or tingling sensations in the hands or feet.

It is important to note that 4-Aminopyridine should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as it can have serious side effects if not used properly.

Excitatory amino acid agonists are substances that bind to and activate excitatory amino acid receptors, leading to an increase in the excitation or activation of neurons. The most common excitatory amino acids in the central nervous system are glutamate and aspartate.

Agonists of excitatory amino acid receptors can be divided into two main categories: ionotropic and metabotropic. Ionotropic receptors, such as N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA), and kainite receptors, are ligand-gated ion channels that directly mediate fast excitatory synaptic transmission. Metabotropic receptors, on the other hand, are G protein-coupled receptors that modulate synaptic activity through second messenger systems.

Excitatory amino acid agonists have been implicated in various physiological and pathophysiological processes, including learning and memory, neurodevelopment, and neurodegenerative disorders such as stroke, epilepsy, and Alzheimer's disease. They are also used in research to study the functions of excitatory amino acid receptors and their roles in neuronal signaling. However, due to their potential neurotoxic effects, the therapeutic use of excitatory amino acid agonists is limited.

I'm not a doctor, but I can provide some information on the topic. "Mud therapy," also known as pelotherapy, is a type of alternative or complementary medicine that involves the use of mud or clay as a treatment for various health conditions. The theory behind it is that the minerals and other properties found in certain types of mud can have therapeutic effects when applied to the body.

Mud therapy is often used in spas and wellness centers for relaxation, stress relief, and skin care. It's also used in some medical contexts, such as physical therapy and rehabilitation, where mud packs or mud baths may be applied to reduce pain and inflammation in muscles and joints. Some proponents of mud therapy also claim that it can help boost the immune system, detoxify the body, and improve circulation.

It's important to note that while some people report benefits from mud therapy, there is limited scientific evidence to support many of its claimed health benefits. As with any alternative therapy, it's always a good idea to talk to your doctor before trying mud therapy, especially if you have any underlying medical conditions or take medication.

Flavobacteriaceae is a family of Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria found in various environments such as water, soil, and clinical specimens. While many species are harmless to humans, some can cause infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying health conditions.

Flavobacteriaceae infections refer to illnesses caused by the pathogenic species within this family. These infections can manifest as various clinical syndromes, including:

1. Pneumonia: Flavobacterium spp., such as F. psychrophilum and F. johnsoniae, have been implicated in respiratory tract infections, particularly in hospitalized patients or those with compromised immune systems.
2. Skin and soft tissue infections: Some Flavobacteriaceae species, like Capnocytophaga spp., can cause skin and soft tissue infections, especially in individuals with a history of animal bites or scratches.
3. Bloodstream infections (bacteremia): Bacteremia due to Flavobacteriaceae is relatively rare but has been reported, particularly in immunocompromised patients or those with indwelling medical devices.
4. Eye infections (keratitis and endophthalmitis): Contact lens wearers are at risk of developing keratitis caused by Flavobacterium spp., while endophthalmitis can occur following ocular surgeries or trauma.
5. Central nervous system infections: Meningitis, encephalitis, and brain abscesses have been reported due to Flavobacteriaceae species, although these are extremely rare.

Diagnosis of Flavobacteriaceae infections typically involves the isolation and identification of the bacterium from clinical specimens, such as blood, sputum, or tissue samples. Treatment usually consists of antibiotics that demonstrate activity against Gram-negative bacteria, with specific recommendations depending on the susceptibility patterns of the infecting species.

Neural inhibition is a process in the nervous system that decreases or prevents the activity of neurons (nerve cells) in order to regulate and control communication within the nervous system. It is a fundamental mechanism that allows for the balance of excitation and inhibition necessary for normal neural function. Inhibitory neurotransmitters, such as GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) and glycine, are released from the presynaptic neuron and bind to receptors on the postsynaptic neuron, reducing its likelihood of firing an action potential. This results in a decrease in neural activity and can have various effects depending on the specific neurons and brain regions involved. Neural inhibition is crucial for many functions including motor control, sensory processing, attention, memory, and emotional regulation.

Medical definitions of water generally describe it as a colorless, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for all forms of life. It is a universal solvent, making it an excellent medium for transporting nutrients and waste products within the body. Water constitutes about 50-70% of an individual's body weight, depending on factors such as age, sex, and muscle mass.

In medical terms, water has several important functions in the human body:

1. Regulation of body temperature through perspiration and respiration.
2. Acting as a lubricant for joints and tissues.
3. Facilitating digestion by helping to break down food particles.
4. Transporting nutrients, oxygen, and waste products throughout the body.
5. Helping to maintain healthy skin and mucous membranes.
6. Assisting in the regulation of various bodily functions, such as blood pressure and heart rate.

Dehydration can occur when an individual does not consume enough water or loses too much fluid due to illness, exercise, or other factors. This can lead to a variety of symptoms, including dry mouth, fatigue, dizziness, and confusion. Severe dehydration can be life-threatening if left untreated.

The trachea, also known as the windpipe, is a tube-like structure in the respiratory system that connects the larynx (voice box) to the bronchi (the two branches leading to each lung). It is composed of several incomplete rings of cartilage and smooth muscle, which provide support and flexibility. The trachea plays a crucial role in directing incoming air to the lungs during inspiration and outgoing air to the larynx during expiration.

Bumetanide is a loop diuretic medication that is primarily used to treat fluid buildup and swelling caused by various medical conditions, such as heart failure, liver cirrhosis, and kidney disease. It works by increasing the excretion of salt and water from the body through urination.

The increased urine output helps reduce the amount of fluid in the body, which can help alleviate symptoms such as shortness of breath, weight gain, and swelling in the legs, ankles, and feet. Bumetanide is a potent diuretic and should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider to monitor its effects on the body's electrolyte balance and fluid levels.

Like other loop diuretics, bumetanide can cause side effects such as dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, hearing loss, and kidney damage if used inappropriately or in excessive doses. It is important to follow the prescribed dosage regimen and inform your healthcare provider of any changes in your health status while taking this medication.

6-Cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione is a chemical compound that is commonly used in research and scientific studies. It is a member of the quinoxaline family of compounds, which are aromatic heterocyclic organic compounds containing two nitrogen atoms.

The 6-Cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione compound has several notable features, including:

* A quinoxaline ring structure, which is made up of two benzene rings fused to a pyrazine ring.
* A cyano group (-CN) at the 6th position of the quinoxaline ring.
* A nitro group (-NO2) at the 7th position of the quinoxaline ring.
* Two carbonyl groups (=O) at the 2nd and 3rd positions of the quinoxaline ring.

This compound is known to have various biological activities, such as antimicrobial, antifungal, and anticancer properties. However, its use in medical treatments is not widespread due to potential toxicity and lack of comprehensive studies on its safety and efficacy. As with any chemical compound, it should be handled with care and used only under appropriate laboratory conditions.

The thoracic aorta is the segment of the largest artery in the human body (the aorta) that runs through the chest region (thorax). The thoracic aorta begins at the aortic arch, where it branches off from the ascending aorta, and extends down to the diaphragm, where it becomes the abdominal aorta.

The thoracic aorta is divided into three parts: the ascending aorta, the aortic arch, and the descending aorta. The ascending aorta rises from the left ventricle of the heart and is about 2 inches (5 centimeters) long. The aortic arch curves backward and to the left, giving rise to the brachiocephalic trunk, the left common carotid artery, and the left subclavian artery. The descending thoracic aorta runs downward through the chest, passing through the diaphragm to become the abdominal aorta.

The thoracic aorta supplies oxygenated blood to the upper body, including the head, neck, arms, and chest. It plays a critical role in maintaining blood flow and pressure throughout the body.

Spondylarthritis is a term used to describe a group of interrelated inflammatory diseases that primarily affect the spine and sacroiliac joints (where the spine connects to the pelvis), but can also involve other joints, ligaments, tendons, and entheses (sites where tendons or ligaments attach to bones). These conditions share common genetic, clinical, and imaging features.

The most common forms of spondylarthritis include:

1. Ankylosing spondylitis - a chronic inflammatory disease that primarily affects the spine and sacroiliac joints, causing pain and stiffness. In some cases, it can lead to fusion of the spine's vertebrae.
2. Psoriatic arthritis - a form of arthritis that occurs in people with psoriasis, an autoimmune skin condition. It can cause inflammation in the joints, tendons, and entheses.
3. Reactive arthritis - a type of arthritis that develops as a reaction to an infection in another part of the body, often the urinary or gastrointestinal tract.
4. Enteropathic arthritis - a form of arthritis associated with inflammatory bowel diseases like Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
5. Undifferentiated spondylarthritis - when a patient presents with features of spondylarthritis but does not meet the criteria for any specific subtype.

Common symptoms of spondylarthritis include:

- Back pain and stiffness, often worse in the morning or after periods of inactivity
- Peripheral joint pain and swelling
- Enthesitis (inflammation at tendon or ligament insertion points)
- Dactylitis (swelling of an entire finger or toe)
- Fatigue
- Uveitis (inflammation of the eye)
- Skin rashes, such as psoriasis
- Inflammatory bowel disease symptoms

Diagnosis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment often includes nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), biologic agents, and lifestyle modifications to manage symptoms and prevent joint damage.

Ion channel gating refers to the process by which ion channels in cell membranes open and close in response to various stimuli, allowing ions such as sodium, potassium, and calcium to flow into or out of the cell. This movement of ions is crucial for many physiological processes, including the generation and transmission of electrical signals in nerve cells, muscle contraction, and the regulation of hormone secretion.

Ion channel gating can be regulated by various factors, including voltage changes across the membrane (voltage-gated channels), ligand binding (ligand-gated channels), mechanical stress (mechanosensitive channels), or other intracellular signals (second messenger-gated channels). The opening and closing of ion channels are highly regulated and coordinated processes that play a critical role in maintaining the proper functioning of cells and organ systems.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Pyramidal cells, also known as pyramidal neurons, are a type of multipolar neuron found in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of the brain. They have a characteristic triangular or pyramid-like shape with a single apical dendrite that extends from the apex of the cell body towards the pial surface, and multiple basal dendrites that branch out from the base of the cell body.

Pyramidal cells are excitatory neurons that play a crucial role in information processing and transmission within the brain. They receive inputs from various sources, including other neurons and sensory receptors, and generate action potentials that are transmitted to other neurons through their axons. The apical dendrite of pyramidal cells receives inputs from distant cortical areas, while the basal dendrites receive inputs from local circuits.

Pyramidal cells are named after their pyramid-like shape and are among the largest neurons in the brain. They are involved in various cognitive functions, including learning, memory, attention, and perception. Dysfunction of pyramidal cells has been implicated in several neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy, and schizophrenia.

2-Amino-5-phosphonovalerate (APV) is a neurotransmitter receptor antagonist that is used in research to study the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptors. These receptors are involved in various physiological processes, including learning and memory, and are also implicated in a number of neurological disorders. APV works by binding to the NMDA receptor and blocking its activity, which allows researchers to study the role of these receptors in different biological processes. It is not used as a therapeutic drug in humans.

Motor neurons are specialized nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord that play a crucial role in controlling voluntary muscle movements. They transmit electrical signals from the brain to the muscles, enabling us to perform actions such as walking, talking, and swallowing. There are two types of motor neurons: upper motor neurons, which originate in the brain's motor cortex and travel down to the brainstem and spinal cord; and lower motor neurons, which extend from the brainstem and spinal cord to the muscles. Damage or degeneration of these motor neurons can lead to various neurological disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA).

Glyburide is a medication that falls under the class of drugs known as sulfonylureas. It is primarily used to manage type 2 diabetes by lowering blood sugar levels. Glyburide works by stimulating the release of insulin from the pancreas, thereby increasing the amount of insulin available in the body to help glucose enter cells and decrease the level of glucose in the bloodstream.

The medical definition of Glyburide is:
A second-generation sulfonylurea antidiabetic drug (oral hypoglycemic) used in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It acts by stimulating pancreatic beta cells to release insulin and increases peripheral glucose uptake and utilization, thereby reducing blood glucose levels. Glyburide may also decrease glucose production in the liver.

It is important to note that Glyburide should be used as part of a comprehensive diabetes management plan that includes proper diet, exercise, regular monitoring of blood sugar levels, and other necessary lifestyle modifications. As with any medication, it can have side effects and potential interactions with other drugs, so it should only be taken under the supervision of a healthcare provider.

Biological transport, active is the process by which cells use energy to move materials across their membranes from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration. This type of transport is facilitated by specialized proteins called transporters or pumps that are located in the cell membrane. These proteins undergo conformational changes to physically carry the molecules through the lipid bilayer of the membrane, often against their concentration gradient.

Active transport requires energy because it works against the natural tendency of molecules to move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration, a process known as diffusion. Cells obtain this energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is produced through cellular respiration.

Examples of active transport include the uptake of glucose and amino acids into cells, as well as the secretion of hormones and neurotransmitters. The sodium-potassium pump, which helps maintain resting membrane potential in nerve and muscle cells, is a classic example of an active transporter.

Quinoxalines are not a medical term, but rather an organic chemical compound. They are a class of heterocyclic aromatic compounds made up of a benzene ring fused to a pyrazine ring. Quinoxalines have no specific medical relevance, but some of their derivatives have been synthesized and used in medicinal chemistry as antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral agents. They are also used in the production of dyes and pigments.

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The Császár Thermal Bath is the oldest continually operating thermal bath in Budapest, and was originally built by Szokoli ... The Lukács Thermal Bath (Hungarian: Szt. Lukács gyógyfürdő) is a historic indoor/outdoor thermal bath spa in Budapest, Hungary ... Thermal baths have been used at this location since at least the 12th century (by the Knights Hospitallers), and as part of the ... Lukács Thermal Bath 47°31′4.18″N 19°2′12.2″E / 47.5178278°N 19.036722°E / 47.5178278; 19.036722 (Articles with a promotional ...
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View of the baths Residential ruins near the Licinian Baths Entrance of the baths "National monuments in Tunisia" (PDF). ... The baths' walls are well preserved today. Also, the tunnel that the baths' slaves used to circulate through is still present ... They were primarily used as winter baths. The baths were classified as a national monument by the National Heritage Institute ... The Licinian Baths (Arabic:حمام كارك) are a classified monument in the city of Beja in the north-west of Tunisia. Located in ...
North of Wylie's Baths are two more rock pools: the Ross Jones Memorial Baths (built 1947) and the McIver Women's Baths. These ... Wylie's Baths Trust. "History of Wylie's Baths". This Wikipedia article contains material from Wylie's Baths, entry number ... The construction of Wylie's Baths in 1907 coincided with an emerging interest in seaside baths in Sydney. Wylie's Baths forms a ... Media related to Wylie's Baths at Wikimedia Commons Wylie's Baths Website "Wylie's Baths". Dictionary of Sydney. 2008. ...
"Parnell Baths - NZ Landmark". CLM. Retrieved 26 February 2023. Ralph, Fiona (27 May 2015). "The historic Parnell Baths are ... The Parnell Baths were originally seawater, being filled when Judges Bay was at high tide. In 1923, a 1.5 metre springboard was ... The Parnell Baths are a historic swimming pool in Parnell, Auckland. The pools feature the largest saltwater swimming pool in ... Construction on the baths began in 1913, and the pools were opened on 7 March 1914. The poolswere originally only accessible by ...
"Projects". Govanhill Baths. Retrieved 12 April 2021. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Govanhill Baths. Govanhill Baths ... Govanhill Baths Community Trust operates from an office at 126 Calder Street, across the road from the baths building. ... Govanhill Baths is Glasgow's last surviving Edwardian public bathhouse. The building contained hot baths in the upper storey ... "Govanhill Public Baths and Wash-house". The Glasgow Story. Glasgow City Archives, Department of Baths and Wash Houses. ...
... at Heritage New Zealand Blue Baths in 1930's tourism brochure at Alexander Turnbull Library The Blue Baths ... The Blue Baths is a heritage geothermal baths building in Rotorua, in the North Island of New Zealand. The building is designed ... The first Blue Baths at the Government Gardens site were opened in 1886, and stood for over 40 years before being demolished in ... "Rotorua Blue Bath - Progress on New Building". New Zealand Herald. 30 August 1932. Archived from the original on 7 January 2023 ...
The building included a public bath, a charity bath, two private ladies' baths and two private gentlemen's baths. The building ... There were seven baths by 1793 for gentlemen and for ladies, both public and private, a charity bath for the poor, a cool bath ... In 1837 the Hot Baths were expanded, with two ladies' baths and two gentlemen's baths as well as the addition of a vapour and ... The Buxton Baths using natural thermal spring water are in Buxton, Derbyshire, England. The baths date back to Roman times and ...
... the Manchester and Salford Baths & Laundries Company. Greengate Baths opened in nearby Salford in 1856 and Mayfield Baths ... Manchester Mayfield railway station Public bathing Victoria Baths "Mayfield Baths and Laundries". Building (magazine). Vol. 555 ... The concept of bath houses became well publicised by the Baths and Wash-houses Act 1846, which was intended to encourage cities ... Although the city established a Baths & Wash Houses committee in 1876, it did not adopt the Act until 1877. Two bath and ...
... "there were of course other baths in Glasgow, but the Western Baths were simply known as the 'Baths' and no one would have ... The Baths will continue to have a Manager, but the term has changed to General Manager (a title previously held by Mr Campbell ... The position of Baths-Master was simply the role of Manager in Victorian times but the title referred to those of Victorian ... The Western Baths Club is a Victorian era private swimming and leisure club founded in 1876. The Club remains at its original ...
"Diana's Baths Bartlett, NH". Retrieved 25 April 2012. "Diana's Baths Waterfalls Bartlett NH - North Conway NH". Retrieved 12 ... rechristened them Diana's Baths, presumably to evoke images of the Roman nature goddess. The pools are also called Lucy's Baths ... Diana's Baths are located off West Side Road 0.5 miles (0.80 km) north of the turn to Cathedral Ledge outside of North Conway. ... Past Diana's Baths, the Moat Mountain Trail continues to the summit of North Moat Mountain. According to Place Names of the ...
The cold room (bayt al-barid) of the Almohad baths The warm room of the Almohad baths The hot room of the Almohad baths El ... baths The service area or furnace room of the bath complex The Almohad-era bath was located to the west of the caliphal bath ... Former public baths, Historic centre of Córdoba, Spain, Public baths in Spain, Public baths in the Arab world, Moorish ... The baths continued to be used by the new Christian rulers and a water basin for bathing was added to the more recent Almohad ...
"Forecast for Adonis Baths". Retrieved 2019-07-14. "Adonis Baths". Cyprus alive. 2017. "Adonis Baths Waterfall - ... "Adonis Baths waterfall(s), Pafos, Cyprus". Retrieved 2019-07-14. "Adonis Baths Waterfalls - Kili Village". ... Adonis Baths is a waterfall near Krya Vrysi and Lakkos tou Fragkou. It is located 267 m above sea level. In the village of ... "Adonis Baths". Mapcarta. Archived from the original on 2019-07-12. Retrieved 2019-07-12. "". ...
The Gellért Thermal Baths and Swimming Pool, also known simply as the Gellért Baths (Hungarian: Gellért gyógyfürdő), is a bath ... The bath was called Sárosfürdő ("muddy" bath) because the mineral mud settled at the bottom of pools. The Gellért Bath ... The 2008 reconstruction served to restore the bath to its original splendor. The Gellért Baths complex includes thermal baths, ... Danubius Hotels Gellért Baths site Gellért Baths virtual tour Archived 2013-11-02 at the Wayback Machine 47°29′1.35″N 19°3′3.5″ ...
Private baths and a laundry were housed there along with three swimming pools and a Turkish bath, later a Sauna was added. The ... In 2011 the Baths were used as a filming location, a concert venue, and an exhibition centre. On 16 April 2017, the baths were ... The Baths opened to the public in 1906 and cost £59,144 to build. Manchester City Council closed the baths in 1993 and the ... The Baths were closed by Manchester City Council in 1993. The Friends of Victoria Baths was formed and began to investigate the ...
... in Haggerston, London, was opened in 1904 as public baths. The baths were built at a cost of £60,000. There ... Due to the 2009 financial downturn the council had to remove funding for the re-opening of the baths. The Haggerston baths ... Haggerston Dulwich Baths Camberwell Baths Gordon, Ian; Inglis, Simon (2009), Great lengths: the historic indoor swimming pools ... Former public baths, Grade II listed buildings in the London Borough of Hackney, Public baths in the United Kingdom, Haggerston ...
... is a Grade II listed building at 368 North End Road, Fulham, London SW6. It was built in 1902 by the architect E. ... Historic England, "Fulham Baths (1192468)", National Heritage List for England, retrieved 4 September 2014 Home: Dance Attic ... Rehearsal Studios , Home, accessdate: 04/09/2014 Wikimedia Commons has media related to Fulham Baths. 51°28′52″N 0°11′58″W /  ...
Baths of Caracalla Baths of Diocletian Trier Imperial Baths This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title ... Imperial baths were the great bathing establishments built by the Romans during the period of classical antiquity including: ... Imperial baths. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. ( ...
... was a chain of gay bathhouses in the United States and Canada with particular prominence from the 1960s through the ... Bathhouses that today claim a Club Baths heritage include the CBC Resorts Club Body Center which has bathhouses in Miami, ... 15,000 to buy a closed Finnish bath house in Cleveland, Ohio. Campbell wanted to provide cleaner, brighter amenities which were ...
The Thongård company purchased the baths from the municipality for NOK 1 million and operates it as a bathing and fitness ... Public baths in Scandinavia, Bathing in Oslo, 1921 establishments in Norway, Buildings and structures in Oslo, Buildings and ... Bislet Baths (Norwegian: Bislet bad) is a swimming pool and fitness center in Oslo, designed by the architects Harald Aars and ... It was one of the country's most modern baths when it was built, and it was under municipal ownership until 2005. ...
The Baths Hall re-opened on 11 November 2011 with comedian Bill Bailey and guests performing on the opening evening. Bailey ... The Baths Hall is an entertainment venue in Scunthorpe, North Lincolnshire, England. It hosts many types of entertainment, ... He said about The Baths Hall: "It's got a brilliant atmosphere. I love the type of venues that have a large auditorium with ... Baths Hall Website (Use dmy dates from July 2023, Use British English from July 2023, Articles needing additional references ...
"Király Baths Budapest". Budapest Baths. Retrieved 14 April 2023. Official website Review of the Kiraly Bath 47°30′38.51″N 19°2′ ... Király Bath or Király fürdő was a thermal bath that was first built in Hungary in the second half of the sixteenth century, ... The bath and its neighborhood then became part of the consolidated city of Budapest. It retained many of the key elements of a ... Its address and entrance was Fő utca 82-84 while the exterior of the bath proper is on Ganz utca (domed stone structure). ...
The Loretto Baths were founded in 1841 as a cold river bathing facility by Johann Nepomuk Stadler. Thirty years later, he ... others continue bathing. As the baths are no longer heated, they are only open during the summer, from May to September. ... The Loretto Baths, in short Lollo, is the oldest open-air swimming pool in Germany. It is located at the foot of the ... At first the baths were for gentlemen only. The water for the pool came directly from the Hölderle, a stream which still runs ...
Bath), a well-preserved site in England Roman Baths, Beirut, Lebanon Roman baths of Toledo, a ruin in Toledo, Spain Roman Baths ... Roman baths are thermae. Historic examples of Roman Baths include: Aïn Doura Baths, a ruin in Dougga, Tunisia Għajn Tuffieħa ... a cold spring bath near London, reputedly of Roman origin Thermae Bath Spa, a historic spa with a contemporary spa in Bath, ... England Welwyn Roman Baths, a ruin near Welwyn Garden City, England Roman baths of Gafsa, Tunisia Roman Baths (Potsdam), a 19th ...
We tested and reviewed a variety of bird baths. See which one came out on top. ... The best bird baths bring beauty and life to the backyard. ... Shorter baths, like ground baths or shorter pedestal baths, ... This pedestal bird bath stands 20.5 inches tall.. This bird bath is a classic pedestal-style style. The bath is made from ... Location of Bird Bath. The bird baths location helps determine how comfortable birds will feel using it. Ground baths should ...
Bath together. Student groups are a great way to try something new, develop skills and maybe even uncover hidden talents. ... Belonging at Bath We look back on over 50 years of SU societies - setting you up for success, forging friendships and even ... "I wanted to meet great people, have a good time, have great nights out in Bath and thats exactly what I did - but I also ... BBC Radio 1 had been rocking the nation since 67, and it was time for pioneering Bath students to create one of the first ...
Source for information on bath salts: The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English dictionary. ... bath salts • pl. n. a crystalline substance that is dissolved in bathwater to soften or perfume the water. ... bath salts • pl. n. a crystalline substance that is dissolved in bathwater to soften or perfume the water. ... "bath salts ." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . 19 Sep. 2023 ,,. ...
Dont buy a bath sponge before reading these reviews. ... Our team of experts has selected the best bath sponges out of ... Which bath sponge should you get?. Best of the best bath sponge. myHomeBody Premium Bath Sponge: available at Amazon ... Bath sponge FAQ. How often should you replace a bath sponge?. A. Replace a sea sponge and natural loofah every three to four ... Best bang for your buck bath sponge. WhaleLife Shower Puff 4 Pack Bath Body Poufs: available at Amazon ...
EWGs Skin Deep® database gives you practical solutions to protect yourself and your family from everyday exposures to chemicals in personal care products.
Greek baths can be separated into three types: the gymnasium bath, the domestic bath, and the public bath. The baths at the gym ... which still brought a shift from hygienic bathing to bathing for relaxation purposes. Greek baths of Gela Greek baths and ... The hot-air bath later came to be known as a laconia bath. The people of Laconia were from the Sparta area. With this bath came ... Gym baths did not use heated water. Domestic baths, located in private homes, were a single room with only a bath tub and some ...
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Types of Bath Towels: From Cotton to Oversized. How does a bath towel designed to dry quickly sound to you? What about a ... You could go for a microfiber towel for that sift touch or a fluffy cotton bath towel for quick abortion. Bath towels are an ... Think about the features you wish your bath towels had. Are you craving oversized, fluffy bath sheets you can get lost in? Do ... Outfit Your Bathroom with Quality Bath Towels and Towel Sets. When shopping for bath towels, you dont have to decide between ...
Also a bit of bath salts, if you dont mind. Serve it in this cute tea cup set made by the Dutch design firm Het Paradijs. ... Also a bit of bath salts, if you dont mind. Serve it in this cute tea cup set made by the Dutch design firm Het Paradijs.. ...
The ancient Baths of Caracalla in Rome, an enormous, magnificent bath complex. ... Baths of Caracalla today. The red-brick ruins of the Baths of Caracalla are situated southeast of ancient Romes center. The ... Bathing in the Roman Era. At a time when Romes crowded tenements had few sanitary facilities, the more than fifty public baths ... The ritual of bathing was a long process, starting with a hot bath in the calidarium. Next up was the lukewarm tepidarium, ...
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roman baths New cold water pools found at ancient Roman bath house in Toledo. 28 September 2023. 6 March 2023. ... Toledo, Spain (EFE).- Archeologists in Spain have discovered cold water pools, known as frigidarium, at an ancient Roman bath ...
Get free shipping on qualified Sterling Showers products or Buy Online Pick Up in Store today in the Bath Department. ...
See examples of BATH used in a sentence. ... Bath definition: a washing or immersion of something, ... See synonyms for bath on noun,plural baths [bathz, bahthz, baths, bahths]. /bæðz, bɑðz, bæθs, bɑθs/. *. a ... bath. *. take a bath, Informal. to suffer a large financial loss: Many investors are taking a bath on their bond investments. ... verb (used with or without object),bathed, bath·ing.Chiefly British.. *. to wash or soak in a bath. ...
Kitchen & Bath Business - January 2019 - Hospitality style calls to a homes kitchen and baths. Kitchen & Bath Business - ... Kitchen & Bath Business - January 2019 - Last Word. Kitchen & Bath Business - January 2019 - Cover3. Kitchen & Bath Business - ... Kitchen & Bath Business - January 2019 - Cover2. Kitchen & Bath Business - January 2019 - 1. Kitchen & Bath Business - January ... Kitchen & Bath Business - January 2019 - 5. Kitchen & Bath Business - January 2019 - Editors Note. Kitchen & Bath Business - ...
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A great toy that will make kids love taking a bath. Bath Duck ... Made out of rubber, bath time ducky features a hole on the ... 3 1/2 Classic Bath Duck from Toysmith. This little yellow guy is an all-time favorite. ... 3 1/2 Classic Bath Duck from Toysmith. This little yellow guy is an all-time favorite. Made out of rubber, bath time ducky ... Title: Bath Duck. Format: Gift. Vendor: Toysmith. Publication Date: 2017. Weight: 2 ounces. UPC: 085761014770. Ages: 1-3. Stock ...
Bubble baths, which are just plain fun.. Try not to rush your toddler in and out of the bath. Let your child continue to have ... Bath-Time Fun. Bathtime (or pooltime) is fun time for your toddler. Playing with water is both fun and fascinating. Your child ... Floating balls, boats, bath books, and foam toys are fun to set sailing and then to try and catch. ... Old favorites such as rubber duckies or other floating animals will of course delight your toddler in the bath or wading pool. ...
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Drop these DIY creepy bath bombs in and wait to see what creepy crawlies come out! ... Give someone a very spooky surprise at bath time this Halloween. ... In the bath it will be diluted down and not stain the tub. ... Keep the bath bombs in a cool, dry space until youre ready to use. Add them to a warm bath to give someone a spooky surprise! ... Bath time doesnt have to mean the end of the spooky action. With a scary surprise waiting in each of these creepy Halloween ...
The meaning of OIL BATH is a bath of oil. ... Post the Definition of oil bath to Facebook Facebook Share the ... "Oil bath." Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, Accessed 22 ...
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bathing+suit beach cape Cool woodblock images female girl retro summer swimsuit woman women Safe for Work?. Yes. Download. SVG ... It always blows my mind when I see "bathing suits" from a 100 years ago. Modest "respectable women" would wear these "hot ... Bathing Suits 1900. by j4p4n - uploaded on May 2, 2017, 5:15 pm ... bathing suits" back then. What kind of clothes (bikinis etc) do ...
Bubble Bath Made in an old Tuscan monastery, this gentle bubble bathâ€"which is designed for allergic or sensitive skin typesâ ...
Explore the Bath Assembly Rooms through exciting partnership events and behind-the-scene tours to uncover what once lay at the ... Bath Fashion Museum Bath Fashion Museum is owned by Bath and North East Somerset Council and has temporarily closed in ... Future plans for Bath Assembly Rooms Find out more about the Bath Assembly Rooms project and how were working with partners ... Discover more at Bath Assembly Rooms. Find out when Bath Assembly Rooms is open, how to get here, the things to see and do and ...
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Bambi at The Baths The Baths Nikon D300 ,Tokina 10-17mm f/3.5-4.5 AT-X 107 DX 1/400s f/11.0 at 14.0mm iso200 full exif ... ppansano , all galleries >> Galleries >> BVI Family Vacation 2010 > Bambi at The Baths ...
Before the mid-nineteenth century, Americans seldom bathed for personal cleanliness. Many considered bathing to be unhealthy, ... New York City built free public bath houses to encourage bathing. In 1891, New Yorkers were each given a free cake of Colgate ... However, the Bathing (Body Soaps and Cleansers) section relied on the following references:. Andrews, Margaret R, and Mary M ... By the 1920s, bathing had become an essential part of a healthy hygiene ritual. Yet, American soap manufacturers faced stiff ...
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  • Toss in a few handfuls of bath salts infused with aromatic essential oils and your bath can actually change your mood, help you sleep better, and do wonders for your skin. (
  • When you toss in bath salts, your body absorbs their magnesium topically, which helps the nervous system, eases stress, and can relieve water retention (see "Healing Waters," below). (
  • Be sure to add salts, soaks, and bubble bath with essential oils before you step into the tub so the running water disperses their benefits. (
  • Synthetic cathinones have been sold as MDMA ( 1 ), distributed as nondrug products (e.g., bath salts) to conceal their sale as an illicit drug and also sold as illicit drug products. (
  • Bath salts," a slang term used to describe a group of stimulant drugs that contain chemicals called cathinones, are chemically distinct from the bath salts they resemble. (
  • Traditional bath salts used for bathing are usually a combination of sodium chloride , magnesium chloride, sodium bicarbonate , glycerin , and fragrances. (
  • Recently, khat use has spread to other countries, and much stronger, man-made (synthetic) cathinones (marketed as "bath salts" to circumvent laws regarding controlled substances) have become drugs of abuse. (
  • Bath salts can be inhaled, smoked, and sometimes injected. (
  • Because bath salts are not detected with routine urine or blood testing, doctors usually base the diagnosis on symptoms in people known to have used the drug. (
  • Even in places that didn't embrace the communal pools, there was still a drastic development in the technology of bath houses and the importance of bathing for relaxation as well as cleanliness. (
  • Before the mid-nineteenth century, Americans seldom bathed for personal cleanliness. (
  • We present 1 year of data without CHG bathing (2016) and 2 years of data when CHG was used on the HCT unit (2017 and 2018). (
  • to wash or soak in a bath. (
  • Whether you're after a relaxing, petal-laden floral soak or an invigorating multilayered explosion of color and scent, there's a handmade bath bomb perfect for every bathing experience. (
  • Also first appearing in these locations was the separation of the building into to two different zone: one for hygienic bathing and the other for relaxing and socializing (often in an immersion pool). (
  • Due to their exceptional temperature uniformity and fast temperature immersions, processing time is between two to three minutes per item for immersion in the bath, followed by quenching in cold fluid. (
  • Rather it was meant for what was considered the more feminine activity of "bathing," a simple immersion that allowed for some bobbing or a few strokes without any real possibility of sustained swimming. (
  • The Thermae Antoninianae (Baths of Caracalla) opened in 217 AD, during the reign of Emperor Caracalla, as the largest bath complex in the world. (
  • The red-brick ruins of the Baths of Caracalla are situated southeast of ancient Rome's center. (
  • Construction of the Baths of Caracalla started in 212 AD, and the complex was completed five years later. (
  • It was built during the reign of Emperor Caracalla whose official name was Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, hence the original name of the baths, Thermae Antoninianae. (
  • In December 2012 a museum opened in the tunnels underneath the Baths of Caracalla. (
  • Bubble baths , which are just plain fun. (
  • Choose from luxury gifts that are perfect for pampering, including bath foam, body lotions and scented candles, or pick cartoon-inspired children's bubble bath gift sets to make bath time a blast. (
  • This kind to skin, refreshing bubble bath, infused with a seamoss fragrance, cleanses and refreshes skin. (
  • In Peru, floral baths known as banjos florales ('flower baths') are a staple of shamanic healing from the high Andes to the Amazon basin, where they are used to wash away unhelpful spirits so that blockages are removed and the energy of the universe can flood in to correct the imbalance. (
  • How hot the bath -and the bathroom-should beThe meta analysis from 2019 zeroed in on 104 to 109 degrees Fahrenheit as a temperature range that improves sleep quality. (
  • Greek baths were bath complexes suitable for bathing and cleaning in ancient Greece, similar in concept to that of the Roman baths. (
  • At a time when Rome's crowded tenements had few sanitary facilities, the more than fifty public baths in Imperial Rome played an important part in Roman society. (
  • Archeologists in Spain have discovered cold water pools, known as frigidarium, at an ancient Roman bath house in the central city of Toledo. (
  • Larger baths hold more water and give birds more room to bathe without getting in each other's way. (
  • Also decide if the bird bath will feature moving water . (
  • While many models are simply basins designed to be filled with still water, some bird baths come with fountains, misters, drippers, and bubblers. (
  • Moreover, moving water helps deter insects and algae, making the bird bath easier to maintain and keep clean. (
  • Some models come with moving built-in water elements, but bird lovers may want to add a bubbler or fountain to a still water bath. (
  • Some of the prominent elements include tholoi, hip baths and other types of baths and pools, and heating and water systems. (
  • The Greek's original form of bathing consisted of nothing more than a quick plunge into icy water until the people of Laconia came upon the idea of a hot-air bath. (
  • The water for the laconia bath was heated one of two different ways. (
  • The baths were fully functional until 537 AD, when Goths destroyed the aqueduct, cutting off the water supply. (
  • The furnaces to heat the hot water baths stood here, and the tunnels also served as storage space. (
  • Many considered bathing to be unhealthy, believing it removed a "protective" layer of oil and dirt and exposed the body to unclean water and dangerous "miasmas," or diseased air. (
  • However, limited access to clean water still hindered the widespread adoption of bathing. (
  • The mixture for this bath is agua de colpa water from a place in the forest where pure rainwater collects. (
  • The health benefits of a warm bath are due partly because hot water dilates blood vessels and opens pores so you can remove impurities with a scrub or some suds. (
  • A sitz bath is a warm water bath used for healing or cleansing purposes. (
  • Let’s not throw out the baby with the bath water! (
  • Data are available as PDF documents in the EU reports on bathing water quality (3) or as Excel tables in the EEA database BATHSEA_EN_V2 (12,13). (
  • Data describing individual bathing sites can be derived from the EEA's "Status of bathing water" database (11). (
  • Accurate information on the number of bathing waters and compliant bathing waters are available at EU level in the EU's annual report on bathing water quality (3). (
  • Before the Hellenistic period, the majority of public baths were outside of the city's walls. (
  • In 1891, New Yorkers were each given a free cake of Colgate soap as they waited their turn to try out the city's first public bath. (
  • To get the best lather out of your soap or body wash, use a bath sponge in the shower or tub. (
  • The Institute created promotional materials stressing the connection between bathing with soap and American health. (
  • The public baths had a gradual development into the flourishing, culturally-significant structures of the Hellenistic age. (
  • While it was not the only Greek city with public baths, some of the first archaeological evidence comes from the Dipylon Baths in Athens. (
  • Athens was a place of great innovation of the public baths. (
  • Public baths were not accepted immediately due to beliefs held by Greek society. (
  • This slow acceptance resulted in a small number of public baths being built and used during the 5th and 4th centuries BCE. (
  • Using a bath sponge will make the most of your body wash and can offer gentle exfoliation, depending on the texture of the sponge. (
  • Then said Nqong from his bath in the salt-pan, 'Come and ask me about it to-morrow, because I'm going to wash. (
  • Magnesium is easily absorbed through the skin, and a bath is a great way to reap this mighty mineral's health benefits, including stress relief, better sleep, and reduced muscle soreness. (
  • Bath Fashion Museum is owned by Bath and North East Somerset Council and has temporarily closed in preparation for their move to a new home in the centre of Bath. (
  • With a scary surprise waiting in each of these creepy Halloween bath bombs, taking off the costume will be just as fun as putting it on! (
  • In the bathing costume shown here, the connection to the natural and healthful life of "sport" associated with the ancient Greeks is especially apt. (
  • If you're looking for a softer feel, a foam sponge is a great bathing tool and provides an ultra-sudsy experience. (
  • Floating balls, boats, bath books, and foam toys are fun to set sailing and then to try and catch. (
  • Although great effort went into washing clothes, Americans associated the bathing of the body with negative stereotypes of European excess, luxury, and moral and physical softness. (
  • One easy way to give your bathroom accent colors is to get creative with your bath towels. (
  • I've been making my bath bombs in classic Halloween colors. (
  • Bath Colors that POP! (
  • First I give them a cleansing bath to take away the saladera [bad luck] which is shows up as salt on their skins. (
  • This will make it easier to remove the set bath bomb later. (
  • Warm the outside with your hands then carefully open it up releasing one side of the bath bomb. (
  • If you're finding it difficult to remove the bath bomb from the mold, it can help to tap the back with a spoon. (
  • The six-meter-wide tunnels create an atmospheric background for the display of objects that were found on site, such as large sculpted capitals, marble reliefs and other ornaments that once decorated the sumptuous bath complex. (
  • From classic pedestals to colorful glass hangers, these bird baths are sure to bring a little more life to your backyard. (
  • Tim Pluck (BSc Sociology 1970) was editor of SUL - now known as Bath Time - in the early years. (
  • What started as the drama society more than 50 years ago became known as Bath University Student Theatre (BUST), and the Arts Barn evolved into The Edge to accommodate the ever-growing popularity of dance, drama and the arts. (
  • The baths were functional for over three hundred years. (
  • It always blows my mind when I see "bathing suits" from a 100 years ago. (
  • Visiting the rooms will be different in the coming years whilst this major project gets under way to reveal the history of the Rooms in Georgian Bath. (
  • Forest bathing' or shinrin yoku - spending time in a forest or other green space to reap the health benefits - has become an increasingly popular activity in recent years, especially in some countries, like Japan, which take it pretty seriously. (
  • BUST became so big that a second group was formed, called BUSMS (Bath University Student Musicals Society). (
  • Now you're ready to create some scary bath bombs! (
  • Keep the bath bombs in a cool, dry space until you're ready to use. (
  • In the latter, different types of interventions were carried out, like assigning people to engage in shinrin yoku (forest bathing) or the equivalent in an urban space. (
  • Engage the Borg in your bathroom thanks to this Borg Bath Towel Set. (
  • By the time the first official SU facilities were completed in 1973, University Radio Bath (URB) was already setting the airwaves alight across campus. (
  • BBC Radio 1 had been rocking the nation since '67, and it was time for pioneering Bath students to create one of the first university stations in the country. (
  • During a time of urban refinement in the Hellenistic period, the baths were at the height of their development. (
  • This huge eleven hectare (27 acre) large complex housed bathing facilities that could accommodate more than 1,600 people at a time. (
  • Made out of rubber, bath time ducky features a hole on the bottom that helps him squeak when you squeeze him. (
  • Bath time doesn't have to mean the end of the spooky action. (
  • Take advantage of this quiet time to reflect on just how good your spa-at-home bath feels. (
  • Take cool showers or baths. (
  • Installing a high-quality bird bath can be a great way to not only provide a necessity for your feathered friends, but also to attract them to your yard for your own enjoyment. (
  • A great toy that will make kids love taking a bath. (
  • Benefits of CHG bathing were most pronounced with >75% daily usage, and there were no adverse effects attributable to CHG. (
  • Bath towel sets are the name of the game. (
  • You could go for a microfiber towel for that sift touch or a fluffy cotton bath towel for quick abortion. (
  • How does a bath towel designed to dry quickly sound to you? (
  • See what JCPenney has to offer in our huge bath towel and hand towels. (
  • Facing muggy race conditions in Qatar of 88 degrees Fahrenheit with 75 percent humidity, the Canadian 50K racewalker spent ten minutes in an ice bath shortly before the race, then donned an ice towel while waiting for the start. (
  • Well, go to the danger zone instead with this Archer Beach & Bath Towel . (
  • This Doctor Who 3-Piece Bath Towel Set looks like a set of luxury towels from a 5 star TARDIS hotel. (
  • The bath sized towel even has the VWORP light on top of the TARDIS embroidered on the reverse. (
  • I don't know, but this Jaws Movie Poster Beach / Bath Towel will make you think twice. (
  • Make bathing the final frontier with this stylish Star Trek 3-Piece Bath Towel Set. (
  • As of writing this petition, it now reads, 'Transgender women are welcome to the McIver's Ladies Baths, our definition for transgender is as per the NSW Discrimination Act. (
  • The procession then went all around the city - the traffic in Bath wasn't quite so busy back then! (
  • Some of the first baths have been dated back to the 5th century BCE. (
  • The earliest Greek baths date back to the first half of the 5th century BCE. (
  • It was now safely back in its cage, although the chancellor sometimes let it play in the bath , he said. (
  • Modest "respectable women" would wear these "hot bathing suits" back then. (
  • noun, plural baths [ba th z, bah th z, baths, bahths]. (
  • When shopping for a bird bath, keep some key features in mind to make the choice easier. (
  • The first being by direct coal burning fires and the other being the hot rock method, which consists of heating up rocks in another room and bringing them inside the bath. (
  • Adherence to daily CHG bathing significantly decreases the rate of bloodstream infection following HCT. (
  • Greek baths are a feature of some Hellenized countries. (
  • Greek baths did not have to follow the same design and construction rules as temples or other civic buildings in Greece and, thus, the baths were very innovative. (
  • Greek baths were always the same in their functions, but not the same in their designs. (
  • Despite the variability dependent on each location and population, there are certain features that have come to define the Greek bath. (
  • The importance of Greek baths grew overtime and became an important part to the cultures they had involvement with. (
  • The baths were an amenity that provided comfort for its users, contrasting the discipline and masculine virtues expected by Greek men. (
  • Individual comfort and well-being became more important to Greek society and, as a result, the number of baths increased and held a place of importance to Greek life. (
  • Greek baths can be found throughout the Mediterranean. (
  • Greek baths reached parts of Italy and Greek Sicily during the 4th century BCE. (
  • The baths in this region are clearly Greek, as they were brought over by new Greek inhabitants. (
  • The Sicilian Greek baths were innovative in their own ways, specifically because they featured some of the earliest hypocaust systems known to be in Greek bath houses. (
  • The North Baths and the baths in Syracuse provide a thorough picture of the height of Greek bath design and technology. (
  • The Greek baths made their way to Egypt and were built in strong numbers. (
  • Egyptian Greek baths featured two tholoi separated by a central corridor, which is a key element of these baths. (
  • Sephora Collection has got you covered with luxurious and refreshingly affordable bath and body products. (
  • Get remarkably radiant skin at a totally doable price with a variety of glow creams and sun care in our affordable bath and body products selection. (
  • These products, which are frequently labeled "not for human consumption," are not used for bathing. (
  • Shorter baths, like ground baths or shorter pedestal baths, typically attract larger birds that are more comfortable on the ground, such as ducks, quail, owls , and doves. (
  • Browse the selection of bath towels and pair it with a bright shower curtain at your local JCPenney, or hop online and shop without leaving the house. (
  • The house has two baths. (
  • Smaller baths offer more versatility and work well for tight spaces, but they may cause territorial issues in the bird population. (
  • In many of these cities there was a transition from individual baths to more communal baths and other spaces. (
  • Trojan is one of Europe's largest producers of acrylic baths of all shapes and sizes. (
  • People who regularly take baths seem to have lower stress levels and be less depressed than people who just shower. (
  • This information on internet performance in Bath, England, United Kingdom is updated regularly based on Speedtest ® data from millions of consumer-initiated tests taken every day. (
  • The baths were enormous buildings, with huge frescoed vaults covering the massive rooms. (
  • Explore the Bath Assembly Rooms through exciting partnership events and behind-the-scenes tours to uncover what once lay at the heart of fashionable Georgian society. (
  • The Bath Assembly Rooms were designed by John Wood the Younger in 1769. (
  • Find out when Bath Assembly Rooms is open, how to get here, the things to see and do and more. (
  • Find out more about the Bath Assembly Rooms project and how we're working with partners and the local community to develop an exciting and relevant future for the Bath Assembly Rooms. (
  • A common reason for people to want to take floral baths is that something is not going well for them - like, for example, they can't get work or they are having bad luck. (
  • According to Emily A. Kane, ND, LAc, who practices naturopathic medicine in Juneau, Alaska, adding vitamin C powder to a warm bath helps ease aches and pains. (
  • Check out the range of P shaped baths which are designed to give a bit of extra space when showering, or the corner baths which can be used to maximise space in your room. (
  • Daily bathing with the antiseptic chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) has been shown to reduce the incidence of BSIs in critically ill patients , although very few studies include HCT patients or have evaluated the impact of compliance on effectiveness . (
  • Think about the features you wish your bath towels had. (