Extrachromosomal Inheritance: Vertical transmission of hereditary characters by DNA from cytoplasmic organelles such as MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and PLASTIDS, or from PLASMIDS or viral episomal DNA.Inheritance Patterns: The different ways GENES and their ALLELES interact during the transmission of genetic traits that effect the outcome of GENE EXPRESSION.DNA, Circular: Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Gene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Tenericutes: A phylum of gram-negative bacteria consisting of cells bounded by a plasma membrane. Its organisms differ from other bacteria in that they are devoid of cell walls. This phylum was formerly the class Mollicutes. Mollicutes is now the sole class in the phylum Tenericutes.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Genes, Recessive: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.Genes, Dominant: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.Heredity: The transmission of traits encoded in GENES from parent to offspring.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Tetrahymena: A genus of ciliate protozoa commonly used in genetic, cytological, and other research.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Multifactorial Inheritance: A phenotypic outcome (physical characteristic or disease predisposition) that is determined by more than one gene. Polygenic refers to those determined by many genes, while oligogenic refers to those determined by a few genes.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Leishmania tropica: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and rodents. This taxonomic complex includes species which cause a disease called Oriental sore which is a form of cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) of the Old World.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Ethidium: A trypanocidal agent and possible antiviral agent that is widely used in experimental cell biology and biochemistry. Ethidium has several experimentally useful properties including binding to nucleic acids, noncompetitive inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and fluorescence among others. It is most commonly used as the bromide.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Physarum: A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Characteristics include the presence of violet to brown spores.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Bovine papillomavirus 1: A species of DELTAPAPILLOMAVIRUS infecting cattle.Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium: A plant species of the genus CHRYSANTHEMUM, family ASTERACEAE. The flowers contain PYRETHRINS, cinerolones, and chrysanthemines which are powerful contact insecticides. Most in the old Pyrethrum genus are reclassified to TANACETUM; some to other ASTERACEAE genera.Replication Origin: A unique DNA sequence of a replicon at which DNA REPLICATION is initiated and proceeds bidirectionally or unidirectionally. It contains the sites where the first separation of the complementary strands occurs, a primer RNA is synthesized, and the switch from primer RNA to DNA synthesis takes place. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Spiroplasma: A genus of gram-negative, helical bacteria, in the family SPIROPLASMATACEAE, order Entomoplasmatales, causing disease in PLANTS. It has been isolated from TICKS; INSECTS; and PLANTS.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Replicon: Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Deoxyribonucleases, Type II Site-Specific: Enzyme systems containing a single subunit and requiring only magnesium for endonucleolytic activity. The corresponding modification methylases are separate enzymes. The systems recognize specific short DNA sequences and cleave either within, or at a short specific distance from, the recognition sequence to give specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. Enzymes from different microorganisms with the same specificity are called isoschizomers. EC 3.1.21.4.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Bromides: Salts of hydrobromic acid, HBr, with the bromine atom in the 1- oxidation state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Telomere: A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.Virus Integration: Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Chromosomes, Human: Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.DNA, Satellite: Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.DNA, Protozoan: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.Chromosomes, Archaeal: Structures within the nucleus of archaeal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Deoxyribonuclease BamHI: One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/GATCC at the slash. BamHI is from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens N. Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.Caenorhabditis: A genus of small free-living nematodes. Two species, CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS and C. briggsae are much used in studies of genetics, development, aging, muscle chemistry, and neuroanatomy.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Consanguinity: The magnitude of INBREEDING in humans.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Inheritance of extrachromosomal DNA differs from the inheritance of nuclear DNA found in chromosomes. In humans, virtually all ... Circular bacterial plasmids are also the basis for the production of DNA vaccines. Plasmid DNA vaccines are genetically ... This uniparental inheritance is an example of non-Mendelian inheritance. Plants also show uniparental mtDNA inheritance. Most ... Creasey, A; Mendis, K; Carlton, J; Williamson, D; Wilson, I; Carter, R (May 1994). "Maternal inheritance of extrachromosomal ...
Contents: Top 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z adenine One of the four nucleotide bases in DNA or RNA; ... extrachromosomal DNA Contents: Top 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z fluorescence in situ hybridization ( ... medical genetics meiosis Mendelian inheritance messenger RNA (mRNA) metagenomics metaphase microRNA (miRNA) microsatellite ... genotyping germ line guanine One of the four nucleotide bases in DNA or RNA; pairs with cytosine. Contents: Top 0-9 A B C D E F ...
Inheritance: Genome-wide analyses showed that the bulk of Helitrons tend to be quite recent. The young age of Helitron families ... On the basis of the overall sensitivity and specificity, the structure-based approach to identify Helitron elements is quite ... copied from diverse genomic or extra-chromosomal DNA regions into DSB. This model predicts that 2 to 8 bp regions of ...
... the traditional genetic basis for inheritance. Epigenetics most often denotes changes in a chromosome that affect gene activity ... Liebman SW, Sherman F (September 1979). "Extrachromosomal psi+ determinant suppresses nonsense mutations in yeast". J. ... Epigenetic inheritance of depression-related phenotypes has also been reported in a preclinical study. Inheritance of paternal ... Two important ways in which epigenetic inheritance can be different from traditional genetic inheritance, with important ...
... the traditional genetic basis for inheritance.[2] Epigenetics often refers to changes in a chromosome that affect gene activity ... "Extrachromosomal psi+ determinant suppresses nonsense mutations in yeast". J. Bacteriol. 139 (3): 1068-71. PMC 218059 . PMID ... Epigenetic inheritance of depression-related phenotypes has also been reported in a preclinical study.[144] Inheritance of ... Structural inheritance[edit]. For more details on this topic, see Structural inheritance. ...
... the traditional genetic basis for inheritance.[2] Epigenetics most often involves changes that affect gene activity and ... "Extrachromosomal psi+ determinant suppresses nonsense mutations in yeast". J. Bacteriol. 139 (3): 1068-71. PMC 218059. PMID ... Structural inheritanceEdit. Further information: Structural inheritance. In ciliates such as Tetrahymena and Paramecium, ... Epigenetic inheritance of depression-related phenotypes has also been reported in a preclinical study.[145] Inheritance of ...
The gene then needs to be mapped by comparing the inheritance of the phenotype with other known genetic markers. If the genes ... It wasn't until the mid 1800s that DNA and genes were discovered, which would form the basis of modern genetic manipulation. ... shock can make the cell membrane permeable to DNA that may then incorporate into the genome or exist as extrachromosomal DNA. ... Genetic inheritance was first discovered by Gregor Mendel in 1865 following experiments crossing peas. In 1928 Frederick ...
... (msDNA) is a type of extrachromosomal satellite DNA that consists of a single-stranded DNA ... Sherman LA, Chattopadhyay S (1993). "The Molecular Basis of Allorecognition". Annual Review of Immunology. 11: 385-402. doi: ... evidence for vertical inheritance" (PDF). Bioinformation. 7 (4): 176-9. doi:10.6026/97320630007176. PMC 3218519 . PMID 22102774 ...
Online 'Mendelian Inheritance in Man' (OMIM) 105830 *↑ Jablonka, Eva (2005). Evolution in Four Dimensions. MIT Press. ISBN 0- ... Oskar Hertwig 1849-1922 (1896). Biological problem of today: preformation or epigenesis? The basis of a theory of organic ... "Extrachromosomal psi+ determinant suppresses nonsense mutations in yeast". Journal of Bacteriology. 139 (3): 1068-1071. PMC ... For more details on this topic, see Structural inheritance.. ಟೆಟ್ರಾಹೈಮೆನ ಮತ್ತು ಪ್ಯಾರಾಮೀಶಿಯಮ್ ‌ನಂತಹ ಸಿಲಿಯೇಟ್‌ಗಳಲ್ಲಿ, ತಳೀಯವಾಗಿ ...
These sequences play a key role in a bacterial defense system, and form the basis of a technology known as CRISPR/Cas9 that ... For this reason, Koonin described CRISPR/Cas as a Lamarckian inheritance mechanism. However, this was disputed by a critic who ... In 2005, three independent research groups showed that some CRISPR spacers are derived from phage DNA and extrachromosomal DNA ... The target sequence is 20 bases long as part of each CRISPR locus in the crRNA array. A typical crRNA array has multiple unique ...
May 2011). "Structural basis for CRISPR RNA-guided DNA recognition by Cascade". Nature Structural & Molecular Biology. 18 (5): ... For this reason, Koonin described CRISPR/Cas as a Lamarckian inheritance mechanism.[129] However, this was disputed by a critic ... In 2005, three independent research groups showed that some CRISPR spacers are derived from phage DNA and extrachromosomal DNA ... Cas9 enzymes together with CRISPR sequences form the basis of a technology known as CRISPR-Cas9 that can be used to edit genes ...
... have multigenerational inheritance and exist as rare exceptions to the general rule of DNA as the basis for inheritance.[71] ... Features of inheritance[edit]. Discrete inheritance and Mendel's laws[edit]. Main article: Mendelian inheritance ... Extrachromosomal DNA *Plasmid. *List of organisms by chromosome count. *List of chromosome lengths for various organisms ... Molecular basis for inheritance[edit]. DNA and chromosomes[edit]. Main articles: DNA and Chromosome ...
By inheritanceEdit. A mutation has caused this moss rose plant to produce flowers of different colors. This is a somatic ... Bernstein H, Hopf FA, Michod RE (1987). The molecular basis of the evolution of sex. Advances in Genetics. 24. pp. 323-70. doi: ... or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.[1] ... UV light can induce adjacent pyrimidine bases in a DNA strand ... Gould, S. J. (1982). "The uses of heresey; an introduction to Richard Goldschmidt's The Material Basis of Evolution." pp. xiii- ...
In the case of the Y chromosomes, the palindromes are not noncoding DNA; these strings of bases contain functioning genes ... Ortiz, M. I.; Pinna-Senn, E.; Dalmasso, G.; Lisanti, J. A. (2009). "Chromosomal aspects and inheritance of the XY female ... Extrachromosomal DNA *Plasmid. *List of organisms by chromosome count. *List of chromosome lengths for various organisms ...
8. Extrachromosomal Inheritance. 9. Sex Determination and Sex Chromosomes. 10. Chromosome Mutations: Variations in Chromosome ... MOLECULAR BASIS OF HEREDITY. 11. DNA Structure and Analysis. 12. DNA Replication and Recombination. 13. The Genetic Code and ... 8. Extrachromosomal Inheritance. 9. Sex Determination and Sex Chromosomes. 10. Chromosome Mutations: Variations in Chromosome ... 8. Extrachromosomal Inheritance. 9. Sex Determination and Sex Chromosomes. 10. Chromosome Mutations: Variations in Chromosome ...
It includes new chapters on extra chromosomal inheritance and the mode of reproduction in plants, paricularly apomixis, as well ... The Chromosomal Basis of Sex Determination in Plants. KARYOTYPE ANALYSIS. Introduction. Nomenclature of Chromosomes. Karyotype ... The text would provide students and other researchers an excellent basis for development of new hypothesis in chromosomal ... The author also elaborates on the cytogenetic basis of somaclonal variation generated through cell and tissue culture. ...
Viruses,Plasmids or Episome-like Elements and Extrachromosomal Inheritance in Relation to Plant Breeding Research (1975) ... On the transformation coefficient between harmonic oscillator basis and hyperspherical basis (1978) ...
Mendelian inheritance; Gene interaction; Complementation; Linkage, recombination and chromosome mapping; Extrachromosomal ... IISc and IITs are the responsible authorities that conduct this exam on a rotational basis.. Examination Name. Graduate ... Molecular basis of antibody diversity; Synthesis of antibody and secretion; Antigen-antibody reaction; Complement; Primary and ... inheritance; Microbial genetics (plasmids, transformation, transduction, conjugation); Horizontal gene transfer and ...
Mendelian inheritance; Gene interaction; Complementation; Linkage, recombination and chromosome mapping; Extrachromosomal ... Molecular basis of antibody diversity; Synthesis of antibody and secretion; Antigen-antibody reaction; Complement; Primary and ... inheritance; Microbial genetics (plasmids, transformation, transduction, conjugation); Horizontal gene transfer and ... Transposable elements; RNA interference; DNA damage and repair; Chromosomal variation; Molecular basis of genetic diseases ...
Extrachromosomal inheritance; Chromosomal variation; Population genetics; Transposable elements, Molecular basis of genetic ... Molecular basis of antibody diversity; Polyclonal and monoclonal antibody; Complement; Antigen-antibody reaction; Regulation of ... Molecular basis of antibody diversity; Polyclonal and monoclonal antibody; Complement; Antigen-antibody reaction; Regulation of ... Chemical basis of mutations and mutagens; Microbial genetics (plasmids, transformation, transduction, conjugation); Microbial ...
Mendelian inheritance; Gene interaction; Complementation; Linkage, recombination and chromosome mapping; Extra chromosomal ... Molecular basis of antibody diversity; Synthesis of antibody and secretion; Antigen-antibody reaction; Complement; Primary and ... inheritance; Microbial genetics (plasmids, transformation, transduction, conjugation); Horizontal gene transfer and ... Transposable elements; RNA interference; DNA damage and repair; Chromosomal variation; Molecular basis of genetic diseases ...
Extra chromosomal inheritance; Chromosomal variation; Molecular basis of genetic diseases.. New topics: Mutations and ... Topics removed: Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structure; the Chemical basis of mutations and mutagens; Microbial genetics ( ... New topics: Innate immunity; Antibody structure and function; Molecular basis of antibody diversity ... Mendelian inheritance; Gene interaction; Complementation; Linkage, recombination and chromosome mapping; ...
Mendelian inheritance; Gene interaction; Complementation; Linkage, recombination and chromosome mapping; Extra chromosomal ... History of Immunology; Innate, humoral and cell mediated immunity; Antigen; Antibody structure and function; Molecular basis of ... inheritance; Microbial genetics (plasmids, transformation, transduction, conjugation); Horizontal gene transfer and ... Transposable elements; RNA interference; DNA damage and repair; Chromosomal variation; Molecular basis of genetic diseases ...
Mendelian inheritance; Gene interaction; Complementation; Linkage, recombination and chromosome mapping; Extra chromosomal ... Molecular basis of antibody diversity; Synthesis of antibody and secretion; Antigen-antibody reaction; Complement; Primary and ... inheritance; Microbial genetics (plasmids, transformation, transduction, conjugation); Horizontal gene transfer and ... Transposable elements; RNA interference; DNA damage and repair; Chromosomal variation; Molecular basis of genetic diseases ...
Mendelian inheritance; Gene interaction; Complementation; Linkage, recombination and chromosome mapping; Extra chromosomal ... Molecular basis of antibody diversity; Synthesis of antibody and secretion; Antigen-antibody reaction; Complement; Primary and ... inheritance; Microbial genetics (plasmids, transformation, transduction, conjugation); Horizontal gene transfer and ... Transposable elements; RNA interference; DNA damage and repair; Chromosomal variation; Molecular basis of genetic diseases. ...
Mendelian inheritance; Gene interaction; Complementation; Linkage, recombination and chromosome mapping; Extra chromosomal ... Contracts: Various forms of Contracts - Government, FIDIC, ICE; Legal Basis of Contract - Indian Contract Act and Law of Torts ... basis of selection of machining parameters; tool materials, tool wear and tool life, economics of machining, thermal aspects of ... column bases; Connections - simple and eccentric, beam-column connections, plate girders and trusses; Plastic analysis of beams ...
Principles of Mendelian inheritance, linkage, recombination, genetic mapping; extrachromosomal inheritance; prokaryotic and ... Basic Principles of inheritance, molecular basis of heredity, sex determination and sex-linked characteristics, cytoplasmic ... Mendelian inheritance; Gene interaction; Complementation; Linkage, recombination and chromosome mapping; Extra chromosomal ... Acids and bases, electronic and steric effects, optical and geometrical isomerism, tautomerism, conformers and concept of ...
Cytoplasmic inheritance definition Eg. 4 O clock lant characteristics of extrachromosomal inheritance. 23. Gene mutations ... Enviroscan soil moisture sensors like the one shown, that monitor on a continuous basis, provide more information that can be ... Its inheritance and maintenance. 20 Utilization of male sterile lines in hybrid seed production Their limitation, advantages ... Physiological basis for graft union, Graft incompatibility (Localised and translocated) Selection of mother plant Establishment ...
Mendelian inheritance; Gene interaction; Complementation; Linkage, recombination and chromosome mapping; Extra chromosomal ... History of Immunology; Innate, humoral and cell mediated immunity; Antigen; Antibody structure and function; Molecular basis of ... Molecular basis of genetic diseases Analytical Techniques: Principles of microscopy-light, electron, fluorescent and confocal; ... inheritance; Microbial genetics (plasmids, transformation, transduction, conjugation); Horizontal gene transfer and ...
The basis for this apparent exclusivity remains an open question. One possible explanation might be the predominance of tufA/ ... Umen, J.G., and Goodenough, U.W. (2001). Chloroplast DNA methylation and inheritance in Chlamydomonas. Genes Dev.15, 2585-2597. ... Generation and maintenance of tandemly repeated extrachromosomal plasmid DNA in Chlamydomonas chloroplasts. Plant J. 11, 635- ... Symmons, M.F., Jones, G.H., and Luisi, B.F. (2000). A duplicated fold is the structural basis for polynucleotide phosphorylase ...
One strand is held to another by hydrogen bonds between the bases; the sequencing of this bonding is specific-i.e., adenine ... Some prokaryotes, such as bacteria, and a few eukaryotes have extrachromosomal DNA known as plasmids, which are autonomous, ... The chemical DNA was first discovered in 1869, but its role in genetic inheritance was not demonstrated until 1943. In 1953 ... The new strands are copied by the same principle of hydrogen-bond pairing between bases that exists in the double helix. Two ...
Tags chloroplast DNA Cytoplasmic DNA DNA extrachromosomal extrachromosomal DNA Genome inheritance maternal maternal inheritance ... Influence of maternal side on the inheritance of characters Nuclear DNA is the basis for inheritance of almost all type of ... Extrachromosomal inheritance class 1: Introduction to maternal inheritance. by Team Genetic Education , Posted on 27/07/2018. ... mitochondrial DNALeave a Comment on Extrachromosomal inheritance class 1: Introduction to maternal inheritance Different types ...
Part-II: Sex and Sex-Linked Inheritance: 15. Sex Determination; 16. Sex Linked Inheritance; 17. Extrachromosomal Inheritance or ... Part V : Physical Basis of Heredity: 24. Cell Division; 25. Gametogenesis; 26. Chromosomes; 27. Genes; Part VI : Chemical Basis ... Polygenic Inheritance; 9. Multiple Alleles; 10. Blood Groups in Man; 11. Gene and Environment; 12. Linkage; 13. Crossing Over ... Cytoplasmic Inheritance; Part-III: Microbial Genetics: 18. Genetic of Viruses; 19. Bacterial Genetics; 20. Linkage and ...
... extra chromosomal inheritance, polyploidy. Origin and domestication of crop plants. Genetic resources-conservation and ... Acids and bases: Bronsted and Lewis theories of acids and bases. Hard and soft acids and bases. HSAB principle, relative ... Genetic basis of plant breeding pureline selection, mass selection, male sterility and incompatibility and their use in plant ... Theories of organic evolution, molecular basis of. 04. CHEMISTRY. SECTION-A: (INORGANIC CHEMISTRY):. *Atomic structure: ...
It differs from DNA in having ribose as its sugar, (deoxyribose in DNA) and the bases are adenine, guanine, cytosine, and ... The extranuclear DNA apparently does not follow the Mendelian pattern of inheritance. mtDNA and cpDNA are believed to be ... With extra-chromosomal plasmids No plasmids Nuclear DNA vs. Extranuclear DNA. DNA outside the nucleus is referred to as ... The basis is the genetic material contained in these organelles that resemble prokaryotic DNAs, i.e. being circular and lacking ...
Extrachromosomal DNA had been thought to be rare, but in a 2014 paper, Mischel and colleagues discovered that ecDNA plays a ... It is a distinctly different process of inheritance which allows for more rapid evolution and genetic change. ... which now provides a mechanistic basis for understanding why certain tumor cells are so aggressive." ... distinct doughnut-shaped circles of extrachromosomal DNA (ecDNA) are found abundantly in human tumor cells. They also change ...
UC San Diego researchers describe how circular extrachromosomal DNA in cancer cells boosts aggressiveness and resistance to ... Extrachromosomal DNA had been thought to be rare, but in a 2014 paper, Mischel and colleagues discovered that ecDNA plays a ... It is a distinctly different process of inheritance which allows for more rapid evolution and genetic change. ... Stem Cells, CRISPR and Gene Sequencing Technology are Basis of New Brain Cancer Model ...
Bacteria carry extrachromosomal, self-replicating genetic elements called plasmids. A plasmid is defined as a double-stranded, ... The ability to recognize and categorize plasmids in homogeneous groups on the basis of their phylogenetic relatedness is ... guarantee their autonomous replication but also have mechanisms controlling their copy number and ensuring stable inheritance ... As extrachromosomal, independently replicating elements, plasmids rely on both self-encoded and host-encoded factors for ...
... recombination and chromosome mapping Extra chromosomal inheritance Microbial genetics (plasmids, transformation, transduction, ... Chapter 16 The Molecular Basis of Inheritance Concept 16.1 DNA is the ... Name Period The AP Biology exam has reached into this chapter for essay questions on a regular basis over the past 15 years. ... The Mosaic Nature of Genomes n DNA sequence is not static Mutations of single bases Large deletions Large insertions of ...
  • Chemically modified purine and pyrimidine bases are found in some bacteria and bacteriophages. (nih.gov)
  • However, little is currently known about the genomic basis for the taxonomic affiliation of these newly described organisms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Epigenetic features are inherited when cells divide despite a lack of change in the DNA sequence itself and, although most of these features are considered dynamic over the course of development in multicellular organisms, some epigenetic features show transgenerational inheritance and are inherited from one generation to the next. (wikidoc.org)
  • Analyses of position effect variegation (PEV) in Drosophila melanogaster and yeasts are the foundation of modern models of epigenetic inheritance. (pnas.org)
  • Mutations in both Hsp104 and Sup35 affect prion inheritance by one or other of these pathways, as does manipulation of either Hsp104 enzyme activity or expression, in both vegetative (budding) divisions and in sporulation. (paperity.org)
  • The author also elaborates on the cytogenetic basis of somaclonal variation generated through cell and tissue culture. (ebooks.com)
  • DNA structure, showing the nucleotide bases cytosine (C), thymine (T), adenine (A), and guanine (G) linked to a backbone of alternating phosphate (P) and deoxyribose sugar (S) groups. (britannica.com)
  • A nucleic acid that carries the genetic information in cells and some viruses, consisting of two long chains of nucleotides twisted into a double helix and joined by hydrogen bonds between the complementary bases adenine and thymine or cytosine and guanine. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Between the two helices, lying like rungs in a ladder, are a succession of linked pairs of the four bases adenine, thymine, guanine and cytosine. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In DNA the purine bases are adenine (A) and guanine (G), and the pyrimidine bases are thymine (T) and cytosine (C). In RNA, uracil (U) replaces thymine. (nih.gov)
  • The bases link across the two strands in a specific manner using hydrogen bonds: cytosine (C) pairs with guanine (G), and adenine (A) pairs with thymine (T). (le.ac.uk)
  • Molecular inheritance in yeast has been widely studied, and various mechanisms facilitate the movement of cellular components between mother and daughter cells as the nascent bud emerges and grows throughout the cell cycle. (rupress.org)
  • Section 8- Structure-Reactivity Correlations and Organic Reaction Mechanisms- Acids and bases, electronic and steric effects, optical and geometrical isomerism, tautomerism, conformers and concept of aromaticity. (htcampus.com)
  • DNA and RNA molecules are each written in a language using four "letters" (four nucleotide bases), but the language used to construct proteins includes 20 "letters" (20 different amino acids). (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleotides are joined together by covalent bonds between the phosphate of one nucleotide and the sugar of the next, forming a phosphate-sugar backbone from which the nitrogenous bases protrude. (britannica.com)
  • Building upon previous revelatory work, a team of scientists, led by researchers at University of California San Diego, the UC San Diego branch of the Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Stanford University and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, report that in cancer, distinct doughnut-shaped circles of extrachromosomal DNA (ecDNA) are found abundantly in human tumor cells. (lww.com)
  • The AAA+ disaggregase Hsp104 is essential for the maintenance and inheritance of nearly all known prions of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (paperity.org)
  • The life of [PSI] Brian Cox 0 1 2 Mick Tuite 0 1 2 0 Linacre College, Oxford University , St. Cross Rd, Oxford OX1 3JA , UK 1 Kent Fungal Group, School of Biosciences, University of Kent , Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NJ , UK 2 Communicated by M. Kupiec The AAA+ disaggregase Hsp104 is essential for the maintenance and inheritance of nearly all known prions of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (paperity.org)
  • From the earliest days of its discovery (Cox 1965), the colour difference between [PSI+] and [psi−] strains has allowed conditions in which the inheritance of the prion is rendered unstable, to be readily identified. (paperity.org)
  • Each of the sugar groups in this sugar-phosphate backbone is linked to one of the four nitrogenous bases. (le.ac.uk)
  • Both inheritance and infection of prions are the consequence of the ability of amyloid fibre to template the addition and refolding of monomeric protein to the growing fibres with fragmentation increasing their numbers. (paperity.org)
  • The new strands are copied by the same principle of hydrogen-bond pairing between bases that exists in the double helix. (britannica.com)
  • The double helix of the complete DNA molecule resembles a spiral staircase, with two sugar phosphate backbones and the paired bases in the centre of the helix. (le.ac.uk)
  • Drag and drop the descriptive phrase to the correct column, thereby helping us to describe the relationships between these important components of inheritance. (studyres.com)