Basilar Membrane: A basement membrane in the cochlea that supports the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, consisting keratin-like fibrils. It stretches from the SPIRAL LAMINA to the basilar crest. The movement of fluid in the cochlea, induced by sound, causes displacement of the basilar membrane and subsequent stimulation of the attached hair cells which transform the mechanical signal into neural activity.Cochlea: The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.Organ of Corti: The spiral EPITHELIUM containing sensory AUDITORY HAIR CELLS and supporting cells in the cochlea. Organ of Corti, situated on the BASILAR MEMBRANE and overlaid by a gelatinous TECTORIAL MEMBRANE, converts sound-induced mechanical waves to neural impulses to the brain.Stapes: One of the three ossicles of the middle ear. It transmits sound vibrations from the INCUS to the internal ear (Ear, Internal see LABYRINTH).Cochlear Microphonic Potentials: The electric response of the cochlear hair cells to acoustic stimulation.Chinchilla: A genus of the family Chinchillidae which consists of three species: C. brevicaudata, C. lanigera, and C. villidera. They are used extensively in biomedical research.Tectorial Membrane: A membrane, attached to the bony SPIRAL LAMINA, overlying and coupling with the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI in the inner ear. It is a glycoprotein-rich keratin-like layer containing fibrils embedded in a dense amorphous substance.Hair Cells, Auditory, Outer: Sensory cells of organ of Corti. In mammals, they are usually arranged in three or four rows, and away from the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), lateral to the INNER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS and other supporting structures. Their cell bodies and STEREOCILIA increase in length from the cochlear base toward the apex and laterally across the rows, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.Hearing: The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.Vibration: A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Gerbillinae: A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.Otoacoustic Emissions, Spontaneous: Self-generated faint acoustic signals from the inner ear (COCHLEA) without external stimulation. These faint signals can be recorded in the EAR CANAL and are indications of active OUTER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS. Spontaneous otoacoustic emissions are found in all classes of land vertebrates.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Ear Canal: The narrow passage way that conducts the sound collected by the EAR AURICLE to the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.Auditory Threshold: The audibility limit of discriminating sound intensity and pitch.Round Window, Ear: Fenestra of the cochlea, an opening in the basal wall between the MIDDLE EAR and the INNER EAR, leading to the cochlea. It is closed by a secondary tympanic membrane.Hair Cells, Auditory: Sensory cells in the organ of Corti, characterized by their apical stereocilia (hair-like projections). The inner and outer hair cells, as defined by their proximity to the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), change morphologically along the COCHLEA. Towards the cochlear apex, the length of hair cell bodies and their apical STEREOCILIA increase, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.Labyrinthine Fluids: Fluids found within the osseous labyrinth (PERILYMPH) and the membranous labyrinth (ENDOLYMPH) of the inner ear. (From Gray's Anatomy, 30th American ed, p1328, 1332)Perceptual Distortion: Lack of correspondence between the way a stimulus is commonly perceived and the way an individual perceives it under given conditions.Sound: A type of non-ionizing radiation in which energy is transmitted through solid, liquid, or gas as compression waves. Sound (acoustic or sonic) radiation with frequencies above the audible range is classified as ultrasonic. Sound radiation below the audible range is classified as infrasonic.Membranes: Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.Vestibulocochlear Nerve: The 8th cranial nerve. The vestibulocochlear nerve has a cochlear part (COCHLEAR NERVE) which is concerned with hearing and a vestibular part (VESTIBULAR NERVE) which mediates the sense of balance and head position. The fibers of the cochlear nerve originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS). The fibers of the vestibular nerve arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI.Hair Cells, Auditory, Inner: Auditory sensory cells of organ of Corti, usually placed in one row medially to the core of spongy bone (the modiolus). Inner hair cells are in fewer numbers than the OUTER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS, and their STEREOCILIA are approximately twice as thick as those of the outer hair cells.Interferometry: Measurement of distances or movements by means of the phenomena caused by the interference of two rays of light (optical interferometry) or of sound (acoustic interferometry).Scala Tympani: The lower chamber of the COCHLEA, extending from the round window to the helicotrema (the opening at the apex that connects the PERILYMPH-filled spaces of scala tympani and SCALA VESTIBULI).Spiral Ligament of Cochlea: A spiral thickening of the fibrous lining of the cochlear wall. Spiral ligament secures the membranous COCHLEAR DUCT to the bony spiral canal of the COCHLEA. Its spiral ligament fibrocytes function in conjunction with the STRIA VASCULARIS to mediate cochlear ion homeostasis.Acoustics: The branch of physics that deals with sound and sound waves. In medicine it is often applied in procedures in speech and hearing studies. With regard to the environment, it refers to the characteristics of a room, auditorium, theatre, building, etc. that determines the audibility or fidelity of sounds in it. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Tympanic Membrane: An oval semitransparent membrane separating the external EAR CANAL from the tympanic cavity (EAR, MIDDLE). It contains three layers: the skin of the external ear canal; the core of radially and circularly arranged collagen fibers; and the MUCOSA of the middle ear.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Cochlear Nerve: The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Pitch Perception: A dimension of auditory sensation varying with cycles per second of the sound stimulus.Psychoacoustics: The science pertaining to the interrelationship of psychologic phenomena and the individual's response to the physical properties of sound.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Motion: Physical motion, i.e., a change in position of a body or subject as a result of an external force. It is distinguished from MOVEMENT, a process resulting from biological activity.Evoked Potentials, Auditory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.Ear, Inner: The essential part of the hearing organ consists of two labyrinthine compartments: the bony labyrinthine and the membranous labyrinth. The bony labyrinth is a complex of three interconnecting cavities or spaces (COCHLEA; VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH; and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS) in the TEMPORAL BONE. Within the bony labyrinth lies the membranous labyrinth which is a complex of sacs and tubules (COCHLEAR DUCT; SACCULE AND UTRICLE; and SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS) forming a continuous space enclosed by EPITHELIUM and connective tissue. These spaces are filled with LABYRINTHINE FLUIDS of various compositions.Lasers: An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Erythrocyte Membrane: The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.Membrane Fluidity: The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Auditory Pathways: NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.Mechanotransduction, Cellular: The process by which cells convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response. It can occur in both cells specialized for sensing mechanical cues such as MECHANORECEPTORS, and in parenchymal cells whose primary function is not mechanosensory.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Perceptual Masking: The interference of one perceptual stimulus with another causing a decrease or lessening in perceptual effectiveness.Basement Membrane: A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.Feedback: A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.

Micromechanical responses to tones in the auditory fovea of the greater mustached bat's cochlea. (1/139)

An extended region of the greater mustached bat's cochlea, the sparsely innervated (SI) zone, is located just basally to the frequency place of the dominant 61-kHz component of the echolocation signal (CF2). Anatomic adaptations in the SI zone are thought to provide the basis for cochlear resonance to the CF2 echoes and for the extremely sharp tuning throughout the auditory system that allows these bats to detect Doppler shifts in the echoes caused by insect wing beat. We measured basilar membrane (BM) displacements in the SI zone with a laser interferometer and recorded acoustic distortion products at the ear drum at frequencies represented in the SI zone. The basilar membrane in the SI region was tuned both to its characteristic frequency (62-72 kHz) and to the resonance frequency (61-62 kHz). With increasing stimulus levels, the displacement growth functions are compressive curves with initial slopes close to unity, and their properties are consistent with the mammalian cochlear amplifier working at high sound frequencies. The sharp basilar membrane resonance is associated with a phase lag of 180 degrees and with a shift of the peak resonance to lower frequencies for high stimulus levels. Within the range of the resonance, the distortion product otoacoustic emissions, which have been attributed to the resonance of the tectorial membrane in the SI region, are associated with an abrupt phase change of 360 degrees. It is proposed that a standing wave resonance of the tectorial membrane drives the BM in the SI region and that the outer hair cells enhance, fine tune, and control the resonance. In the SI region, cochlear micromechanics appear to be able to work in two different modes: a conventional traveling wave leads to shear displacement between basilar and tectorial membrane and to neuronal excitation for 62-70 kHz. In addition, the SI region responds to 61-62 kHz with a resonance based on standing waves and thus preprocesses signals which are represented more apically in the CF2 region of the cochlea.  (+info)

Cochlear function: hearing in the fast lane. (2/139)

The cochlea amplifies sound over a wide range of frequencies. Outer hair cells have been thought to play a mechanical part in this amplification, but it has been unclear whether they act rapidly enough. Recent work suggests that outer hair cells can indeed work at frequencies that cover the auditory range.  (+info)

Direct visualization of organ of corti kinematics in a hemicochlea. (3/139)

The basilar membrane in the mammalian cochlea vibrates when the cochlea receives a sound stimulus. This mechanical vibration is transduced into hair cell receptor potentials and thereafter encoded by action potentials in the auditory nerve. Knowledge of the mechanical transformation that converts basilar membrane vibration into hair cell stimulation has been limited, until recently, to hypothetical geometric models. Experimental observations are largely lacking to prove or disprove the validity of these models. We have developed a hemicochlea preparation to visualize the kinematics of the cochlear micromechanism. Direct mechanical drive of 1-2 Hz sinusoidal command was applied to the basilar membrane. Vibration patterns of the basilar membrane, inner and outer hair cells, supporting cells, and tectorial membrane have been recorded concurrently by means of a video optical flow technique. Basilar membrane vibration was driven in a direction transversal to its plane. However, the direction of the resulting vibration was found to be essentially radial at the level of the reticular lamina and cuticular plates of inner and outer hair cells. The tectorial membrane vibration was mainly transversal. The transmission ratio between cilia displacement of inner and outer hair cells and basilar membrane vibration is in the range of 0.7-1.1. These observations support, in part, the classical geometric models at low frequencies. However, there appears to be less tectorial membrane motion than predicted, and it is largely in the transversal direction.  (+info)

Three-dimensional motion of the organ of Corti. (4/139)

The vibration of the organ of Corti, a three-dimensional micromechanical structure that incorporates the sensory cells of the hearing organ, was measured in three mutually orthogonal directions. This was achieved by coupling the light of a laser Doppler vibrometer into the side arm of an epifluorescence microscope to measure velocity along the optical axis of the microscope, called the transversal direction. Displacements were measured in the plane orthogonal to the transverse direction with a differential photodiode mounted on the microscope in the focal plane. Vibration responses were measured in the fourth turn of a temporal-bone preparation of the guinea-pig cochlea. Responses were corrected for a "fast" wave component caused by the presence of the hole in the cochlear wall, made to view the structures. The frequency responses of the basilar membrane and the reticular lamina were similar, with little phase differences between the vibration components. Their motion was rectilinear and vertical to the surface of their membranes. The organ of Corti rotated about a point near the edge of the inner limbus. A second vibration mode was detected in the motion of the tectorial membrane. This vibration mode was directed parallel to the reticular lamina and became apparent for frequencies above approximately 0.5 oct below the characteristic frequency. This radial vibration mode presumably controls the shearing action of the hair bundles of the outer hair cells.  (+info)

The spatial and temporal representation of a tone on the guinea pig basilar membrane. (5/139)

In the mammalian cochlea, the basilar membrane's (BM) mechanical responses are amplified, and frequency tuning is sharpened through active feedback from the electromotile outer hair cells (OHCs). To be effective, OHC feedback must be delivered to the correct region of the BM and introduced at the appropriate time in each cycle of BM displacement. To investigate when OHCs contribute to cochlear amplification, a laser-diode interferometer was used to measure tone-evoked BM displacements in the basal turn of the guinea pig cochlea. Measurements were made at multiple sites across the width of the BM, which are tuned to the same characteristic frequency (CF). In response to CF tones, the largest displacements occur in the OHC region and phase lead those measured beneath the outer pillar cells and adjacent to the spiral ligament by about 90 degrees. Postmortem, responses beneath the OHCs are reduced by up to 65 dB, and all regions across the width of the BM move in unison. We suggest that OHCs amplify BM responses to CF tones when the BM is moving at maximum velocity. In regions of the BM where OHCs contribute to its motion, the responses are compressive and nonlinear. We measured the distribution of nonlinear compressive vibrations along the length of the BM in response to a single frequency tone and estimated that OHC amplification is restricted to a 1.25- to 1.40-mm length of BM centered on the CF place.  (+info)

A targeted deletion in alpha-tectorin reveals that the tectorial membrane is required for the gain and timing of cochlear feedback. (6/139)

alpha-tectorin is an extracellular matrix molecule of the inner ear. Mice homozygous for a targeted deletion in a-tectorin have tectorial membranes that are detached from the cochlear epithelium and lack all noncollagenous matrix, but the architecture of the organ of Corti is otherwise normal. The basilar membranes of wild-type and alpha-tectorin mutant mice are tuned, but the alpha-tectorin mutants are 35 dB less sensitive. Basilar membrane responses of wild-type mice exhibit a second resonance, indicating that the tectorial membrane provides an inertial mass against which outer hair cells can exert forces. Cochlear microphonics recorded in alpha-tectorin mutants differ in both phase and symmetry relative to those of wild-type mice. Thus, the tectorial membrane ensures that outer hair cells can effectively respond to basilar membrane motion and that feedback is delivered with the appropriate gain and timing required for amplification.  (+info)

Hair cell death in a hearing-deficient canary. (7/139)

Cell death has been documented in bird auditory inner ear epithelia after induced damage. This cell death is quickly followed by an increase in supporting cell division and regeneration of the epithelium, thereby suggesting a possible relationship between these two processes. However, aspects of this relationship still need to be better understood. The Belgian Waterslager (BWS) canary is an ideal system in which to study cell death and subsequent cell division. In contrast to mixed breed (MB) canaries, cell division normally occurs in the auditory end organ of the BWS without any external manipulation. In addition, some of the cells in the auditory epithelium may be dying through an apoptotic-like process. In the present study two methods were used to quantify dying cells in the BWS and MB canary auditory epithelia: morphological criteria and TUNEL. Results confirm that some of the abnormal hair cells in the BWS auditory epithelium are apoptotic-like. The presence of both cell death and cell division indicates that these processes act concurrently in the adult end organ. Future studies are needed to determine if cell death is a stimulus for the observed cell division.  (+info)

Development of the gerbil inner ear observed in the hemicochlea. (8/139)

A frequency-dependent change in hearing sensitivity occurs during maturation in the basal gerbil cochlea. This change takes place during the first week after the onset of hearing. It has been argued that the mass of a given cochlear segment decreases during development and thus increases the best frequency. Changes in mass during cochlear maturation have been estimated previously by measuring the changes in cochlear dimensions. Fixed, dehydrated, embedded, or sputter-coated tissues were used in such work. However, dehydration of the tissue, a part of most histological techniques, results in severe distortion of some aspects of cochlear morphology. The present experiments, using a novel preparation, the hemicochlea, show that hydrated structures, such as the tectorial membrane and the basilar membrane hyaline matrix, are up to 100% larger than estimated previous studies. Therefore, the hemicochlea was used to study the development of cochlear morphology in the gerbil between the day of birth and postnatal day 19. We used no protocols that would have resulted in severe distortion of cochlear elements. Consequently, a detailed study of cochlear morphology yields several measures that differ from previously published data. Our experiments confirm growth patterns of the cochlea that include a period of remarkably rapid change between postnatal day 6 and 8. The accelerated growth starts in the middle of the cochlea and progresses toward the base and the apex. In particular, the increase in height of Deiters' cells dominated the change, "pushing" the tectorial membrane toward scala vestibuli. This resulted in a shape change of the tectorial membrane and the organ of Corti. The tectorial membrane was properly extended above the outer hair cells by postnatal day 12. This time coincides with the onset of hearing. The basilar membrane hyaline matrix increased in thickness, whereas the multilayered tympanic cover layer cells decreased to a single band of cells by postnatal day 19. Before and after the period of rapid growth, the observed gross morphological changes are rather small. It is unlikely that dimensional changes of cochlear structures between postnatal days 12 and 19 contribute significantly in the remapping of the frequency-place code in the base of the cochlea. Instead, structural changes affecting the stiffness of the cochlear partition might be responsible for the shift in best frequency.  (+info)

Low-frequency hearing is critically important for speech and music perception, but no mechanical measurements have previously been available from inner ears with intact low-frequency parts. These regions of the cochlea may function in ways different from the extensively studied high-frequency regions, where the sensory outer hair cells produce force that greatly increases the sound-evoked vibrations of the basilar membrane. We used laser interferometry in vitro and optical coherence tomography in vivo to study the low-frequency part of the guinea pig cochlea, and found that sound stimulation caused motion of a minimal portion of the basilar membrane. Outside the region of peak movement, an exponential decline in motion amplitude occurred across the basilar membrane. The moving region had different dependence on stimulus frequency than the vibrations measured near the mechanosensitive stereocilia. This behavior differs substantially from the behavior found in the extensively studied ...
Great advances have been made in understanding hearing in recent years. In particular, the mechanical function of the cochlea has become the focus of intense interest. This started in one direction, with the discovery of otoacoustic emissions in 1978, which required active mechanical amplification processes, as first postulated by Gold in 1948. Direct evidence for the role of this mechanism in sharpening-up the otherwise poor, basilar membrane tuning properties, was provided in 1982; and in 1983, motility was shown in outer hair cells. In parallel, an immense amount of work has been done on the electrophysiology of hair cells, following the first intracellular recordings in 1977. Over a longer time scale, models of basilar membrane motion have been developed and refined, and recently much effort has been put into incorporating active mechanisms and non-linear processes. It seemed an opportune time to bring together the leading workers in these various areas, to take stock of the whole field and to
The precise mechanical behavior of the basilar membrane (BM) at low frequencies is still unknown. To address this issue we use an in vitro preparation of the guinea pig temporal bone to investigate the mechanical behaviour of the organ of Corti at the apex of the cochlea. Confocal laser interferometry is used to record the nanometre displacements of both Hensens cells (HeC) and the BM in response to sound and electrical stimulation. We show that at low frequencies, the BM exhibits greatly reduced sound-evoked movement (similar to 35dB less) and no current-evoked movement, when compared to the HeC at the same position along the spiral. The BM best frequency is found to be an average of 52Hz (0.35 octave) higher than the HeC best frequency. In addition, we demonstrate that BM motion is not affected by inhibition of somatic electromotility or by blocking the mechanoelectrical transduction channels. We therefore propose that the BM primarily acts as a passive support structure at the cochlear apex. ...
METHOD AND DEVICE FOR NON-CONTACT OSCILLATION MEASUREMENTS - A method and a device to measure oscillations of an object. The method includes the processing steps: Determining at least one point of the object to be measured, moving at least one laser interferometer fastened on a carrier into a measuring position for measuring the measuring point on the object, emitting at least one measuring beam of the laser interferometer to at least one measuring point on the object, detecting the measuring beam reflected by the object, determining the oscillation data from the emitted and reflected measuring beam, allocating the oscillation data to the measuring point, as well as evaluating the oscillation data and displaying the oscillation data of the measuring point, with at least one comparison of a position of the laser interferometer being performed using at least one position of a known freely predetermined point on the object and a transformation rule being prepared to determine the position of the ...
Mechanical responses in the basal turn of the guinea-pig cochlea are measured with low-level broad-band noise as the acoustical stimulus [for details see de Boer and Nuttall, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 101, 3583-3592 (1997)]. Results are interpreted within the framework of a classical three-dimensional model of the cochlea that belongs to a very wide class of nonlinear models. The use of linear-systems analysis for this class of nonlinear models has been justified earlier [de Boer, Audit. Neurosci. 3, 377-388 (1997)]. The data are subjected to inverse analysis with the aim to recover the effective basilar-membrane impedance. This is a parameter function that, when inserted into the model, produces a model response, the resynthesized response, that is similar to the measured response. With present-day solution methods, resynthesis leads back to an almost perfect replica of the original response in the spatial domain. It is demonstrated in this paper that this also applies to the response in the frequency
Having said that, it seems that this is simply not the case. Lifeless areas cant be Obviously observed through PTA audiograms. This may be mainly because although the neurons innervating the useless region, cant respond to vibration at their attribute frequency. Should the basilar membrane vibration is significant ample, neurons tuned to different characteristic frequencies such as All those adjacent into the lifeless region, are going to be stimulated a result of the spread of excitation ...
Registered in inner ear. Three semicircular canals loop in three planes at right angles to each other, responsible for transduction of movement messages. Method: hair cells deformed by gelatinous membrane. Vestibular apparatus, gives us perception of gravity and movement. Due to physical response, not chemical binding.. Cochlea: bony, coil shaped part of inner ear, where hearing occurs.. Sound enters through auditory canal, vibrates tympanic membrane,moving three bones of middle ear (malleus, incus, and stapes)against oval window opening in front of cochlea. Cochlea has three fluid filled ducts, one of these the organ of Corti. Sound waves in air go to vibration in organ of Corti; fluid tickles hair cells, which register the movement along basilar membrane in cochlea. Different sound frequencies move different portions of basilar membrane. Hearing loss due to loss of hair cells.Humans normally smell more than 300 odors in a day(Facts and Truth).. Transduction of sound accomplished throgh ...
The introduction of B5.54 and ISO 230-6 machine tool performance measurement standards has increased the popularity of laser interferometer diagonal, step diagonal and vector methods for the evaluation and compensation of machine tool errors. This is due to the potential reduction in test times these methods can provide compared with the more conventional laser interferometer based linear, angle and straightness measurements, taken along lines parallel to the machines X, Y and Z axes. This paper provides an updated overview of laser diagonal measurements for machine tool performance assessment. It is based on the work in a previous Renishaw paper combined with significant updates to reflect the changes since then.. [1.4MB] ...
Different levels of awareness are present in us. The mind can be taken to states such as Delta, Theta, Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and HyperGamma. The specific frequencies produced by the Monaural beats tune your mind to these zones of awareness and facilitate meditation. Monaural Beat Technology comes into play when trying to enter states such as Delta, Alpha, and Theta. These states operate at frequencies below 30Hz; this makes them inaudible to the human ear. Playing these directly will serve no purpose. With Monaural, you do not need headphones. The beats will directly stimulate the Basilar Membrane. This increases the effectiveness and ease of use of these beats. Monaural Beats use two different frequencies directed to a single speaker to create a beat or pulse that you can perceive. For example, if 300 Hz and 310 Hz were played through a speaker, the listener would hear 10 Hz amidst the original tones. This is an extremely powerful technique to speed up spiritual development and experience an ...
The Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (Advanced LIGO) has finished a successful first observation run and will commence its second run this summer. Detection of compact object binaries utilizes matched-filtering, which requires a vast collection of highly accurate gravitational waveforms. This talk will present a set of about 100 new aligned-spin binary black hole simulations. I will discuss their properties, including a detailed error analysis, which demonstrates that the numerical waveforms are sufficiently accurate for gravitational wave detection purposes, as well as for parameter estimation purposes. To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2016.APR.X14.6. ...
Den 14 september 2015 observerades för första gången någonsin universums gravitationsvågor. Vågorna, som Albert Einstein förutspådde hundra år tidigare, kom från en kollision mellan två avlägsna svarta hål. Det tog 1,3 miljarder år för vågorna att färdas till LIGO-detektorn i USA.. Trots att signalen var extremt svag, lovar den redan en revolution för astrofysiken. Gravitationsvågor är ett helt nytt sätt att se de våldsammaste händelserna i rymden, och testa gränserna för vårt vetande.. LIGO, Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory, är ett samarbetsprojekt med fler än tusen forskare från drygt 80 institutioner i över tjugo länder. Tillsammans har de förverkligat en nästan femtio år gammal dröm. Årets Nobelpristagare har med sin entusiasm och uthållighet på var sitt sätt varit oumbärliga för LIGO-framgången. Med pionjärerna Rainer Weiss och Kip S. Thorne samt Barry C. Barish, vetenskapsmannen och ledaren som fått projektet i hamn, har flera ...
When Breton SpA wanted to add machine tool manufacture to its core business of building stone-processing machinery, the increase in required levels of precision prompted the introduction of around 30 devices from Renishaw, including laser interferometers, rotary axis calibrators, ballbars and touch-trigger probes. As a result, Bretons range of high-speed, five-axis CNC machining centres are now among the worlds most advanced. ...
it is of interest to understand what it means to excite these components antisymmetrically. As discussed in §E.3.3, an antisymmetric excitation of traveling-wave components can be interpreted as a velocity excitation. It was noted that localized velocity excitations in the FDTD generally correspond to non-localized velocity excitations in the DW, and that velocity in the DW is proportional to the spatial derivative of the difference between the left-going and right-going traveling displacement-wave components (see Eq ...
Looking for basilar membrane of cochlear duct? Find out information about basilar membrane of cochlear duct. structure composed mostly of lipid lipids, a broad class of organic products found in living systems. Most are insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar... Explanation of basilar membrane of cochlear duct
Conchae is a snail shaped organ which has 2 1/2 (2S) turns. The oval window opens into the vestibule to cochlea through the scala vestibule.The bony part of the cochlea make turns around a central pillar called modiolus. The modiolus at its upper end diverge into Y shaped membranes called vestibular membrane and basilar membrane. On the one side of the modiolus and vestibular membrane lie the scala vestibuli. On the other side of modiolus and basilar membrane lies the scala tympani. Scala vestibuli and tympani communicates with each other only at the apex of cochlea which is helicotrema. Between the vestibular membrane and basilar membrane lies the membranous cochlea which is called scala media (cochlear duct). On the internal surface of basilar membrane lies coiled and arranged in coiled form cells called hair cells and supporting cells. Hair cells are further divided into inner and outer hair cells. Inner hair cells are arranged in 1 layer, while outer hair cells are arranged in 3 layers. ...
Conchae is a snail shaped organ which has 2 1/2 (2S) turns. The oval window opens into the vestibule to cochlea through the scala vestibule.The bony part of the cochlea make turns around a central pillar called modiolus. The modiolus at its upper end diverge into Y shaped membranes called vestibular membrane and basilar membrane. On the one side of the modiolus and vestibular membrane lie the scala vestibuli. On the other side of modiolus and basilar membrane lies the scala tympani. Scala vestibuli and tympani communicates with each other only at the apex of cochlea which is helicotrema. Between the vestibular membrane and basilar membrane lies the membranous cochlea which is called scala media (cochlear duct). On the internal surface of basilar membrane lies coiled and arranged in coiled form cells called hair cells and supporting cells. Hair cells are further divided into inner and outer hair cells. Inner hair cells are arranged in 1 layer, while outer hair cells are arranged in 3 layers. ...
The precise movement of the cochlear basilar membrane (BM) stimulates the sensory hair cells during auditory transduction. However, the molecular composition of the BM that confers its specialized properties of support and elasticity is poorly understood. A differential screen of cochlear RNA from deaf mice lacking thyroid hormone receptor ß was used to identify a sequence encoding a secreted protein, which is abundant in the BM and is expressed at low levels in the heart, lung, and brain. The protein possesses several domains for protein interactions and is related to emilin (elastin microfibril interface-located protein) previously isolated from aorta. This cochlear emilin-2 mRNA is expressed in the tympanic border cells underlying the BM and an antibody detected protein in the extracellular matrix surrounding the collagenous fibers in the BM. These results identify emilin-2 as a major BM component and suggest that it contributes to the developmental assembly or function of the BM.. ...
Bartleby: The Internal Ear or Labyrinth (Auris Interna) The Cochlea: apex (cupula), modiolus, osseous spiral lamina, basilar membrane, helicotrema, spiral canal of the modiolus, spiral ganglion (Ganglion of Corti), fenestra cochle , secondary tympanic membrane, osseous spiral lamina (lamina spiralis ossea), scala vestibuli, scala tympani, hamulus lamin spiralis, secondary spiral lamina, vestibule fissure, Ductus Cochlearis (membranous cochlea; scala media), basilar membrane, vestibular membrane, lagena, spiral ligament, basilar crest, spiralis externus, stria vascularis, osseous spiral lamina, imbus lamin spiralis, sulcus spiralis internus, vestibular lip, tympanic lip, auditory teeth, Basilar Membrane, zona arcuata, spiral organ of Corti, zona pectinata, vas spirale, Corti s tunnel, piral organ of Corti (organon spirale; organ of Corti), inner and outer rods or pillars of Corti, tunnel of Corti, reticular membrane, Rods of Corti, inner rods, outer rods, phalangeal processes, phalangeal ...
Introduction and Objective]: The cochleogram is a graphic record which represents hair cells along the length of the basilar membrane and relates cell damage with frequency specific values in hearing thresholds. The purpose of this study is to design a simple and robust method to quantitatively determine the distribution of the inner and outer hair cells at the organ of Corti in the mouse cochlea. [Materials and Methods]: Six male CBA/CaOlaHsd mice with normal auditory brainstem responses were sacrificed at 2months of age. The cochleae from both ears (n=12) were extracted, fixed and decalcified, and then divided in two parts (apical-middle and basal), obtaining around 80% of the whole extent of the basilar membrane. The organ of Corti (OC) was isolated and phalloidin-stained in multiwall glass slides. Using a fluorescence microscope and stereological software, the total length of the OC was divided into equidistant 5% sectors1. The number of inner (IHC) and outer (OHC) hair cells in randomly ...
High. In majority of applicability in the us review10 found to one of one cannot be provided by bioassay a positive swab test is increased or 303 laparoscopic hysterectomy. Surgeons performing an indifference to resect the presence of eternal image of ckc is a hypnotic session. It is controlled variable). 2 degrees). Because of conscious awareness of 5-ht antagonists: Because of myasthenia. Many peripheral arterial cause, mainly in machiavellianism (1970). A non-technical name for long enough to the with them up to extend significantly increases the treatment is about 60 or decrease the basilar membrane with the origin unknown] argyll robertson pupil dilation, the cornea. The lipid soluble tips menggunakan viagra form of others. In general, women for absorption depends on the young maternal deaths. 2 something straight, angled, and risk factors, and it by the best in the entire cyst wall andor (2) a relative risks of antigen-antibody response made more common and safety; and anterior ...
Highest-resolution, accurate SEM imaging of "large samples" exceeding a single typical field of view (in the order of a few tens of μm) is a challenging procedure. A set of several hundreds or thousands of images have to be stitched together in order to display a surface spanning several millimeters or even centimeters as a "Google Earth"-style map. Any standard mechanical stage will have visible stitching errors, and thus yield distorted images. The Raith systems are different: By reversing the functionality of a professional electron beam lithography tool, the sample surface is not exposed; instead, existing nanostructures are seamlessly imaged using the extreme placement accuracy of the tool infrastructure.. Users can benefit e. g. from the "on-board" Laser Interferometer Controlled Stage technology, related write field alignment functionality, and drift correction algorithms. These features deliver ultra-precise and fully automated image acquisition for generating highly accurate and ...
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I agree, whats the big deal with radioactive materials in space??? This traveling wave generator is a novel idea, dont discard it just because it has the taboo radio- prefix in its description. Whats wrong with using radioactive power sources, like the SAFE fission reactor or any of the nuclear reactors designed and build by the soviets? Also, NASAs http://spacescience.nasa.gov/missions/prometheus.htm [Broken] is looking at radioisotope power generation systems. It really agrivates me that educated people are still deathly afraid of nuclear energy, simply because it carries a taboo ...
differences in human TM waves relative to those of other mammals.. TM wave properties were measured in samples taken from human cadavers ...
The Anasounds PHASE LAG pedal is a purely analog VCO phaser to give you that pure organic, psychedelic, atmospheric phaser sound - think Tame Impala!. ...
In apparent contradiction, the stiffness of heart cells was reported to increase with frequency (Shroff et al., 1995). This discrepancy can be explained by instrumental differences. In Shroff et al.s work, a cover slip with attached cells was vibrated in the z direction by a piezoelectric stage so that there was no drag between the cells and the media. The stiffness of the heart cells measured by AFM was in the range of 0.1 N/m at 100 Hz (Shroff et al., 1995). If we assume that Shroff et al.s figures apply to our cells, a 0.01 N/m cantilever would have underestimated the true movement by ∼15%.. The molecular nature of the membrane motor is not yet clear. As the applied voltage drops mainly across the membrane, the electromechanical transduction must be located in the cell membrane. One possibility is that membrane proteins, whose dipoles are not oriented parallel to the imposed field, reorient in the field. However, to obtain movements of 5 nm requires that the proteins extend far from the ...
This thesis gives an overview of my work over the last four years on the development of analogue electronic building blocks for the auditory pathway, and their application to some models of processing in the auditory brainstem. The anatomy and physiology of the human ear is presented, and is decomposed into three key elements, i.e., the basilar membrane band-pass filters, the transduction into a neural signal performed by the inner hair cells, and the mechanical feedback introduced by the outer hair cells. An electronic model for the first two of these elements is presented and measurement results are shown to compare these circuits with their biological counterparts. The remaining part of the human auditory pathway consists of several groups of different types of spiking neurons. Since the main part of signal processing in the auditory pathway is performed by these different types of spiking neurons, a good spiking neuron model is essential. The electrophysiology and anatomy needed to understand the
Only the intensity of each photon. In the meantime, Im looking to see what there barking at (naturally) and theres nothing. These cells are located on top of the basilar membrane. During this time there is a loud ringing in the ears for about 20 seconds. Secondly, radio waves are non ionizing. These cells are what detects then converts vibrations or movement into electrical signals. This is where the outer hair cells shine. Radio Frequencies how do u get tapeworms can ringing in ears hearing loss be very harmful. It happens to everyone. Dont ever live near a cell repeater, radio broadcast towers, etc. Needless to say I have been to the doctors but nobody ever explained why it happens, just to ignore it or it is nothing but it always made me frightened and it has turned into a bit of a phobia as I panic when it happens. If you have ever tried to run in a pool or in water, you know its much more difficult than running on land thanks to the viscosity and friction of water. That statement is ...
The basilar crest gives attachment to the outer edge of the basilar membrane; immediately above the crest is a concavity, the sulcus spiralis externus. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Grays Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained herein may be outdated. Please edit the article if this is the case, and feel free to remove this notice when it is no longer relevant. ...
Detected Gravitational Waves Result of Black Hole Collision - The first gravitational waves detected back on Sept. 14, 2015, may have been the result of two black holes colliding within a supermassive star. "Its the cosmic equivalent of a pregnant woman carrying twins," said astrophysicist Avi Loeb, with the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Black holes form when massive stars explode. In this case scientists think that the star was spinning so fast that the center formed into a dumbbell shape with each end becoming one of the holes. The holes then quickly merged causing the wave and then later fueling a burst of gamma rays. The rays were detected by NASAs Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope just 0.4 seconds after the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) picked up the gravitational waves. "In order to power both the gravitational wave event and the gamma-ray burst, the twin black holes must have been born close together, with an initial separation of order the size ...
This past summer, in a brick warehouse in the waterfront community of Red Hook, Brooklyn, scientists from Caltech and other institutes gathered with artists and musicians to discuss everything from gravitational waves to tintype photography. The event took place at the Pioneer Works cultural center, which hosts exhibitions and lectures with the goal of bridging the gaps between different disciplines. For the Caltech physicists who attended the week-long event-including Rana Adhikari and Yanbei Chen, professors of physics at Caltech who both work on the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory, or LIGO-one goal was to think about their own research from a new perspective.. "One week wasnt really long enough," says Adhikari, who helped plan the collaborative event with Pioneer Works director of sciences Janna Levin, an astrophysicist based at Barnard College of Columbia University in New York City. "Its useful to think about our science in a new way. We reset our brains.". Eight ...
There is at least one thing which could be assessed to clarify the issue: The electronic polarizability. Recently, it has been suggested that this could be partially taken into account by scaling the charges [Leontyev et al. PCCP 13, 2613 (2011)]. It would be interesting to try out if this approach would improve the partitioning issue (1). I do not believe, however, that the membrane response issue (2) could be fixed simply by this approach; there is, namely, a problem in the membrane energies in all the other cases as well ...
Keysight Technologies is a world leader in the design and manufacture of laser interferometry systems, advanced electronic measurement systems, high-precision optical components, complex monolithic optics (CMOs), and opto-electronic systems design for the most demanding metrology applications. Keysight systems offer high precision in a wide dynamic range, the ability to simultaneously measure a position with multiple degrees of freedom, and the highest accuracy available in both air and vacuum systems.. With more than 11,000 systems delivered, our modular interferometry solutions set the standard for precision measurement of the most challenging applications in semiconductor lithography, aerospace/defense, metrology, and manufacturing. Moving forward, Keysight will continue to innovate systems that will enable the future in each of these markets.. ...
Keysight Technologies is a world leader in the design and manufacture of laser interferometry systems, advanced electronic measurement systems, high-precision optical components, complex monolithic optics (CMOs), and opto-electronic systems design for the most demanding metrology applications. Keysight systems offer high precision in a wide dynamic range, the ability to simultaneously measure a position with multiple degrees of freedom, and the highest accuracy available in both air and vacuum systems.. With more than 11,000 systems delivered, our modular interferometry solutions set the standard for precision measurement of the most challenging applications in semiconductor lithography, aerospace/defense, metrology, and manufacturing. Moving forward, Keysight will continue to innovate systems that will enable the future in each of these markets.. ...
For the non-Menieres subject, with each successive lowering of the high-pass masking frequency, the latency of the ABR response to the clicks and the noise increases. This is the result of removing the contributions from the higher frequencies so that the latency is dominated by unmasked activity from the lower-frequency regions of the cochlea. However, as seen in the right panel for a patient diagnosed with active Menieres disease, there is virtually no latency shift with each successive high-pass masking condition. In other words, the masking noise appears to be ineffective in sufficiently masking the high-frequency contributions. Thus, the ABR is still dominated by the high-frequency regions and there is little or no shift in the latency of wave V. The hypothesis is that the cochlear hydrops causes stiffness changes in the basilar membrane leading to ineffective noise masking. Don et al. (2005b) demonstrated that a quantitative measure of the amount of latency shift between the response to ...
The first investigations into the electrophysiology of the retina were published over 80 years ago (Kahn and Löwenstien, 1924). In the decades since, electroretinography (ERG) has become a widely used tool in ophthalmology for monitoring the health of the visual system. Different variations of the ERG, such as flash ERG (FERG) and pattern ERG (PERG) can be used to isolate the response of the various cellular generators, giving an overall view of retinal health. Currently, there are a number of visual display units (VDUs) available for eliciting the wide array of ERG responses. These VDUs range from conventional CRT and LCD displays, to digital micro-mirror devices, to laser interferometer based systems. Unfortunately, many of the VDUs available are limited in the way they display visual stimuli, particularly when it comes to precise timing control. In order to perform advanced signal analysis techniques, such as the recently developed Continuous Loop Averaging Deconvolution (CLAD)
The 59th Annual Staff Service Awards will be presented in Beckman Auditorium on Monday, June 2, at 10 a.m. During the ceremony, more than 250 staff members whose service ranges from 10 to 50 years will be honored. A full list of awardees can be found here.. This week we are featuring Caltech staff members who will be recognized for 40 and 45 years of service to the Institute.. The honorees include three 40-year staff members: Eugene Akutagawa, a senior scientist in biology and a member of the professional staff; Susi Martin, assistant to the Board of Trustees; and Steve Vass, a senior instrument specialist at the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO).. Eugene Akutagawa graduated from UCLA with a bachelors degree in microbiology; a help-wanted ad in the Los Angeles Times for a lab assistant brought him to Caltech, where "I was standing in the hallway, waiting to be interviewed, and theres [Nobel Laureate] Max Delbrück coming out of the lab. To me, a microbiologist, he was ...
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A mathematical model of cochlear processing is developed to account for the nonlinear dependence of frequency selectivity on intensity in inner hair cell and auditory nerve fiber responses. The model describes the transformation from acoustic stimulus to intracellular hair cell potentials in the cochlea. It incorporates a linear formulation of basilar membrane mechanics and subtectorial fluid-cilia displacement coupling, and simplified description of the inner hair cell nonlinear transduction process. The analysis at this stage is restricted to low-frequency single tones. The computed responses to single tone inputs exhibit the experimentally observed nonlinear effects of increasing intensity such as the increase in the bandwidth of frequency selectivity and the downward shift of the best frequency. In the model, the first effect is primarily due to the saturating effect of the hair cell nonlinearity. The second results from the combined effects of both the nonlinearity and the inner hair cell ...
Applications of Holography to Interferometric Testing," Eastman Kodak Report F-013747-KU, 1967.. "Coherence vs Fringe Visibility in Laser Interferometers," Eastman Kodak Report A002003-KU, 1967.. "Improving Brightness of Holographic Images," Eastman Kodak A-002072-MU, 1967.. "Optical Testing by Holographic Interferometry," Eastman Kodak A-002055-MU, 1967.. "A General Purpose Holographic Differential Interferometer." Eastman Kodak, 1968.. "Radiometry & Photometry," American Journal of Physics, Vo1. 36, No. 11, Part 1, November 1968, pp. 977-979.. "Holographic Multiple Pass Interferometer for Plasma Physics," co-authors W.R. McCluney, J. G. Hirschberg,, L. R. Hazelton, and A. Aggarwal, Optical Society of America Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL, 24 October 1969, Journal of the Optical Society of America, Paper FB18, Vol. 59, p. 1541 (1969).. "The HOMIN, A Holographic Multiple Pass Interferometer," co-authors J. G. Hirschberg, W. R. McCluney, A. Aggarawal, and L. R. Hazelton. Univeresity of Miami ...
3D surface reconstruction from histology slides of the cochlea (scala vestibuli, scala tympani and scala media) of a Chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) using AMIRA® Visualization Software. Specimen courtesy of Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary (MEEI).
An in vivo tracer was used to determine if the reticular lamina and/or the cell membranes abutting the endolymphatic space are temporarily disrupted after intense noise exposure (4-kHz OBN, 108-dB SPL, 1.75 h). Using a double-barreled micropipette, the endolymphatic potential (EP) was recorded and artificial endolymph containing 10% carbon particles was injected into the endolymphatic space either
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
In the article "An Improved Model for the Rate-Level Functions of Auditory-Nerve Fibers" by Peter Heil, Heinrich Neubauer, and Dexter R. F. Irvine, which appeared on pages 15424-15437 of the October 26, 2011 issue, the authors regret a mistake in Equation 7. KAA−1 should have read KAA. The corrected equation is listed below. ...
thersemeaten wonders MartySanchez15: Understanding Your Own Chinchilla And Also The Right Cage www.chinchillacare4u.com/MartySanchez15: Understanding Your Own Chinchil ...
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Hey everyone, I posted about this in the Tube section a while ago but i thought i should post it here now because it is related to the SS section of t
The site of transduction is in the organ of Corti (spiral organ). It is composed of hair cells held in place above the basilar membrane like flowers projecting up from soil, with their exposed short, hair-like stereocilia contacting or embedded in the tectorial membrane above them. The inner hair cells are the primary auditory receptors and exist in a single row, numbering approximately 3,500. The stereocilia from inner hair cells extend into small dimples on the tectorial membranes lower surface. The outer hair cells are arranged in three or four rows. They number approximately 12,000, and they function to fine tune incoming sound waves. The longer stereocilia that project from the outer hair cells actually attach to the tectorial membrane. All of the stereocilia are mechanoreceptors, and when bent by vibrations they respond by opening a gated ion channel (refer to Figure 17.2). As a result, the hair cell membrane is depolarized, and a signal is transmitted to the chochlear nerve. Intensity ...
The velocity of this wave is V 1:forty eight mm=min, which is more compact by about 40% in comparison to the team velocity predicted by the slope of the dispersion relation at the wavelength of steady-point out wave.MCE Chemical 3PO In both situations we uncover that in the propagating waves the convex activator (w ) is in-stage with the membrane displacement, whilst the concave activator (wz ) is almost in anti-phase (Fig. 4d,h). In Fig. 5 we plot the imply-sq. amplitude of the steady-point out membrane waves as a purpose of the exercise of the convex activators, transferring along the vertical dashed lines in Figs. 3a,c. We locate that the amplitude of the continual-point out waves continuously vanishes as we approach the wave instability changeover line (pink lines in Figs. 3a,c) from previously mentioned (supercritical bifurcation).Experimental evidence presented listed here demonstrates that CDRs include curved membrane proteins of each curvatures which are in addition recognized to be ...
Over the past 15 years NIPA (Non-Invasive Intracranial Assessment) unit has accumulated an understanding of the signs and symptoms that are associated with intracranial hypertension/ hypotension, and disorders of the middle ear that are of an obscure nature.This understanding combines with objective measurements that can be made using the MMS-11 Cerebral and Cochlear Fluid Pressure Analyser also know as the MMS-11 Tympanic Membrane Displacement (TMD) Analyser.. Patients with the following categories may benefit from further investigation by the NIPA Unit.. ...
JNeurosci Print ISSN: 0270-6474 Online ISSN: 1529-2401. The ideas and opinions expressed in JNeurosci do not necessarily reflect those of SfN or the JNeurosci Editorial Board. Publication of an advertisement or other product mention in JNeurosci should not be construed as an endorsement of the manufacturers claims. SfN does not assume any responsibility for any injury and/or damage to persons or property arising from or related to any use of any material contained in JNeurosci.. ...
H. Winter, L. Ruttiger, M. Muller, S. Kuhn, N. Brandt, U. Zimmermann, B. Hirt, A. Bress, M. Sausbier, A. Conscience, F. Flamant, Y. Tian, J. Zuo, M. Pfister, P. Ruth, H. Lowenheim, J. Samarut, J. Engel, and M. Knipper (2009) J Neurosci, 29(8):2581-7.. ...
A simple resolution of these and other difficulties is to place the late filter before the compressive nonlinearities in the chromatic (and brightness pathways) as shown in Figure 5. The distortion of the amplitude-modulated flicker signal that generates the brightness change (with 560-nm flicker) and the hue shift (with 650-nm flicker) can then be assumed to occur primarily at the early half-wave rectifying nonlinearities. As a result, the early filters for both the brightness-change and the hue-shift measurements should be the same-as we find. The late filters then attenuate the high-frequency components of the amplitude-modulated signal, which consequently have little effect at the compressive nonlinearity. By contrast, the low-frequency distortion products generated by the early nonlinearity are passed by the late filter and so reach the late nonlinearities, where, if the signals are large enough, they will be significantly compressed. For example, amplitude-modulated flicker of 650 nm will ...
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As a rescue shelter we also take in chinchillas with varying degrees of behavioral issues. Sadly, many of the behavior issues are human induced. One chinchilla came in recently whose former owner clearly did not know how to handle the poor thing. It became so cage aggressive that it actually learned to strike out at the hand that was feeding it-- literally! With many of our potential adopters being families with children or first time chinchilla owners, we make it our policy to NOT rehome aggressive biters unless someone is specifically willing and able to take on a huge challenge. Like toddlers, chinchillas are natural nibblers, and we understand that an exploratory nibble is not a bite. However, there are some chins that have learned to use their teeth in a way that is more than one of curiosity. We do our best to rehabilitate and allow even the most extreme cases to stay as long as we have space for them. We have, however, expanded our chin room to two rooms and long ago gave up our clothes ...
Keywords: Communications Biophysics, Models for the Dynamic Behavior of the Cochlear Partition, Some Results of Computer Simulation of Neuronlike Nets, Three-Dimensional Optical Illusion, Relationship Among "Photic Driving," Responses to Single Flashes, and the Resting EEG ...
(article taken from empresschinchilla.com) Chinchilla, A Cellulose-Splitter Rodent Wendell Bird In the chinchillas native habitat, in which it has lived for many thousands of years, this animal has existed with a minimum of rainfall and other sources of water and has been able to thrive on relatively low protein fibers, dried grasses in a realtively…
We address the properties of soliton propagation at the interface between media with uniform and chirped modulated nonlinearities. By changing the chirp parameter and modulation depth p of the nonlinearity, we can control the soliton propagation, including straight transmission, drift left, and drift right. In particular, the formation of a surface soliton does not need a power threshold. Thus, our results offer a new (to our knowledge) method to control the soliton propagation, which potentially applies to optical signal processing and optical switching.. © 2011 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
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Hemoglobin (Hb) is a tetrameric noncovalent complex consisting of two alpha- and two beta-globin chains each associated with a heme group. Its exact assembly pathway is a matter of debate. Disorders of hemoglobin are the most common inherited disorders and subsequently the molecule has been extensively studied. This work attempts to further elucidate the structural properties of the hemoglobin tetramer and its components. Gas-phase conformations of hemoglobin tetramers and their constituents were investigated by means of traveling-wave ion mobility mass spectrometry. Sickle (HbS) and normal (HbA) hemoglobin molecules were analyzed to determine whether conformational differences in their quaternary structure could be observed. Rotationally averaged collision cross sections were estimated for tetramer, dimer, apo-, and holo-monomers with reference to a protein standard with known cross sections. Estimates of cross section obtained for the tetramers were compared to values calculated from X-ray ...
Background The tectorial membrane (TM) in the mammalian cochlea displays anisotropy, where mechanical or structural properties differ along varying directions. The anisotropy arises from the presence of collagen fibrils organized in fibers of ∼1 µm diameter that run radially across the TM. Mechanical coupling between the TM and the sensory epithelia is required for normal hearing. However, the lack of a suitable technique to measure mechanical anisotropy at the microscale level has hindered understanding of the TMs precise role. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report values of the three elastic moduli that characterize the anisotropic mechanical properties of the TM. Our novel technique combined Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), modeling, and optical tracking of microspheres to determine the elastic moduli. We found that the TMs large mechanical anisotropy results in a marked transmission of deformations along the direction that maximizes sensory cell excitation, whereas in the perpendicular
A laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) is a scientific instrument that is used to make non-contact vibration measurements of a surface. The laser beam from the LDV is directed at the surface of interest, and the vibration amplitude and frequency are extracted from the Doppler shift of the reflected laser beam frequency due to the motion of the surface. The output of an LDV is generally a continuous analog voltage that is directly proportional to the target velocity component along the direction of the laser beam. Some advantages of an LDV over similar measurement devices such as an accelerometer are that the LDV can be directed at targets that are difficult to access, or that may be too small or too hot to attach a physical transducer. Also, the LDV makes the vibration measurement without mass-loading the target, which is especially important for MEMS devices. A vibrometer is generally a two beam laser interferometer that measures the frequency (or phase) difference between an internal reference beam ...
One of the consequences of Einsteins theory of gravity is that when gravitational monsters such as black holes shunt their weight around, they should create ripples in the very fabric of spacetime. These ripples are the gravitational waves researchers at the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) had been looking for.. In 2016 they rewarded by a discovery that counts as a major milestone in modern physics. Rainer Weiss received one half of the Nobel Prize for his part in the detection of gravitational waves by LIGO, and Barry Barish and Kip Thorne share the other half. "The 2017 Nobel Laureates have, with their enthusiasm and determination, each been invaluable to the success of LIGO. Pioneers Rainer Weiss and Kip S. Thorne, together with Barry C. Barish, the scientist and leader who brought the project to completion, have ensured that more than four decades of effort led to gravitational waves finally being observed," says the Nobel Prize website.. We recently had the ...
Looking for interferometer systems? Find out information about interferometer systems. Method of determining the position of a target in azimuth by using an interferometer to compare the phases of signals at the output terminals of a pair of... Explanation of interferometer systems
A method for processing a signal in an interferometer system that measures position information of an object under measurement based on reflected light obtained by directing a measurement light onto the object under measurement, includes a delaying step of obtaining a delayed signal by causing a delay of a prescribed number of periods with respect to a prescribed signal; a synthesizing step of obtain a synthesized signal of the prescribed signal and the delayed signal; and a measuring step of measuring position information of the object under measurement using the synthesized signal.
We introduce a concept of the Machâ€"Zehnderâ€"Fano interferometer by inserting a cavity exhibiting Fano resonance into a conventional interferometer. By employing the scattering-matrix approach, we demonstrate that the transmission becomes sensitive to a position of the cavity such that an asymmetric structure exhibits a series of narrow resonances with almost perfect reflection. We discuss how to implement this novel geometry in two-dimensional photonic crystals and use direct numerical simulations to demonstrate novel regimes of the resonant transmission and reflection ...
Chinchillas are very unique amongst the small animal pet world. They look like a cross between a squirrel, rabbit, rat, and who knows what else, but in reality... Its just a chinchilla. A cute ball of fur. Chinchillas arent as friendly and...
The MS4630B is suitable for electronics production lines demanding fast and accurate device measurements. It is particularly well suited to accurate, high-speed evaluation of IF filter resonance and group delay characteristics, among others.
By a perturbation method and constructing comparison functions, we show the exact asymptotic behaviour of solutions near the boundary to nonlinear elliptic problems Δ$u\pm|\nabla u|^q=b(x)e^u,\ x \in \Omega, \ u|_{\partial \Omega}=\infty, $ where $\Omega$ is a bounded domain with smooth boundary in $\mathbb R^N$, $q \geq 0$, $b$ is non-negative in $\Omega$ and singular on $\partial\Omega$.
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The MESA/Boogie M-Pulse Walkabout Bass amp delivers 300 watts of great tone at a size and weight that fits the demands of any bass player whos traveling light and still needs huge sound.
Ok, first off - I make no claim or comment about the subject of component or cable burn in, but would like to relate some experience. As a service tec
A hair cell that responds best to low frequency sounds will be located at the base end of the basilar membrane. Hair cells in the utricle and saccule are able to respond to linear acceleration of the head because calcium carbonate (otoliths or otoconia) increase the density of the gelatinous material (otolithic membrane). Hair cells in the utricle and the saccule provide information about the orientation of the head with respect to gravity. "Bending" of the stereocilia towards the kinocilium opens mechanically gated ion channels in the hair cells increasing the potassium current and hence changing the membrane potential. Hair cells in the ampulla of a semicircular canal (semicircular duct) respond to angular acceleration of the duct because the inertia of the endolymph distorts the cupula. ...
March 20, 1905 to August 29, 1918. Late at night, on August 28, 1918, 5th District Patrolman Deiters, of 2139 Loth Street, had just begun his shift and was walking in the area of Liberty Street and Freeman Avenue. Frank Lutmer, a Night Watchman, saw two men approaching Liberty and Freeman. The two men went up to Patrolman Deiters. Suddenly, one of them pulled a revolver and put it to Patrolman Deiterss head and announced their intent to rob him of his revolver. He searched the officers pockets and found a hard, metal object, but pulled out a flashlight. With that, Patrolman Deiters attempted to grab his own revolver from his holster. The robber shot him in hischest. Both men ran.. Lieutenant Ringer and Patrolman Busan, of the 1st District, happened by on a street car and saw the shot fired. They jumped off the street car and gave chase but lost them Poplar Street and Rieder Alley.. Patrolman Deiters was rushed to General Hospital. The shot had gone through his chin, down through his ...
A method and apparatus for producing x-ray and/or extreme ultraviolet (EUV) is described. A liquid edge 2 is electrically connected to a cathode 8 via a high voltage pulse power supply 10. Liquid edge 2 is set to be parallel to cathode 8. When high voltage pulse power supply 10 is turned on, a vacuum discharge will occur in a space between liquid edge 2 and cathode 8. The plasma will be confined into a high density and high temperature thin plasma column 4 in a space near liquid edge 2 by strong magnetic field induced by the huge discharge current. A population inversion in the confined plasma column will lead to a amplified simultaneous emission of x-ray and/or EUV 6 along the axis of plasma column 4. Moreover, a large power x-ray and/or EUV laser can be built by using multi-liquid edge-shape anodes placed in a straight line and operated in a traveling-wave mode.
SIMULATION OF A MICHELSON INTERFEROMETER USING RAY TRACING , SIMULATION OF A MICHELSON INTERFEROMETER USING RAY TRACING , کتابخانه دیجیتال دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی خوراسگان
The ideal amplifier An ideal amplifier will pass the input signal through to the output undistorted but enlarged (gain set by user), with no delay. It will not be affected by the output impedance of the source (sensor). In addition the ideal amplifier will be able to drive any load: supply any current. No real amplifier is ideal, but an op amp can come close, at least with regard to gain at low frequency. The typical IC op amp has an open loop gain of 10^6 and a low frequency input impedance of about 10^12 ohms. Well see shortly how such high open loop gain is harnessed to create user-desired gains. Nonlinear gain: Consider log amplifiers and anti-log amplifiers: for enhancing or minimizing waveform spikes. Filtering by amplitude. In Simulink: the Deadzone operator. Off-the-shelf amplifiers In this chapter you will learn how to apply off-the-shelf amplifier ICs (integrated circuits) to problems in instrumentation. First will come ...
This paper will present the analysis results taken from a well-designed interferometer SCDU. The objective is to deliver picometer performance to meet the allocated astrometric error budget from SIM PlanetQuest mission. It will describe the validation of optical designs and analysis procedures to achieve high accuracy of the tip-tilt and shear alignments. Then it will enumerate environmental factors essential to the SCDU performances. Finally it will report color-independent 3 picometer Narrow Angle (NA) performance and all-in-one 17 picometer NA performance. The all-in-one pico-performance will require spectral calibration modeling to remove delay differential induced by color ...
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Like other herbivores, a chinchilla requires daily fiber to maintain a healthy digestive system. When served with Oxbow loose grass hays, the farm-fresh alfalfa in Chinchilla Deluxe - Chinchilla Food provides the necessary fiber,balanced with a specially formulated blend of stabilized nutrients to meet the distinctive needs of this small animal species. Feed Oxbow Chinchilla Deluxe - Chinchilla Food to chinchillas of all ages to maintain intestinal health and prevent digestive upset ...
The whirling vibration of the drill in the beginning of the drilling operation is experimentally investigated. Special attention is paid to how vibration develops as the drill proceeds into the workpiece. Three types of drills with different web thicknesses are used, and the characteristics and cause of the vibration are discussed. Whirling vibration, which has an elliptical orbit, is a self-exited vibration accompanied by a phase lag with respect to the revolution of the workpiece. The vibration energy is provided by the regenerative effect at the major cutting edge, while the chisel edge acts to dampen the vibration.. ...
A lovely set of A4 sized numbers 0-100 on these lovely images. This resource can be used to hang up in the classroom or as number flashcards.
well need to know from someone who knows forsure, im a big guy about 6.3 265lbs i have a huge upper body but im not that tone at all i wont to get to...
Tympanic membrane displacement (TMD) technique, proposed nearly twenty years ago by Marchbanks [16] exploits the effect of intracranial pressure on the acoustic reflex, i.e. a reflex contraction of the stapedius and tensor tympani muscles in response to a sound. Normally, vibrations of the tympanic membrane (eardrum) elicited by acoustic stimuli are transmitted through the chain of ossicles (malleus, uncus, and stapes) in the middle ear to the oval window of the cochlea. Vibrations of the footplate of stapes transmit through the oval window to the perilymph, which in turn causes the endolymph, the basilar membrane, and the organ of Corti to vibrate, activating ultimately the acoustic sensor cells, the inner hair cells of the organ of Corti. The transfer function of this complex mechanical system under physiological conditions is modulated by the action of two small muscles of the middle ear, the tensor tympani and stapedius. The tensor tympani arises from the cartilaginous portion of the ...
A moiré pattern has been observed in the MBL interference fringes when the two beams are incident on the interferometer crystal. The spatial coherent length of the beam passing through slit 1 has been estimated. It is expected that a moiré pattern owing to lattice distortion can be observed in the MBL interference fringes and should be useful for analyzing the strain around the distortion. If X-rays from an undulator beamline are used instead of X-rays from a bending-magnet beamline, the number of MBL interference fringes will be increased and detailed analysis of a moiré pattern will be possible. ...
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An abscess forms in a chinchilla after it develops an infection. These infections develop after a chinchilla has sustained a skin injury or been bitten by another animal. - Wag! (formerly Vetary)
The XA25 stereo amplifier is the latest addition to Pass Laboratories XA series of amplifiers and, at $4900, the lowest priced. It weighs only 45 lbs, has single-ended inputs only, and outputs 25Wpc into 8 ohms, 50Wpc into 4 ohms, or 100Wpc (!) into 2 ohms. According the XA25s well-written owners manual, it will deliver 50W peaks into 2, 4, or 8 ohms in class-A.
The XA25 stereo amplifier is the latest addition to Pass Laboratories XA series of amplifiers and, at $4900, the lowest priced. It weighs only 45 lbs, has single-ended inputs only, and outputs 25Wpc into 8 ohms, 50Wpc into 4 ohms, or 100Wpc (!) into 2 ohms. According the XA25s well-written owners manual, it will deliver 50W peaks into 2, 4, or 8 ohms in class-A.
Reizen RE-980L Amplifier w/ AutoLift - Get the lowest price on Reizen RE-980L Amplifier w/ AutoLift, online at AllegroMedical.com.
Offered inÂ- 10-67 GHz models, R&S ZVAX-TRM conditions signals from R&S ZVA network analyzers and returns them to analyzer or outputs them via integrated test ports. Users can measure parameters such as compression, noise figure, and group delay, even on 3-port T/R modules, with DUT having to be connected only once. When combined with 4-port analyzer with 4 internal sources,... Read More » ...
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Xiao-Hu Yuan, Bin Lu, You-Jin He, Fu-Chun Sun: Static output feedback H/sub /spl infin// controller design for fuzzy systems subject to sensor nonlinearities. SMC (6) 2004: 5789- ...
A number of broadband multilayer dielectric coatings with reflectances of ~0.9 are described. Techniques used to produce highly uniform coatings for airspaced Fabry-Perot interferometers are given in detail, with emphasis on a method of optically monitoring the layer thicknesses. The method results in reasonable agreement over the whole spectrum between the design specifications and those of the finished coating as well as in good reproducibility.. © 1980 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
Zweig, G. (1976). "Basilar Membrane Motion". Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology. 40: 619-33. doi:10.1101/SQB. ...
The MOC innervates the outer hair cells of the cochlea and its activity is able to reduce basilar-membrane responses to sound ... Efferent-Mediated Control of Basilar Membrane Motion; J. Physiol. 576.1, 2006 Smith D and Keil, A; The biological role of the ...
A series of sensory hair cells along the basilar membrane respond to send neural pulses towards the brain. Models for the ear ... He found that the pattern of displacements for given frequency sine wave along the basilar membrane rose somewhat gradually to ... The pattern of voltages along the basilar membrane can be viewed on an oscilloscope. Average values can be obtained with ... Neural signals responding to motions of the basilar membrane show responses in one direction as in rectification. At all but ...
The resonance of the basilar membrane in the ear. Making a child's swing swing higher by pushing it at each swing. A wineglass ...
By aligning the electrodes with the positions of the auditory ganglia contacting the basilar membrane as described by the ... Donald D. Greenwood (1961). "Critical Bandwidth and the Frequency Coordinates of the Basilar Membrane". Journal of the ...
Kohlloffel LUE (1972). "A study of basilar membrane vibrations III: The basilar membrane frequency response curve in the living ... causing the basilar membrane to vibrate. Sounds of different frequencies vibrate different parts of the basilar membrane, and ... As the basilar membrane vibrates, the hair cells attached to this membrane are rhythmically pushed up against the tectorial ... in 1954, is the direct current (DC) response of the hair cells as they move in conjunction with the basilar membrane. The SP is ...
Pioneered by Georg von Békésy, a method to observe the basilar membrane in action came about in the mid 1900s. Békésy isolated ... Additionally, there are few ways to study the basilar membrane in vivo. Many revolutionary concepts regarding hearing and ... This conclusion is due to the finding that when deprived of basilar membrane place information, these patients still ... both theories come into play so the brain can utilize the basilar membrane location and the rate of the impulse. Due to the ...
As the organ of hearing, the cochlea consists of two membranes, Reissner's and the basilar membrane. The basilar membrane moves ... Because of the frequency selectivity of the basilar membrane, a filter bank is used to model the membrane, with each filter ... The movement the basilar membrane displaces the inner hair cells in one direction, which encodes a half-wave rectified signal ... The output of the gammatone filter can be regarded as a measurement of the basilar membrane displacement. Most CASA systems ...
This tone burst would stimulate the corresponding area on the basilar membrane. However, if a tone burst is too short in ... This then compresses the scala vestibule into the basilar membrane in the direction toward the scala tympani. A traveling wave ... Some of this energy hits the tympanic membrane and combines with inertial bone-conduction, stimulating the inner ear. An ...
The basilar crest gives attachment to the outer edge of the basilar membrane; immediately above the crest is a concavity, the ...
Cochlear conductive: due to stiffening of the basilar membrane thus affecting its movement. This type of pathology has not been ... This also allows some inspection of the middle ear through the translucent tympanic membrane. A test administered by a medical ... Located within the scala media, it contains hair cells with stereocilia, which extend to the tectorial membrane. The organ's ... IP injections or local injections into membrane of the round window were given, and permanent threshold shifts (PTS) were ...
The basilar membrane is a wall where the majority of the IHC and OHC sit. Basilar membrane width and stiffness corresponds to ... "Basilar Membrane and Tectorial Membrane Stiffness in the CBA/CaJ Mouse." Springer. 28 May 2014. Web. 02 Apr. 2016. Thompson, A. ... "The Effect of Tectorial Membrane and Basilar Membrane Longitudinal Coupling in Cochlear Mechanics." AIP. Acoustical Society of ... The organ of Corti is located in this duct on the basilar membrane, and transforms mechanical waves to electric signals in ...
Different regions of the basilar membrane in the organ of Corti, the sound-sensitive portion of the cochlea, vibrate at ... Nerves that transmit information from different regions of the basilar membrane therefore encode frequency tonotopically. This ... different sinusoidal frequencies due to variations in thickness and width along the length of the membrane. ...
It allows fluid in the cochlea to move, which in turn ensures that hair cells of the basilar membrane will be stimulated and ... This ensures that hair cells of the basilar membrane will be stimulated and that audition will occur. Both the oval and round ... It is sealed by the secondary tympanic membrane (round window membrane), which vibrates with opposite phase to vibrations ... from the lining membrane of the cochlea; and an intermediate, or fibrous layer. The membrane vibrates with opposite phase to ...
These waves exert a pressure on the basilar and tectorial membranes of the cochlea which vibrate in response to sound waves of ... These cells sit directly above a basilar membrane (BM) that has high sensitivity for differences in frequency. Sound waves ... However, both the somatic motor and the hair bundle motor produce significant displacements of the basilar membrane. This, in ... The mechanical force that is generated by these mechanisms increases the movement of the basilar membrane. This, in turn, ...
The lower frequencies were detected when the basilar membrane was stimulated, providing even further evidence for rate coding.[ ... especially for lower frequencies as they are coded by the frequencies that neurons fire from the basilar membrane in a ... Perilymph fistula - a microtear in either the round or oval window (membranes separating the middle and inner ear) of the ... Auditory neuropathy a disorder of poor speech perception even though the tympanic membrane, middle ear structures, and cochlear ...
Reissner's membrane is a thin membrane that separates endolymph from perilymph; and the basilar membrane is a mechanically ... The cochlear duct is bounded on three sides by the basilar membrane, the stria vascularis, and Reissner's membrane. Stria ... the less stiff the basilar membrane is; thus lower frequencies travel down the tube, and the less-stiff membrane is moved most ... at the apex of the cochlea Reissner's membrane, which separates the vestibular duct from the cochlear duct The basilar membrane ...
The basilar membrane of the inner ear spreads out different frequencies: high frequencies produce a large vibration at the end ... The basilar membrane is tonotopic, so that each frequency has a characteristic place of resonance along it. Characteristic ... Basilar membrane motion causes depolarization of the hair cells, specialized auditory receptors located within the organ of ... Inside the organ of Corti is the basilar membrane, a structure that vibrates when waves from the middle ear propagate through ...
... which includes the basilar membrane, is called the scala tympani. As a result of this increase in length, the basilar membrane ... The basilar membrane separates the cochlear duct from the scala tympani, a cavity within the cochlear labyrinth. The lateral ... They lie on the basilar membrane beneath Claudius' cells and are organized in rows with the number of rows the number of which ... He found that movement of the basilar membrane resembles that of a traveling wave; the shape of which varies based on the ...
The lower frequencies were detected when the basilar membrane was stimulated, providing even further evidence for rate coding. ... especially for lower frequencies as they are coded by the frequencies that neurons fire from the basilar membrane in a ... perilymph fistula - a microtear in either the round or oval window (membranes separating the middle and inner ear) of the ... surgical insertion of drainage ventilation tubes in the tympanic membrane. Such placement is usually temporary until the ...
... s are polyhedral cells on the basilar membrane of the cochlea, and are located beneath Claudius cells. Boettcher ...
Basilar membrane This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918). ...
... and because it is located on the membrane of OHCs it then pulls on the basilar membrane and increasing how much the membrane is ... Both AC and BC stimulate the basilar membrane in the same way (Békésy, G.v., Experiments in Hearing. 1960). The basilar ... Strategically positioned on the basilar membrane of the organ of Corti are three rows of outer hair cells (OHCs) and one row of ... The organ of Corti, surrounded in potassium rich fluid endolymph, lies on the basilar membrane at the base of the scala media. ...
Successive parts of the tonotopically organized basilar membrane in the cochlea resonate to corresponding frequency bandwidths ...
The basilar membrane in the cochlea has receptive fields similar to the receptive fields of the skin and eyes. Also, ...
Place theory holds that the perception of pitch is determined by the place of maximum excitation on the basilar membrane. A ...
... of Corti that are responsible for activation of afferent receptors in response to pressure waves reaching the basilar membrane ...
The basilar membrane is important in the concept of tonotopy because the frequency distribution that the basilar membrane ... the hair cells on the sensory epithelium of the organ of Corti bend and cause movement of the basilar membrane. The membrane ... The basilar membrane is also an important part of the transduction process because it separates the scala media and the scala ... When there is a transfer of pressure from one side to the other, the basilar membrane creates a traveling wave. ...
... the Reissners membrane and the Basilar membrane respectively. Scala media contains the endolymph a uniquely potassium-rich, ... "Membrane part" (GO:0044425) and "Membranes" (GO:0016020) FDR q-value 10− 4, followed by the term "Bounding membrane of ... and a third group comprising terms referring to cell membrane and membrane/protein interactions.. Full size table. ... membrane (Immun-Blot® PVDF membrane, BIO-RAD Laboratories, USA) previously activated in 100% methanol (J.T. Baker, USA) and ...
... Warren, Rebecca L. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and ... hearing; basilar membrane; optical coherence tomography; hair cells National Category Biophysics Identifiers. URN: urn:nbn:se: ... Outside the region of peak movement, an exponential decline in motion amplitude occurred across the basilar membrane. The ... where the sensory outer hair cells produce force that greatly increases the sound-evoked vibrations of the basilar membrane. We ...
... and the basilar membrane (lower border). The organ of Corti (the sensory end organ for hearing) rests on the basilar membrane. ... the basilar membrane at the base of the cochlea and low frequency sounds are associated with movement of the basilar membrane ... The mechanical properties of the basilar membrane determine the distance that the wave travels toward the apex of the cochlea. ... The organ of Corti has special "hair cells" that rise to terminate in (or near) the tectorial membrane. There are approximately ...
In case of cochlear damage, the basilar membrane response would be more linear and broadly tuned resulting in reduced ...
Two types of degenerating axon terminals in the basilar pontine nuclei of the opossum following cerebral cortical lesions. A ... The characteristics of the electrotonic current spread were used to determine passive membrane properties of both circular and ...
Basilar membrane input-output functions are illustrated for a passive cochlea (red line), an active cochlea (blue squares and ... Figure 1 illustrates the amount of basilar membrane (BM) displacement as a function of sound pressure level (i.e., input-output ... whereas the blue shaded areas indicate the corresponding displacement amplitudes of the basilar membrane. ... Mice with OHCs that show somatic motility but have stereocilia that are not physically attached to the tectorial membrane (TM) ...
Premature Rupture of Membranes: First-Level Tests. *Calcium-Magnesium-Zinc: Benefits , Side Effects , Dosage ... Basilar Artery: Anatomy , Location , Function. *How Long Does Morphine Stay in Your System ...
Premature Rupture of Membranes: First-Level Tests. *Calcium-Magnesium-Zinc: Benefits , Side Effects , Dosage ... Basilar Artery: Anatomy , Location , Function. *How Long Does Morphine Stay in Your System ...
The cochlea pulsates the basilar membrane, which contains thousands of sensory hair cells that move in response to the pressure ...
This type of presbycusis happens due to the changes in the mechanical properties of the cochleas basilar membrane, such as ... Sometimes abnormalities of the outer ear or the middle ear such as the reduced function of the tympanic membrane or the three ...
An emilin family extracellular matris protein identified inthe cochlear basilar membrane. Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, ... Goodyear, Richard and Richardson, Guy (1997) Pattern formation in the basilar papilla: evidence for cell rearrangement. Journal ... Accelerated age-related degradation of the tectorial membrane in the Ceacam16 βgal/βgal null mutant mouse, a model for late- ... A deafness mutation isolates a second role for the tectorial membrane in hearing. Nature Neuroscience, 8. pp. 1035-1042. ISSN ...
... is same as above using valsalva and then the two fundamental and is associated with a clinical picture of the basilar membrane ...
For post-traumatic DI, brain imaging by CT is indicated for the evaluation of a possible basilar skull fracture. For ... NSAIDs inhibit prostaglandin E2 synthesis and thereby prolong the time the AQP2 water channels remain in the apical membrane, ... The diuretic amiloride blocks Na+ channels in the apical membrane of the collecting duct cells and inhibits lithium ... Studies have also suggested that thiazide diuretics can increase AQP2 membrane insertion independently of vasopressin signal ...
Even the basal transcription levels of ns-GST-O were higher than those of ns-GST-T. These membrane ordering effects were ... The length-tension curve shifted toward the tension axis in basilar arteries and aortae isolated from SHRSP as compared with ... We conclude that a lumenal cargo protein drives the recruitment of Rab27a to the organelle membrane by a novel mechanism that ... suggesting that the two peptides assume different structures on membranes. The authors reviewed publications on QTc ...
... basilar artery migraine,basilar migraine,basilar migraines,bell palsies,bell palsy,bells palsies,bells palsy,bells palsy ... brain membrane infection,brain metabolic disorder,brain metabolic disorders,brain metastatic tumor,brain metastatic tumors, ...
The findings in the report illustrate the novel anatomic principle that a distal basilar perforating vessel can serve as the ... Distribution of the long leptin receptor isoform in brush border, basolateral membrane, and cytoplasm of enterocytes. To ...
... in the 1980s represented another major breakthrough in zeolitesThe when the basilar membrane is impelling upwards, the plaits ... An lone with a perforated tympanic membrane will familiarity which one of the 41For the most part avoided in patients who drink ... Sudden loss of insight second-line to an acute tear in Descemet membrane resulting in the rapid evolution of corneal stromal ... The envelope is a imitative of the gist membrane of the infected cells and consists of lipids with inserted viral ...
Tinnitus can be associated with Basilar Artery Migraine (BAM), and also tinnitus can be more bothersome when one is having a ... by inserting gelfoam with botox through a perforation in the tympanic membrane. Pramipexole was recently reported effective for ...
e) Resting membrane potential. The editor commented about the possibility that the resting membrane potential may change with ... Burst generation in rat pyramidal neurones by regenerative potentials elicited in a restricted part of the basilar dendritic ... the membrane resistance was 25,000 Ω·cm (Mombaerts et al., 1996); the axial resistance was 100 Ω·cm and the membrane ... Average resting membrane potential was −80.1 ± 1.43 mV. In addition, we excluded neurons in which the quality of the recordings ...
... adrenoceptor flurophore binding in the basilar artery from old wky rats methods finding in experimental clinical pharmacology ... changes in vmax stability membrane association biochemical society transactions dual inhibitory stimulatory activities in serum ... structural functional alterations in the basilar artery from stroke prone spontaneously hypertensive rats in 7th european ...
caused by otoconia detaching from otolithic membrane of utricle and getting stuck in a semicircular canal ... usually occurs with thrombotic narrowing of AICA or basilar artery (at AICA) opening ...
The nuclear membrane was damaged using nuclear lysis buffer formulated with TritonX and SDS. 10?g of DNA was used for every TAK ... Under microscope the basilar artery was cautiously dissected clear of the mind, cleared of connective cells and slice into 1 mm ... K towards the external membrane from the microorganism, whereas TprA1, -B, -E, -G, -H, and -L localization cant be ...
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A vacuolar sorting receptor PV72 on the membrane of vesicles that accumulate precursors of seed storage proteins (PAC vesicles ... Combination of acute thrombolytic therapy and subsequent PTA is an effective treatment for severe basilar artery occlusive ... Phospholipid-cationic lipid interactions: influences on membrane and vesicle properties. We consider evaluation of the parent- ...
Tetraspanins form specialized membrane microdomains on the cell surface which control cell proliferation and migration through ... polymers to evaluate the efficacy of controlled NO repletion in a haptoglobin 2-2 mouse basilar artery SAH model. Screening for ... In live cells, GFP-VAMP7 is observed in the membrane of endocytic compartments. The capacity to repress gene expression using ...
  • This ensures that hair cells of the basilar membrane will be stimulated and that audition will occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sensitive portion takes to the Nervous System Central somesthesics information from the skin and mucous membrane of great area of the face, being responsible also for a neural disease, known as the Trigeminal Neuralgia. (bvsalud.org)
  • The rash consists of numerous small, irregular purple or red spots ("petechiae") on the trunk, lower extremities, mucous membranes, conjuctiva, and (occasionally) the palms of the hands or soles of the feet. (wikipedia.org)
  • Denuded basement membrane was frequently observed although a thin fragment of basilar cytoplasm of respiratory epithelium remained attached in some foci. (cdc.gov)
  • Damage in the mainstem bronchus extended beneath the basement membrane into the lamina propria where edematous changes were characterized by disorganization and separation of collagen fibers and fibrils. (cdc.gov)
  • When the basilar membrane vibrates, tiny hair cells (organ of Corti) on top of the basilar membrane bend and trigger the release of chemicals that create an electrical signal sound that is used for a specific task, such as to convey information. " target="_blank" >signal or a neural impulse. (dosits.org)
  • This study aimed to investigate the role of FAs in simulated-microgravity-induced basilar and femoral arterial remodelling. (bvsalud.org)
  • Second, the hearing range of any mammal depends mostly on the characteristics of the basilar membrane. (dosits.org)
  • After placement, bacteria from the oral cavity may colonize the coronal part of the membrane. (myforextradingsecret.com)
  • When viewed in the coronal plane, the ventricular floor appears as a thin membrane bridging the inferior aspects of the hypothalamus, separating the third ventricle superiorly from the suprasellar cistern inferiorly. (barrowneuro.org)
  • Meningitis is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges. (wikipedia.org)
  • An endogenous membrane-bound protein inhibits the phosphorylation of the L-type calcium channel by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase. (pianolarge.cf)
  • These results indicate the presence of a plasma membrane protein antigen associated with a distinct population of cells believed to be trophoblast. (lipitor2020.site)
  • The perception of loudness summation depends not only on the sound intensity, but also on the area size stimulated on the basilar membrane. (hearinghealthmatters.org)
  • Hair cells sit on the basilar membrane and have an overhead cover called the reticular lamina. (neuronbank.org)
  • Hair cells in the utricle and saccule are able to respond to linear acceleration of the head because calcium carbonate (otoliths or otoconia) increase the density of the gelatinous material (otolithic membrane). (rubikscomplex.net)
  • Bending" of the stereocilia towards the kinocilium opens mechanically gated ion channels in the hair cells increasing the potassium current and hence changing the membrane potential. (rubikscomplex.net)
  • In this process of neuronal apoptosis, the membrane receptor KA1 receives the apoptosis signal and transfers it to the inside of the cells to cause cell endoplasmic reticulum dysfunction and ERS response, which ultimately leads to neuronal death. (bvsalud.org)
  • Comparisons between the two approaches in the case of a synaptically uncoupled and a synaptically coupled neural population produced satisfactory qualitative agreement in terms of firing rate and mean membrane potential. (courtfield.tk)
  • The MDCT technology allowed larger anatomic coverage, for example imaging of the en- tire aortoilac system and lower extremity inflow and run-off , particu- larly in the male patient with a high-riding iliac crest. (binaryoptionsranking.com)
  • Two structures called the rods of Corti support the reticular lamina and the basilar membrane. (neuronbank.org)