A basement membrane in the cochlea that supports the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, consisting keratin-like fibrils. It stretches from the SPIRAL LAMINA to the basilar crest. The movement of fluid in the cochlea, induced by sound, causes displacement of the basilar membrane and subsequent stimulation of the attached hair cells which transform the mechanical signal into neural activity.
The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.
The spiral EPITHELIUM containing sensory AUDITORY HAIR CELLS and supporting cells in the cochlea. Organ of Corti, situated on the BASILAR MEMBRANE and overlaid by a gelatinous TECTORIAL MEMBRANE, converts sound-induced mechanical waves to neural impulses to the brain.
One of the three ossicles of the middle ear. It transmits sound vibrations from the INCUS to the internal ear (Ear, Internal see LABYRINTH).
The electric response of the cochlear hair cells to acoustic stimulation.
A genus of the family Chinchillidae which consists of three species: C. brevicaudata, C. lanigera, and C. villidera. They are used extensively in biomedical research.
A membrane, attached to the bony SPIRAL LAMINA, overlying and coupling with the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI in the inner ear. It is a glycoprotein-rich keratin-like layer containing fibrils embedded in a dense amorphous substance.
Sensory cells of organ of Corti. In mammals, they are usually arranged in three or four rows, and away from the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), lateral to the INNER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS and other supporting structures. Their cell bodies and STEREOCILIA increase in length from the cochlear base toward the apex and laterally across the rows, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.
The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.
A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.
Self-generated faint acoustic signals from the inner ear (COCHLEA) without external stimulation. These faint signals can be recorded in the EAR CANAL and are indications of active OUTER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS. Spontaneous otoacoustic emissions are found in all classes of land vertebrates.
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
The narrow passage way that conducts the sound collected by the EAR AURICLE to the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.
The audibility limit of discriminating sound intensity and pitch.
Fenestra of the cochlea, an opening in the basal wall between the MIDDLE EAR and the INNER EAR, leading to the cochlea. It is closed by a secondary tympanic membrane.
Sensory cells in the organ of Corti, characterized by their apical stereocilia (hair-like projections). The inner and outer hair cells, as defined by their proximity to the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), change morphologically along the COCHLEA. Towards the cochlear apex, the length of hair cell bodies and their apical STEREOCILIA increase, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.
Fluids found within the osseous labyrinth (PERILYMPH) and the membranous labyrinth (ENDOLYMPH) of the inner ear. (From Gray's Anatomy, 30th American ed, p1328, 1332)
Lack of correspondence between the way a stimulus is commonly perceived and the way an individual perceives it under given conditions.
A type of non-ionizing radiation in which energy is transmitted through solid, liquid, or gas as compression waves. Sound (acoustic or sonic) radiation with frequencies above the audible range is classified as ultrasonic. Sound radiation below the audible range is classified as infrasonic.
Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.
The 8th cranial nerve. The vestibulocochlear nerve has a cochlear part (COCHLEAR NERVE) which is concerned with hearing and a vestibular part (VESTIBULAR NERVE) which mediates the sense of balance and head position. The fibers of the cochlear nerve originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS). The fibers of the vestibular nerve arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI.
Auditory sensory cells of organ of Corti, usually placed in one row medially to the core of spongy bone (the modiolus). Inner hair cells are in fewer numbers than the OUTER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS, and their STEREOCILIA are approximately twice as thick as those of the outer hair cells.
Measurement of distances or movements by means of the phenomena caused by the interference of two rays of light (optical interferometry) or of sound (acoustic interferometry).
The lower chamber of the COCHLEA, extending from the round window to the helicotrema (the opening at the apex that connects the PERILYMPH-filled spaces of scala tympani and SCALA VESTIBULI).
A spiral thickening of the fibrous lining of the cochlear wall. Spiral ligament secures the membranous COCHLEAR DUCT to the bony spiral canal of the COCHLEA. Its spiral ligament fibrocytes function in conjunction with the STRIA VASCULARIS to mediate cochlear ion homeostasis.
The branch of physics that deals with sound and sound waves. In medicine it is often applied in procedures in speech and hearing studies. With regard to the environment, it refers to the characteristics of a room, auditorium, theatre, building, etc. that determines the audibility or fidelity of sounds in it. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
An oval semitransparent membrane separating the external EAR CANAL from the tympanic cavity (EAR, MIDDLE). It contains three layers: the skin of the external ear canal; the core of radially and circularly arranged collagen fibers; and the MUCOSA of the middle ear.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A dimension of auditory sensation varying with cycles per second of the sound stimulus.
The science pertaining to the interrelationship of psychologic phenomena and the individual's response to the physical properties of sound.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
Physical motion, i.e., a change in position of a body or subject as a result of an external force. It is distinguished from MOVEMENT, a process resulting from biological activity.
The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.
The essential part of the hearing organ consists of two labyrinthine compartments: the bony labyrinthine and the membranous labyrinth. The bony labyrinth is a complex of three interconnecting cavities or spaces (COCHLEA; VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH; and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS) in the TEMPORAL BONE. Within the bony labyrinth lies the membranous labyrinth which is a complex of sacs and tubules (COCHLEAR DUCT; SACCULE AND UTRICLE; and SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS) forming a continuous space enclosed by EPITHELIUM and connective tissue. These spaces are filled with LABYRINTHINE FLUIDS of various compositions.
An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.
The process by which cells convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response. It can occur in both cells specialized for sensing mechanical cues such as MECHANORECEPTORS, and in parenchymal cells whose primary function is not mechanosensory.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
The interference of one perceptual stimulus with another causing a decrease or lessening in perceptual effectiveness.
A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.
A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.

Micromechanical responses to tones in the auditory fovea of the greater mustached bat's cochlea. (1/139)

An extended region of the greater mustached bat's cochlea, the sparsely innervated (SI) zone, is located just basally to the frequency place of the dominant 61-kHz component of the echolocation signal (CF2). Anatomic adaptations in the SI zone are thought to provide the basis for cochlear resonance to the CF2 echoes and for the extremely sharp tuning throughout the auditory system that allows these bats to detect Doppler shifts in the echoes caused by insect wing beat. We measured basilar membrane (BM) displacements in the SI zone with a laser interferometer and recorded acoustic distortion products at the ear drum at frequencies represented in the SI zone. The basilar membrane in the SI region was tuned both to its characteristic frequency (62-72 kHz) and to the resonance frequency (61-62 kHz). With increasing stimulus levels, the displacement growth functions are compressive curves with initial slopes close to unity, and their properties are consistent with the mammalian cochlear amplifier working at high sound frequencies. The sharp basilar membrane resonance is associated with a phase lag of 180 degrees and with a shift of the peak resonance to lower frequencies for high stimulus levels. Within the range of the resonance, the distortion product otoacoustic emissions, which have been attributed to the resonance of the tectorial membrane in the SI region, are associated with an abrupt phase change of 360 degrees. It is proposed that a standing wave resonance of the tectorial membrane drives the BM in the SI region and that the outer hair cells enhance, fine tune, and control the resonance. In the SI region, cochlear micromechanics appear to be able to work in two different modes: a conventional traveling wave leads to shear displacement between basilar and tectorial membrane and to neuronal excitation for 62-70 kHz. In addition, the SI region responds to 61-62 kHz with a resonance based on standing waves and thus preprocesses signals which are represented more apically in the CF2 region of the cochlea.  (+info)

Cochlear function: hearing in the fast lane. (2/139)

The cochlea amplifies sound over a wide range of frequencies. Outer hair cells have been thought to play a mechanical part in this amplification, but it has been unclear whether they act rapidly enough. Recent work suggests that outer hair cells can indeed work at frequencies that cover the auditory range.  (+info)

Direct visualization of organ of corti kinematics in a hemicochlea. (3/139)

The basilar membrane in the mammalian cochlea vibrates when the cochlea receives a sound stimulus. This mechanical vibration is transduced into hair cell receptor potentials and thereafter encoded by action potentials in the auditory nerve. Knowledge of the mechanical transformation that converts basilar membrane vibration into hair cell stimulation has been limited, until recently, to hypothetical geometric models. Experimental observations are largely lacking to prove or disprove the validity of these models. We have developed a hemicochlea preparation to visualize the kinematics of the cochlear micromechanism. Direct mechanical drive of 1-2 Hz sinusoidal command was applied to the basilar membrane. Vibration patterns of the basilar membrane, inner and outer hair cells, supporting cells, and tectorial membrane have been recorded concurrently by means of a video optical flow technique. Basilar membrane vibration was driven in a direction transversal to its plane. However, the direction of the resulting vibration was found to be essentially radial at the level of the reticular lamina and cuticular plates of inner and outer hair cells. The tectorial membrane vibration was mainly transversal. The transmission ratio between cilia displacement of inner and outer hair cells and basilar membrane vibration is in the range of 0.7-1.1. These observations support, in part, the classical geometric models at low frequencies. However, there appears to be less tectorial membrane motion than predicted, and it is largely in the transversal direction.  (+info)

Three-dimensional motion of the organ of Corti. (4/139)

The vibration of the organ of Corti, a three-dimensional micromechanical structure that incorporates the sensory cells of the hearing organ, was measured in three mutually orthogonal directions. This was achieved by coupling the light of a laser Doppler vibrometer into the side arm of an epifluorescence microscope to measure velocity along the optical axis of the microscope, called the transversal direction. Displacements were measured in the plane orthogonal to the transverse direction with a differential photodiode mounted on the microscope in the focal plane. Vibration responses were measured in the fourth turn of a temporal-bone preparation of the guinea-pig cochlea. Responses were corrected for a "fast" wave component caused by the presence of the hole in the cochlear wall, made to view the structures. The frequency responses of the basilar membrane and the reticular lamina were similar, with little phase differences between the vibration components. Their motion was rectilinear and vertical to the surface of their membranes. The organ of Corti rotated about a point near the edge of the inner limbus. A second vibration mode was detected in the motion of the tectorial membrane. This vibration mode was directed parallel to the reticular lamina and became apparent for frequencies above approximately 0.5 oct below the characteristic frequency. This radial vibration mode presumably controls the shearing action of the hair bundles of the outer hair cells.  (+info)

The spatial and temporal representation of a tone on the guinea pig basilar membrane. (5/139)

In the mammalian cochlea, the basilar membrane's (BM) mechanical responses are amplified, and frequency tuning is sharpened through active feedback from the electromotile outer hair cells (OHCs). To be effective, OHC feedback must be delivered to the correct region of the BM and introduced at the appropriate time in each cycle of BM displacement. To investigate when OHCs contribute to cochlear amplification, a laser-diode interferometer was used to measure tone-evoked BM displacements in the basal turn of the guinea pig cochlea. Measurements were made at multiple sites across the width of the BM, which are tuned to the same characteristic frequency (CF). In response to CF tones, the largest displacements occur in the OHC region and phase lead those measured beneath the outer pillar cells and adjacent to the spiral ligament by about 90 degrees. Postmortem, responses beneath the OHCs are reduced by up to 65 dB, and all regions across the width of the BM move in unison. We suggest that OHCs amplify BM responses to CF tones when the BM is moving at maximum velocity. In regions of the BM where OHCs contribute to its motion, the responses are compressive and nonlinear. We measured the distribution of nonlinear compressive vibrations along the length of the BM in response to a single frequency tone and estimated that OHC amplification is restricted to a 1.25- to 1.40-mm length of BM centered on the CF place.  (+info)

A targeted deletion in alpha-tectorin reveals that the tectorial membrane is required for the gain and timing of cochlear feedback. (6/139)

alpha-tectorin is an extracellular matrix molecule of the inner ear. Mice homozygous for a targeted deletion in a-tectorin have tectorial membranes that are detached from the cochlear epithelium and lack all noncollagenous matrix, but the architecture of the organ of Corti is otherwise normal. The basilar membranes of wild-type and alpha-tectorin mutant mice are tuned, but the alpha-tectorin mutants are 35 dB less sensitive. Basilar membrane responses of wild-type mice exhibit a second resonance, indicating that the tectorial membrane provides an inertial mass against which outer hair cells can exert forces. Cochlear microphonics recorded in alpha-tectorin mutants differ in both phase and symmetry relative to those of wild-type mice. Thus, the tectorial membrane ensures that outer hair cells can effectively respond to basilar membrane motion and that feedback is delivered with the appropriate gain and timing required for amplification.  (+info)

Hair cell death in a hearing-deficient canary. (7/139)

Cell death has been documented in bird auditory inner ear epithelia after induced damage. This cell death is quickly followed by an increase in supporting cell division and regeneration of the epithelium, thereby suggesting a possible relationship between these two processes. However, aspects of this relationship still need to be better understood. The Belgian Waterslager (BWS) canary is an ideal system in which to study cell death and subsequent cell division. In contrast to mixed breed (MB) canaries, cell division normally occurs in the auditory end organ of the BWS without any external manipulation. In addition, some of the cells in the auditory epithelium may be dying through an apoptotic-like process. In the present study two methods were used to quantify dying cells in the BWS and MB canary auditory epithelia: morphological criteria and TUNEL. Results confirm that some of the abnormal hair cells in the BWS auditory epithelium are apoptotic-like. The presence of both cell death and cell division indicates that these processes act concurrently in the adult end organ. Future studies are needed to determine if cell death is a stimulus for the observed cell division.  (+info)

Development of the gerbil inner ear observed in the hemicochlea. (8/139)

A frequency-dependent change in hearing sensitivity occurs during maturation in the basal gerbil cochlea. This change takes place during the first week after the onset of hearing. It has been argued that the mass of a given cochlear segment decreases during development and thus increases the best frequency. Changes in mass during cochlear maturation have been estimated previously by measuring the changes in cochlear dimensions. Fixed, dehydrated, embedded, or sputter-coated tissues were used in such work. However, dehydration of the tissue, a part of most histological techniques, results in severe distortion of some aspects of cochlear morphology. The present experiments, using a novel preparation, the hemicochlea, show that hydrated structures, such as the tectorial membrane and the basilar membrane hyaline matrix, are up to 100% larger than estimated previous studies. Therefore, the hemicochlea was used to study the development of cochlear morphology in the gerbil between the day of birth and postnatal day 19. We used no protocols that would have resulted in severe distortion of cochlear elements. Consequently, a detailed study of cochlear morphology yields several measures that differ from previously published data. Our experiments confirm growth patterns of the cochlea that include a period of remarkably rapid change between postnatal day 6 and 8. The accelerated growth starts in the middle of the cochlea and progresses toward the base and the apex. In particular, the increase in height of Deiters' cells dominated the change, "pushing" the tectorial membrane toward scala vestibuli. This resulted in a shape change of the tectorial membrane and the organ of Corti. The tectorial membrane was properly extended above the outer hair cells by postnatal day 12. This time coincides with the onset of hearing. The basilar membrane hyaline matrix increased in thickness, whereas the multilayered tympanic cover layer cells decreased to a single band of cells by postnatal day 19. Before and after the period of rapid growth, the observed gross morphological changes are rather small. It is unlikely that dimensional changes of cochlear structures between postnatal days 12 and 19 contribute significantly in the remapping of the frequency-place code in the base of the cochlea. Instead, structural changes affecting the stiffness of the cochlear partition might be responsible for the shift in best frequency.  (+info)

Low-frequency hearing is critically important for speech and music perception, but no mechanical measurements have previously been available from inner ears with intact low-frequency parts. These regions of the cochlea may function in ways different from the extensively studied high-frequency regions, where the sensory outer hair cells produce force that greatly increases the sound-evoked vibrations of the basilar membrane. We used laser interferometry in vitro and optical coherence tomography in vivo to study the low-frequency part of the guinea pig cochlea, and found that sound stimulation caused motion of a minimal portion of the basilar membrane. Outside the region of peak movement, an exponential decline in motion amplitude occurred across the basilar membrane. The moving region had different dependence on stimulus frequency than the vibrations measured near the mechanosensitive stereocilia. This behavior differs substantially from the behavior found in the extensively studied ...
Great advances have been made in understanding hearing in recent years. In particular, the mechanical function of the cochlea has become the focus of intense interest. This started in one direction, with the discovery of otoacoustic emissions in 1978, which required active mechanical amplification processes, as first postulated by Gold in 1948. Direct evidence for the role of this mechanism in sharpening-up the otherwise poor, basilar membrane tuning properties, was provided in 1982; and in 1983, motility was shown in outer hair cells. In parallel, an immense amount of work has been done on the electrophysiology of hair cells, following the first intracellular recordings in 1977. Over a longer time scale, models of basilar membrane motion have been developed and refined, and recently much effort has been put into incorporating active mechanisms and non-linear processes. It seemed an opportune time to bring together the leading workers in these various areas, to take stock of the whole field and to
The precise mechanical behavior of the basilar membrane (BM) at low frequencies is still unknown. To address this issue we use an in vitro preparation of the guinea pig temporal bone to investigate the mechanical behaviour of the organ of Corti at the apex of the cochlea. Confocal laser interferometry is used to record the nanometre displacements of both Hensens cells (HeC) and the BM in response to sound and electrical stimulation. We show that at low frequencies, the BM exhibits greatly reduced sound-evoked movement (similar to 35dB less) and no current-evoked movement, when compared to the HeC at the same position along the spiral. The BM best frequency is found to be an average of 52Hz (0.35 octave) higher than the HeC best frequency. In addition, we demonstrate that BM motion is not affected by inhibition of somatic electromotility or by blocking the mechanoelectrical transduction channels. We therefore propose that the BM primarily acts as a passive support structure at the cochlear apex. ...
METHOD AND DEVICE FOR NON-CONTACT OSCILLATION MEASUREMENTS - A method and a device to measure oscillations of an object. The method includes the processing steps: Determining at least one point of the object to be measured, moving at least one laser interferometer fastened on a carrier into a measuring position for measuring the measuring point on the object, emitting at least one measuring beam of the laser interferometer to at least one measuring point on the object, detecting the measuring beam reflected by the object, determining the oscillation data from the emitted and reflected measuring beam, allocating the oscillation data to the measuring point, as well as evaluating the oscillation data and displaying the oscillation data of the measuring point, with at least one comparison of a position of the laser interferometer being performed using at least one position of a known freely predetermined point on the object and a transformation rule being prepared to determine the position of the ...
Mechanical responses in the basal turn of the guinea-pig cochlea are measured with low-level broad-band noise as the acoustical stimulus [for details see de Boer and Nuttall, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 101, 3583-3592 (1997)]. Results are interpreted within the framework of a classical three-dimensional model of the cochlea that belongs to a very wide class of nonlinear models. The use of linear-systems analysis for this class of nonlinear models has been justified earlier [de Boer, Audit. Neurosci. 3, 377-388 (1997)]. The data are subjected to inverse analysis with the aim to recover the effective basilar-membrane impedance. This is a parameter function that, when inserted into the model, produces a model response, the resynthesized response, that is similar to the measured response. With present-day solution methods, resynthesis leads back to an almost perfect replica of the original response in the spatial domain. It is demonstrated in this paper that this also applies to the response in the frequency
Having said that, it seems that this is simply not the case. Lifeless areas cant be Obviously observed through PTA audiograms. This may be mainly because although the neurons innervating the useless region, cant respond to vibration at their attribute frequency. Should the basilar membrane vibration is significant ample, neurons tuned to different characteristic frequencies such as All those adjacent into the lifeless region, are going to be stimulated a result of the spread of excitation ...
Registered in inner ear. Three semicircular canals loop in three planes at right angles to each other, responsible for transduction of movement messages. Method: hair cells deformed by gelatinous membrane. Vestibular apparatus, gives us perception of gravity and movement. Due to physical response, not chemical binding.. Cochlea: bony, coil shaped part of inner ear, where hearing occurs.. Sound enters through auditory canal, vibrates tympanic membrane,moving three bones of middle ear (malleus, incus, and stapes)against oval window opening in front of cochlea. Cochlea has three fluid filled ducts, one of these the organ of Corti. Sound waves in air go to vibration in organ of Corti; fluid tickles hair cells, which register the movement along basilar membrane in cochlea. Different sound frequencies move different portions of basilar membrane. Hearing loss due to loss of hair cells.Humans normally smell more than 300 odors in a day(Facts and Truth).. Transduction of sound accomplished throgh ...
The organ of Corti is the sensitive element in the inner ear and can be thought of as the bodys microphone. It is situated on the basilar membrane in one of the three compartments of the Cochlea. It contains four rows of hair cells which protrude from its surface. Above them is the tectoral membrane which can move in response to pressure variations in the fluid- filled tympanic and vestibular canals. There are some 16,000 -20,000 of the hair cells distributed along the basilar membrane which follows the spiral of the cochlea. ...
The introduction of B5.54 and ISO 230-6 machine tool performance measurement standards has increased the popularity of laser interferometer diagonal, step diagonal and vector methods for the evaluation and compensation of machine tool errors. This is due to the potential reduction in test times these methods can provide compared with the more conventional laser interferometer based linear, angle and straightness measurements, taken along lines parallel to the machines X, Y and Z axes. This paper provides an updated overview of laser diagonal measurements for machine tool performance assessment. It is based on the work in a previous Renishaw paper combined with significant updates to reflect the changes since then.. [1.4MB] ...
Different levels of awareness are present in us. The mind can be taken to states such as Delta, Theta, Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and HyperGamma. The specific frequencies produced by the Monaural beats tune your mind to these zones of awareness and facilitate meditation. Monaural Beat Technology comes into play when trying to enter states such as Delta, Alpha, and Theta. These states operate at frequencies below 30Hz; this makes them inaudible to the human ear. Playing these directly will serve no purpose. With Monaural, you do not need headphones. The beats will directly stimulate the Basilar Membrane. This increases the effectiveness and ease of use of these beats. Monaural Beats use two different frequencies directed to a single speaker to create a beat or pulse that you can perceive. For example, if 300 Hz and 310 Hz were played through a speaker, the listener would hear 10 Hz amidst the original tones. This is an extremely powerful technique to speed up spiritual development and experience an ...
As the construction of the world's third Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) in India continues, researchers from the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Hyderabad and the Indian Institute of Science Education and Research in Pune have been training at the University of Strathclyde, UK in a variety of thin film manufacturing and mechanical characterisation techniques. Click to read more...
The Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (Advanced LIGO) has finished a successful first observation run and will commence its second run this summer. Detection of compact object binaries utilizes matched-filtering, which requires a vast collection of highly accurate gravitational waveforms. This talk will present a set of about 100 new aligned-spin binary black hole simulations. I will discuss their properties, including a detailed error analysis, which demonstrates that the numerical waveforms are sufficiently accurate for gravitational wave detection purposes, as well as for parameter estimation purposes. To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2016.APR.X14.6. ...
Den 14 september 2015 observerades för första gången någonsin universums gravitationsvågor. Vågorna, som Albert Einstein förutspådde hundra år tidigare, kom från en kollision mellan två avlägsna svarta hål. Det tog 1,3 miljarder år för vågorna att färdas till LIGO-detektorn i USA.. Trots att signalen var extremt svag, lovar den redan en revolution för astrofysiken. Gravitationsvågor är ett helt nytt sätt att se de våldsammaste händelserna i rymden, och testa gränserna för vårt vetande.. LIGO, Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory, är ett samarbetsprojekt med fler än tusen forskare från drygt 80 institutioner i över tjugo länder. Tillsammans har de förverkligat en nästan femtio år gammal dröm. Årets Nobelpristagare har med sin entusiasm och uthållighet på var sitt sätt varit oumbärliga för LIGO-framgången. Med pionjärerna Rainer Weiss och Kip S. Thorne samt Barry C. Barish, vetenskapsmannen och ledaren som fått projektet i hamn, har flera ...
When Breton SpA wanted to add machine tool manufacture to its core business of building stone-processing machinery, the increase in required levels of precision prompted the introduction of around 30 devices from Renishaw, including laser interferometers, rotary axis calibrators, ballbars and touch-trigger probes. As a result, Bretons range of high-speed, five-axis CNC machining centres are now among the worlds most advanced. ...
it is of interest to understand what it means to excite these components antisymmetrically. As discussed in §E.3.3, an antisymmetric excitation of traveling-wave components can be interpreted as a velocity excitation. It was noted that localized velocity excitations in the FDTD generally correspond to non-localized velocity excitations in the DW, and that velocity in the DW is proportional to the spatial derivative of the difference between the left-going and right-going traveling displacement-wave components (see Eq ...
Looking for basilar membrane of cochlear duct? Find out information about basilar membrane of cochlear duct. structure composed mostly of lipid lipids, a broad class of organic products found in living systems. Most are insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar... Explanation of basilar membrane of cochlear duct
Conchae is a snail shaped organ which has 2 1/2 (2S) turns. The oval window opens into the vestibule to cochlea through the scala vestibule.The bony part of the cochlea make turns around a central pillar called modiolus. The modiolus at its upper end diverge into Y shaped membranes called vestibular membrane and basilar membrane. On the one side of the modiolus and vestibular membrane lie the scala vestibuli. On the other side of modiolus and basilar membrane lies the scala tympani. Scala vestibuli and tympani communicates with each other only at the apex of cochlea which is helicotrema. Between the vestibular membrane and basilar membrane lies the membranous cochlea which is called scala media (cochlear duct). On the internal surface of basilar membrane lies coiled and arranged in coiled form cells called hair cells and supporting cells. Hair cells are further divided into inner and outer hair cells. Inner hair cells are arranged in 1 layer, while outer hair cells are arranged in 3 layers. ...
Conchae is a snail shaped organ which has 2 1/2 (2S) turns. The oval window opens into the vestibule to cochlea through the scala vestibule.The bony part of the cochlea make turns around a central pillar called modiolus. The modiolus at its upper end diverge into Y shaped membranes called vestibular membrane and basilar membrane. On the one side of the modiolus and vestibular membrane lie the scala vestibuli. On the other side of modiolus and basilar membrane lies the scala tympani. Scala vestibuli and tympani communicates with each other only at the apex of cochlea which is helicotrema. Between the vestibular membrane and basilar membrane lies the membranous cochlea which is called scala media (cochlear duct). On the internal surface of basilar membrane lies coiled and arranged in coiled form cells called hair cells and supporting cells. Hair cells are further divided into inner and outer hair cells. Inner hair cells are arranged in 1 layer, while outer hair cells are arranged in 3 layers. ...
The precise movement of the cochlear basilar membrane (BM) stimulates the sensory hair cells during auditory transduction. However, the molecular composition of the BM that confers its specialized properties of support and elasticity is poorly understood. A differential screen of cochlear RNA from deaf mice lacking thyroid hormone receptor ß was used to identify a sequence encoding a secreted protein, which is abundant in the BM and is expressed at low levels in the heart, lung, and brain. The protein possesses several domains for protein interactions and is related to emilin (elastin microfibril interface-located protein) previously isolated from aorta. This cochlear emilin-2 mRNA is expressed in the tympanic border cells underlying the BM and an antibody detected protein in the extracellular matrix surrounding the collagenous fibers in the BM. These results identify emilin-2 as a major BM component and suggest that it contributes to the developmental assembly or function of the BM.. ...
Bartleby: The Internal Ear or Labyrinth (Auris Interna) The Cochlea: apex (cupula), modiolus, osseous spiral lamina, basilar membrane, helicotrema, spiral canal of the modiolus, spiral ganglion (Ganglion of Corti), fenestra cochle , secondary tympanic membrane, osseous spiral lamina (lamina spiralis ossea), scala vestibuli, scala tympani, hamulus lamin spiralis, secondary spiral lamina, vestibule fissure, Ductus Cochlearis (membranous cochlea; scala media), basilar membrane, vestibular membrane, lagena, spiral ligament, basilar crest, spiralis externus, stria vascularis, osseous spiral lamina, imbus lamin spiralis, sulcus spiralis internus, vestibular lip, tympanic lip, auditory teeth, Basilar Membrane, zona arcuata, spiral organ of Corti, zona pectinata, vas spirale, Corti s tunnel, piral organ of Corti (organon spirale; organ of Corti), inner and outer rods or pillars of Corti, tunnel of Corti, reticular membrane, Rods of Corti, inner rods, outer rods, phalangeal processes, phalangeal ...
The use of Tympanic Membrane Displacement (TMD) measurements for assessing inner ear pressure has been the subject of research over the past 15 or more years.
Introduction and Objective]: The cochleogram is a graphic record which represents hair cells along the length of the basilar membrane and relates cell damage with frequency specific values in hearing thresholds. The purpose of this study is to design a simple and robust method to quantitatively determine the distribution of the inner and outer hair cells at the organ of Corti in the mouse cochlea. [Materials and Methods]: Six male CBA/CaOlaHsd mice with normal auditory brainstem responses were sacrificed at 2months of age. The cochleae from both ears (n=12) were extracted, fixed and decalcified, and then divided in two parts (apical-middle and basal), obtaining around 80% of the whole extent of the basilar membrane. The organ of Corti (OC) was isolated and phalloidin-stained in multiwall glass slides. Using a fluorescence microscope and stereological software, the total length of the OC was divided into equidistant 5% sectors1. The number of inner (IHC) and outer (OHC) hair cells in randomly ...
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Highest-resolution, accurate SEM imaging of large samples exceeding a single typical field of view (in the order of a few tens of μm) is a challenging procedure. A set of several hundreds or thousands of images have to be stitched together in order to display a surface spanning several millimeters or even centimeters as a Google Earth-style map. Any standard mechanical stage will have visible stitching errors, and thus yield distorted images. The Raith systems are different: By reversing the functionality of a professional electron beam lithography tool, the sample surface is not exposed; instead, existing nanostructures are seamlessly imaged using the extreme placement accuracy of the tool infrastructure.. Users can benefit e. g. from the on-board Laser Interferometer Controlled Stage technology, related write field alignment functionality, and drift correction algorithms. These features deliver ultra-precise and fully automated image acquisition for generating highly accurate and ...
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Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Porosity controls spread of excitation in tectorial membrane traveling waves. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
I agree, whats the big deal with radioactive materials in space??? This traveling wave generator is a novel idea, dont discard it just because it has the taboo radio- prefix in its description. Whats wrong with using radioactive power sources, like the SAFE fission reactor or any of the nuclear reactors designed and build by the soviets? Also, NASAs http://spacescience.nasa.gov/missions/prometheus.htm [Broken] is looking at radioisotope power generation systems. It really agrivates me that educated people are still deathly afraid of nuclear energy, simply because it carries a taboo ...
differences in human TM waves relative to those of other mammals.. TM wave properties were measured in samples taken from human cadavers ...
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In apparent contradiction, the stiffness of heart cells was reported to increase with frequency (Shroff et al., 1995). This discrepancy can be explained by instrumental differences. In Shroff et al.s work, a cover slip with attached cells was vibrated in the z direction by a piezoelectric stage so that there was no drag between the cells and the media. The stiffness of the heart cells measured by AFM was in the range of 0.1 N/m at 100 Hz (Shroff et al., 1995). If we assume that Shroff et al.s figures apply to our cells, a 0.01 N/m cantilever would have underestimated the true movement by ∼15%.. The molecular nature of the membrane motor is not yet clear. As the applied voltage drops mainly across the membrane, the electromechanical transduction must be located in the cell membrane. One possibility is that membrane proteins, whose dipoles are not oriented parallel to the imposed field, reorient in the field. However, to obtain movements of 5 nm requires that the proteins extend far from the ...
This thesis gives an overview of my work over the last four years on the development of analogue electronic building blocks for the auditory pathway, and their application to some models of processing in the auditory brainstem. The anatomy and physiology of the human ear is presented, and is decomposed into three key elements, i.e., the basilar membrane band-pass filters, the transduction into a neural signal performed by the inner hair cells, and the mechanical feedback introduced by the outer hair cells. An electronic model for the first two of these elements is presented and measurement results are shown to compare these circuits with their biological counterparts. The remaining part of the human auditory pathway consists of several groups of different types of spiking neurons. Since the main part of signal processing in the auditory pathway is performed by these different types of spiking neurons, a good spiking neuron model is essential. The electrophysiology and anatomy needed to understand the
Only the intensity of each photon. In the meantime, Im looking to see what there barking at (naturally) and theres nothing. These cells are located on top of the basilar membrane. During this time there is a loud ringing in the ears for about 20 seconds. Secondly, radio waves are non ionizing. These cells are what detects then converts vibrations or movement into electrical signals. This is where the outer hair cells shine. Radio Frequencies how do u get tapeworms can ringing in ears hearing loss be very harmful. It happens to everyone. Dont ever live near a cell repeater, radio broadcast towers, etc. Needless to say I have been to the doctors but nobody ever explained why it happens, just to ignore it or it is nothing but it always made me frightened and it has turned into a bit of a phobia as I panic when it happens. If you have ever tried to run in a pool or in water, you know its much more difficult than running on land thanks to the viscosity and friction of water. That statement is ...
The basilar crest gives attachment to the outer edge of the basilar membrane; immediately above the crest is a concavity, the sulcus spiralis externus. This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Grays Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained herein may be outdated. Please edit the article if this is the case, and feel free to remove this notice when it is no longer relevant. ...
On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) officially announced that the gravitational waves from colliding black holes 1.3 billion years ago have been detected by both of its twin detectors, opening up a new window on the study of the Universe. Prof. Tjonnie G. F. LI, Research Assistant Professor from the Department of Physics at CUHK, has been involved with the work of LIGO since 2009, and is currently the only scientist from a Hong Kong institution to be part of it.    In the talk entitled ‘Einstein’s Messenger: A New Window on the Universe’, Prof. Li gave a detailed introduction on gravitational waves and the operation of LIGO.   Please click here to watch the highlight version. 
Detected Gravitational Waves Result of Black Hole Collision - The first gravitational waves detected back on Sept. 14, 2015, may have been the result of two black holes colliding within a supermassive star. Its the cosmic equivalent of a pregnant woman carrying twins, said astrophysicist Avi Loeb, with the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Black holes form when massive stars explode. In this case scientists think that the star was spinning so fast that the center formed into a dumbbell shape with each end becoming one of the holes. The holes then quickly merged causing the wave and then later fueling a burst of gamma rays. The rays were detected by NASAs Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope just 0.4 seconds after the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) picked up the gravitational waves. In order to power both the gravitational wave event and the gamma-ray burst, the twin black holes must have been born close together, with an initial separation of order the size ...
This past summer, in a brick warehouse in the waterfront community of Red Hook, Brooklyn, scientists from Caltech and other institutes gathered with artists and musicians to discuss everything from gravitational waves to tintype photography. The event took place at the Pioneer Works cultural center, which hosts exhibitions and lectures with the goal of bridging the gaps between different disciplines. For the Caltech physicists who attended the week-long event-including Rana Adhikari and Yanbei Chen, professors of physics at Caltech who both work on the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory, or LIGO-one goal was to think about their own research from a new perspective.. One week wasnt really long enough, says Adhikari, who helped plan the collaborative event with Pioneer Works director of sciences Janna Levin, an astrophysicist based at Barnard College of Columbia University in New York City. Its useful to think about our science in a new way. We reset our brains.. Eight ...
This means that the spike train leaving the cochlear already on this level shows a strong coincidence detection, an alignment of spikes at a time point.. This is interesting in terms of musical instrument sound production and perception. Musical instruments have clear aligned phases of overtones, which are impulses traveling along strings or tubes. Still when radiated, these impulses are strongly blurred. The ear (and later the brain) is again aligning these blurred phases reconstructing the impulses present in the musical instruments.. Lit.:. Bader, R.: Phase synchronization in the cochlea at transition from mechanical waves to electrical spikes, Chaos 25, 103124, http://dx.doi.org.1757.emedien3.sub.uni-hamburg.de/10.1063/1.4932513, 2015.. Bader, R. & Mores, R.: Cochlear detection of double-slip motion in cello bowing. arXiv:1804.05695v1 [q-bio.NC] 16 Apr 2018.. Bader, R.: Cochlear spike synchronization and coincidence detection model. Chaos 023105, 1-10, 2018.. ...
There is at least one thing which could be assessed to clarify the issue: The electronic polarizability. Recently, it has been suggested that this could be partially taken into account by scaling the charges [Leontyev et al. PCCP 13, 2613 (2011)]. It would be interesting to try out if this approach would improve the partitioning issue (1). I do not believe, however, that the membrane response issue (2) could be fixed simply by this approach; there is, namely, a problem in the membrane energies in all the other cases as well ...
Keysight Technologies is a world leader in the design and manufacture of laser interferometry systems, advanced electronic measurement systems, high-precision optical components, complex monolithic optics (CMOs), and opto-electronic systems design for the most demanding metrology applications. Keysight systems offer high precision in a wide dynamic range, the ability to simultaneously measure a position with multiple degrees of freedom, and the highest accuracy available in both air and vacuum systems.. With more than 11,000 systems delivered, our modular interferometry solutions set the standard for precision measurement of the most challenging applications in semiconductor lithography, aerospace/defense, metrology, and manufacturing. Moving forward, Keysight will continue to innovate systems that will enable the future in each of these markets.. ...
Keysight Technologies is a world leader in the design and manufacture of laser interferometry systems, advanced electronic measurement systems, high-precision optical components, complex monolithic optics (CMOs), and opto-electronic systems design for the most demanding metrology applications. Keysight systems offer high precision in a wide dynamic range, the ability to simultaneously measure a position with multiple degrees of freedom, and the highest accuracy available in both air and vacuum systems.. With more than 11,000 systems delivered, our modular interferometry solutions set the standard for precision measurement of the most challenging applications in semiconductor lithography, aerospace/defense, metrology, and manufacturing. Moving forward, Keysight will continue to innovate systems that will enable the future in each of these markets.. ...
For the non-Menieres subject, with each successive lowering of the high-pass masking frequency, the latency of the ABR response to the clicks and the noise increases. This is the result of removing the contributions from the higher frequencies so that the latency is dominated by unmasked activity from the lower-frequency regions of the cochlea. However, as seen in the right panel for a patient diagnosed with active Menieres disease, there is virtually no latency shift with each successive high-pass masking condition. In other words, the masking noise appears to be ineffective in sufficiently masking the high-frequency contributions. Thus, the ABR is still dominated by the high-frequency regions and there is little or no shift in the latency of wave V. The hypothesis is that the cochlear hydrops causes stiffness changes in the basilar membrane leading to ineffective noise masking. Don et al. (2005b) demonstrated that a quantitative measure of the amount of latency shift between the response to ...
The first investigations into the electrophysiology of the retina were published over 80 years ago (Kahn and Löwenstien, 1924). In the decades since, electroretinography (ERG) has become a widely used tool in ophthalmology for monitoring the health of the visual system. Different variations of the ERG, such as flash ERG (FERG) and pattern ERG (PERG) can be used to isolate the response of the various cellular generators, giving an overall view of retinal health. Currently, there are a number of visual display units (VDUs) available for eliciting the wide array of ERG responses. These VDUs range from conventional CRT and LCD displays, to digital micro-mirror devices, to laser interferometer based systems. Unfortunately, many of the VDUs available are limited in the way they display visual stimuli, particularly when it comes to precise timing control. In order to perform advanced signal analysis techniques, such as the recently developed Continuous Loop Averaging Deconvolution (CLAD)
The 59th Annual Staff Service Awards will be presented in Beckman Auditorium on Monday, June 2, at 10 a.m. During the ceremony, more than 250 staff members whose service ranges from 10 to 50 years will be honored. A full list of awardees can be found here.. This week we are featuring Caltech staff members who will be recognized for 40 and 45 years of service to the Institute.. The honorees include three 40-year staff members: Eugene Akutagawa, a senior scientist in biology and a member of the professional staff; Susi Martin, assistant to the Board of Trustees; and Steve Vass, a senior instrument specialist at the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO).. Eugene Akutagawa graduated from UCLA with a bachelors degree in microbiology; a help-wanted ad in the Los Angeles Times for a lab assistant brought him to Caltech, where I was standing in the hallway, waiting to be interviewed, and theres [Nobel Laureate] Max Delbrück coming out of the lab. To me, a microbiologist, he was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Incomplete Cochlear Partition Type II Variants as an Indicator of Congenital Partial Deafness: A First Report. AU - Ha, J.F.. AU - Wood, B.. AU - Krishnaswamy, Jayaram. AU - Rajan, Gunesh. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. M3 - Article. VL - 33. SP - 957. EP - 962. JO - Otology & Neurotology. JF - Otology & Neurotology. SN - 0192-9763. ER - ...
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A mathematical model of cochlear processing is developed to account for the nonlinear dependence of frequency selectivity on intensity in inner hair cell and auditory nerve fiber responses. The model describes the transformation from acoustic stimulus to intracellular hair cell potentials in the cochlea. It incorporates a linear formulation of basilar membrane mechanics and subtectorial fluid-cilia displacement coupling, and simplified description of the inner hair cell nonlinear transduction process. The analysis at this stage is restricted to low-frequency single tones. The computed responses to single tone inputs exhibit the experimentally observed nonlinear effects of increasing intensity such as the increase in the bandwidth of frequency selectivity and the downward shift of the best frequency. In the model, the first effect is primarily due to the saturating effect of the hair cell nonlinearity. The second results from the combined effects of both the nonlinearity and the inner hair cell ...
Applications of Holography to Interferometric Testing, Eastman Kodak Report F-013747-KU, 1967.. Coherence vs Fringe Visibility in Laser Interferometers, Eastman Kodak Report A002003-KU, 1967.. Improving Brightness of Holographic Images, Eastman Kodak A-002072-MU, 1967.. Optical Testing by Holographic Interferometry, Eastman Kodak A-002055-MU, 1967.. A General Purpose Holographic Differential Interferometer. Eastman Kodak, 1968.. Radiometry & Photometry, American Journal of Physics, Vo1. 36, No. 11, Part 1, November 1968, pp. 977-979.. Holographic Multiple Pass Interferometer for Plasma Physics, co-authors W.R. McCluney, J. G. Hirschberg,, L. R. Hazelton, and A. Aggarwal, Optical Society of America Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL, 24 October 1969, Journal of the Optical Society of America, Paper FB18, Vol. 59, p. 1541 (1969).. The HOMIN, A Holographic Multiple Pass Interferometer, co-authors J. G. Hirschberg, W. R. McCluney, A. Aggarawal, and L. R. Hazelton. Univeresity of Miami ...
3D surface reconstruction from histology slides of the cochlea (scala vestibuli, scala tympani and scala media) of a Chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) using AMIRA® Visualization Software. Specimen courtesy of Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary (MEEI).
An in vivo tracer was used to determine if the reticular lamina and/or the cell membranes abutting the endolymphatic space are temporarily disrupted after intense noise exposure (4-kHz OBN, 108-dB SPL, 1.75 h). Using a double-barreled micropipette, the endolymphatic potential (EP) was recorded and artificial endolymph containing 10% carbon particles was injected into the endolymphatic space either
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
In the article An Improved Model for the Rate-Level Functions of Auditory-Nerve Fibers by Peter Heil, Heinrich Neubauer, and Dexter R. F. Irvine, which appeared on pages 15424-15437 of the October 26, 2011 issue, the authors regret a mistake in Equation 7. KAA−1 should have read KAA. The corrected equation is listed below. ...
PHENOTYPE: Mice homozygous for a null allele exhibit reduced, enlarged, and loose otoliths, and thin cupula, saccule, utricle and tectorial membranes. [provided by MGI curators ...
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Zweig, G. (1976). "Basilar Membrane Motion". Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology. 40: 619-33. doi:10.1101/SQB. ...
The MOC innervates the outer hair cells of the cochlea and its activity is able to reduce basilar-membrane responses to sound ... Efferent-Mediated Control of Basilar Membrane Motion; J. Physiol. 576.1, 2006 Smith D and Keil, A; The biological role of the ...
A series of sensory hair cells along the basilar membrane respond to send neural pulses towards the brain. Models for the ear ... He found that the pattern of displacements for given frequency sine wave along the basilar membrane rose somewhat gradually to ... The pattern of voltages along the basilar membrane can be viewed on an oscilloscope. Average values can be obtained with ... Neural signals responding to motions of the basilar membrane show responses in one direction as in rectification. At all but ...
The resonance of the basilar membrane in the ear. A wineglass breaking when someone sings a loud note at exactly the right ...
By aligning the electrodes with the positions of the auditory ganglia contacting the basilar membrane as described by the ... Donald D. Greenwood (1961). "Critical Bandwidth and the Frequency Coordinates of the Basilar Membrane". Journal of the ...
The basilar membrane (BM) is a barrier between scalae, along the edge of which the IHCs and OHCs sit. Basilar membrane width ... Teudt IU, Richter CP (October 2014). "Basilar membrane and tectorial membrane stiffness in the CBA/CaJ mouse". Journal of the ... Meaud J, Grosh K (March 2010). "The effect of tectorial membrane and basilar membrane longitudinal coupling in cochlear ... The organ of Corti is located in this duct on the basilar membrane, and transforms mechanical waves to electric signals in ...
Kohlloffel LUE (1972). "A study of basilar membrane vibrations III: The basilar membrane frequency response curve in the living ... causing the basilar membrane to vibrate. Sounds of different frequencies vibrate different parts of the basilar membrane, and ... As the basilar membrane vibrates, the hair cells attached to this membrane are rhythmically pushed up against the tectorial ... in 1954, is the direct current (DC) response of the hair cells as they move in conjunction with the basilar membrane. The SP is ...
Pioneered by Georg von Békésy, a method to observe the basilar membrane in action came about in the mid 1900s. Békésy isolated ... Additionally, there are few ways to study the basilar membrane in vivo. Many revolutionary concepts regarding hearing and ... This conclusion is due to the finding that when deprived of basilar membrane place information, these patients still ... both theories come into play so the brain can utilize the basilar membrane location and the rate of the impulse. Due to the ...
As the organ of hearing, the cochlea consists of two membranes, Reissner's and the basilar membrane. The basilar membrane moves ... Because of the frequency selectivity of the basilar membrane, a filter bank is used to model the membrane, with each filter ... The movement the basilar membrane displaces the inner hair cells in one direction, which encodes a half-wave rectified signal ... The output of the gammatone filter can be regarded as a measurement of the basilar membrane displacement. Most CASA systems ...
This tone burst would stimulate the corresponding area on the basilar membrane. However, if a tone burst is too short in ... This then compresses the scala vestibule into the basilar membrane in the direction toward the scala tympani. A traveling wave ... Some of this energy hits the tympanic membrane and combines with inertial bone-conduction, stimulating the inner ear. An ...
The basilar crest gives attachment to the outer edge of the basilar membrane; immediately above the crest is a concavity, the ...
Cochlear conductive: due to stiffening of the basilar membrane thus affecting its movement. This type of pathology has not been ... This also allows some inspection of the middle ear through the translucent tympanic membrane. A test administered by a medical ... Located within the scala media, it contains hair cells with stereocilia, which extend to the tectorial membrane. The organ's ... IP injections or local injections into membrane of the round window were given, and permanent threshold shifts (PTS) were ...
These waves travel to the basilar membrane in the cochlea of the inner ear. Different frequencies of sound will cause ... When the hair cells on the basilar membrane move back and forth due to the vibrating sound waves, they release ... This spatial arrangement of sounds and their respective frequencies being processed in the basilar membrane is known as ... vibrations in different location of the basilar membrane. We are able to hear different pitches because each sound wave with a ...
... which includes the basilar membrane, is called the scala tympani. As a result of this increase in length, the basilar membrane ... The basilar membrane separates the cochlear duct from the scala tympani, a cavity within the cochlear labyrinth. The lateral ... He found that movement of the basilar membrane resembles that of a traveling wave; the shape of which varies based on the ... The endolymphatic duct is wrapped in a simple loop around the lagena, with the basilar membrane lying along one side. The first ...
The Reissner's membrane transfers the vibrations to the endolymph of the middle canal. The Basilar membrane then vibrates and ... This is then transmitted to the tympanic membrane (eardrum). The sound waves sets up vibrations in the tympanic membrane. The ... The tympanic membrane separates the middle ear from the external ear. The middle ear is joined to the throat via the Eustachian ... The tympanic membrane regularly grows and can automatically self-repair after injury. The middle ear is a cavity that is filled ...
Different regions of the basilar membrane in the organ of Corti, the sound-sensitive portion of the cochlea, vibrate at ... Nerves that transmit information from different regions of the basilar membrane therefore encode frequency tonotopically. This ... increasing in amplitude as it moves along a tonotopic axis in the basilar membrane (BM). This pressure wave travels along the ... found that different sound frequencies caused maximum wave amplitudes to occur at different places along the basilar membrane ...
These waves exert a pressure on the basilar and tectorial membranes of the cochlea which vibrate in response to sound waves of ... These cells sit directly above a basilar membrane (BM) that has high sensitivity for differences in frequency. Sound waves ... However, both the somatic motor and the hair bundle motor produce significant displacements of the basilar membrane. This, in ... The mechanical force that is generated by these mechanisms increases the movement of the basilar membrane. This, in turn, ...
The basilar membrane within the cochlea contains the first of these specializations for echo information processing. In bats ... the movement of the basilar membrane results in the stimulation of primary auditory neurons. Many of these neurons are ... neural investment of any cochleae reported to date with ratios of greater than 1500 ganglion cells/mm of basilar membrane.[ ... there is a disproportionately lengthened and thickened section of the membrane that responds to sounds around 83 kHz, the ...
Within the basilar membrane, energy is transferred, and specific frequencies can be detected and activate auditory hairs. The ...
However, in a normally functioning cochlea, complex broadband signals are decomposed by the filtering on the basilar membrane ( ... evidence for feedback of outer hair cells upon the basilar membrane". The Journal of Neuroscience. 11 (4): 1057-67. doi:10.1523 ...
Reissner's membrane is a thin membrane that separates endolymph from perilymph; and the basilar membrane is a mechanically ... The cochlear duct is bounded on three sides by the basilar membrane, the stria vascularis, and Reissner's membrane. Stria ... the less stiff the basilar membrane is; thus lower frequencies travel down the tube, and the less-stiff membrane is moved most ... A very strong movement of the basilar membrane due to very loud noise may cause hair cells to die. This is a common cause of ...
It allows fluid in the cochlea to move, which in turn ensures that hair cells of the basilar membrane will be stimulated and ... This ensures that hair cells of the basilar membrane will be stimulated and that audition will occur. Both the oval and round ... It is sealed by the secondary tympanic membrane (round window membrane), which vibrates with opposite phase to vibrations ... from the lining membrane of the cochlea; and an intermediate, or fibrous layer. The membrane vibrates with opposite phase to ...
The basilar membrane is tonotopic, so that each frequency has a characteristic place of resonance along it. Characteristic ... Basilar membrane motion causes depolarization of the hair cells, specialized auditory receptors located within the organ of ... Inside the organ of Corti is the basilar membrane, a structure that vibrates when waves from the middle ear propagate through ... In this way, the patterns of oscillations on the basilar membrane are converted to spatiotemporal patterns of firings which ...
... s are polyhedral cells on the basilar membrane of the cochlea, and are located beneath Claudius cells. Boettcher ...
... and because it is located on the membrane of OHCs it then pulls on the basilar membrane and increasing how much the membrane is ... Both AC and BC stimulate the basilar membrane in the same way (Békésy, G.v., Experiments in Hearing. 1960). The basilar ... Strategically positioned on the basilar membrane of the organ of Corti are three rows of outer hair cells (OHCs) and one row of ... The organ of Corti, surrounded in potassium-rich fluid endolymph, lies on the basilar membrane at the base of the scala media. ...
The basilar membrane in the cochlea has receptive fields similar to the receptive fields of the skin and eyes. Also, ...
The base and apex of the basilar membrane differ in stiffness and width, which cause the basilar membrane to respond to varying ... then the strength of response from the basilar membrane will progressively lessen. The fine tuning of the basilar membrane is ... The stereocilia found on OHCs are in contact with the tectorial membrane. Therefore, when the basilar membrane moves due to ... fact that excitation due to vibration of the basilar membrane spreads upwards from the apical regions of the basilar membrane, ...
Place theory holds that the perception of pitch is determined by the place of maximum excitation on the basilar membrane. A ...
For frequencies that are lower than 200 Hz, the tip of the basilar membrane vibrates in sync with the sound waves. In turn, ... The human ear is able to detect differences in pitch through the movement of auditory hair cells found on the basilar membrane ... High frequency sounds will stimulate the auditory hair cells at the base of the basilar membrane while medium frequency sounds ... it causes different parts in the basilar membrane to become simultaneously stimulated and flex. In this way, different timbres ...
... fluid-filled tube divided lengthwise by the organ of Corti which contains the basilar membrane. The basilar membrane increases ... In this way, the patterns of oscillations on the basilar membrane are converted to spatiotemporal patterns of firings which ... The differential vibration of the basilar causes the hair cells within the organ of Corti to move. This causes depolarization ...
Talk:Basement membrane. *Talk:Basilar artery. *Talk:Basilar membrane. *Talk:Basilar plexus ...
Successive parts of the tonotopically organized basilar membrane in the cochlea resonate to corresponding frequency bandwidths ...
Amplification of sound by the pinna, tympanic membrane and middle ear causes an increase in level of about 10 to 15 dB in a ... Reissner's/vestibular membrane. *Basilar membrane. *Reticular membrane. *Endolymph. *Stria vascularis. *Spiral ligament ...
The only parts of the body that Kyrle disease do not form are the palms, soles, and mucous membranes. Lesions may heal ... Keratinization in Kyrle disease form at the basilar layer that is lower than the normal proliferation region in the epidermis. ...
... the basilar membrane, and the organ of Corti to vibrate, activating ultimately the acoustic sensor cells, the inner hair cells ... Tympanic membrane displacement[edit]. Tympanic membrane displacement (TMD) technique, proposed nearly twenty years ago by ... away from the tympanic membrane, which tenses the membrane. The stapedius, which emerges from the posterior wall of the ... The sound is transmitted to the stapes, and further through the ossicles, to the tympanic membrane from which it can be ...
It is accompanied by the recurrent nerve, and supplies the muscles and mucous membrane of this part, anastomosing with the ... through the intervertebral foramina to be distributed to the spinal cord and its membranes, and to the bodies of the vertebrae ...
Basilar skull fractures are linear fractures that occur in the floor of the cranial vault (skull base), which require more ... fracture at or near the site of the impact and cause damage to the underlying structures within the skull such as the membranes ... Basilar fractures have characteristic signs: blood in the sinuses; cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea (CSF leaking from the nose) ... Jan 2010). "William Henry Battle and Battle's sign: mastoid ecchymosis as an indicator of basilar skull fracture". J Neurosurg ...
The scala media contains endolymph.[17] A set of membranes called the vestibular membrane and the basilar membrane develop to ... As the stapes pushes the secondary tympanic membrane, fluid in the inner ear moves and pushes the membrane of the round window ... "Traumatic Perforation of the Tympanic Membrane - Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders". Merck Manuals Professional Edition. ... The malleus rests on the membrane, and receives the vibration. This vibration is transmitted along the incus and stapes to the ...
Louder signals create a greater 'push' on the Basilar membrane and thus stimulate more nerves, creating a stronger loudness ...
They ascend to the back part of the dorsum of the tongue, and supply the mucous membrane in this situation, the glossopalatine ... It supplies the gland and gives branches to the mylohyoideus and neighboring muscles, and to the mucous membrane of the mouth ...
... a membrane potential. The three primary types of photoreceptors are: Cones are photoreceptors which respond significantly to ... Reissner's/vestibular membrane. *Basilar membrane. *Reticular membrane. *Endolymph. *Stria vascularis. *Spiral ligament ...
The ethmoidal sinuses or ethmoidal air cells of the ethmoid bone are one of the four paired paranasal sinuses. They are a variable in both size and number of small cavities in the lateral mass of each of the ethmoid bones and cannot be palpated during an extraoral examination.[1] They are divided into the anterior, middle and posterior groups (see below). The ethmoidal air cells consist of numerous thin-walled cavities situated in the ethmoidal labyrinth and completed by the frontal, maxilla, lacrimal, sphenoidal, and palatine bones. They lie between the upper parts of the nasal cavities and the orbits, and are separated from these cavities by thin bony laminae.[2]. ...
Together with the internal laryngeal nerve, it pierces the lateral thyrohyoid membrane, and supplies blood to the muscles, ... mucous membrane, and glands of the larynx, connecting with the branch from the opposite side. ...
They are lined by mucous membrane, and each communicates with the corresponding nasal cavity by means of a passage called the ...
Reissner's/vestibular membrane. *Basilar membrane. *Reticular membrane. *Endolymph. *Stria vascularis. *Spiral ligament ...
... harmonics excited different parts of the basilar membrane because of the frequency difference in the call.[24] Auditory nerve ...
Reissner's/vestibular membraneBasilar membrane Endolymph • Stria vascularis • Spiral ligament. Organ of Corti: Stereocilia ... Labyrinthine wall/medial: Oval window · Round window • Secondary tympanic membrane • Prominence of facial canal • Promontory of ...
... they also supply the mucous membrane of the maxillary sinus. ... basilar: pontine. *labyrinthine. *cerebellar (AICA, SCA, PICA) ...
... the hair cells on the sensory epithelium of the organ of Corti bend and cause movement of the basilar membrane. The membrane ...
Mysticeti have exceptionally thin, wide basilar membranes in their cochleae without stiffening agents, making their ears ... In odontocetes, the tympanic membrane (or ligament) has the shape of a folded-in umbrella that stretches from the ectotympanic ... The ectotympanic offers a reduced attachment area for the tympanic membrane. The connection between this auditory complex and ... ring and narrows off to the malleus (quite unlike the flat, circular membrane found in land mammals.) In mysticetes, it also ...
... (SAH) is bleeding into the subarachnoid space-the area between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater ... Those of the basilar artery and posterior cerebral artery are hard to reach surgically and are more accessible for endovascular ... bleeding under the hyaloid membrane, which envelops the vitreous body of the eye) and vitreous hemorrhage may be visible on ...
The outermost membrane, the dura mater, is a thick durable membrane, which is attached to both the arachnoid membrane and the ... While antibiotics are frequently used in an attempt to prevent meningitis in those with a basilar skull fracture there is not ... Meningitis is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the ... When components of the bacterial cell membrane are identified by the immune cells of the brain (astrocytes and microglia), they ...
The region of the basilar membrane supplying the inputs to a particular afferent nerve fibre can be considered to be its ... the auditory hair cells are located within the spiral organ of Corti on the thin basilar membrane in the cochlea of the inner ... to the fact that it can increase the amount of neurotransmitter release in response to a change as little as 100 μV in membrane ...
basilar dendrite. • hippocampal mossy fiber. • growth cone. • varicosity. • جسم (أحياء). • perinuclear region of cytoplasm. ... "Evidence for expression of some microtubule-associated protein 1B in neurons as a plasma membrane glycoprotein". J. Neurochem. ...
A basilar skull fracture can result in a rupture of the barrier between the sinonasal cavity and the anterior cranial fossae or ... The membranes create mucus faster than it can be processed, causing a backup of mucus in the nasal cavities. As the cavity ... Rhinorrhea is characterized by an excess amount of mucus produced by the mucous membranes that line the nasal cavities. ... During cold, dry seasons, the mucus lining nasal passages tends to dry out, meaning that mucous membranes must work harder, ...
Diagrammatic representation of a section across the top of the skull, showing the membranes of the brain, etc. ...
... the estimated displacement of the basilar membrane and summates the accumulation of the flexure of the basilar membrane. The ... the AHAAH sums the basilar membrane displacements of 23 locations.The AHAAH model calculates ...
The lower frequencies were detected when the basilar membrane was stimulated, providing even further evidence for rate coding.[ ... especially for lower frequencies as they are coded by the frequencies that neurons fire from the basilar membrane in a ... Perilymph fistula - a microtear in either the round or oval window (membranes separating the middle and inner ear) of the ... Auditory neuropathy a disorder of poor speech perception even though the tympanic membrane, middle ear structures, and cochlear ...
Golgi membrane. • integral component of plasma membrane. • basilar dendrite. • transport vesicle. • neuronal cell body. • SNARE ... cytoplasmic vesicle membrane. • endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi intermediate compartment membrane. • حويصلة سيتوبلازمية. • apical ...
basilar membrane synonyms, basilar membrane pronunciation, basilar membrane translation, English dictionary definition of ... basilar membrane. n. The membrane that extends from the margin of the bony shelf of the cochlea to its outer wall and on which ... Related to basilar membrane: organ of Corti. basilar membrane. n.. The membrane that extends from the margin of the bony shelf ... Basilar membrane - definition of basilar membrane by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/basilar+membrane ...
Longitudinal pattern of basilar membrane vibration in the sensitive cochlea Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ... The detectable basilar membrane response to a low-level 16-kHz tone occurs over a very restricted (≈600 μm) range. The observed ... Longitudinal pattern of basilar membrane vibration in the sensitive cochlea. Tianying Ren ... most contemporary in vivo studies have measured the vibration at a single location on the basilar membrane (BM). The magnitude ...
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... Warren, Rebecca L. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and ... hearing; basilar membrane; optical coherence tomography; hair cells National Category Biophysics Identifiers. URN: urn:nbn:se: ... Outside the region of peak movement, an exponential decline in motion amplitude occurred across the basilar membrane. The ... where the sensory outer hair cells produce force that greatly increases the sound-evoked vibrations of the basilar membrane. We ...
basilar membrane of cochlear duct synonyms, basilar membrane of cochlear duct pronunciation, basilar membrane of cochlear duct ... English dictionary definition of basilar membrane of cochlear duct. n. 1. Biology a. A thin, pliable layer of tissue covering ... membrane. (redirected from basilar membrane of cochlear duct). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. mem·brane. (mĕm ... membrane. noun layer, film, skin, tissue, veil, diaphragm the mucous membrane. membrane. noun. A thin outer covering of an ...
... which was previously proposed as an active nonlinear model of the basilar membrane, the SDPN model can reproduce similar level- ... model was developed to utilize the advantages of the level-dependent frequency response characteristics of the basilar membrane ... We propose a new active nonlinear model of the frequency response of the basilar membrane in biological cochlea called the ... This is in contrast with a previous study [2] in which a detailed model of human basilar membrane based on the DRNL model was ...
BM, basilar membrane; IHC, inner hair cells; OHC, outer hair cells; RM, Reissners membrane; SM, scala media; ST, scala tympani ... Compared with basilar membrane traveling waves, tectorial membrane traveling waves have larger dynamic ranges, sharper ... 2011) Measurement of basilar membrane, reticular lamina, and tectorial membrane vibrations in the intact mouse cochlea. AIP ... Noninvasive in vivo imaging reveals differences between tectorial membrane and basilar membrane traveling waves in the mouse ...
... a membrane inside the cochlea that vibrates in response to sound , Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples ... Definition of basilar membrane. basilar membrane in British. (ˈbæsɪlə ˈmɛmbreɪn). adjective. anatomy a membrane inside the ...
... Warren, Rebecca L. Linköping University, ... The precise mechanical behavior of the basilar membrane (BM) at low frequencies is still unknown. To address this issue we use ...
A behavioral measure of the basilar membrane response can be obtained by comparing the growth in forward masking for maskers at ... Krishnan, Ananthanarayan and Plack, Christopher J. (2009) Auditory brainstem correlates of basilar membrane nonlinearity in ...
... basilar membrane of cochlear duct explanation free. What is basilar membrane of cochlear duct? Meaning of basilar membrane of ... What does basilar membrane of cochlear duct mean? ... Looking for online definition of basilar membrane of cochlear ... the membrane extending from the bony spiral membrane to the basilar crest of the cochlea; it forms the greater part of the ... The membrane extending from the bony spiral membrane to the basilar crest of the cochlea; it forms the greater part of the ...
3-dimensional basilar membrane is required as the boundary conditions and properties of the basilar membrane are critical to ... The basilar membrane in most species of mammals, including humans, varies in width and thickness. However, in few species of ... The present research analyses the mechanism of an arched basilar membrane in contributing to the sharp frequency tuning in a ... In order to understand the difference between the two types of basilar membranes, effects of the bending stiffness and radial ...
Zweig, G. (1976). "Basilar Membrane Motion". Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology. 40: 619-33. doi:10.1101/SQB. ...
Medial efferent inhibition suppresses basilar membrane responses to near characteristic frequency tones of moderate to high ... Russell, I.J., Murugasu, E. (1997). Medial efferent inhibition suppresses basilar membrane responses to near characteristic ...
Together with the basilar membrane, it creates a compartment in the cochlea filled with endolymph, which is important for the ... The vestibular membrane, vestibular wall or Reissners membrane, is a membrane inside the cochlea of the inner ear. It ... Spiral limbus and basilar membrane. Histology at KUMC eye_ear-ear03 UIUC Histology Subject 76 Overview at University of ... Histologically, the membrane is composed of two layers of flattened epithelium, separated by a basal lamina. Its structure ...
Organ of corti potentials and the motion of the basilar membrane. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * Basilar Membrane ... Organ of corti potentials and the motion of the basilar membrane. In: Journal of Neuroscience. 2004 ; Vol. 24, No. 45. pp. ... Organ of corti potentials and the motion of the basilar membrane. Journal of Neuroscience. 2004 Nov 10;24(45):10057-10063. ... Organ of corti potentials and the motion of the basilar membrane. Anders Fridberger, Jacques Boutet De Monvel, Jiefu Zheng, ...
The basilar membrane[edit]. As previously mentioned, the basilar membrane is a flexible gelatinous membrane that divides the ... The cochlea is divided down the middle by the basilar membrane which is a partly bony and partly gelatinous membrane. It is on ... along the membrane, depending on the frequency of vibration. This makes the basilar membrane behave as an acoustic filter that ... The basilar membrane starts out narrowly, with a width of about 0.04mm near the oval window and then widens to about 0.5mm near ...
... dural membrane explanation free. What is dural membrane? Meaning of dural membrane medical term. What does dural membrane mean? ... Looking for online definition of dural membrane in the Medical Dictionary? ... basilar membrane. The membrane extending from the tympanic lip of the osseous spiral lamina to the crest of the spiral ligament ... Wachendorf membrane. See: Wachendorf membrane. yolk membrane. Vitelline membrane.. membrane. a thin sheet of tissue.. membrane ...
What is the basilar membrane lined with?. * Q: What are the three main functions of the digestive system?. ...
Longitudinal pattern of basilar membrane vibration in the sensitive cochlea. T. Ren. Proceedings of the National Academy of ... Approximately 1-mm basilar membrane is exposed through the surgically opened round window. The magnitude and phase of the ... Define the in-phase vibration area by the basilar membrane width in the radial direction and a half-wavelength distance in the ... Plot all displacement values over the in-plane vibrating area to show the spatial pattern of the basilar membrane vibration. ...
underneath of basilar membrane in mice at P8 and P13 [65]. Specific mRNA expression of Vmo1 has been detected in Reissner ... membrane in mice at P5 [66]. III tubulin is known as a specific marker of type I spiral ganglion [67]. Fst is expressed in the ...
The precise movement of the cochlear basilar membrane (BM) stimulates the sensory hair cells during auditory transduction. ... An emilin family extracellular matris protein identified inthe cochlear basilar membrane. Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, ...
Most are insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar... Explanation of basilar membrane of cochlear duct ... Find out information about basilar membrane of cochlear duct. structure composed mostly of lipid lipids, a broad class of ... membrane. (redirected from basilar membrane of cochlear duct). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical. membrane,. ... 0.080 for a square membrane, K = 0.078 for a circular membrane, and K = 0.063 for a triangular membrane). Membranes that are to ...
3, 377-388 (1997)]. The data are subjected to inverse analysis with the aim to recover the effective basilar-membrane ... the resulting basilar-membrane impedance is found to be locally active, that is, the impedance function shows a region where ... the basilar membrane is able to amplify acoustic power or to reduce dissipation of power by the organ of Corti. Finally, the ... The mechanical waveform of the basilar membrane. II. From data to models--and back.. *. Egbert de Boer. , Alfred L. Nuttall ...
Keywords: artificial basilar membrane; cochlear implant; frequency selectivity; Archimedean spiral; aluminum nitride (AlN); ... artificial basilar membrane; cochlear implant; frequency selectivity; Archimedean spiral; aluminum nitride (AlN); piezoelectric ...
Basilar membrane mechanics. *Passive and active components. *Fine structure of the Organ of Corti ...
membrane answers are found in the Tabers Medical Dictionary powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, ... basilar membrane. The membrane extending from the tympanic lip of the osseous spiral lamina to the crest of the spiral ligament ... A membrane of fibrinous exudate on a mucous surface of a membrane, as in croup or diphtheria. SYN: SEE: croupous membrane ... nuclear membrane. The two-layered membrane surrounding the chromosomes of a cell. The membrane has pores and its outer layer is ...
Inner hair cell responses to the velocity of basilar membrane motion in the guinea pig. / Nuttall, Alfred L.; Christian Brown, ... Inner hair cell responses to the velocity of basilar membrane motion in the guinea pig. In: Brain research. 1981 ; Vol. 211, No ... Nuttall AL, Christian Brown M, Masta RI, Lawrence M. Inner hair cell responses to the velocity of basilar membrane motion in ... Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Inner hair cell responses to the velocity of basilar membrane motion in the ...
Uncoiled cochlea with basilar membrane.png 3,487 × 2,082; 1.24 MB. *. Validation of the dye diffusion assay performed with the ...
Basilar membrane velocity measurements.. The BM velocity at the site corresponding to the frequency near 17 kHz [the ... Nuttall AL, Dolan DF, Avinash G (1991) Laser doppler velocimetry of basilar-membrane vibration. Hearing Res 51:203-213. ... A hole (∼0.3 × 0.4 mm) in the scala tympani of the cochlea was made for measuring the basilar membrane (BM) velocity. ... With this observation, we sought to determine the effects of perilymphatic chloride level manipulations of basilar membrane ...
  • The membrane that extends from the margin of the bony shelf of the cochlea to its outer wall and on which the sensory cells of the organ of Corti rest. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The low frequency sound signals cause the basilar membrane to vibrate with highest oscillation occurring at the apex of the cochlea. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 10) The cochlear hair cells detect displacement of the basilar membrane and are the weakest link in the transduction of sound energy through the cochlea. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • One reason for this is that the basilar membrane in the cochlea loses some of its elasticity which adversely affects hearing. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • One recently developed model of the cochlea, a spiral-shaped, fluid-filled organ in the inner ear, illuminates how sound waves of different frequencies excite fibers in the basilar membrane , a platform running down the cochlea. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These regions of the cochlea may function in ways different from the extensively studied high-frequency regions, where the sensory outer hair cells produce force that greatly increases the sound-evoked vibrations of the basilar membrane. (diva-portal.org)
  • We used laser interferometry in vitro and optical coherence tomography in vivo to study the low-frequency part of the guinea pig cochlea, and found that sound stimulation caused motion of a minimal portion of the basilar membrane. (diva-portal.org)
  • We propose a new active nonlinear model of the frequency response of the basilar membrane in biological cochlea called the simple dual path nonlinear (SDPN) model and a novel sound processing strategy for cochlear implants (CIs) based upon this model. (hindawi.com)
  • It has been suggested that speech perception performance can be improved considerably by adopting an active nonlinear model of the basilar membrane in the cochlea, called the dual resonance nonlinear (DRNL) model [ 2 , 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The membranes within the cochlea vibrate in response to sound. (pnas.org)
  • We used this technique to make, to our knowledge, the first measurements of the tectorial membrane, the structure that overlies the sensory hair cell stereociliary bundles, within a healthy cochlea. (pnas.org)
  • Although these studies have provided critical information regarding the nonlinear processes within the living cochlea that increase the amplitude of vibration and sharpen frequency tuning, the data have typically been limited to point measurements of basilar membrane vibration. (pnas.org)
  • We studied the mouse cochlea by imaging noninvasively through the surrounding bone to measure sound-induced vibrations of the sensory structures in vivo, and report, to our knowledge, the first measures of tectorial membrane vibration within the unopened cochlea. (pnas.org)
  • The variation of dynamic structural properties of the basilar membrane contributes to the frequency-mapping and sensitivity of the cochlea. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • The present research analyses the mechanism of an arched basilar membrane in contributing to the sharp frequency tuning in a gerbil cochlea. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • The findings provide understanding of an arched membrane in mammalian cochlea and enables development for application of the cochlear mechanics in areas such as microfluidics and artificial cochlear development where limitations on the channel width are critical. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Among the more commonly researched species, the basilar membrane in human cochlea varies significantly in width (300% increase) and thickness (75% decrease) from its basal to apical end. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • In order to understand the difference between the two types of basilar membranes, effects of the bending stiffness and radial tension on the acoustic traveling wave in the passive gerbil cochlea is analyzed. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • For integration of cochlea mechanics design into microfluidic applications and the development of artificial cochlea, a method of fabricating and bonding the thin, flexible, anisotropic, 3-dimensional basilar membrane is required as the boundary conditions and properties of the basilar membrane are critical to the frequency tuning of the cochlea. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • The vestibular membrane, vestibular wall or Reissner's membrane, is a membrane inside the cochlea of the inner ear. (wikipedia.org)
  • Together with the basilar membrane, it creates a compartment in the cochlea filled with endolymph, which is important for the function of the spiral organ of Corti. (wikipedia.org)
  • In all cases of a sensitive cochlea stimulated by a signal with a stimulus level of 50 dB SPL per octave or less, the resulting basilar-membrane impedance is found to be locally active, that is, the impedance function shows a region where the basilar membrane is able to amplify acoustic power or to reduce dissipation of power by the organ of Corti. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The membrane extending from the tympanic lip of the osseous spiral lamina to the crest of the spiral ligament in the cochlea of the ear. (tabers.com)
  • Hair cells, basilar membrane, the cochlea and others are all tools which the brain uses in order to translate the outer world into neuronal activity. (coursera.org)
  • The cochlea structure consists of three adjacent tubes separated from each other by sensitive membranes… The stapes moves back and forth, creating pressure waves in the entire cochlea. (mercola.com)
  • The round window membrane separating the cochlea from the middle ear gives the fluid somewhere to go. (mercola.com)
  • The middle membrane, the basilar membrane, is a rigid surface that extends across the length of the cochlea. (mercola.com)
  • What is the correct order of the ossicles in relationship to the tympanic membrane & moving medial towards the cochlea? (flashcardmachine.com)
  • Fridberger A, van Maarseveen JTPW, Scarfone E, Ulfendahl M, Flock B, Flock Å (1997) Pressure-induced basilar membrane position shifts and the stimulus-evoked potentials in the low-frequency region of the guinea pig cochlea. (factbites.com)
  • Model showing the distribution of frequencies along the basilar membrane of the cochlea. (britannica.com)
  • The motion of the stapes against the oval window sets up waves in the fluids of the cochlea, causing the basilar membrane to vibrate. (britannica.com)
  • In the cochlea (the specialized auditory end organ of the inner ear), the frequency of a pure tone is reported by the location of the reacting neurons in the basilar membrane, and the loudness of the sound is reported by the rate of discharge of nerve impulses. (britannica.com)
  • Sensory responses in the cochlea of mammals have been measured electrophysiologically by placing an electrode on the round window membrane. (britannica.com)
  • It allows fluid in the cochlea to move, which in turn ensures that hair cells of the basilar membrane will be stimulated and that audition will occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • The membrane vibrates with opposite phase to vibrations entering the cochlea through the oval window as the fluid in the cochlea is displaced when pressed by the stapes at the oval window. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the stapes footplate moves into the oval window, the round window membrane moves out, and this allows movement of the fluid within the cochlea, leading to movement of the cochlear inner hair cells and thus hearing. (wikipedia.org)
  • He demonstrated that the capacity of the ear to decipher the tonal composition of sounds relies on the particular physical properties of the basilar membrane in the cochlea ( von Békésy 1960 ). (biologists.org)
  • Acute disruption of the reticular lamina and the apical membranes of sensory and supporting cells from noise appears to be a major mechanism to account for degeneration in the cochlea that spreads or continues for days to weeks post-exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • Bob - Yes, that's a membrane called the basilar membrane inside the cochlea. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • There are two membranes inside the cochlea, the vestibular membrane, which separates the cochlear duct from the vestibular duct, and the basilar membrane. (gue.com)
  • A spline curve was fitted to the basilar membrane and was used to identify the position of the cochleostomy relative to the tonotopic map of the cochlea ( D , modified from ref. 36 ). (jci.org)
  • Sound waves traveling down the cochlea produce actual waves that can be observed along the basilar membrane, the tissue that lines the interior of the bony cochlea. (photonics.com)
  • Interesting review on research to understanding the Cochlea and how we hear however i would recommend the editor study the anatomy of the Cochlea before adding own description of how it works in particular to frequency allocations along the basilar membrane as any professional working in this area will note the obvious error. (photonics.com)
  • It is situated on the basilar membrane in one of the three compartments of the Cochlea . (gsu.edu)
  • There are some 16,000 -20,000 of the hair cells distributed along the basilar membrane which follows the spiral of the cochlea. (gsu.edu)
  • The canal is one of two main chambers that are created by an elastic membrane that runs the length of the cochlea. (innovations-report.com)
  • The cochlea is divided into an upper and lower chamber by a membrane called the basilar membrane. (bris.ac.uk)
  • As the ripples in the fluid in the cochlea passes along the chambers, it causes the membrane to shear and the hair cells to bend. (bris.ac.uk)
  • The folds and ridges of the pinna are not just decorations (or for holding earrings) - they serve to channel sound efficiently into the ear canal and to the eardrum, or tympanic membrane, at its end. (washington.edu)
  • In normal hearing individuals, sound waves enter the external ear canal to cause physical vibrations of the tympanic membrane (ear drum). (mdpi.com)
  • The outer ear consists of the pinna and the ear canal, which collect and amplify acoustic energy as it is transferred toward the tympanic membrane (eardrum). (encyclopedia.com)
  • These factors can affect the sound field-to-eardrum transfer function and thereby alter sound transmission that is received at the tympanic membrane. (encyclopedia.com)
  • When the waves reach the tympanic membrane, they cause the membrane and the attached chain of auditory ossicles to vibrate. (britannica.com)
  • A healthy tympanic membrane looks like what? (studystack.com)
  • Tympanic Membrane has how many portions and what are they? (studystack.com)
  • What are the quadrants of the tympanic membrane and what are they useful for? (studystack.com)
  • It is sealed by the secondary tympanic membrane (round window membrane), which vibrates with opposite phase to vibrations entering the inner ear through the oval window. (wikipedia.org)
  • in the fresh state it is closed by a membrane, the secondary tympanic membrane (Latin: membrana tympani secundaria, or membrana fenestra cochleae)) or round window membrane, which is a complex saddle point shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • The outer ear includes the pinna , the visible part of the ear, as well as the ear canal , which terminates at the eardrum , also called the tympanic membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cerumen (ear wax) is produced by ceruminous and sebaceous glands in the skin of the human ear canal, protecting the ear canal and tympanic membrane from physical damage and microbial invasion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tympanic membrane, colloquially known as the eardrum, is a thin membrane that separates the external ear from the middle ear. (wikipremed.com)
  • Above them is the tectoral membrane which can move in response to pressure variations in the fluid- filled tympanic and vestibular canals . (gsu.edu)
  • The sound waves -- which are pressure waves -- enter your ear and press up against the tympanic membrane, better known as your eardrum. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The external ear is composed of the pinna (auricle), the external auditory canal ( EAC ), or simply ear canal, and the outer layer of the tympanic membrane ( TM ), also known as the eardrum. (apologeticspress.org)
  • Sound waves travel through the ear canal until they strike the tympanic membrane (the eardrum). (jrank.org)
  • The tympanic membrane or eardrum separates the outer ear from the middle ear. (jrank.org)
  • The first bone, the malleus, is attached to the tympanic membrane, and the back-and-forth motion of the tympanic membrane sets all three bones in motion. (jrank.org)
  • The energy in the middle ear is also amplified due to the difference in surface size between the tympanic membrane and the oval window, which has been calculated at 14 to 1. (jrank.org)
  • We found that the tectorial membrane sustains traveling wave propagation differently than the more commonly measured basilar membrane. (pnas.org)
  • We found that the tectorial membrane sustains traveling wave propagation. (pnas.org)
  • Compared with basilar membrane traveling waves, tectorial membrane traveling waves have larger dynamic ranges, sharper frequency tuning, and apically shifted positions of peak vibration. (pnas.org)
  • Because the tectorial membrane directly overlies the inner hair cell stereociliary bundles, these data provide the most accurate characterization of the stimulus shaping the afferent auditory response available to date. (pnas.org)
  • Unlike the outer hair cells that are attached to the overlying tectorial membrane, the inner hair cell bundles stand freely in the endolymph fluid. (rochester.edu)
  • Vibrations of the basilar membrane move organ of Corti hair cells against the tectorial membrane to provide a shearing force. (mdpi.com)
  • The cilia of the hair cells, which contact the overlying tectorial membrane , bend as the basilar membrane vibrates, this opens ion channels and causes the entry of ions into the hair cell and a generator potential develops. (factbites.com)
  • It then passes through the tectorial membrane, which forms a roof to protect the organ of Corti, into the organ of Corti. (britannica.com)
  • Although IHCs and OHCs both sit atop the basilar membrane, the hair (stereovillar) bundles of the OHCs are embedded in the overlying tectorial membrane, unlike those of the IHCs. (wind-watch.org)
  • The outer hair cells can do this because the membrane protein can contract and cause the stereocillia to be deflected by the overlying tectorial membrane. (photonics.com)
  • To avoid damage caused by invasive procedures, most contemporary in vivo studies have measured the vibration at a single location on the basilar membrane (BM). (pnas.org)
  • These findings explain discrepancies between previously published basilar membrane vibration and auditory nerve single unit data. (pnas.org)
  • Prior to the acoustic-electrical conversion, the acoustic vibration is mapped onto the basilar membrane based on decreasing frequencies from base to apex. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • To test this theory, both electric potentials inside the organ of Corti and basilar membrane vibration were measured in response to acoustic stimulation. (elsevier.com)
  • We describe a protocol for scanning measurement of the basilar membrane vibration in sensitive gerbil cochleae. (scienceexchange.com)
  • The magnitude and phase of the basilar membrane vibration in response to a best-frequency tone are measured as functions of the longitudinal and radial locations. (scienceexchange.com)
  • The volume velocity of the basilar membrane vibration centered at the best-frequency location is derived from the longitudinal and radial data. (scienceexchange.com)
  • These data together with characteristic impedance of the cochlear fluid are used to quantify the power gain of the basilar membrane vibration, which is critical for studying the cochlear-amplifier mechanism. (scienceexchange.com)
  • Use young healthy Mongolian gerbils (40-80 g) for scanning measurement of sound-induced basilar membrane vibration. (scienceexchange.com)
  • For scanning measurements of the basilar membrane vibration, the transparency of the perilymph in the optical path significantly affects the carrier signal level and the noise floor. (scienceexchange.com)
  • Blood cells suspended in the perilymph often prevent the interferometer from detecting the basilar membrane vibration. (scienceexchange.com)
  • Digitize the magnitudes and phases of the basilar membrane vibration velocity in response to a continuous best-frequency tone at the rate of 2 samples/s when moving the laser focus spot along the longitudinal scanning path at the speed of 5.0 µm/s. (scienceexchange.com)
  • Measure the volume displacement of the basilar membrane vibration (Vbm) as follows. (scienceexchange.com)
  • Plot all displacement values over the in-plane vibrating area to show the spatial pattern of the basilar membrane vibration. (scienceexchange.com)
  • Add a constant to all phase values over the in-phase vibrating area to shift the phase value at the best-frequency location to nπ (n = 0, 1, 2…), and then calculate the maximum volume displacement of the basilar membrane vibration Vbm+. (scienceexchange.com)
  • Different vibration frequencies, the aggregate of which determines the discrete spectrum of the natural frequencies of the membrane, correspond to different systems of standing waves. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 1 nm basilar membrane vibration). (rochester.edu)
  • Amplified basilar vibration that can be detected by placing a very sensitive microphone sealed in the external auditory canal. (sporcle.com)
  • The initial vibration causes the membrane to be displaced (pushed) inward by an amount equal to the intensity of the sound, so that loud sounds push the eardrum more than soft sounds. (jrank.org)
  • On the other hand, if the place theory is of great importance in coding frequency, would it matter whether the electrical stimulus caused excitation of nerve fibers at the same rate as an auditory stimulus, or could the nerve fibers passing to a particular portion of the basilar membrane be stimulated without their need to fire in phase with the stimulus? (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The precise movement of the cochlear basilar membrane (BM) stimulates the sensory hair cells during auditory transduction. (sussex.ac.uk)
  • Basilar membrane motion causes depolarization of the hair cells , specialized auditory receptors located within the organ of Corti. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basic principles of this local control are illustrated in the images below and are outlined as follows: First, an anatomic barrier exists between perilymph and endolymph, and it consists of Reissner membrane, the stria vascularis, and the reticular lamina formed by tight junctions between the apices of hair cells and the adjacent supporting cells (see the image above). (medscape.com)
  • This wave is transmitted across Reissner's membrane (the roof of the cochlear duct) into the endolymph of the cochlear duct. (britannica.com)
  • 11] Mechanical energy must be transferred from the basilar and tectorial membranes to the endolymph to displace the IHC hair bundles. (wind-watch.org)
  • Inside the organ of Corti is the basilar membrane , a structure that vibrates when waves from the middle ear propagate through the cochlear fluid - endolymph . (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, this series of membranes and bones forms a pathway that carries vibrations from the eardrum to the inner ear. (washington.edu)
  • The eardrum is an airtight membrane, and when sound waves arrive there, they cause it to vibrate following the waveform of the sound. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thin membrane at the end of the outer ear that vibrates when sound waves strike it. (encyclopedia.com)
  • We have determined that the location of the peak of the travelling wave on the basilar membrane is determined by the frequency of the originating sound. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • A) A travelling wave on the basilar membrane at 200 Hz. (biologists.org)
  • Triangular wave acoustic stimulation at 200 Hz produced the expected square wave cochlear microphonic at the round window membrane and within the scala media. (elsevier.com)
  • The CI electrodes (see below) were inserted with the AOS technique after removal of the promontory lip, preparation of the round window membrane, and opening and inferior enlargement of the round window [ 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • B) The displacement phase of the basilar membrane is shown by the solid line, indicating a phase lag exceeding that of a simple resonator ( von Békésy, 1960 ). (biologists.org)
  • The hair cells run the length of the basilar membrane. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • The hair cells of the organ of Corti are arranged in four rows along the length of the basilar membrane. (gsu.edu)
  • Known as von Békésy's travelling wave, this wave displays amplitude maxima at frequency-specific locations along the basilar membrane, providing a spatial map of the frequency of sound - a tonotopy. (biologists.org)
  • Using the drug, the scientists affected prestin at very specific locations along the basilar membrane. (photonics.com)
  • This work established that frequency analysis is based on the spatial mapping of sound frequencies along the basilar membrane. (biologists.org)
  • The membrane through which gases must pass as they diffuse from air to blood (oxygen) or blood to air (carbon dioxide), including the alveolar fluid and surfactant, cell of the alveolar wall, interstitial space (tissue fluid), and cell of the capillary wall. (tabers.com)
  • The vibrations of the stapes cause perilymphatic fluid pressure waves to vibrate the basilar membrane. (mdpi.com)
  • Our model has both basilar membrane (BM) elastic damping and selective longitudinal fluid damping. (psu.edu)
  • The stapes transmits sound waves to the inner ear through the oval window , a flexible membrane separating the air-filled middle ear from the fluid-filled inner ear. (wikipedia.org)
  • The round window , another flexible membrane, allows for the smooth displacement of the inner ear fluid caused by the entering sound waves. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mammalian cochlear consists of highly nonlinear components: lymph (viscous fluid), a basilar membrane (vibrating mem. (ieice.org)
  • the external contour to which the membrane is fastened is always a nodal line if the attachment is such that there is no displacement perpendicular to the plane of the membrane. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The IHC response suggests a sensitivity of these cells to both the displacement and to the velocity of basilar membrane motion. (elsevier.com)
  • Mechanical BM displacement activates mechanoelectrical transduction (MET) channels located in the apical membrane of the hair cells. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • This stimulates the sensory cells of the organ of Corti, atop the basilar membrane, to send nerve impulses to the brain. (britannica.com)
  • It comprises two layers, the basal lamina and the reticular lamina , and is composed of Type IV collagen (which is unique to basement membranes), laminin, fibronectin, and heparan sulfate proteoglycans. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The basement membrane is made of a basal lamina along the cell surfaces, coated by a stronger collagen-rich layer (reticular lamina). (tabers.com)
  • An in vivo tracer was used to determine if the reticular lamina and/or the cell membranes abutting the endolymphatic space are temporarily disrupted after intense noise exposure (4-kHz OBN, 108-dB SPL, 1.75 h). (cdc.gov)
  • At these lesions, carbon was attached to cell membranes and debris between the reticular lamina and basilar membrane. (cdc.gov)
  • Bowman's membrane a thin layer of basement membrane between the outer layer of stratified epithelium and the substantia propria of the cornea. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 2. basement membrane . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A matrix, including epithelial basement membrane, for inducing repair of mammalian tissue defects and in vitro cell propagation derived from epithelial tissues of a warm-blooded vertebrate. (google.ca)
  • a devitalized mammalian epithelial basement membrane of the urinary bladder and tunica propria immediately subjacent to said basement membrane wherein said matrix induces restoration, remodeling, or repair of nervous tissue when placed in contact with diseased, damaged, or defective nervous tissue. (google.ca)
  • contacting a matrix comprising at least a portion of devitalized mammalian epithelial basement membrane of the urinary bladder with diseased, defective, or damaged nervous tissue, wherein said matrix induces restoration, restoration or repair of said nervous tissue. (google.ca)
  • at least a portion of devitalized epithelial basement membrane and tunica propria of a mucosa delaminated from a mammalian epithelial tissue and shaped to conform to diseased, damaged, or defective nervous tissue. (google.ca)
  • a devitalized mammalian epithelial basement membrane of the urinary bladder and tunica propria immediately subjacent to said basement membrane. (google.ca)
  • s verified gerbil cochlear model which used estimated effective basilar membrane properties. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • The data are subjected to inverse analysis with the aim to recover the 'effective basilar-membrane impedance. (semanticscholar.org)
  • These vibrations take the form of a slow vibrational wave propagating along the basilar membrane from base to apex. (biologists.org)
  • The precise mechanical behavior of the basilar membrane (BM) at low frequencies is still unknown. (diva-portal.org)
  • However, to achieve the sharp frequency tuning that characterizes the basilar membrane, additional mechanical processing must occur inside the organ of Corti. (elsevier.com)
  • The mechanical waveform of the basilar membrane. (semanticscholar.org)
  • article{Boer2000TheMW, title={The mechanical waveform of the basilar membrane. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The input stage of the AN model is a narrow-band filter that simulates the mechanical tuning of the basilar membrane. (nih.gov)
  • In mammals, frequency analysis relies on the mechanical response of the basilar membrane in the cochlear duct. (biologists.org)
  • In the desert locust, this analysis arises from the mechanical properties of the tympanal membrane. (biologists.org)
  • This mapping is brought about by sound-induced mechanical displacements of the basilar membrane that take the shape of travelling waves. (biologists.org)
  • It is hard to conceive of a mechanical resonance of the basilar membrane that sharp. (gsu.edu)
  • The mechanical properties of this "basilar" membrane vary from very stiff at the broad, outer end to increasingly flexible toward the inner end as the chambers narrow. (innovations-report.com)
  • such observations have fueled the debate over whether the source of amplification in the mammal is the prestin-containing lateral membrane of the OHC or the stereociliary transduction apparatus, each of which can potentially provide feedback into the basilar membrane through accessory structures ( Santos-Sacchi, 2003 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • A memoryless, saturating nonlinearity and two low-pass filters simulate transduction and membrane properties of the inner hair cell (IHC). (nih.gov)
  • We have included experimentally determined parameters of cochlear macromechanics, which govern sound transduction, and data on hair cells' electrical parameters including tonotopical variation in the membrane conductance of OHCs. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The critical structure involved in this transduction process is the organ of Corti, an array of sensory and non-sensory cells located along the basilar membrane (BM), a dividing partition of the cochlear duct. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • A membrane possessing minute round or oval openings. (tabers.com)
  • the oval window is a closed membrane, but acts as the entrance to the inner ear for sound energy. (washington.edu)
  • When the stapes moves in and out, it pushes and pulls on the part of the basilar membrane just below the oval window. (mercola.com)
  • This gives the fibers different resonant frequencies… Because of the increasing length and decreasing rigidity of the fibers, higher-frequency waves vibrate the fibers closer to the oval window, and lower frequency waves vibrate the fibers at the other end of the membrane. (mercola.com)
  • High frequency sounds selectively vibrate the basilar membrane of the inner ear near the entrance port (the oval window). (gsu.edu)
  • The oval window is one of two small membranes which allow communication between the middle ear and the inner ear. (jrank.org)
  • The bone movements in the middle ear cause movement of the stapes footplate in the membrane of the oval window. (jrank.org)
  • membrane: divide scala vestibuli and scala media. (sporcle.com)
  • The sound wave then passes into the perilymph of the scala tympani, where it causes a second membrane-covered opening into the middle ear, the round window, to bulge outward and dampen the wave in the perilymph. (britannica.com)
  • Sound is then transmitted to the inner ear, inside of which there's a membrane which is thin and stiff at one end and wobbly at the other end. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • fenestrated membrane one of the perforated elastic sheets of the tunica intima and tunica media of arteries. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A plate, whose elastic properties depend on its material and thickness, should be distinguished from a membrane. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Any of several membranes formed of elastic connective tissue fibers. (tabers.com)
  • Basilar membrane velocity, however, decreases with decreasing stimulus frequency. (wind-watch.org)
  • The exact physical mechanism of hearing-i.e., the traveling of waves along the basilar membrane-was first correctly explicated by the Hungarian American physicist Georg von Békésy in the mid-20th century. (britannica.com)
  • The basilar membrane's graded properties cause the waves to grow and then die away. (innovations-report.com)
  • 1. a membrane between the outer root sheath and inner fibrous layer of a hair follicle. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The basilar membrane is the support for the organ of Corti supporting cells and hair cells. (mdpi.com)
  • The utricle and saccule each contain a macula, an organ consisting of a patch of hair cells covered by a gelatinous membrane containing particles of calcium carbonate, called otoliths . (britannica.com)
  • FOREIGN] The second thing is actually the sound coming to move the hair bundle and then of course is the basal membrane will make the movement and then the cell will depolarize. (coursera.org)
  • It is unclear whether cochlear amplification arises uniquely from a voltage-dependent mechanism (electromotility) associated with outer hair cells (OHCs) or whether other mechanisms are necessary, for the voltage response of OHCs is apparently attenuated excessively by the membrane electrical filter. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • a ) Schematic of the organ of Corti with inner hair cell (IHC), OHCs (O), Hensen's cells (H), Deiters' cells (D) and Reissner's membrane (RM). (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The active force transmission from the outer hair cells to the basilar membrane. (rochester.edu)
  • This ensures that hair cells of the basilar membrane will be stimulated and that audition will occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basic pitch determining mechanism is based on the location along the membrane where the hair cells are stimulated. (gsu.edu)
  • One way to sharpen the pitch perception would be bring the peak of the excitation pattern on the basilar membrane into greater relief by inhibiting the firing of those hair cells which are adjacent to the peak. (gsu.edu)
  • The place along the basilar membrane where maximum excitation of the hair cells occurs determines the perception of pitch according to the place theory . (gsu.edu)
  • Tiny relative movements of the layers of the membrane are sufficient to trigger the hair cells. (gsu.edu)
  • The parameters of this filter vary continuously as a function of stimulus level via a feedback mechanism, simulating the compressive nonlinearity associated with the mechanics of the basilar membrane. (nih.gov)
  • Focus the object beam of the scanning interferometer on the basilar membrane through a glass coverslip and the perilymph. (scienceexchange.com)
  • High frequency tones excite the basilar membrane on its basal end and low frequency tones excite the basilar membrane on its apical end. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Histologically, the membrane is composed of two layers of flattened epithelium, separated by a basal lamina. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apical and basal membrane ion transport mechanisms in bovine retinal pigment epithelium. (factbites.com)
  • In the embryo, the membrane that separates the oral cavity from the foregut until the fourth week of development. (tabers.com)
  • Spiral limbus and basilar membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alterations in the dimensions of the basilar membrane and spiral ligament have been implicated in the pathogenesis of sensorineural hearing loss in otosclerosis. (nih.gov)
  • Outside the region of peak movement, an exponential decline in motion amplitude occurred across the basilar membrane. (diva-portal.org)
  • Efferent-mediated control of basilar membrane motion. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Internal Shearing within the Hearing Organ Evoked by Basilar Membrane Motion -- Fridberger et al. (factbites.com)
  • Resting along the basilar membrane, which forms the base of the cochlear duct, is an arrangement of sensory cells and supporting cells known as the organ of Corti . (britannica.com)
  • This uneven energy distribution, in turn, causes the membrane to move more toward the outer wall of the chamber, enhancing the bending of the stereocilia. (innovations-report.com)
  • Sensory cells are attached to the basilar membrane and have tufts of tiny hairs called stereocilia that stick up into adjacent structures in the canal. (innovations-report.com)
  • As the basilar membrane moves it tilts the sensory cells, causing the stereocilia to bend. (innovations-report.com)
  • Stimulation of medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferent neurons reduces basilar membrane (BM) sensitivity and increases the slope of BM input-output (I/O) functions in animal models. (scirp.org)
  • A membrane formed from excessive proliferation of retinal pigment epithelial cells and extracellular proteins on the retinal surface. (tabers.com)
  • Thyroglobulin Is Selected as Luminal Protein Cargo for Apical Transport via Detergent-resistant Membranes in Epithelial Cells -- Martin-Belmonte et al. (factbites.com)
  • Shown are apical and basolateral membrane mechanisms and second messengers involved in the purinoceptor-mediated alterations in cell Ca, membrane potential, and resistance. (factbites.com)
  • Lactate transport mechanisms at apical and basolateral membranes of bovine retinal pigment epithelium. (factbites.com)
  • apical plasma membrane and intracellular compartments of 1:2. (factbites.com)
  • Biogenesis of the rat hepatocyte plasma membrane in vivo: comparison of the pathways taken by apical and basolateral proteins using subcellular fractionation. (factbites.com)
  • permeability to the apical membrane of proximal tubule cells. (factbites.com)
  • The basilar membrane is narrow and stiff at the window end and wide and flexible at the apical end. (factbites.com)
  • ADP + Pi at the apical plasma membrane . (factbites.com)
  • One portion of Tg in FRT cells is extracellularly disposed on the apical plasma membrane (Fig. (factbites.com)
  • By transmission electron microscopy, discontinuities were found in the apical membranes of sensory and supporting cells. (cdc.gov)
  • Numerous membrane profiles of H,K-ATPase-rich structures (arrowheads), most of which appear tubular and vesicular in thin section, are located in spaces between the mitochondria (m). (factbites.com)
  • This flexible tip can gently glide along the scala tympani, avoiding damage to the basilar membrane and other delicate cochlear structures. (audiologyonline.com)
  • It consists of a long membrane, known as the basilar membrane, which is tuned in such a way that high tones vibrate the region near the base and low tones vibrate the region near the apex. (britannica.com)
  • diphtheritic membrane the peculiar false membrane characteristic of diphtheria, formed by coagulation necrosis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • citation needed] Reissner's membrane is named after German anatomist Ernst Reissner (1824-1878). (wikipedia.org)
  • cell membrane plasma membrane . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The plasma membrane is impermeable to glucose because glucose is hydrophilic and the lipid bilayer is not. (hindawi.com)
  • basolateral plasma membrane ) (A and D), for HRP (early endosomes) and FITC-dextran fluorescence (late endosomes) (B and E), and for SGLT1, using an ELISA assay (C and F). (factbites.com)
  • These extracellular potentials are not filtered by the membrane. (elsevier.com)
  • A two-part extracellular membrane found at the interface between some tissues, e.g., skin and dermis. (tabers.com)
  • impaired oral mucous membrane a nursing diagnosis approved by the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, defined as disruptions of the lips and soft tissue of the oral cavity. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Changes in the integrity and health of the oral mucous membrane can occur as a characteristic of such medical disorders as periodontal disease, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, oral cancer, and infection with herpes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Mucous membrane lining the eyelids and covering the front surface of the eyeball. (encyclopedia.com)
  • alveolar-capillary membrane ( alveolocapillary membrane ) a thin tissue barrier through which gases are exchanged between the alveolar air and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries. (thefreedictionary.com)