Brain Stem Infarctions
Carotid Artery, Internal
Coronary Artery Bypass
Arterial Occlusive Diseases
Magnetic Resonance Angiography
Carotid Artery Diseases
Middle Cerebral Artery
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Circle of Willis
Carotid Artery, Common
Angiography, Digital Subtraction
Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial
Ischemic Attack, Transient
Mesenteric Artery, Superior
Intracranial Embolism and Thrombosis
Renal Artery Obstruction
Posterior Cerebral Artery
Subclavian Steal Syndrome
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Carotid Artery, External
15-Hydroxy-11 alpha,9 alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid
Rats, Inbred WKY
Carotid Artery Injuries
Disease Models, Animal
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Vertebral Artery Dissection
Prostaglandin Endoperoxides, Synthetic
Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery
Cerebral Arterial Diseases
Retinal Artery Occlusion
Vasculitis, Central Nervous System
Carotid Artery Thrombosis
Nitric Oxide Synthase
Large and giant middle to lower basilar trunk aneurysms treated by surgical and interventional neuroradiological methods. (1/848)Treatment of large and giant aneurysms of the basilar artery remains difficult and controversial. Three large or giant aneurysms of the lower basilar artery were treated with a combination of surgical and interventional neuroradiological procedures. All patients underwent the balloon occlusion test with hypotensive challenge (blood pressure reduced to 70% of the control value). The third patient did not tolerate the test. In the first patient, both vertebral arteries were occluded through a craniotomy. In the second patient, both the aneurysm and the basilar artery were occluded by detached balloons. In the third patient, one vertebral artery was occluded by surgical clipping and the other by detached helical coils and fiber coils. In spite of anti-coagulation and anti-platelet therapy, postoperative thrombotic or embolic ischemia occurred in the second and third patients. Fibrinolytic therapy promptly corrected the ischemic symptoms, but the second patient developed hemorrhagic complications at the craniotomy area 2 hours later. At follow-up examination, the first patient had only 8th cranial nerve paresis, the second patient who had a hemorrhagic complication was bed-ridden, and the third patient had no deficit. Interventional occlusion requires a longer segment of the parent artery compared to surgical occlusion of the parent artery and might cause occlusion of the perforating arteries. However, selected use of various coils can occlude only a short segment of the parent artery. Thus, the postoperative management of thromboembolic ischemia after the occlusion of the parent artery is easier using the interventional technique. (+info)
CT angiography and Doppler sonography for emergency assessment in acute basilar artery ischemia. (2/848)BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Both Doppler sonography (DS) and spiral CT angiography (CTA) are noninvasive vascular assessment tools with a high potential for application in acute cerebral ischemia. The usefulness of CTA for vascular diagnosis in acute basilar artery (BA) ischemia has not yet been studied. METHODS: We prospectively studied 19 patients (mean+/-SD age, 58+/-11 years) with clinically suspected acute BA occlusion by DS and CTA. Prior extracranial and transcranial DS was performed in all but 1 patient, with DS 4 hours after CTA. In 6 of 19 patients, we performed digital subtraction angiography. RESULTS: CTA was diagnostic in all but 1 patient. CTA revealed complete BA occlusion in 9 patients and incomplete BA occlusion with some residual flow in 2 patients. A patent BA was shown in 7 patients. Because of severe BA calcification, CTA results were inconclusive in 1 patient. DS was diagnostic in only 7 of 19 patients, indicating certain BA occlusion in 3 patients and BA patency in 4 patients. In an additional 9 patients, the results of DS were inconclusive. DS was false-negative in 2 patients with distal BA occlusion shown by CTA and digital subtraction angiography. In 1 patient with DS performed after CTA, recanalization was demonstrated. In addition to the diagnosis or exclusion of BA occlusion, CTA provided information on the exact site and length of BA occlusion and collateral pathways. In our series, CTA results prompted indication for intra-arterial thrombolysis in 5 patients. CONCLUSIONS: CTA was superior to DS in the assessment of BA patency in patients with the syndrome of acute BA ischemia in terms of feasibility and conclusiveness, particularly in cases with distal BA occlusion. Our study confirmed the usefulness of combined extracranial and transcranial DS in the diagnosis and exclusion of proximal BA occlusion. (+info)
Kir2.1 encodes the inward rectifier potassium channel in rat arterial smooth muscle cells. (3/848)1. The molecular nature of the strong inward rectifier K+ channel in vascular smooth muscle was explored by using isolated cell RT-PCR, cDNA cloning and expression techniques. 2. RT-PCR of RNA from single smooth muscle cells of rat cerebral (basilar), coronary and mesenteric arteries revealed transcripts for Kir2.1. Transcripts for Kir2.2 and Kir2.3 were not found. 3. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed significant differences in transcript levels of Kir2.1 between the different vascular preparations (n = 3; P < 0.05). A two-fold difference was detected between Kir2.1 mRNA and beta-actin mRNA in coronary arteries when compared with relative levels measured in mesenteric and basilar preparations. 4. Kir2.1 was cloned from rat mesenteric vascular smooth muscle cells and expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Currents were strongly inwardly rectifying and selective for K+. 5. The effect of extracellular Ba2+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Cs2+ ions on cloned Kir2.1 channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes was examined. Ba2+ and Cs+ block were steeply voltage dependent, whereas block by external Ca2+ and Mg2+ exhibited little voltage dependence. The apparent half-block constants and voltage dependences for Ba2+, Cs+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ were very similar for inward rectifier K+ currents from native cells and cloned Kir2.1 channels expressed in oocytes. 6. Molecular studies demonstrate that Kir2.1 is the only member of the Kir2 channel subfamily present in vascular arterial smooth muscle cells. Expression of cloned Kir2.1 in Xenopus oocytes resulted in inward rectifier K+ currents that strongly resemble those that are observed in native vascular arterial smooth muscle cells. We conclude that Kir2.1 encodes for inward rectifier K+ channels in arterial smooth muscle. (+info)
Inhibition of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase impairs NO.-mediated endothelium-dependent relaxations. (4/848)The superoxide anion (O-2.) appears to be an important modulator of nitric oxide (NO.) bioavailability. The present study was designed to characterize the role of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD) in endothelium-dependent relaxations. Cu/Zn SOD was inhibited with the Cu2+ chelator diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DETCA). In isolated canine basilar arteries, DETCA (7.6 x 10(-3) M) inhibited total vascular SOD activity by 46% (P < 0.0001, n = 6-8 dogs). DETCA (7.6 x 10(-3) M) significantly reduced relaxations to bradykinin and A-23187 (P < 0.05, n = 7-11). The inhibitory effect of DETCA was abolished by the O-2. scavenger 4,5-dihydroxy-1,3-benzenedisulfonic acid (Tiron; 9.4 x 10(-3) M; P < 0.05, n = 6-13). Tiron significantly potentiated the relaxations to bradykinin in control rings (P < 0.05, n = 13), and the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 3 x 10(-4) M) abolished these relaxations (P < 0.0001, n = 6). DETCA and Tiron had no effect on the relaxations to diethylamine-NONOate or forskolin (P > 0.05, n = 6). Our results demonstrate that endothelium-dependent relaxations mediated by NO. are impaired after the inhibition of Cu/Zn SOD. Relaxations to bradykinin (but not A-23187) were significantly augmented by Tiron. Pharmacological scavenging of O-2. reverses the effect of Cu/Zn SOD inhibition. (+info)
Prevention of persistent cerebral smooth muscle contraction in response to whole blood. (5/848)Using an in vitro system designed to measure arterial constriction, we have demonstrated the importance of platelet function in maintaining cerebral smooth muscle contraction after whole blood injection. We tested two agents, acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) and phthalazinol, both known to interfere with platelet function. In control tests normal rabbit and monkey blood produced a reliable and persistent arterial constriction. In experimental tests blood drawn from animals premedicated with ASA and phthalazinol failed to produce a persistent contraction. These results support the hypothesis that chemicals released during platelet aggregation may be important in persistent vasospasm. (+info)
Epilepsy after two different neurosurgical approaches to the treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysm. (6/848)One-hundred-and-fifty-two patients who underwent surgery for intracranial aneurysm were studied to determine the incidence of postoperative epilepsy in relation to the site of the aneurysm and the type of surgical approach. The overall incidence of epilepsy was 22%. Of the 116 patients treated by the intracranial approach 27.5% developed epilepsy, in contrast with only 5% of the 36 patients who had carotid artery ligation in the neck. Epilepsy occurred most frequently (35%) with middle cerebral artery aneurysms, especially if moderate or severe operative trauma was sustained and there was postoperative dysphasia. (+info)
The inhibition of nicotine-evoked relaxation of the guinea-pig isolated basilar artery by some analgesic drugs and progesterone. (7/848)1. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of nicotine-evoked relaxation of the guinea-pig isolated basilar artery and to study the effects of drugs associated with the aetiology or treatment of migraine on the nicotine response. 2. The guinea-pig isolated basilar artery, pre-contracted with prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha), in the presence of atropine (3 microM) and guanethidine (3 microM), relaxed on addition of nicotine (0.1 mM) in approximately 50% of preparations. The responses to nicotine were of short duration and blocked in preparations pre-treated for 10 min with capsaicin (1 microM) and are therefore probably a consequence of the stimulation of trigeminal C fibre terminals. 3. Responses to nicotine were reduced in the presence of 5-carboxamidotryptamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine and sumatriptan in that order of potency. This is consistent with a 5-HT1 receptor mechanism. These agonists evoked small additional contractions in vessels pre-contracted with PGF2alpha. 4. Indomethacin (0.3-10 microM), aspirin (10-30 microM), and nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 0.1 mM) reduced nicotine-evoked relaxation of the basilar artery, suggesting the involvement of both nitric oxide and cyclo-oxygenase products in this response. 5. Progesterone (1 microM) markedly reduced the response to nicotine, a possible reflection of the ion channel blocking activity of high concentrations of this compound. 6. The guinea-pig basilar artery is a preparation in which the effects of drugs on responses to stimulation of trigeminal nerve terminals can be studied in vitro and may thus be of interest in assessing the actions of drugs used in treatment of headache. (+info)
Inhibitory effect of 4-aminopyridine on responses of the basilar artery to nitric oxide. (8/848)1. Voltage-dependent K+ channels are present in cerebral arteries and may modulate vascular tone. We used 200 microM 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), thought to be a relatively selective inhibitor of voltage-dependent K+ channels at this concentration, to test whether activation of these channels may influence baseline diameter of the basilar artery and dilator responses to nitric oxide (NO) and cyclic GMP in vivo. 2. Using a cranial window in anaesthetized rats, topical application of 4-AP to the basilar artery (baseline diameter = 240+/-5 microm, mean +/- s.e.mean) produced 10+/-1% constriction. Sodium nitroprusside (a NO donor), acetylcholine (which stimulates endothelial release of NO), 8-bromo cyclic GMP (a cyclic GMP analogue), cromakalim (an activator of ATP-sensitive K+ channels) and papaverine (a non-NO, non-K+ channel-related vasodilator) produced concentration-dependent vasodilator responses that were reproducible. 3. Responses to 10 and 100 nM nitroprusside were inhibited by 4-AP (20+/-4 vs 8+/-2% and 51+/-5 vs 33+/-5%, respectively, n=10; P<0.05). Responses to acetylcholine and 8-bromo cyclic GMP were also partially inhibited by 4-AP. In contrast, 4-AP had no effect on vasodilator responses to cromakalim or papaverine. These findings suggest that NO/cyclic GMP-induced dilator responses of the basilar artery are selectively inhibited by 4-aminopyridine. 4. Responses to nitroprusside were also markedly inhibited by 10 microM 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase; 16+/-4 vs 1+/-1% and 44+/-7 vs 7+/-1%; n=10; P<0.05). 5. Thus, dilator responses of the rat basilar artery to NO appear to be mediated by activation of soluble guanylate cyclase and partially by activation of a 4-aminopyridine-sensitive mechanism. The most likely mechanism would appear to be activation of voltage-dependent K+ channels by NO/cyclic GMP. (+info)
Vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI) is a medical condition that occurs when there is a reduced blood flow to the brainstem and cerebellum, which are supplied by the vertebrobasilar artery system. This can lead to symptoms such as dizziness, balance problems, headache, and vision changes. VBI can be caused by a variety of factors, including atherosclerosis (hardening and narrowing of the arteries), blood clots, and certain medical conditions such as high blood pressure and diabetes. Treatment for VBI may include medications to improve blood flow or prevent blood clots, as well as lifestyle changes such as exercise and a healthy diet. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary.
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a medical condition that occurs when blood leaks into the space between the arachnoid mater and the pia mater, which are two layers of tissue that cover the surface of the brain. This can happen due to a ruptured aneurysm, which is a bulge in a blood vessel in the brain that can burst and cause bleeding. SAH is a serious medical emergency that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. The symptoms of SAH can include severe headache, nausea and vomiting, sensitivity to light, confusion, and loss of consciousness. If left untreated, SAH can lead to brain damage, stroke, and even death. Treatment for SAH typically involves surgery to repair or remove the ruptured aneurysm, as well as medications to manage symptoms and prevent further bleeding. The prognosis for SAH depends on several factors, including the severity of the bleeding, the location of the aneurysm, and the patient's overall health.
Brain stem infarctions refer to the blockage or occlusion of blood vessels in the brain stem, which is the lower part of the brain that connects the brain to the spinal cord. This can result in the death of brain cells in the affected area, leading to a range of symptoms and complications. The brain stem is responsible for controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, blood pressure, and swallowing. As a result, brain stem infarctions can cause a range of symptoms, including difficulty speaking or understanding speech, difficulty swallowing, loss of balance or coordination, double vision, and changes in consciousness or alertness. Brain stem infarctions can be caused by a variety of factors, including high blood pressure, diabetes, high cholesterol, smoking, and atherosclerosis (the hardening and narrowing of arteries). Treatment typically involves managing the underlying cause of the infarction, as well as addressing any symptoms or complications that may arise. In some cases, rehabilitation may also be necessary to help individuals recover from the effects of a brain stem infarction.
Vasospasm, intracranial refers to a condition in which the blood vessels in the brain constrict or narrow, leading to a decrease in blood flow to the brain. This can occur as a complication of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), which is a type of bleeding in the space surrounding the brain. Vasospasm can also occur as a result of other conditions, such as head injury, stroke, or infection. The constriction of the blood vessels can lead to a decrease in the amount of oxygen and nutrients that reach the brain, which can cause damage to brain tissue and lead to a range of symptoms, including headache, confusion, seizures, and even coma or death. Vasospasm is typically treated with medications that help to relax the blood vessels and improve blood flow to the brain. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to treat the underlying cause of the vasospasm and prevent further damage to the brain.
An intracranial aneurysm is a bulge or balloon-like dilation of a blood vessel in the brain. It occurs when a weakened area in the wall of the blood vessel balloons out and forms a sac. This can cause the blood vessel to become stretched and prone to rupture, which can lead to a life-threatening brain hemorrhage. Intracranial aneurysms are most commonly found in the arteries that supply blood to the brain, particularly the anterior communicating artery, the middle cerebral artery, and the internal carotid artery. They can occur at any age, but are more common in people over the age of 50. Risk factors for developing an intracranial aneurysm include smoking, high blood pressure, a family history of the condition, and certain genetic disorders. Treatment options for intracranial aneurysms include surgery to clip or coagulate the aneurysm, or endovascular coiling, which involves inserting a catheter through a blood vessel in the groin and threading it up to the aneurysm, where a coil is placed to fill the aneurysm and prevent it from rupturing.
Arterial occlusive diseases refer to a group of medical conditions in which the arteries become narrowed or blocked, leading to reduced blood flow to the affected area. This can result in a range of symptoms, depending on the location and severity of the blockage. The most common types of arterial occlusive diseases include: 1. Atherosclerosis: A condition in which plaque builds up inside the arteries, causing them to narrow and harden. 2. Peripheral artery disease (PAD): A condition that affects the arteries in the legs, causing pain, cramping, and weakness in the legs, especially during physical activity. 3. Coronary artery disease (CAD): A condition that affects the arteries that supply blood to the heart, leading to chest pain, shortness of breath, and other symptoms. 4. Carotid artery disease: A condition that affects the arteries in the neck, leading to a reduced blood flow to the brain, which can cause stroke. Treatment for arterial occlusive diseases may include lifestyle changes, such as quitting smoking, eating a healthy diet, and exercising regularly, as well as medications to manage symptoms and prevent further progression of the disease. In some cases, surgery or other medical procedures may be necessary to open or bypass blocked arteries.
Carotid artery diseases refer to a group of conditions that affect the carotid arteries, which are the main blood vessels that supply oxygen-rich blood to the brain. These diseases can lead to a reduced blood flow to the brain, which can cause symptoms such as dizziness, weakness, and even stroke. The most common types of carotid artery diseases are carotid artery stenosis and carotid artery dissection. Carotid artery stenosis occurs when the inside of the carotid artery becomes narrowed or blocked by a buildup of plaque, which is made up of fat, cholesterol, and other substances. Carotid artery dissection occurs when the inner lining of the carotid artery is torn, which can cause a blood clot to form and block the flow of blood. Other types of carotid artery diseases include carotid artery aneurysm, carotid artery occlusion, and carotid artery inflammation. Carotid artery aneurysm occurs when a section of the carotid artery becomes weakened and bulges outwards. Carotid artery occlusion occurs when the carotid artery is completely blocked, which can cause a stroke. Carotid artery inflammation, also known as carotid artery vasculitis, is an inflammatory condition that can cause the walls of the carotid artery to become thickened and narrowed. Treatment for carotid artery diseases depends on the specific type and severity of the condition. In some cases, lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, eating a healthy diet, and exercising regularly may be sufficient to manage the condition. In more severe cases, medications such as blood thinners or cholesterol-lowering drugs may be prescribed. In some cases, surgery or endovascular procedures may be necessary to remove plaque or repair damaged arteries.
Serotonin is a neurotransmitter, a chemical messenger that transmits signals between nerve cells in the brain and throughout the body. It plays a crucial role in regulating mood, appetite, sleep, and other bodily functions. In the medical field, serotonin is often studied in relation to mental health conditions such as depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Low levels of serotonin have been linked to these conditions, and medications such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are often prescribed to increase serotonin levels in the brain and improve symptoms. Serotonin is also involved in the regulation of pain perception, blood pressure, and other bodily functions. Imbalances in serotonin levels have been implicated in a variety of medical conditions, including migraines, fibromyalgia, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
Potassium chloride is a medication used to treat low potassium levels in the blood (hypokalemia). It is also used to treat certain heart rhythm problems and to help manage certain types of heart failure. Potassium chloride is available as a tablet, oral solution, and injection. It is usually taken by mouth, but can also be given intravenously (into a vein) or by injection into a muscle. Potassium chloride is a salt that contains potassium, which is an important mineral that helps regulate the heartbeat and maintain proper muscle and nerve function. It is important to follow the instructions of your healthcare provider when taking potassium chloride, as high levels of potassium in the blood can be dangerous.
Papaverine is a medication that is used to treat a variety of medical conditions, including erectile dysfunction, Raynaud's disease, and glaucoma. It is a vasodilator, which means that it helps to widen blood vessels and improve blood flow. Papaverine is usually administered intravenously or intramuscularly, and it can cause side effects such as headache, nausea, and dizziness. It is important to note that papaverine should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.
Picolines are a class of organic compounds that contain a pyridine ring with a nitrogen atom attached to a carbon atom. They are commonly used as intermediates in the synthesis of other compounds, such as pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals. In the medical field, picolines have been studied for their potential therapeutic effects, including anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-viral activities. Some picolines have also been used as diagnostic agents in imaging studies. However, more research is needed to fully understand their potential medical applications.
Sumatriptan is a medication used to treat migraines. It works by narrowing the blood vessels in the brain and reducing inflammation, which can help to relieve headache pain, nausea, and other symptoms of a migraine. Sumatriptan is available in various forms, including tablets, nasal sprays, and injections. It is typically taken as soon as migraine symptoms begin, and it can be effective in reducing the duration and severity of migraines. However, it is important to note that sumatriptan may not be suitable for everyone, and it should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.
Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in the transmission of signals between neurons in the nervous system. It is synthesized from the amino acid choline and is stored in vesicles within nerve cells. When an electrical signal reaches the end of a nerve cell, it triggers the release of acetylcholine into the synaptic cleft, the small gap between the nerve cell and the next cell it communicates with. Acetylcholine then binds to receptors on the surface of the receiving cell, causing a change in its electrical activity. Acetylcholine is involved in a wide range of bodily functions, including muscle movement, memory, and learning. It is also important for the regulation of the autonomic nervous system, which controls involuntary bodily functions such as heart rate and digestion. In the medical field, acetylcholine is used as a diagnostic tool to study the function of the nervous system, particularly in conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and myasthenia gravis. It is also used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of certain conditions, such as glaucoma and myasthenia gravis, by increasing the activity of the affected nerves.
An ischemic attack, also known as a transient ischemic attack (TIA), is a temporary disruption of blood flow to a part of the brain. This can cause symptoms such as weakness or numbness on one side of the body, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, vision problems, or dizziness. Unlike a stroke, which is a more permanent disruption of blood flow, a TIA usually resolves on its own within a few hours. However, a TIA is a warning sign that a person is at increased risk of having a stroke, and prompt medical treatment is important to reduce that risk.
Intracranial arteriosclerosis refers to the hardening and narrowing of the arteries within the skull (intracranial arteries) due to the buildup of plaque, a fatty substance that consists of cholesterol, fat, and other substances. This condition can lead to a decrease in blood flow to the brain, which can cause a range of symptoms, including headaches, dizziness, and memory problems. In severe cases, it can lead to stroke or other serious neurological complications. Intracranial arteriosclerosis is a common condition that affects many people as they age, and it is often associated with other risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and smoking.
Aneurysm, ruptured refers to a medical condition in which a weakened or bulging blood vessel in the brain or elsewhere in the body bursts or leaks, causing blood to leak out into the surrounding tissue. This can be a life-threatening emergency, as the leaked blood can cause damage to surrounding brain tissue, leading to brain swelling, bleeding, and potentially permanent brain damage or death. Ruptured aneurysms are often caused by high blood pressure, smoking, or a family history of aneurysms. Treatment typically involves surgery or endovascular coiling to repair or clip the ruptured aneurysm and prevent further bleeding.
Intracranial Embolism and Thrombosis are medical conditions that involve the formation of blood clots or other foreign substances within the blood vessels of the brain. These clots or foreign substances can block the flow of blood to the brain, leading to a lack of oxygen and nutrients to the brain cells, which can cause damage or even death. Intracranial Embolism occurs when a blood clot or other foreign substance travels through the bloodstream and lodges in a blood vessel within the brain. This can occur as a result of a heart attack, stroke, or other medical condition. Thrombosis, on the other hand, refers to the formation of a blood clot within a blood vessel, which can occur as a result of injury, infection, or other medical conditions. Both Intracranial Embolism and Thrombosis can lead to serious and potentially life-threatening complications, such as stroke, brain damage, and even death. Treatment typically involves the use of medications to dissolve the clot or prevent it from growing larger, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.
Renal artery obstruction is a medical condition in which there is a blockage or narrowing of the renal artery, which is the main blood vessel that supplies blood to the kidneys. This can occur due to a variety of factors, including atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), fibromuscular dysplasia (a condition in which the walls of the arteries become thick and abnormal), renal artery stenosis (narrowing of the renal artery), or kidney stones that have moved and become lodged in the renal artery. Renal artery obstruction can lead to a decrease in blood flow to the kidneys, which can cause damage to the kidneys and impair their ability to filter waste products from the blood. This can lead to a range of symptoms, including blood in the urine, high blood pressure, and kidney failure. Treatment for renal artery obstruction may include medications to lower blood pressure and cholesterol, angioplasty (a procedure in which a balloon is inflated to widen a narrowed or blocked artery), or surgery to remove the blockage or repair the damaged artery.
Cerebral infarction, also known as a stroke, is a medical condition that occurs when blood flow to a part of the brain is interrupted, causing brain tissue to die. This can happen when a blood vessel in the brain becomes blocked by a clot or when a blood vessel bursts and leaks blood into the surrounding brain tissue. Cerebral infarction can cause a range of symptoms, depending on the location and size of the affected area of the brain. Common symptoms include sudden weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg, especially on one side of the body; difficulty speaking or understanding speech; vision problems; dizziness or loss of balance; and severe headache. Cerebral infarction is a medical emergency that requires prompt treatment to minimize the risk of long-term disability or death. Treatment options may include medications to dissolve or remove the blood clot, surgery to remove the clot or repair the damaged blood vessel, and rehabilitation to help patients recover from the effects of the stroke.
Nitroprusside is a medication that is used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension) and heart failure. It is a type of drug called a nitrovasodilator, which works by relaxing the blood vessels and allowing blood to flow more easily. This can help to lower blood pressure and improve the function of the heart. Nitroprusside is usually given as an intravenous (IV) injection, although it can also be given as a tablet or a liquid to swallow. It is usually used in the hospital setting, but it may also be used at home if a person's blood pressure is very high and needs to be lowered quickly. It is important to note that nitroprusside can cause side effects, including headache, dizziness, and low blood pressure. It should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.
Nitroglycerin is a powerful vasodilator medication that is used to treat angina pectoris (chest pain caused by reduced blood flow to the heart muscle) and to prevent heart attacks. It works by relaxing the smooth muscles in the blood vessels, particularly those that supply blood to the heart, which increases blood flow and reduces the workload on the heart. Nitroglycerin is usually administered as a sublingual tablet or spray, which is placed under the tongue or sprayed into the mouth. It is absorbed quickly into the bloodstream and begins to work within a few minutes. The effects of nitroglycerin are short-lived, lasting only a few minutes to an hour, and the medication must be taken as needed to relieve symptoms. While nitroglycerin is a highly effective medication for treating angina, it can cause side effects such as headache, dizziness, and low blood pressure. It is also contraindicated in patients with certain medical conditions, such as uncontrolled high blood pressure or severe heart failure.
Subclavian steal syndrome is a condition in which blood flow from the aorta to the upper extremities is blocked or reduced, causing blood to flow in the opposite direction through the subclavian artery. This can lead to symptoms such as weakness, numbness, and pain in the arm, as well as decreased blood flow to the brain, which can cause dizziness, fainting, and even stroke. Subclavian steal syndrome is typically caused by a blockage in the subclavian artery, which can be due to atherosclerosis, a buildup of plaque in the arteries, or a blood clot. Treatment may involve medications to dissolve the clot or surgery to open the blocked artery.
In the medical field, a spasm is a sudden, involuntary contraction or tightening of a muscle or group of muscles. Spasms can occur in any part of the body and can be caused by a variety of factors, including injury, nerve damage, muscle fatigue, dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and certain medications. Spasms can range in severity from mild twitches to severe, painful contractions that can interfere with normal movement and function. Some common examples of spasm include muscle cramps, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, and spasmodic dysphonia. Treatment for spasm depends on the underlying cause and can include medications, physical therapy, and lifestyle changes. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to address the underlying issue and prevent further spasms.
Pathologic constriction refers to a medical condition in which a blood vessel or other tubular structure becomes narrowed or blocked, leading to reduced blood flow or obstruction of the flow of other substances through the vessel. This can occur due to a variety of factors, including inflammation, scarring, abnormal growths, or the presence of a foreign object. Pathologic constriction can have serious consequences, depending on the location and severity of the constriction, and may require medical intervention to treat.
Intracranial thrombosis refers to the formation of a blood clot within the blood vessels of the brain. This can occur due to a variety of factors, including injury, infection, or underlying medical conditions such as atrial fibrillation or sickle cell disease. Intracranial thrombosis can lead to a range of symptoms, including headache, seizures, weakness or numbness on one side of the body, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, and loss of consciousness. If left untreated, it can also lead to serious complications such as stroke or brain damage. Treatment for intracranial thrombosis typically involves the use of blood-thinning medications to dissolve the clot, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent further complications.
In the medical field, a coma is a state of prolonged unconsciousness in which a person is unresponsive to their environment and cannot be awakened. Comas can be caused by a variety of factors, including head injuries, brain infections, drug overdose, and certain medical conditions such as stroke or heart attack. During a coma, a person's brain activity is significantly reduced, and they may show little to no signs of awareness or responsiveness. They may also experience changes in their vital signs, such as a slower heart rate and lower blood pressure. The duration of a coma can vary widely, from a few hours to several weeks or even months. In some cases, a person may emerge from a coma with no lasting effects, while in other cases, they may experience permanent brain damage or disability. Treatment for a coma typically involves addressing the underlying cause and providing supportive care to help the person's body recover.
Nimodipine is a calcium channel blocker medication that is primarily used to treat cerebrovascular disorders, such as stroke and traumatic brain injury. It works by relaxing blood vessels in the brain, which can improve blood flow and reduce swelling. Nimodipine is usually given intravenously or orally in tablet form. It may also be used to treat other conditions, such as Raynaud's phenomenon (a condition that causes the blood vessels in the fingers and toes to constrict) and glaucoma (a condition that can lead to vision loss).
Carotid stenosis is a medical condition in which the carotid artery, which supplies blood to the brain, becomes narrowed or blocked. This can lead to a reduced flow of blood to the brain, which can cause symptoms such as dizziness, weakness, and difficulty speaking or thinking. Carotid stenosis is typically caused by the buildup of plaque in the walls of the artery, which can thicken and harden over time. Other risk factors for carotid stenosis include high blood pressure, smoking, and diabetes. Treatment for carotid stenosis may include medication to manage symptoms and prevent further narrowing of the artery, or surgery to remove the plaque and restore blood flow to the brain.
Pathologic dilatation refers to the abnormal enlargement or widening of a body structure, such as a blood vessel, organ, or tube, beyond its normal size. This can be caused by a variety of factors, including injury, disease, or genetic abnormalities. Pathologic dilatation can be a sign of underlying health problems and may require medical intervention to prevent further complications. It is important to note that not all dilatation is considered pathologic, as some degree of dilation may be normal or even beneficial in certain situations.
An aneurysm is a bulge or dilation in the wall of a blood vessel, typically a artery. It occurs when the weakened wall of the vessel balloons out and becomes distended, creating a sac-like structure. Aneurysms can occur in any part of the body, but they are most commonly found in the brain, aorta, and legs. Aneurysms can be caused by a variety of factors, including high blood pressure, atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), trauma, and genetic predisposition. They can also be caused by certain medical conditions, such as Marfan syndrome or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Aneurysms can be asymptomatic, meaning they do not cause any symptoms, or they can cause symptoms such as headache, neck pain, visual changes, or weakness or numbness in the extremities. If an aneurysm ruptures, it can cause a life-threatening bleeding episode. Treatment for aneurysms depends on the size, location, and risk of rupture. Small aneurysms may be monitored with regular imaging studies, while larger aneurysms or those at high risk of rupture may require surgical repair or endovascular coiling, a minimally invasive procedure in which a catheter is inserted into the aneurysm and a coil is placed to fill the sac and prevent further expansion.
Brain ischemia is a medical condition that occurs when there is a lack of blood flow to the brain, which can lead to brain damage or even death. This can happen due to a blockage in one or more of the blood vessels that supply blood to the brain, or due to a decrease in the amount of oxygenated blood reaching the brain. Brain ischemia can be caused by a variety of factors, including stroke, heart disease, high blood pressure, and certain medical conditions such as sickle cell anemia. Symptoms of brain ischemia can include headache, confusion, dizziness, weakness, and loss of consciousness. Treatment for brain ischemia typically involves medications to dissolve blood clots or to reduce blood pressure, as well as surgery in some cases.
Norepinephrine, also known as noradrenaline, is a neurotransmitter and hormone that plays a crucial role in the body's "fight or flight" response. It is produced by the adrenal glands and is also found in certain neurons in the brain and spinal cord. In the medical field, norepinephrine is often used as a medication to treat low blood pressure, shock, and heart failure. It works by constricting blood vessels and increasing heart rate, which helps to raise blood pressure and improve blood flow to vital organs. Norepinephrine is also used to treat certain types of depression, as it can help to increase feelings of alertness and energy. However, it is important to note that norepinephrine can have side effects, including rapid heartbeat, high blood pressure, and anxiety, and should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.
Carotid artery injuries refer to damage or trauma to the carotid artery, which is one of the main arteries in the neck that supplies blood to the brain. These injuries can occur as a result of blunt or penetrating trauma to the neck, such as from a car accident, gunshot wound, or surgical procedure. Carotid artery injuries can be life-threatening because they can lead to a lack of blood flow to the brain, which can cause stroke or other serious neurological complications. Symptoms of carotid artery injuries may include neck pain, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, weakness or numbness on one side of the body, and loss of consciousness. Diagnosis of carotid artery injuries typically involves imaging studies such as ultrasound, CT angiography, or MRI angiography. Treatment may involve surgical repair or replacement of the damaged artery, as well as medications to manage symptoms and prevent complications. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if you suspect you or someone else may have a carotid artery injury.
Nitric oxide (NO) is a colorless, odorless gas that is produced naturally in the body by various cells, including endothelial cells in the lining of blood vessels. It plays a crucial role in the regulation of blood flow and blood pressure, as well as in the immune response and neurotransmission. In the medical field, NO is often studied in relation to cardiovascular disease, as it is involved in the regulation of blood vessel dilation and constriction. It has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of various conditions, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, and heart failure. NO is also used in medical treatments, such as in the treatment of erectile dysfunction, where it is used to enhance blood flow to the penis. It is also used in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension, where it helps to relax blood vessels in the lungs and improve blood flow. Overall, NO is a critical molecule in the body that plays a vital role in many physiological processes, and its study and manipulation have important implications for the treatment of various medical conditions.
Cerebrovascular disorders refer to conditions that affect the blood vessels in the brain, leading to a disruption in blood flow and oxygen supply to the brain tissue. These disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including atherosclerosis (hardening and narrowing of the arteries), high blood pressure, diabetes, smoking, and genetic factors. Cerebrovascular disorders can be classified into two main categories: ischemic and hemorrhagic. Ischemic cerebrovascular disorders are caused by a lack of blood flow to the brain, which can result from a blockage or narrowing of the blood vessels. Hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disorders, on the other hand, are caused by bleeding in the brain, which can result from a ruptured blood vessel or an aneurysm. Some common examples of cerebrovascular disorders include stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), and aneurysm. Stroke is a type of cerebrovascular disorder that occurs when blood flow to the brain is completely blocked or reduced, leading to brain damage or death. TIA, also known as a mini-stroke, is a temporary disruption in blood flow to the brain that usually lasts only a few minutes. An aneurysm is a bulge in a blood vessel in the brain that can rupture and cause bleeding. Cerebrovascular disorders can have serious consequences, including disability, cognitive impairment, and even death. Treatment options for these disorders depend on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. Early detection and prompt medical intervention are crucial for improving outcomes and reducing the risk of complications.
Aneurysm, dissecting refers to a medical condition in which a blood vessel in the body becomes weakened and bulges outwards, creating a tear or split in the vessel wall. This can cause blood to flow into the surrounding tissue, which can lead to serious complications if left untreated. Dissecting aneurysms are typically caused by high blood pressure, atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), or trauma to the affected vessel. They can occur in any blood vessel in the body, but are most commonly found in the aorta, the main artery that carries blood from the heart to the rest of the body. Treatment for dissecting aneurysms may include medications to lower blood pressure, surgery to repair or replace the affected vessel, or endovascular procedures to repair the aneurysm from within the blood vessel.
Nitroarginine is a medication that is used to treat high blood pressure and chest pain (angina). It works by relaxing blood vessels, which allows blood to flow more easily and reduces the workload on the heart. Nitroarginine is available in various forms, including tablets, sprays, and ointments. It is usually taken as needed, but it can also be taken regularly to prevent chest pain. Nitroarginine is generally safe and well-tolerated, but it can cause side effects such as headache, dizziness, and flushing. It is important to follow the instructions of your healthcare provider when taking nitroarginine and to let them know if you experience any side effects.
Methiothepin is a synthetic antipsychotic drug that was developed in the 1950s. It is a type of drug called a thioxanthene, which is a class of drugs that are structurally related to the older antipsychotic drugs known as phenothiazines. Methiothepin is primarily used to treat schizophrenia, a serious mental illness that affects a person's ability to think, feel, and behave normally. It works by blocking the action of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain that is involved in the regulation of mood, movement, and other functions. Methiothepin is typically administered orally in tablet form, and the dosage and duration of treatment will depend on the individual patient's needs and response to the medication. Like all medications, methiothepin can have side effects, including drowsiness, dizziness, dry mouth, constipation, and changes in blood pressure and heart rate. It is important to note that methiothepin is not approved for use in the United States, and is only available in a few other countries. It is also not commonly used due to the availability of newer and more effective antipsychotic medications.
Cinnarizine is a medication that is used to treat motion sickness, vertigo, and dizziness. It works by blocking certain receptors in the brain that are involved in the sensation of balance and spatial orientation. Cinnarizine is available in tablet form and is usually taken orally. It is not recommended for use in children under the age of 12 or in pregnant or breastfeeding women. Side effects of cinnarizine may include drowsiness, dizziness, and headache.
In the medical field, "Disease Models, Animal" refers to the use of animals to study and understand human diseases. These models are created by introducing a disease or condition into an animal, either naturally or through experimental manipulation, in order to study its progression, symptoms, and potential treatments. Animal models are used in medical research because they allow scientists to study diseases in a controlled environment and to test potential treatments before they are tested in humans. They can also provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of a disease and help to identify new therapeutic targets. There are many different types of animal models used in medical research, including mice, rats, rabbits, dogs, and monkeys. Each type of animal has its own advantages and disadvantages, and the choice of model depends on the specific disease being studied and the research question being addressed.
Coronary disease, also known as coronary artery disease (CAD), is a condition in which the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart muscle become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of plaque. This can lead to reduced blood flow to the heart, which can cause chest pain (angina), shortness of breath, and other symptoms. In severe cases, coronary disease can lead to a heart attack, which occurs when the blood flow to a part of the heart is completely blocked, causing damage to the heart muscle. Coronary disease is a common condition that affects many people, particularly those who are middle-aged or older, and is often associated with other risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, and diabetes. Treatment for coronary disease may include lifestyle changes, medications, and in some cases, procedures such as angioplasty or coronary artery bypass surgery.
Vertebral artery dissection (VAD) is a medical condition in which a tear or a split occurs in the inner lining of one of the vertebral arteries, which are blood vessels that supply blood to the brain and spinal cord. This tear can cause a blood clot to form, which can block the flow of blood to the brain and cause a stroke. VAD can occur as a result of a traumatic event, such as a car accident or a sports injury, or it can occur spontaneously without any apparent cause. The risk factors for VAD include a history of head or neck trauma, certain medical conditions such as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and the use of certain medications such as blood thinners. Symptoms of VAD may include severe headache, neck pain, dizziness, weakness or numbness in the face or extremities, and loss of vision. Diagnosis of VAD typically involves imaging tests such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) angiography. Treatment for VAD may involve medication to dissolve the blood clot or prevent further blood clots from forming, as well as surgery to repair the damaged artery. Early diagnosis and treatment are important to prevent long-term complications such as stroke or permanent neurological damage.
Sphenoid sinusitis is an inflammation of the sphenoid sinus, which is one of the four paired air-filled cavities located in the skull. The sphenoid sinus is located behind the ethmoid sinuses and between the orbits of the eyes. It is a complex sinus that communicates with several other sinuses and the nasal cavity. Sphenoid sinusitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including bacterial or viral infections, allergies, fungal infections, and structural abnormalities of the sinuses. Symptoms of sphenoid sinusitis may include facial pain or pressure, headache, fever, nasal congestion, runny nose, and postnasal drip. In some cases, sphenoid sinusitis can lead to more serious complications, such as meningitis or brain abscess. Diagnosis of sphenoid sinusitis typically involves a physical examination, imaging studies such as computed tomography (CT) scans or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and laboratory tests to identify the underlying cause of the inflammation. Treatment of sphenoid sinusitis depends on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, antifungal medications, decongestants, nasal sprays, and corticosteroids. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove infected tissue or open up blocked sinuses.
Prostaglandin endoperoxides, synthetic, are a class of medications that are synthesized from prostaglandins, which are naturally occurring compounds that play a role in various physiological processes in the body. These synthetic prostaglandins are used to treat a variety of conditions, including inflammation, pain, and bleeding disorders. They are typically administered by injection or inhalation and are used to treat conditions such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and rheumatoid arthritis. They are also used to prevent and treat bleeding in patients who are taking blood-thinning medications.
Infarction of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is a type of stroke that occurs when blood flow to a specific area of the brain is blocked, usually by a blood clot. The middle cerebral artery supplies blood to the front and side of the brain, and when it becomes blocked, it can cause damage to the brain tissue in that area. Symptoms of MCA infarction can include weakness or numbness on one side of the body, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, vision problems, and loss of balance or coordination. In severe cases, MCA infarction can lead to or even death. Treatment for MCA infarction typically involves medications to dissolve or remove the blood clot, as well as rehabilitation to help patients recover from the effects of the stroke. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the clot or repair any damage to the artery.
In the medical field, a stroke is a medical emergency that occurs when blood flow to the brain is interrupted or reduced, causing brain cells to die. This can happen in two ways: 1. Ischemic stroke: This is the most common type of stroke, accounting for about 85% of all strokes. It occurs when a blood clot blocks a blood vessel in the brain, cutting off blood flow to the affected area. 2. Hemorrhagic stroke: This type of stroke occurs when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures, causing bleeding into the brain. Hemorrhagic strokes are less common than ischemic strokes, accounting for about 15% of all strokes. Strokes can cause a wide range of symptoms, depending on the location and severity of the brain damage. Common symptoms include sudden weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg, especially on one side of the body; difficulty speaking or understanding speech; vision problems; dizziness or loss of balance; and severe headache. Prompt medical treatment is crucial for stroke patients, as the sooner treatment is given, the better the chances of recovery. Treatment options may include medications to dissolve blood clots or prevent further clot formation, surgery to remove a blood clot or repair a ruptured blood vessel, and rehabilitation to help patients recover from the effects of the stroke.
Cerebral arterial diseases refer to a group of disorders that affect the blood vessels that supply blood to the brain. These diseases can lead to a variety of symptoms, including headaches, dizziness, vision problems, and even stroke. Some common examples of cerebral arterial diseases include: 1. Atherosclerosis: This is a condition in which plaque builds up inside the arteries, narrowing them and reducing blood flow to the brain. 2. Cerebral vasospasm: This occurs when the blood vessels in the brain constrict, reducing blood flow and potentially leading to stroke. 3. Moyamoya disease: This is a rare condition in which the blood vessels at the base of the brain are narrowed or blocked, leading to reduced blood flow. 4. Dissection: This occurs when a tear develops in the wall of an artery, causing blood to leak into the artery wall and potentially leading to stroke. Treatment for cerebral arterial diseases depends on the specific condition and may include medications, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, surgery. Early detection and treatment are important to prevent complications and improve outcomes.
Dinoprost is a synthetic prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) that is used in the medical field as a medication. It is primarily used to induce labor in pregnant women who are past their due date or who are at risk of complications during delivery. Dinoprost is administered as an injection into a muscle or vein, and it works by causing the muscles of the uterus to contract, which helps to initiate labor. Dinoprost is also used to treat a condition called uterine fibroids, which are noncancerous growths that can cause pain and heavy bleeding. In this case, dinoprost is used to shrink the fibroids and reduce symptoms. In addition to its use in obstetrics and gynecology, dinoprost has also been used to treat other conditions, such as bleeding disorders and certain types of cancer. However, its use for these conditions is less common and is typically reserved for cases where other treatments have been ineffective.
Retinal artery occlusion (RAO) is a medical condition in which there is a blockage of blood flow to the retina, the light-sensitive layer at the back of the eye. This can cause vision loss or even blindness if not treated promptly. RAO can be caused by a variety of factors, including high blood pressure, diabetes, high cholesterol, smoking, and blood clots. There are two types of RAO: central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) and branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO). CRAO is a more severe condition that affects the main artery to the retina, while BRAO affects a smaller branch artery. Treatment for RAO may include medications to dissolve blood clots, surgery to remove blood clots, or laser therapy to help blood flow to the retina.
Bradykinin is a peptide hormone that plays a role in the regulation of blood pressure, inflammation, and pain. It is produced in the body by the breakdown of larger proteins called kinins, which are released from blood vessels and other tissues in response to injury or inflammation. Bradykinin acts on various types of cells in the body, including blood vessels, smooth muscle cells, and nerve cells, to cause a range of physiological effects. In the blood vessels, bradykinin causes them to dilate, or widen, which can lead to a drop in blood pressure. It also increases the permeability of blood vessels, allowing fluid and other substances to leak out and cause swelling. In addition to its effects on blood vessels, bradykinin is also involved in the body's inflammatory response. It stimulates the release of other inflammatory mediators, such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes, which can cause redness, swelling, and pain. Overall, bradykinin plays an important role in the body's response to injury and inflammation, and its activity is tightly regulated by various enzymes and other factors in the body.
Vasculitis, Central Nervous System (CNS) is a rare autoimmune disorder that affects the blood vessels in the brain and spinal cord. It is characterized by inflammation of the blood vessels, which can lead to damage to the surrounding tissues and cause a range of neurological symptoms. The exact cause of vasculitis, CNS is not fully understood, but it is thought to be triggered by an abnormal immune response in which the body's immune system attacks its own blood vessels. This can lead to the formation of blood clots, which can obstruct blood flow and cause damage to the brain and spinal cord. Symptoms of vasculitis, CNS can vary widely depending on the location and severity of the inflammation. Common symptoms include headache, dizziness, confusion, memory loss, weakness, numbness, and tingling in the extremities. In severe cases, vasculitis, CNS can lead to stroke, seizures, and even death. Diagnosis of vasculitis, CNS typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging studies such as MRI or CT scans, and blood tests to look for signs of inflammation. Treatment typically involves the use of immunosuppressive medications to reduce inflammation and prevent further damage to the blood vessels. In some cases, corticosteroids may also be used to reduce inflammation and manage symptoms.
Carotid artery thrombosis refers to the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) in the carotid artery, which is one of the major arteries in the neck that supplies blood to the brain. This condition can lead to a stroke or other serious complications if not treated promptly. Carotid artery thrombosis can occur due to various factors, including blood clots that have traveled from other parts of the body, injury or damage to the artery, or underlying medical conditions such as heart disease, high blood pressure, or diabetes. Symptoms of carotid artery thrombosis may include sudden weakness or numbness on one side of the face or body, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, vision problems, dizziness or loss of balance, and severe headache. If left untreated, carotid artery thrombosis can lead to a stroke, which can cause permanent damage to the brain and other serious complications. Treatment for carotid artery thrombosis typically involves the use of blood-thinning medications to dissolve the clot or prevent it from growing larger, as well as surgery to remove the clot or repair the damaged artery. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if you suspect that you or someone else may have carotid artery thrombosis.
HEPES stands for 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid. It is a buffering agent commonly used in biological and medical research, particularly in cell culture media and buffers. HEPES is a zwitterion, meaning it has both positively and negatively charged groups, which allows it to maintain a stable pH in solutions. It is known for its low toxicity and ability to maintain a stable pH over a wide range of temperatures and concentrations. In the medical field, HEPES is often used in cell culture media to maintain optimal growth conditions for cells, and in buffers for various laboratory assays and experiments.
Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the production of nitric oxide (NO) in the body. There are three main types of NOS: endothelial NOS (eNOS), neuronal NOS (nNOS), and inducible NOS (iNOS). eNOS is primarily found in the endothelial cells that line blood vessels and is responsible for producing NO in response to various stimuli, such as shear stress, hormones, and neurotransmitters. NO produced by eNOS helps to relax blood vessels and improve blood flow, which is important for maintaining cardiovascular health. nNOS is found in neurons and is involved in neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity. iNOS is induced in response to inflammation and is involved in the production of NO in immune cells and other tissues. Abnormal regulation of NOS activity has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms that regulate NOS activity is an important area of research in the medical field.
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent vasoconstrictor peptide hormone that is primarily produced by endothelial cells in the walls of blood vessels. It plays a key role in regulating blood pressure and blood vessel tone, and is also involved in a variety of other physiological processes, including cell growth and differentiation, inflammation, and angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels). In the medical field, ET-1 is often measured as a biomarker for various cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension, heart failure, and atherosclerosis. It is also used as a therapeutic target in the treatment of these conditions, with drugs such as endothelin receptor antagonists (ERAs) being developed to block the effects of ET-1 and improve cardiovascular outcomes. Additionally, ET-1 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of other diseases, such as cancer and fibrosis, and is being studied as a potential therapeutic target in these conditions as well.
Basilar part of pons
Superior cerebellar artery
Interventricular foramina (neuroanatomy)
Dense artery sign
Combined oral contraceptive pill
Medial pontine syndrome
Posterior cerebral artery
Death during consensual sex
Anterior inferior cerebellar artery
Mike Haynes (ice hockey)
Basilar Artery Thrombosis: Background, Anatomy, Pathophysiology
Vertebrobasilar Stroke: Overview, Anatomy of the Vertebral and Basilar Arteries, Pathophysiology of Vertebrobasilar Stroke
Glasgow Coma Scale Does Not Predict Outcome Post-Intra-Arterial Treatment for Basilar Artery Thrombosis | American Journal of...
A cadaveric study of the endoscopic endonasal transclival approach to the basilar artery<...
Age related structural changes in human basilar artery | Papers on Anthropology
Mechanical thrombectomy with the Solitaire device in acute basilar artery occlusion | Journal of NeuroInterventional Surgery
A Comparison between Mechanical Thrombectomy and Intra-arterial Fibrinolysis in Acute Basilar Artery Occlusion: Single Center...
Vertebrobasilar Stroke: Overview of Vertebrobasilar Stroke, Anatomy of the Vertebral and Basilar Arteries, Pathophysiology of...
Aortic arch syndrome: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
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Stroke Symptoms and Treatment, Warning Signs
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Bassett Collection - Lane Medical Library - Stanford University School of Medicine
Biorphen, Vazculep (phenylephrine IV) dosing, indications, interactions, adverse effects, and more
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- Vertigo is one of several common presenting symptoms associated with basilar artery occlusion. (medscape.com)
- Given the anatomy of the posterior circulation and the circle of Willis, the clinical manifestations of basilar artery thrombosis depend on the location of the occlusion, the extent of the thrombus, and the collateral flow. (medscape.com)
- If the proximal segment of the basilar artery is occluded and the occlusion has resulted from a slowly progressive stenosis, collateralization occurs within the cerebellum into the circumferential branches of the basilar artery. (medscape.com)
- The mechanism of stroke in basilar artery occlusion differs depending on the segment of the vessel involved. (medscape.com)
- In the cases of stroke due to acute basilar artery occlusion the mortality rate is significantly higher if compared to all the stroke cases. (utlib.ee)
- Aims To evaluate the efficacy and safety of mechanical thrombectomy with the Solitaire FR device in revascularization of patients with acute basilar artery occlusion (ABAO) and to identify the predictive factors for clinical outcome. (bmj.com)
- However, little is known regarding the effect of the evolvement of endovascular revascularization therapy (ERT) in acute basilar artery occlusion (BAO). (j-stroke.org)
- Acute basilar artery occlusion (BAO) is a rare cause of stroke with a high mortality rate and an often poor clinical outcome among survivors [ 1 , 2 ]. (j-stroke.org)
- In-stent thrombotic occlusion is a serious ischemic complication that can also result in ischemia in the distal perfusion territory and the territory of side branches for the artery in which the flow diverter (FD) stent is deployed. (thejns.org)
- Clip application and manoeuvrability of instruments was considered adequate for basilar aneurysm surgery. (edu.au)
- AcoA, PcoA, and BA tip aneurysms tend to occur more often in anatomically variant parent artery dispositions, some of which are related to aneurysm recurrence following coil embolization. (nih.gov)
- Acute basilar artery thrombosis is associated with a poor prognosis. (medscape.com)
- Evidence to guide patient selection for IA therapy in acute basilar artery thrombosis is lacking. (ajnr.org)
- Low GCS score did not correlate with poor neurologic outcome in patients with acute basilar artery thrombosis managed with IA therapy. (ajnr.org)
- Acute basilar artery thrombosis is an infrequent but catastrophic subtype of posterior circulation ischemic stroke that carries a mortality rate of 80%-90% without treatment. (ajnr.org)
- Only 1 multicenter randomized controlled trial assessed IA therapy efficacy for acute basilar thrombosis. (ajnr.org)
- BACKGROUND/AIMS: Early initiation of enteral nutrition (EN) is recommended for acute stroke patients, but it is time-consuming. (bvsalud.org)
- METHODS: Consecutive acute stroke patients with severe dysphagia within 72 h of hospital admission who received EN were retrospectively enrolled. (bvsalud.org)
- It is formed at the pontomedullary junction by the confluence of both vertebral arteries. (medscape.com)
- Normally, the blood flows in an anterograde fashion from the vertebral arteries to the basilar artery up to its terminal branches. (medscape.com)
- The vertebral arteries arise from the subclavian arteries, and as they course cephalad in the neck, they pass through the costotransverse foramina of C6 to C2. (medscape.com)
- The medulla is perfused by the PICA and by direct, smaller branches from the vertebral arteries. (medscape.com)
- Proximal to its bifurcation into the terminal branches (ie, PCA), the basilar artery gives off the superior cerebellar arteries that supply the lateral aspect of the pons and midbrain and the superior surface of the cerebellum. (medscape.com)
- At the top of the pons, the basilar artery divides into 2 posterior cerebral arteries (PCAs). (medscape.com)
- The pons is perfused by small, penetrating branches from the basilar artery and its major branches. (medscape.com)
- The vertebral and basilar arteries have been cut away so that the pons and medulla are more completely visualized. (stanford.edu)
- Sultana AA, Ara S, Rahman M, Afroz H, Akter R, Akter F, Fatema K. Variations in the Location of Basilar Artery on Ventral Surface of Pons. (banglajol.info)
- The anterior transclival route to basilar artery aneurysms is not widely performed. (edu.au)
- The objective of this study was to carry out a feasibility assessment of the transclival approach to basilar aneurysms with advanced endonasal techniques on 11 cadaver heads. (edu.au)
- To analyse the impact of anatomical variations of the parent arteries on the incidence and recurrence rate following coil embolization of aneurysms of the anterior (AcoA), posterior communicating artery (PcoA) and basilar artery (BA) tip. (nih.gov)
- Although outcomes continue to be poor in patients with basilar artery thrombosis, advances in pharmacologic and mechanical thrombolysis and in endovascular therapy may reduce the mortality and disability rates associated with this disease. (medscape.com)
- The risk factors for basilar artery thrombosis are the same as those seen generally in stroke . (medscape.com)
- We included 40 consecutive patients with basilar artery thrombosis treated with IA therapy. (ajnr.org)
- Major histopathologic findings in clinical cases of meningitis show evidence of necrotizing, suppurative vasculitis with thrombosis (A and B). These findings are seen in many cases involving a branch of the basilar artery (C), which are consistent with the clinical findings. (cdc.gov)
- The blockage of an artery in the brain by a clot (thrombosis) is the most common cause of a stroke. (medicinenet.com)
- The branch of the basilar artery with the larger circumference is the anterior inferior cerebellar artery. (medscape.com)
- however, it may also arise as a direct branch of the basilar artery. (medscape.com)
- Aortic arch syndrome refers to a group of signs and symptoms associated with structural problems in the arteries that branch off the aortic arch. (medlineplus.gov)
- This portion gives rise to the caroticotympanic artery, supplying the tympanic cavity, and the pterygoid or vidian branch passing through the pterygoid canal. (medscape.com)
- On occasion, the persistent stapedial branch of the petrous segment traverses a bony canal and continues as the middle meningeal artery. (medscape.com)
- The labyrinth is irrigated by internal labyrinthine artery, in most cases branch of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery and in some cases branch of basilar artery. (bvsalud.org)
- An embolism, either plaque or clot, may also originate in a large artery (for example, the carotid artery, a major artery in the neck that supplies blood to the brain) and then travel downstream to clog a small artery within the brain. (medicinenet.com)
- Lateral projection of a left common carotid artery injection that displays the order of branching in the intracranial carotid, including 1: ophthalmic, 2: posterior communicating, 3: anterior choroidal, and 4: anterior cerebral arteries. (medscape.com)
- The internal carotid artery (ICA) embryologically develops from the third primitive aortic arch. (medscape.com)
- This artery arises from the common carotid artery in the neck, entering the head at skull base via the carotid canal, and terminates at the bifurcation into the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA). (medscape.com)
- Carotid artery disease in NIDDM diabetes. (who.int)
- Another type of stroke may occur when a blood clot or a piece of atherosclerotic plaque (cholesterol and calcium deposits on the wall of the inside of the heart or artery) breaks loose, travels through the bloodstream, and lodges in an artery in the brain. (medicinenet.com)
- Usually, these clots remain attached to the inner lining of the heart, but occasionally they can break off, travel through the bloodstream (embolize), block a brain artery, and cause a stroke. (medicinenet.com)
- The total duration of EN administration in the first week after stroke onset was significantly longer in the conventional vs. rapid administration group [21 (15-21) h vs. 6 (2-8) h, p (bvsalud.org)
- Embolism, either from a cardiac or arterial source, is much more frequent in the distal third of the basilar artery and the vertebrobasilar junction. (medscape.com)
- Arterial dissection is much more common in the extracranial vertebral artery. (medscape.com)
- Arterial wall stiffening is characteristic of ageing arteries and in many investigations arterial wall stiffening is related to the loss of the elastic component in the arterial wall during ageing. (utlib.ee)
- Our morphometric findings that revealed the increased collagen area together with the decrease of the SMC number might be responsible for the stiffening of the basilar artery in aging and contribute to the development of atherosclerosis and arterial hypertension. (utlib.ee)
- In the presented case, a young female patient with fulminant refractory DCI and CV, despite induced hypertension and nimodipine application, was treated with three-vessel continuous intra-arterial infusion and additional repetitive angioplasty of the basilar and middle cerebral arteries using a stent retriever, leading to a good clinical outcome. (thejns.org)
- We report a unique rescue strategy involving implantation of an additional intra-arterial catheter into the vertebral artery and repetitive stent retriever dilatations of the middle cerebral and basilar arteries as an extra therapy for continuous intra-arterial nimodipine vaspospasmolytic therapy in three vessel territories, resulting in a very good clinical outcome. (thejns.org)
- Los aneurismas saculares son la variante más común y tienden a formarse en los puntos de ramificación arterial en el POLÍGONO DE WILLIS en la base del encéfalo. (bvsalud.org)
- Intracranial arteries are involved in many neurologic disorders. (medscape.com)
- Flow velocity and pulsatility index were measured in the middle cerebral, basilar and intracranial internal carotid arteries of a sample of 141 diabetic patients with no other risk factors, and 132 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. (who.int)
Anterior and posterior2
- The PCoA extends posteriorly to connect with the primary segment of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA), allowing collateral flow to pass between the anterior and posterior circulations. (medscape.com)
- The labyrinthine artery divides into: cochlear artery, for irrigation of the cochlea and vestibular arteries anterior and posterior semicircular canals to irrigate, utricle, saccule and part of the cochlea 8 . (bvsalud.org)
- This gives rise to the superior hypophyseal perforators to the anterior pituitary and stalk, posterior communicating artery (PCoA), and anterior choroidal artery (AChA) before bifurcating into the ACA and MCA (see the image below). (medscape.com)
- The cerebellum is supplied by long circumferential arteries, the PICA, and the anterior inferior and superior cerebellar arteries from the basilar artery. (medscape.com)
- They enter the skull through the foramen magnum and merge at the pontomedullary junction to form the basilar artery. (medscape.com)
- The aortic arch is the top part of the main artery carrying blood away from the heart. (medlineplus.gov)
- Atherosclerotic occlusive disease predominantly affects the midsegment of the basilar artery, followed by the vertebrobasilar junction. (medscape.com)
- The cavernous segment averages 39 mm in length and gives rise to far more branches, including the meningohypophyseal trunk, the anterior meningeal artery, the artery to the inferior portion of the cavernous sinus, and the ophthalmic artery. (medscape.com)
- The basilar artery is the most important artery in the posterior circulation. (medscape.com)
- What is most important to know is that with the necessary knowledge combined with the correct treatment, you can manage these basilar artery migraines without interrupting your day to day life. (treatheadaches.com)
- These basilar migraines are thought to be caused by arteries in your neck and brain being squeezed. (treatheadaches.com)
- What Are The Symptoms of Basilar Migraines? (treatheadaches.com)
- Are Basilar Artery Migraines Preventable? (treatheadaches.com)
- Each vertebral artery usually gives off the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA). (medscape.com)
- It normally arises at the junction of the proximal and middle third of the basilar artery and supplies the lateral pontine tegmentum, brachium pontis or middle cerebellar peduncle, flocculus, and a small part of the anterior cerebellum. (medscape.com)
- Exposure of the basilar-anterior inferior cerebellar artery junction, superior cerebellar artery, and the basilar caput were possible in 100%, 91%, and 64% of instances, respectively. (edu.au)
- The constriction of the basilar artery (the artery that goes through your neck and brain stem to ensure blood reaches your brain) is believed to be involved in causing this condition. (treatheadaches.com)
- The 2 ACAs connect through the anterior communicating artery (ACoA), thus joining the left and right carotid circulations. (medscape.com)
- At the base of the brain, the carotid and basilar systems join to form a circle of large, communicating arteries known as the circle of Willis. (medscape.com)
- Because of this arrangement of collateral vessels, even when one of the main arteries is occluded, adequate perfusion of the brain still may be possible. (medscape.com)
- Arteries to the brain on magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA). (medscape.com)
- One such type is the basilar migraine, which starts in the lower part of the brain, specifically, the brainstem. (treatheadaches.com)
- Blood samples and four blood vessels, the aorta, superior vena cava, pulmonary vein and pulmonary artery, were obtained from 11 slaughtered sheep. (who.int)
- Clival dura was exposed from the sella to the foramen magnum between the paraclival segments of the internal carotid arteries (ICA) laterally. (edu.au)
- [ 3 ] The vidian artery anastomoses with the internal maxillary artery. (medscape.com)
- From the middle part of the basilar arteries histological slides were performed and area of collagen fibers, the number of smooth muscle cells and the thickness of the media were measured. (utlib.ee)
- La vitesse d'écoulement du flux sanguin et l'index de pulsatilité ont été mesurés dans les artères carotides internes intercrâniennes, les artères basilaires et cérébrales moyennes d'un échantillon de 141 patients diabétiques sans autre facteur de risque et de 132 témoins en bonne santé appariés pour l'âge et le sexe. (who.int)
- Les patients ont été répartis en deux groupes : 73 patients souffrant d'un diabète compliqué dans le premier groupe et 68 patients atteints d'un diabète non compliqué dans le deuxième groupe. (who.int)
- There was a statistically significant difference between the complicated diabetes and control groups for the 3 arteries and most indices. (who.int)
- Fungal hyphae (black) can be visualized with silver stain within vessel walls (A) and in area of necrosis in basilar artery (B). Using a polyfungal immunohistochemistry reagent, fungal hyphae (red) is also seen in the purulent exudate in spinal meningitis (C). (cdc.gov)
- Based on our findings, the transclival endoscopic endonasal surgery approach provides excellent visualisation of the basilar artery. (edu.au)