Basilar Artery: The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency: Localized or diffuse reduction in blood flow through the vertebrobasilar arterial system, which supplies the BRAIN STEM; CEREBELLUM; OCCIPITAL LOBE; medial TEMPORAL LOBE; and THALAMUS. Characteristic clinical features include SYNCOPE; lightheadedness; visual disturbances; and VERTIGO. BRAIN STEM INFARCTIONS or other BRAIN INFARCTION may be associated.Vertebral Artery: The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.Brain Stem Infarctions: Infarctions that occur in the BRAIN STEM which is comprised of the MIDBRAIN; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA. There are several named syndromes characterized by their distinctive clinical manifestations and specific sites of ischemic injury.Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Vasospasm, Intracranial: Constriction of arteries in the SKULL due to sudden, sharp, and often persistent smooth muscle contraction in blood vessels. Intracranial vasospasm results in reduced vessel lumen caliber, restricted blood flow to the brain, and BRAIN ISCHEMIA that may lead to hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HYPOXIA-ISCHEMIA, BRAIN).Mesenteric Arteries: Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.Renal Artery: A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.Femoral Artery: The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Carotid Artery, Internal: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.Intracranial Aneurysm: Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Iliac Artery: Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.Coronary Artery Bypass: Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.Radial Artery: The direct continuation of the brachial trunk, originating at the bifurcation of the brachial artery opposite the neck of the radius. Its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to the three regions in which the vessel is situated, the forearm, wrist, and hand.Arterial Occlusive Diseases: Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.Mammary Arteries: Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles and mammary gland.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Carotid Artery Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Subclavian Artery: Artery arising from the brachiocephalic trunk on the right side and from the arch of the aorta on the left side. It distributes to the neck, thoracic wall, spinal cord, brain, meninges, and upper limb.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Middle Cerebral Artery: The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Splenic Artery: The largest branch of the celiac trunk with distribution to the spleen, pancreas, stomach and greater omentum.Brachial Artery: The continuation of the axillary artery; it branches into the radial and ulnar arteries.Potassium Chloride: A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.Papaverine: An alkaloid found in opium but not closely related to the other opium alkaloids in its structure or pharmacological actions. It is a direct-acting smooth muscle relaxant used in the treatment of impotence and as a vasodilator, especially for cerebral vasodilation. The mechanism of its pharmacological actions is not clear, but it apparently can inhibit phosphodiesterases and it may have direct actions on calcium channels.Circle of Willis: A polygonal anastomosis at the base of the brain formed by the internal carotid (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL), proximal parts of the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries (ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), the anterior communicating artery and the posterior communicating arteries.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Hepatic Artery: A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Carotid Artery, Common: The two principal arteries supplying the structures of the head and neck. They ascend in the neck, one on each side, and at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, each divides into two branches, the external (CAROTID ARTERY, EXTERNAL) and internal (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL) carotid arteries.Picolines: A group of compounds that are monomethyl derivatives of pyridines. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Sumatriptan: A serotonin agonist that acts selectively at 5HT1 receptors. It is used in the treatment of MIGRAINE DISORDERS.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Angiography, Digital Subtraction: A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial: A non-invasive technique using ultrasound for the measurement of cerebrovascular hemodynamics, particularly cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebral collateral flow. With a high-intensity, low-frequency pulse probe, the intracranial arteries may be studied transtemporally, transorbitally, or from below the foramen magnum.Celiac Artery: The arterial trunk that arises from the abdominal aorta and after a short course divides into the left gastric, common hepatic and splenic arteries.Ischemic Attack, Transient: Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)Intracranial Arteriosclerosis: Vascular diseases characterized by thickening and hardening of the walls of ARTERIES inside the SKULL. There are three subtypes: (1) atherosclerosis with fatty deposits in the ARTERIAL INTIMA; (2) Monckeberg's sclerosis with calcium deposits in the media and (3) arteriolosclerosis involving the small caliber arteries. Clinical signs include HEADACHE; CONFUSION; transient blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX); speech impairment; and HEMIPARESIS.Aneurysm, Ruptured: The tearing or bursting of the weakened wall of the aneurysmal sac, usually heralded by sudden worsening pain. The great danger of a ruptured aneurysm is the large amount of blood spilling into the surrounding tissues and cavities, causing HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK.Ophthalmic Artery: Artery originating from the internal carotid artery and distributing to the eye, orbit and adjacent facial structures.Mesenteric Artery, Superior: A large vessel supplying the whole length of the small intestine except the superior part of the duodenum. It also supplies the cecum and the ascending part of the colon and about half the transverse part of the colon. It arises from the anterior surface of the aorta below the celiac artery at the level of the first lumbar vertebra.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Embolization, Therapeutic: A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.Intracranial Embolism and Thrombosis: Embolism or thrombosis involving blood vessels which supply intracranial structures. Emboli may originate from extracranial or intracranial sources. Thrombosis may occur in arterial or venous structures.Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Pons: The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.Umbilical Arteries: Specialized arterial vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry waste and deoxygenated blood from the FETUS to the mother via the PLACENTA. In humans, there are usually two umbilical arteries but sometimes one.Renal Artery Obstruction: Narrowing or occlusion of the RENAL ARTERY or arteries. It is due usually to ATHEROSCLEROSIS; FIBROMUSCULAR DYSPLASIA; THROMBOSIS; EMBOLISM, or external pressure. The reduced renal perfusion can lead to renovascular hypertension (HYPERTENSION, RENOVASCULAR).Thoracic Arteries: Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles, mammary gland and the axillary aspect of the chest wall.Vasomotor System: The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.Temporal Arteries: Arteries arising from the external carotid or the maxillary artery and distributing to the temporal region.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Bronchial Arteries: Left bronchial arteries arise from the thoracic aorta, the right from the first aortic intercostal or the upper left bronchial artery; they supply the bronchi and the lower trachea.Nitroprusside: A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.Posterior Cerebral Artery: Artery formed by the bifurcation of the BASILAR ARTERY. Branches of the posterior cerebral artery supply portions of the OCCIPITAL LOBE; PARIETAL LOBE; inferior temporal gyrus, brainstem, and CHOROID PLEXUS.Popliteal Artery: The continuation of the femoral artery coursing through the popliteal fossa; it divides into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries.Muscle Relaxation: That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.Ulnar Artery: The larger of the two terminal branches of the brachial artery, beginning about one centimeter distal to the bend of the elbow. Like the RADIAL ARTERY, its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to their locations in the forearm, wrist, and hand.Nitroglycerin: A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.Subclavian Steal Syndrome: A clinically significant reduction in blood supply to the BRAIN STEM and CEREBELLUM (i.e., VERTEBROBASILAR INSUFFICIENCY) resulting from reversal of blood flow through the VERTEBRAL ARTERY from occlusion or stenosis of the proximal subclavian or brachiocephalic artery. Common symptoms include VERTIGO; SYNCOPE; and INTERMITTENT CLAUDICATION of the involved upper extremity. Subclavian steal may also occur in asymptomatic individuals. (From J Cardiovasc Surg 1994;35(1):11-4; Acta Neurol Scand 1994;90(3):174-8)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Infusions, Intra-Arterial: Regional infusion of drugs via an arterial catheter. Often a pump is used to impel the drug through the catheter. Used in therapy of cancer, upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, infection, and peripheral vascular disease.Uterine Artery: A branch arising from the internal iliac artery in females, that supplies blood to the uterus.Thrombolytic Therapy: Use of infusions of FIBRINOLYTIC AGENTS to destroy or dissolve thrombi in blood vessels or bypass grafts.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Spasm: An involuntary contraction of a muscle or group of muscles. Spasms may involve SKELETAL MUSCLE or SMOOTH MUSCLE.Constriction, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.Intracranial Thrombosis: Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in a blood vessel within the SKULL. Intracranial thrombosis can lead to thrombotic occlusions and BRAIN INFARCTION. The majority of the thrombotic occlusions are associated with ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Injections, Intra-Arterial: Delivery of drugs into an artery.Coma: A profound state of unconsciousness associated with depressed cerebral activity from which the individual cannot be aroused. Coma generally occurs when there is dysfunction or injury involving both cerebral hemispheres or the brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION.Carotid Artery, External: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the exterior of the head, the face, and the greater part of the neck.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.15-Hydroxy-11 alpha,9 alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid: A stable prostaglandin endoperoxide analog which serves as a thromboxane mimetic. Its actions include mimicking the hydro-osmotic effect of VASOPRESSIN and activation of TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. (From J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1983;224(1): 108-117; Biochem J 1984;222(1):103-110)Nimodipine: A calcium channel blockader with preferential cerebrovascular activity. It has marked cerebrovascular dilating effects and lowers blood pressure.Carotid Stenosis: Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Dilatation, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being dilated beyond normal dimensions.Aneurysm: Pathological outpouching or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any blood vessel (ARTERIES or VEINS) or the heart (HEART ANEURYSM). It indicates a thin and weakened area in the wall which may later rupture. Aneurysms are classified by location, etiology, or other characteristics.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Rats, Inbred WKY: A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Carotid Artery Injuries: Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Cisterna Magna: One of three principal openings in the SUBARACHNOID SPACE. They are also known as cerebellomedullary cistern, and collectively as cisterns.Replica Techniques: Methods of preparing tissue specimens for visualization using an electron microscope, usually a scanning electron microscope. The methods involve the creation of exact copies of the specimens by making a mold or cast (i.e., replica) of the specimen.Aneurysm, Dissecting: Aneurysm caused by a tear in the TUNICA INTIMA of a blood vessel leading to interstitial HEMORRHAGE, and splitting (dissecting) of the vessel wall, often involving the AORTA. Dissection between the intima and media causes luminal occlusion. Dissection at the media, or between the media and the outer adventitia causes aneurismal dilation.Nitroarginine: An inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase which has been shown to prevent glutamate toxicity. Nitroarginine has been experimentally tested for its ability to prevent ammonia toxicity and ammonia-induced alterations in brain energy and ammonia metabolites. (Neurochem Res 1995:200(4):451-6)Methiothepin: A serotonin receptor antagonist in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM used as an antipsychotic.Mechanical Thrombolysis: Procedures to cause the disintegration of THROMBI by physical interventions.Fibrinolytic Agents: Fibrinolysin or agents that convert plasminogen to FIBRINOLYSIN.Cinnarizine: A piperazine derivative having histamine H1-receptor and calcium-channel blocking activity with vasodilating and antiemetic properties but it induces PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Angioplasty, Balloon: Use of a balloon catheter for dilation of an occluded artery. It is used in treatment of arterial occlusive diseases, including renal artery stenosis and arterial occlusions in the leg. For the specific technique of BALLOON DILATION in coronary arteries, ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON, CORONARY is available.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Vertebral Artery Dissection: Splitting of the vessel wall in the VERTEBRAL ARTERY. Interstitial hemorrhage into the media of the vessel wall can lead to occlusion of the vertebral artery, aneurysm formation, or THROMBOEMBOLISM. Vertebral artery dissection is often associated with TRAUMA and injuries to the head-neck region but can occur spontaneously.Sphenoid Sinusitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in the SPHENOID SINUS. Isolated sphenoid sinusitis is uncommon. It usually occurs in conjunction with other paranasal sinusitis.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Prostaglandin Endoperoxides, Synthetic: Synthetic compounds that are analogs of the naturally occurring prostaglandin endoperoxides and that mimic their pharmacologic and physiologic activities. They are usually more stable than the naturally occurring compounds.Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.Axillary Artery: The continuation of the subclavian artery; it distributes over the upper limb, axilla, chest and shoulder.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Cerebral Arterial Diseases: Pathological conditions of intracranial ARTERIES supplying the CEREBRUM. These diseases often are due to abnormalities or pathological processes in the ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; and POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY.Vascular Patency: The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.Dinoprost: A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.Retinal Artery Occlusion: Sudden ISCHEMIA in the RETINA due to blocked blood flow through the CENTRAL RETINAL ARTERY or its branches leading to sudden complete or partial loss of vision, respectively, in the eye.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Bradykinin: A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Vasculitis, Central Nervous System: Inflammation of blood vessels within the central nervous system. Primary vasculitis is usually caused by autoimmune or idiopathic factors, while secondary vasculitis is caused by existing disease process. Clinical manifestations are highly variable but include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; behavioral alterations; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; and BRAIN INFARCTION. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp856-61)Carotid Artery Thrombosis: Blood clot formation in any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES. This may produce CAROTID STENOSIS or occlusion of the vessel, leading to TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBRAL INFARCTION; or AMAUROSIS FUGAX.HEPES: A dipolar ionic buffer.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Endothelin-1: A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)Meningeal Arteries: Arteries which supply the dura mater.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).

Large and giant middle to lower basilar trunk aneurysms treated by surgical and interventional neuroradiological methods. (1/848)

Treatment of large and giant aneurysms of the basilar artery remains difficult and controversial. Three large or giant aneurysms of the lower basilar artery were treated with a combination of surgical and interventional neuroradiological procedures. All patients underwent the balloon occlusion test with hypotensive challenge (blood pressure reduced to 70% of the control value). The third patient did not tolerate the test. In the first patient, both vertebral arteries were occluded through a craniotomy. In the second patient, both the aneurysm and the basilar artery were occluded by detached balloons. In the third patient, one vertebral artery was occluded by surgical clipping and the other by detached helical coils and fiber coils. In spite of anti-coagulation and anti-platelet therapy, postoperative thrombotic or embolic ischemia occurred in the second and third patients. Fibrinolytic therapy promptly corrected the ischemic symptoms, but the second patient developed hemorrhagic complications at the craniotomy area 2 hours later. At follow-up examination, the first patient had only 8th cranial nerve paresis, the second patient who had a hemorrhagic complication was bed-ridden, and the third patient had no deficit. Interventional occlusion requires a longer segment of the parent artery compared to surgical occlusion of the parent artery and might cause occlusion of the perforating arteries. However, selected use of various coils can occlude only a short segment of the parent artery. Thus, the postoperative management of thromboembolic ischemia after the occlusion of the parent artery is easier using the interventional technique.  (+info)

CT angiography and Doppler sonography for emergency assessment in acute basilar artery ischemia. (2/848)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Both Doppler sonography (DS) and spiral CT angiography (CTA) are noninvasive vascular assessment tools with a high potential for application in acute cerebral ischemia. The usefulness of CTA for vascular diagnosis in acute basilar artery (BA) ischemia has not yet been studied. METHODS: We prospectively studied 19 patients (mean+/-SD age, 58+/-11 years) with clinically suspected acute BA occlusion by DS and CTA. Prior extracranial and transcranial DS was performed in all but 1 patient, with DS 4 hours after CTA. In 6 of 19 patients, we performed digital subtraction angiography. RESULTS: CTA was diagnostic in all but 1 patient. CTA revealed complete BA occlusion in 9 patients and incomplete BA occlusion with some residual flow in 2 patients. A patent BA was shown in 7 patients. Because of severe BA calcification, CTA results were inconclusive in 1 patient. DS was diagnostic in only 7 of 19 patients, indicating certain BA occlusion in 3 patients and BA patency in 4 patients. In an additional 9 patients, the results of DS were inconclusive. DS was false-negative in 2 patients with distal BA occlusion shown by CTA and digital subtraction angiography. In 1 patient with DS performed after CTA, recanalization was demonstrated. In addition to the diagnosis or exclusion of BA occlusion, CTA provided information on the exact site and length of BA occlusion and collateral pathways. In our series, CTA results prompted indication for intra-arterial thrombolysis in 5 patients. CONCLUSIONS: CTA was superior to DS in the assessment of BA patency in patients with the syndrome of acute BA ischemia in terms of feasibility and conclusiveness, particularly in cases with distal BA occlusion. Our study confirmed the usefulness of combined extracranial and transcranial DS in the diagnosis and exclusion of proximal BA occlusion.  (+info)

Kir2.1 encodes the inward rectifier potassium channel in rat arterial smooth muscle cells. (3/848)

1. The molecular nature of the strong inward rectifier K+ channel in vascular smooth muscle was explored by using isolated cell RT-PCR, cDNA cloning and expression techniques. 2. RT-PCR of RNA from single smooth muscle cells of rat cerebral (basilar), coronary and mesenteric arteries revealed transcripts for Kir2.1. Transcripts for Kir2.2 and Kir2.3 were not found. 3. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed significant differences in transcript levels of Kir2.1 between the different vascular preparations (n = 3; P < 0.05). A two-fold difference was detected between Kir2.1 mRNA and beta-actin mRNA in coronary arteries when compared with relative levels measured in mesenteric and basilar preparations. 4. Kir2.1 was cloned from rat mesenteric vascular smooth muscle cells and expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Currents were strongly inwardly rectifying and selective for K+. 5. The effect of extracellular Ba2+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Cs2+ ions on cloned Kir2.1 channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes was examined. Ba2+ and Cs+ block were steeply voltage dependent, whereas block by external Ca2+ and Mg2+ exhibited little voltage dependence. The apparent half-block constants and voltage dependences for Ba2+, Cs+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ were very similar for inward rectifier K+ currents from native cells and cloned Kir2.1 channels expressed in oocytes. 6. Molecular studies demonstrate that Kir2.1 is the only member of the Kir2 channel subfamily present in vascular arterial smooth muscle cells. Expression of cloned Kir2.1 in Xenopus oocytes resulted in inward rectifier K+ currents that strongly resemble those that are observed in native vascular arterial smooth muscle cells. We conclude that Kir2.1 encodes for inward rectifier K+ channels in arterial smooth muscle.  (+info)

Inhibition of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase impairs NO.-mediated endothelium-dependent relaxations. (4/848)

The superoxide anion (O-2.) appears to be an important modulator of nitric oxide (NO.) bioavailability. The present study was designed to characterize the role of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD) in endothelium-dependent relaxations. Cu/Zn SOD was inhibited with the Cu2+ chelator diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DETCA). In isolated canine basilar arteries, DETCA (7.6 x 10(-3) M) inhibited total vascular SOD activity by 46% (P < 0.0001, n = 6-8 dogs). DETCA (7.6 x 10(-3) M) significantly reduced relaxations to bradykinin and A-23187 (P < 0.05, n = 7-11). The inhibitory effect of DETCA was abolished by the O-2. scavenger 4,5-dihydroxy-1,3-benzenedisulfonic acid (Tiron; 9.4 x 10(-3) M; P < 0.05, n = 6-13). Tiron significantly potentiated the relaxations to bradykinin in control rings (P < 0.05, n = 13), and the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 3 x 10(-4) M) abolished these relaxations (P < 0.0001, n = 6). DETCA and Tiron had no effect on the relaxations to diethylamine-NONOate or forskolin (P > 0.05, n = 6). Our results demonstrate that endothelium-dependent relaxations mediated by NO. are impaired after the inhibition of Cu/Zn SOD. Relaxations to bradykinin (but not A-23187) were significantly augmented by Tiron. Pharmacological scavenging of O-2. reverses the effect of Cu/Zn SOD inhibition.  (+info)

Prevention of persistent cerebral smooth muscle contraction in response to whole blood. (5/848)

Using an in vitro system designed to measure arterial constriction, we have demonstrated the importance of platelet function in maintaining cerebral smooth muscle contraction after whole blood injection. We tested two agents, acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) and phthalazinol, both known to interfere with platelet function. In control tests normal rabbit and monkey blood produced a reliable and persistent arterial constriction. In experimental tests blood drawn from animals premedicated with ASA and phthalazinol failed to produce a persistent contraction. These results support the hypothesis that chemicals released during platelet aggregation may be important in persistent vasospasm.  (+info)

Epilepsy after two different neurosurgical approaches to the treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysm. (6/848)

One-hundred-and-fifty-two patients who underwent surgery for intracranial aneurysm were studied to determine the incidence of postoperative epilepsy in relation to the site of the aneurysm and the type of surgical approach. The overall incidence of epilepsy was 22%. Of the 116 patients treated by the intracranial approach 27.5% developed epilepsy, in contrast with only 5% of the 36 patients who had carotid artery ligation in the neck. Epilepsy occurred most frequently (35%) with middle cerebral artery aneurysms, especially if moderate or severe operative trauma was sustained and there was postoperative dysphasia.  (+info)

The inhibition of nicotine-evoked relaxation of the guinea-pig isolated basilar artery by some analgesic drugs and progesterone. (7/848)

1. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of nicotine-evoked relaxation of the guinea-pig isolated basilar artery and to study the effects of drugs associated with the aetiology or treatment of migraine on the nicotine response. 2. The guinea-pig isolated basilar artery, pre-contracted with prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha), in the presence of atropine (3 microM) and guanethidine (3 microM), relaxed on addition of nicotine (0.1 mM) in approximately 50% of preparations. The responses to nicotine were of short duration and blocked in preparations pre-treated for 10 min with capsaicin (1 microM) and are therefore probably a consequence of the stimulation of trigeminal C fibre terminals. 3. Responses to nicotine were reduced in the presence of 5-carboxamidotryptamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine and sumatriptan in that order of potency. This is consistent with a 5-HT1 receptor mechanism. These agonists evoked small additional contractions in vessels pre-contracted with PGF2alpha. 4. Indomethacin (0.3-10 microM), aspirin (10-30 microM), and nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 0.1 mM) reduced nicotine-evoked relaxation of the basilar artery, suggesting the involvement of both nitric oxide and cyclo-oxygenase products in this response. 5. Progesterone (1 microM) markedly reduced the response to nicotine, a possible reflection of the ion channel blocking activity of high concentrations of this compound. 6. The guinea-pig basilar artery is a preparation in which the effects of drugs on responses to stimulation of trigeminal nerve terminals can be studied in vitro and may thus be of interest in assessing the actions of drugs used in treatment of headache.  (+info)

Inhibitory effect of 4-aminopyridine on responses of the basilar artery to nitric oxide. (8/848)

1. Voltage-dependent K+ channels are present in cerebral arteries and may modulate vascular tone. We used 200 microM 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), thought to be a relatively selective inhibitor of voltage-dependent K+ channels at this concentration, to test whether activation of these channels may influence baseline diameter of the basilar artery and dilator responses to nitric oxide (NO) and cyclic GMP in vivo. 2. Using a cranial window in anaesthetized rats, topical application of 4-AP to the basilar artery (baseline diameter = 240+/-5 microm, mean +/- s.e.mean) produced 10+/-1% constriction. Sodium nitroprusside (a NO donor), acetylcholine (which stimulates endothelial release of NO), 8-bromo cyclic GMP (a cyclic GMP analogue), cromakalim (an activator of ATP-sensitive K+ channels) and papaverine (a non-NO, non-K+ channel-related vasodilator) produced concentration-dependent vasodilator responses that were reproducible. 3. Responses to 10 and 100 nM nitroprusside were inhibited by 4-AP (20+/-4 vs 8+/-2% and 51+/-5 vs 33+/-5%, respectively, n=10; P<0.05). Responses to acetylcholine and 8-bromo cyclic GMP were also partially inhibited by 4-AP. In contrast, 4-AP had no effect on vasodilator responses to cromakalim or papaverine. These findings suggest that NO/cyclic GMP-induced dilator responses of the basilar artery are selectively inhibited by 4-aminopyridine. 4. Responses to nitroprusside were also markedly inhibited by 10 microM 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase; 16+/-4 vs 1+/-1% and 44+/-7 vs 7+/-1%; n=10; P<0.05). 5. Thus, dilator responses of the rat basilar artery to NO appear to be mediated by activation of soluble guanylate cyclase and partially by activation of a 4-aminopyridine-sensitive mechanism. The most likely mechanism would appear to be activation of voltage-dependent K+ channels by NO/cyclic GMP.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - MRI of basilar artery hypoplasia associated with persistent primitive trigeminal artery. AU - Boyko, Orest. AU - Curnes, J. T.. AU - Blatter, D. D.. AU - Parker, D. L.. PY - 1996/1. Y1 - 1996/1. N2 - We report three patients with persistent trigeminal arteries, in all of whom the proximal basilar artery was hypoplastic. We draw attention to this common observation, which should not be mistaken for acquired narrowing.. AB - We report three patients with persistent trigeminal arteries, in all of whom the proximal basilar artery was hypoplastic. We draw attention to this common observation, which should not be mistaken for acquired narrowing.. KW - Basilar artery. KW - Congenital variants. KW - Trigeminal artery. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0030061136&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0030061136&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1007/s002340050184. DO - 10.1007/s002340050184. M3 - Article. C2 - 8773267. AN - SCOPUS:0030061136. VL - ...
Acute basilar artery thrombosis is associated with a poor prognosis. However, the advent of high-quality, reliable, and noninvasive technology (eg, magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]) has made its diagnosis possible even in subjects with mild symptoms (see the image below).
Acute basilar artery thrombosis is associated with a poor prognosis. However, the advent of high-quality, reliable, and noninvasive technology (eg, magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]) has made its diagnosis possible even in subjects with mild symptoms (see the image below).
TY - JOUR. T1 - Endothelium-independent contractions to jvg-monomethyl-l-arginine in canine basilar artery. AU - Katušić, Zvonimir S.. PY - 1991/11. Y1 - 1991/11. N2 - Background and Purpose: NG-substituted analogues of L-arginine are potent and selective inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase(s). The present study was designed to determine the effects of these analogues on the vascular smooth muscle of isolated canine basilar arteries. Methods: Basilar artery rings without endothelium were suspended for isometric tension recording in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate solution bubbled with 94% O2-6% CO2 (temperature=37°C, pH=7.4). A radioimmunoassay technique was used to determine the levels of guanosine 3,5-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic GMP). Results: NG-Monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) caused concentration-dependent contractions, whereas the D-enantiomer and NG-nitro-L-arginine did not. Contractions to L-NMMA were reduced in the presence of L-arginine but not in the presence of D-arginine. Superoxide ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Role of ATP-sensitive K+ channels in CGRP-induced dilatation of basilar artery in vivo. AU - Kitazono, Takanari. AU - Heistad, D. D.. AU - Faraci, F. M.. PY - 1993/9/22. Y1 - 1993/9/22. N2 - Stimulation of adenylate cyclase appears to activate ATP-sensitive K+ channels in the basilar artery. We tested the hypothesis that calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), which increases intracellular adenosine 3,5- cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) levels, activates ATP-sensitive K+ channels and thereby causes vasodilatation. Using a cranial window in anesthetized rats, we examined responses of the basilar artery to CGRP in vivo. We also examined responses of the artery to another vasoactive peptide, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). Topical application of CGRP (10-11 to 10-8 M) increased diameter of the basilar artery. Responses of the basilar artery to CGRP were almost abolished by a CGRP1 receptor antagonist, CGRP-(8-37). Vasodilatation in response to VIP was much smaller than that ...
Basilar artery stenosis treatment - What is the treatment and prognosis for someone with a combination of carotid occlusion/stenosis and occlusion/stenosis of the basilar artery? Depends. Artery disease in the neck vessels (carotid/basilar) is associated with risk for stroke. Your doc, vascular provider can best assess all the associated factors and give you a risk assessment. Treatments vary from medical management, nicotine cessation, stenting, surgery and combinations of them all.
Rationale: Recently our study group reported the results of the Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study (BASICS), a prospective registry of patients with an acute symptomatic basilar artery occlusion (BAO). Our observations in the BASICS registry underscore that we continue to lack a proven treatment modality for patients with an acute BAO and that current clinical practice varies widely. Furthermore, the often-held assumption that intra-arterial thrombolysis (IAT) is superior to intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) in patients with an acute symptomatic BAO is challenged by our data. The BASICS registry was observational and has all the limitations of a non-randomised study. Interpretation of results is hampered by the lack of a standard treatment protocol for all patients who entered the study.. Objective: Evaluate the efficacy and safety of IAT in addition to best medical management (BMM) in patients with basilar artery occlusion.. Study design: Randomised, multi-centre, open label, ...
BioAssay record AID 60431 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibitory activity against KCl induced contractile response in isolated canine basilar artery was determined expressed as vasodilation effect.
article{f5cd5108-d65d-4e15-8bae-0b0ebd620ed1, abstract = {Based on the previous finding that 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) co-exists with norepinephrine (NE) in cerebrovascular sympathetic nerve fibers and can be released during electrical nerve stimulation, the postjunctional interaction between the two amines was studied in isolated basilar artery of guinea pig. A low concentration of 5-HT, which in itself has little or no constrictive effect, potentiated the weak contraction of NE by almost 300%. The amplification was antagonized by methiothepin, but not by ketanserin, and it could be mimicked by methysergide. The marked potentiation is thus probably associated with the 5-HT1-like receptors, which earlier have been found to mediate the direct vasoconstrictive action of 5-HT in this vessel preparation.}, author = {Chang, J Y and Owman, Christer}, issn = {1559-7016}, language = {eng}, number = {5}, pages = {713--716}, publisher = {Nature Publishing Group}, series = {Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Rachel Wai Sum Li, Cui Yang, Shun Wan Chan, Maggie Pui Man Hoi, Simon Ming Yuen Lee, Yiu Wa Kwan, George Pak Heng Leung].
Methods We present the case of a 49-year-old female with a history of smoking, who was diagnosed with a symptomatic, large vertebrobasilar junction (VBJ) aneurysm. Initially thought to be a proximal basilar dilatation, the aneurysm was later found to arise from an obscured and distended basilar fenestration. The small caliber fenestration limbs were the only access to the distal basilar artery, but stretched laterally and concealed by the aneurysm fundus. ...
Direct CCFs are included among type A fistulas according to Barrows classification. Etiologically, most dissecting CCFs are traumatic, but less commonly they may be spontaneous. Spontaneous direct CCFs are usually caused by rupture of an intracavernous carotid aneurysm, and aneurysmal CCFs account for about 20% of direct CCFs (8).. Spontaneous or traumatic CCF from the persistent trigeminal artery to the cavernous sinus and its endovascular treatment has rarely been reported (2-7). To the best of our knowledge, however, CCF caused by a ruptured aneurysm of the anomalous cerebellar artery has not been reported.. The cerebellar artery originating from the internal carotid artery was first reported by Teal et al (9). The level of the internal carotid artery from which these vessels took origin led to the conclusion that they were persistent trigeminal artery variants (1, 11). Unlike the usual persistent trigeminal artery that has a direct communication with the basilar artery, the persistent ...
Slipstream3dSetup.exe Download Free - Slipstream3D Interface (SI) Free Download in Category Windows Software - Multimedia & Graphics - 3D Graphic Tools
Not a section from the instruction manual of my vacuum cleaner. But models of the church as described by Peter Neilson in his book Church on the Move. He suggests that most of us work on the suction model of church - hoping to draw people in through the doors. The slipstream model, by contrast, is about believing that God is at work out in the community and that a different kind of church should form in the slipstream of that movement of grace …. Meanwhile, Ive also been reading that cheery book Turning the Tide - Report of the 2002 Scottish Census - which charts the inexorable decline of churches in Scotland. Canute tried to stop the tide coming in - my job is to stop it going out. But it does tell me that the number of people in the Scottish Episcopal Church describing themselves as being of liberal churchmanship rose by 36% between 1994 and 2002. Now thats what I call a niche market!. ...
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The vertebral and basilar arteries are clearly seen without dissection, narrowing, or blockage. There may be an area of decreased filling in the L PICA, but it
Patients admitted in severe neurological condition, with reduced consciousness and already permanent brain tissue damage, pose a dilemma to emergency medical personnel who need to weigh different therapeutic options in the face of uncertain long-term prognosis. Thrombolysis might save the life, but what kind of quality of life will follow? Vertebrobasilar cerebrovascular disease may provide the most extreme physical deprivation while leaving the faculty for contemplation as good as intact. The recent analysis of the delayed-phase outcome after BAO thrombolysis suggests that on the long term, survivors who initially reach the worst functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale 5) will subsequently either decease or improve.10 Eventually, more than half of those who recanalize will acquire functional independence. Furthermore, the perceived quality of life of the survivors seems at least fair, correlating with the level of functional independence.10. What are the risks of recanalization therapy? The ...
There is a direct connection between the left internal carotid and basilar arteries, at level of the cavernous sinus. This is below the level of the posterior communicating arteries. Note the small size of the basilar and vertebral arteries.
Jung S, Mono M.L., Fischer U, Galimanis A, Findling O, De Marchis GM, Weck A, Nedeltchev K, Colucci G, Mordasini P, Brekenfeld C, El-Koussy M, Gralla J, Schroth G, Mattle HP, Arnold M. Three-months and long-term outcome and its predictors in acute basilar artery occlusion treated with intra-arterial thrombolysis. Stroke 2011;42(7):1946-51 ...
The trainer rode first and then I hopped on. It was a pretty surreal moment. Even though she felt different than any other horse Ive ridden I didnt feel nervous or unbalanced on her. I kind of felt like Id been riding her forever. I expected to be riding a baby noodle horse. She was much smoother and more forward than I anticipated. I dont think I could have asked for a better first ride. Im also happy to report that I didnt look too tall for her ...
To merely throw all the data on the table and leave it open for interpretation is not the best idea. Anyone can come in here, pick up any of the four fans you tested, and leave thinking they made a good decision, when in reality it wasnt the best decision. Im not knocking on you and I appreciate the work and effort youve put into this project. I guess what Im really trying to say is that you wrote the review - does it really hurt to add a paragraph or two, perhaps a summary or conclusion on which fan is the best ...
Hi Everyone I havent been on here for a while, hope everyone is doing great. Just wanted to get your opinion on a little embarrassing/sensitve matter. I had a SAH in DEC 09 this was clipped and have one 3mm remaining in the basilar artery which is being monitored. I came across this article (see below link) and am very anxious about sex. As my SAH in DEC 09 happened during sex Ive been so worried that since then I have refrained from this activity but abviously miss this in my
When used as specific designations within a particular article, with or without numerals, capitalize Table, Tables, Figure, and Figures.summarized in Table 2 as seen in the Table the middle third of the basilar artery (Figure 2) Do not capitalize the following words, even when used as specific designators, unless used as part of a heading or title:But: Step I diet, Schedule II drug, and Axis I of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) |
When used as specific designations within a particular article, with or without numerals, capitalize Table, Tables, Figure, and Figures.summarized in Table 2 as seen in the Table the middle third of the basilar artery (Figure 2) Do not capitalize the following words, even when used as specific designators, unless used as part of a heading or title:But: Step I diet, Schedule II drug, and Axis I of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) |
Treatment of acute basilar artery occlusion remains clinically challenging. In this preliminary study of diffusion-perfusion MRI changes in patients treated with intra-arterial thrombolysis and studied serially with multimodal MRI, we found that diffusion-perfusion mismatch can be visualized clearly in the posterior circulation, including the brain stem, and can be seen in some patients well beyond 6 hours from symptom onset. Moreover, we were able to demonstrate improvement of this mismatch region after basilar artery recanalization with intra-arterial thrombolytic therapy. This improvement may represent therapeutic salvage of the mismatch region; however, a controlled study is required to confirm this.. Several prior reports have begun to assess the role of advanced MRI techniques in acute posterior circulation stroke.10,11 Du Mesnil de Rochement and colleagues10 studied 4 patients with acute basilar artery occlusions with DWI and MR angiography sequences. They found variable patterns of DWI ...
Pseudoaneurysms, or false aneurysms, are differentiated from true aneurysms by the layers of the artery involved. Pseudoaneurysms are the result of the rupture of all three layers of the artery: the tunica intima, media, and adventitia. The aneurysm is contained by an organized hematoma or neighboring connective tissue. With true aneurysms, the outermost layer, the adventitia, remains intact.. As a result of its secure location, injury to the basilar artery is rare.1 Only 10% of traumatic aneurysms in the brain occur in the posterior circulation. As was seen in this case, the majority of basilar artery aneurysms are associated with skull base fractures. In addition, the connective tissue surrounding the basilar artery is usually unable to contain the aneurysm, making it improbable that a patient would survive a traumatic aneurysm in the posterior circulation.2 Rapid treatment is imperative because of the high morbidity and mortality associated with basilar artery pseudoaneurysms. ...
Cerebral vasospasm is one of the major complications of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, its pathogenesis still remains to be elucidated, and effective therapeutic strategies are yet to be established. We have reported, in the previous meeting, that thrombin plays a key role in up-regulation of the proteinase-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) expression and development of the vasospastic response to thrombin in the basilar artery of rabbit double hemorrhage-SAH model. In the present study, we demonstrated a new strategy to prevent the development of such vasospastic response using selective PAR1 antagonists. The rabbits received two injections of autologous blood into the cisterna magna on days 0 and 2. The contractile responses were examined on day 7 using basilar artery ring preparations, in the absence of endothelial cells. Thrombin and PAR1 activating peptide (PAR1-AP) slightly contracted the control artery only at high concentrations (10 U/ml thrombin or 100 μM PAR-1AP). In SAH, the ...
A 28-year-old Pakistani man was admitted with unresolved severe headaches for the past four weeks. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and MR angiography showed an enhancing mass in the sphenoid sinus, bilateral cerebellar infarcts and aneurysmal dilatation of the basilar artery. The differential diagnosis included fungal infection versus neoplastic lesion. The scrappings taken through the endoscope from the sphenoid sinus were initially negative for fungal infection. However, the second biopsy, done after putting him on antifungal, itraconazole 200 mg twice daily, revealed the presence of a fungal infection (aspergillosis). MR imaging revealed extension of the fungal infection from the sphenoid sinus into the clivus, and then intracranially. Imaging also revealed aneurysmal dilatation of the basilar artery and infarctions in the cerebellum and subarachnoid haemorrhage. Despite aggressive antifungal treatment, the Patient died after 29 days. This case report describes the probable mechanism of fungal
Subclavian steal is a relatively common vascular phenomenon usually caused by atherosclerotic disease. While symptoms are rare, arm claudication of the ipsilateral limb is most common, with paroxysmal symptoms of vertebrobasilar insufficiency (often exercise induced) being relatively uncommon. Here we present a case of brachial artery embolism during mechanical thrombectomy for basilar artery thrombosis, secondary to subclavian steal phenomenon. This atypical and potentially irreversible complication should be considered in patients with acute ischemic stroke undergoing neurointerventional management when subclavian steal is discovered angiographically. ...
The role of the endothelium was examined in the response to aggregating platelets in cerebral arteries from normal and hypercholesterolemic animals. Male Yorkshire pigs were fed either a normal diet or a 2% high-cholesterol diet for 10 weeks. Endothelium-dependent responses were examined in vitro. In rings of basilar arteries from control animals aggregating platelets caused endothelium-dependent relaxations, which were significantly inhibited by apyrase, an adenosine diphosphatase and triphosphatase, but were augmented by methiothepin, a combined S1- and S2-serotonergic blocker. In quiescent rings platelets induced contractions that were inhibited by the presence of the endothelium; these contractions were significantly inhibited by methiothepin, but not by ketanserin (an S2-serotonergic blocker) or dazoxiben (a thromboxane-synthetase blocker) in the presence or absence of SQ29548 (a thromboxane-receptor blocker). Adenosine diphosphate but not serotonin caused endothelium-dependent relaxations. ...
GROSS: NERVOUS: Brain: Infarct: Gross fixed tissue horizontal section of hemispheres large infarct involving thalamus and occipital cortex due to basilar artery thrombosis - 00005231.jpg
Nagel S, Herweh C, Köhrmann M, Huttner HB, Poli S, Hartmann M, Hähnel S, Steiner T, Ringleb P, Hacke W. MRI in patients with acute basilar artery occlusion - DWI lesion scoring is an independent predictor of outcome. Int J Stroke. 2012 Jun;7(4):282-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-4949.2011.00705.x. Epub 2011 Dec 8. PubMed PMID: 22151607. Sykora M, Steiner T, Poli S, Rocco A, Turcani P, Diedler J. Autonomic effects of intraventricular extension in intracerebral hemorrhage. Neurocrit Care. 2012 Feb;16(1):102-8. doi: 10.1007/s12028-011-9637-1. PubMed PMID: 21976258. Sykora M, Diedler J, Poli S, Rizos T, Kellert L, Turcani P, Steiner T. Association of non-diabetic hyperglycemia with autonomic shift in acute ischaemic stroke. Eur J Neurol. 2012 Jan;19(1):84-90. doi:10.1111/j.1468-1331.2011.03438.x. Epub 2011 May 25. PubMed PMID: 21615627. Ferro JM, Crassard I, Coutinho JM, Canhão P, Barinagarrementeria F, Cucchiara B, Derex L, Lichy C, Masjuan J, Massaro A, Matamala G, Poli S, Saadatnia M, Stolz E, ...
The internal carotid arteries branch off the common carotid arteries in the neck just below the mandible. They give off no branches until meeting with the communicating branches of the basilar artery. The basilar artery is formed by the two vertebral arteries which arrive at the posterior of the brain via the vertebral column. Together the basilar and internal carotid arteries form the Circle of Willis, the primary vasular structure supplying blood to the brain. Blood from the internal carotids primarily goes to the frontal and temporal lobes. ...
We compared traditional steady-state experiments with nonsteady-state experiments in defining the vasodilating potency of isoflurane in isolated cerebral vessels. The effects of volatile anesthetics on isolated arterial vessel wall tension are typically examined by means of steady-state methodology. This requires the prolonged administration of the agent under study until a stable wall tension is achieved. An alternative, non-steady-state approach to such experiments is proposed as an adjunct technique to help simplify and in some cases evaluate more fully vascular response. Cylindrical segments of the rabbit basilar artery were placed into a perfused tissue bath, stretched to a resting tension of approximately 2000 dynes and then constricted with 30 nM K+. Thirty minutes later, 2.0 MAC of isoflurane was introduced into the fluid reservoir supplying the chamber. This administration was continued for 10 min, at which time isoflurane was discontinued and vessel tension was monitored for another 10 ...
Free, official coding info for 2018 ICD-10-CM I65.1 - includes detailed rules, notes, synonyms, ICD-9-CM conversion, index and annotation crosswalks, DRG grouping and more.
Dr. Waghmarae responded: Basilar migraine. What you did is good - but this is never preventative - they just merely reduce the likelihood of developing them. Also if you have them then doing what you did may help. Sometimes no matter how good you are - you still get the symptoms - the body is complicated.
The pontine arteries are comprised of tiny blood vessels that are part of the posterior cerebral circulation system. The pontine arteries are responsible for helping the body deliver oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the brain. The pontine arteries are located on both sides of the basilar artery. The basilar
Until the development of the SuperBypass instrument series, our standard platform tipped forceps occasionally disturbed the flow of the procedures because the tip lacked a slip-resistant surface. Despite our standard forceps acceptable performance most of the time, many times I was forced to adjust the forceps grip on either the suture or the needle as I lost control of it.. By extending the platform length to 7mm and 10mm and changing the metallic chemistry of the tips we have created instruments with superior gripping ability. The SuperBypass forceps provides the ultimate control in procedures where manipulation of sutures within narrow and deep areas is also limited to single direction movement. We can now perform P2 bypass and basilar artery anastomosis using the long, straight SuperBypass instruments, while the bayonetted version further moderates the challenge of suturing in tight quarters under the surgical microscope.. Rokuya Tanikawa ...
Revision: 10766 http://supertuxkart.svn.sourceforge.net/supertuxkart/?rev=10766&view=rev Author: hikerstk Date: 2012-01-30 22:20:31 +0000 (Mon, 30 Jan 2012) Log Message: ----------- Moved terrain particle effectrs from kart into kart_gfx. Modified Paths: -------------- main/trunk/src/karts/kart.cpp main/trunk/src/karts/kart.hpp main/trunk/src/karts/kart_gfx.cpp main/trunk/src/karts/kart_gfx.hpp Modified: main/trunk/src/karts/kart.cpp =================================================================== --- main/trunk/src/karts/kart.cpp 2012-01-30 22:14:34 UTC (rev 10765) +++ main/trunk/src/karts/kart.cpp 2012-01-30 22:20:31 UTC (rev 10766) @@ -93,14 +93,12 @@ m_race_position = position; m_collected_energy = 0; m_finished_race = false; - m_wheel_toggle = 1; m_finish_time = 0.0f; m_bubblegum_time = 0.0f; m_invulnerable_time = 0.0f; m_squash_time = 0.0f; m_shadow_enabled = false; m_shadow = NULL; - m_terrain_particles = NULL; m_collision_particles = NULL; m_slipstream = NULL; m_skidmarks = NULL; @@ ...
SUZUKI, M.T.M. et al. De novo basilar tip aneurysm: Case report and literature review. Neurocirugía [online]. 2011, vol.22, n.3, pp.251-254. ISSN 1130-1473.. The de novo aneurysms are the formation of new aneurysms in a location previously observed to be normal by a cerebral angiography or direct microsurgical exploration. In this report, we present a review of the theme and describe a case of a ruptured de novo basilar tip aneurysm in a patient previously treated with carotid occlusion for a giant intracavernous aneurysm and microsurgical clipping of contralateral posterior communicating artery aneurysm.. Keywords : Basilar artery; De novo aneurysm; Subarachnoid hemorrhage. ...
CASE REPORT. Persistent trigeminal artery as a rare cause of ischaemic lesion and migraine-like headache. S. Uhlig1, J. Kurzepa1, E. Czekajska-Chehab1, G. Staśkiewicz1, 2, M.K. Polar1, M. Nastaj3, E. Stochmal1, A. Drop1. 11st Department of Radiology, Medical University of Lublin, Poland. 2Department of Human Anatomy, Medical University of Lublin, Poland. 3Department of Neurology, University Hospital No. 4 in Lublin, Poland. Address for correspondence: Dr G. Staśkiewicz, 1st Department of Radiology, ul. Jaczewskiego 8, 20-954 Lublin, Poland, tel: +48 81 724 46 60, fax: +48 81 724 45 43, e-mail: [email protected] [Received 2 June 2014; Accepted 23 July 2014]. The persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) is a rare remnant of the embryonic intracranial circulatory system that forms a carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomosis. In most cases PTA does not have clear clinical implications. However, some authors report the association of PTA occurrence with vertigo, dizziness and nerve palsy, ...
... Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2019 Dec 05;: Authors: Khey KMW, Huard A, Mahmoud SH Abstract Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is an acute cerebrovascular emergency resulting from the rupture of a brain aneurysm. Despite only accounting for 5% of all strokes, SAH imposes a significant health burden on society due to its rel...
Basilar artery aneurysm presenting a stroke is rare, and we present a case of this along with a discussion of the management options available.
Among posterior circulation aneurysms, basilar tip aneurysm is the most difficult to treat. Because of their deep location in front of the brainstem and their intimate relationship to perforating vessels, morbidity and mortality rates associated with
TY - JOUR. T1 - Juvenile-onset multiple brain infarcts localized in the posterior circulation. T2 - A case report. AU - Maruyama, Kenji. AU - Oya, Yasushi. AU - Shigeto, Hiroshi. AU - Ogawa, Masafumi. AU - Kawai, Mitsuru. PY - 2002/3/14. Y1 - 2002/3/14. N2 - We report a 37-year-old male patient with multiple brain infarcts due to arterial lesions localized in the posterior circulation, who developed a paramedian pontine infarct on the left side. He had been treated as schizophrenia for 20 years. A cranial CT performed one year before showed old small infarcts in the territories of the bilateral thalamo-perforating and left thalamo-geniculate arteries and the right posterior inferior cerebellar artery. The vertebral and basilar arteries were small in diameter on MRI and MR angiography (MRA). Cerebral angiography revealed a narrow smooth basilar artery. In addition, the P 2 segments of the bilateral posterior cerebral arteries were markedly narrow with irregular walls. Carotid arteriograms were ...
Treatment of giant basilar aneurysms is extremely challenging, especially recurrences after previous coiling. A 20-year-old male was referred for a recurrent giant proximal basilar aneurysm 3 months after coiling, with headache, blurred vision, and brainstem compression symptoms. Angiography showed that the previously placed coils were compacted within the caudal portion of the 43 mm × 31 mm aneurysm, with spontaneous occlusion of the right vertebral artery and absence of the posterior communicating arteries. The diameter of the aneurismal neck, the afferent and efferent arteries was 6 mm, 3.5 mm and 4.1 mm, respectively. A balloon-expandable covered-stent of 3.5 mm × 10 mm was selected, matching the above 3 measurements; and deployed precisely across the aneurismal neck, immediately creating the
The embryologic development of cerebral circulation is a natures miracle. At approximately 30-days of gestation, the internal carotid arteries (ICAs) arise from dorsal aortic arches and anastomose with longitudinal neural arteries to form a primitive vertebrobasilar system at four major sites [1] named according to their neighbouring structures as trigeminal, otic, hypoglossal and proatlantal intersegmental arteries. Failure of regression of these vessels lead to persistent primitive carotid-vertebrobasilar anastamoses of which most cephalic and most common is PTA [1]. Its reported prevalence is 0.1%-0.6% [2] of cerebral angiograms. Internal carotid artery gives origin to PTA which then anastomoses with the midbasilar artery. Basilar artery is usually hypoplastic caudal to this anastomosis [2 ...
DISCUSSION The main vessels forming the arterial circle of the brain in Capra hircus L are internal carotid arteries whose supracranial section, after birth, atrophies, Daniel et al. (1953). The intracranial section is reconstructed mainly from the rete supraduralis. A similar pattern of arteries is found in all the ruminants researched so far, including cattle, as reported by Hofmann (1900), de Vriese (1905 ), Chomiak, Welento (1967 ), Brudnicki, Gielecki (1996 ), roe-deer and in red deer - Godynicki, Wiland (1970, 1971), sheep by Jab o ski, Wiland (1973 ) and bison W grzyn et al. (1983 ). The function of the rete mirabile is to regulate the flow of arterial blood towards the cerebrum as well as the thermal regulation of the brain preventing it from overheating; the arterial system of the cerebrum in ruminants, including Capra hircus L, is equipped with a safety system. Comparing the arteries of the base of the cerebrum in Capra hircus L with those in other species of ruminants, it was observed ...
BAO is relatively rare, accounting for 6-10% of strokes. Although women tend to be affected later in life than men, most patients who develop BAO are aged 50-80. Predominant risk factors include hypertension, diabetes, ischaemic heart disease, smoking, hyperlipidaemia, previous stroke and peripheral vascular disease. The most common underlying aetiology for BAO is atherosclerosis. However embolic phenomena, vasculitis, dissection and even migraine may also be implicated. Classically, patients experience transient ischaemic attacks or a prodrome of symptoms including headache and vertigo in the weeks preceding the acute stroke [1]. However this may not always be present, as was the case with our patient who developed abnormal neurology likely secondary to embolic phenomenon from his chronic BAO. Prognosis is extremely variablewith poor outcome (defined as death, dependency, severe disability or modified Rankin score 3-6) in 54-95% of cases but factors thought to be associated with worse prognosis ...
The SA Journal of Radiology is the official journal of the Radiological Society of South Africa and the Professional Association of Radiologists in South Africa and Namibia. The SA Journal of Radiology is a general diagnostic radiological journal which carries original research and review articles, pictorial essays, case reports, letters, editorials, radiological practice and other radiological articles.
This is Digital Version of (Ebook) 978-3709111918 Cerebral Vasospasm: Neurovascular Events After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: 115 Product Will Be Deliver
Logothetis, J.; Karacostas, D.; Karoutas, G.; Artemis, N.; Mansouri, A.; Milonas, I., 1983: A new model of subarachnoid hemorrhage in experimental animals with the purpose to examine cerebral vasospasm
In the absence of trauma, the most common cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage is a ruptured cerebral aneurysm. Cerebral aneurysms tend to occur at branch points of intracranial vessels and thus are frequently located around the Circle of Willis. Common aneurysm locations include the anterior and posterior communicating arteries, the middle cerebral artery bifurcation and the tip of the basilar artery. Subarachnoid hemorrhage typically presents as the worst headache of life for the patient. Detection of a subarachnoid hemorrhage is crucial because the rehemorrhage rate of ruptured aneurysms is high and rehemorrhage is often fatal ...
BackgroundCerebral vasospasm (CVS) following subarachnoid hemorrhage occurs in up to 70% of patients. Recently, stents have been used to successfully treat CVS. This implies that the force required to expand spastic vessels and resolve vasospasm is lower than previously thought.ObjectiveWe develop a mechanistic model of the spastic arterial wall to provide insight into CVS and predict the forces required to treat it.Material and MethodsThe arterial wall is modelled as a cylindrical membrane using a constrained mixture theory that accounts for the mechanical roles of elastin, collagen and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). We model the pressure diameter curve prior to CVS and predict how it changes following CVS. We propose a stretch-based damage criterion for VSMC and evaluate if several commercially available stents are able to resolve vasospasm.ResultsThe model predicts that dilatation of VSMCs beyond a threshold of mechanical failure is sufficient to resolve CVS without damage to the ...
... - El tratamiento quirúrgico debe llevarse a cabo en centros especializados, por . Los síntomas asociados a la insuficiencia vertebrobasilar por la
We retrospectively analyzed the charts of 537 patients with SAH, admitted in our institution between January 1987-December 1997. Of those, 156 (29%) received HT therapy, for clinically neurologic deficits attributable to cerebral vasospasm, after surgical aneurysm repair. Symptomatic vasospasm was defined as decrease in the level of consciousness or the appearance of new focal neurologic signs. Clinical and angiographic improvement, after HT alone, or in combination with neuroradiological intervention was studied. ...
the brainstem - where vital functions - heart rate, respiration, temperature control are all located in that area, thats true, but the real problem is that when theres injury there and swelling, theres not enough room for the carotid arteries, it those get pinched, and if the circle of willis is not complete - as it it should be - then death is fairly rapid. if the circle is complete then the patient may get enough colateral supply from the basilar artery until the swelling goes down. If I recall correctly - about 25% of us do not have a complete circle ...
Vertebrobasilar circulatory disorders are a group of diseases in which not enough blood is supplied to the back of the brain. Read about the symptoms.
Article about Vertebrobasilar circulatory disorders. Includes illustrations and topical information provided by ADAM and Drugs.com.
We report a case of a basilar artery migraine in a 17-year-old boy with transient CT and MR abnormalities after each of two migraine episodes. A repeat MR study 6 months after the last event showed complete resolution of the lesion. Transient abnormalities on brain images similar to those shown in our case have been reported in patients with migraine and other neurologic conditions and are most likely related to cerebral vasogenic edema. ...
J Mol Neurosci. DOI 10.1007/s12031 -017-0944-7. CrossMark. Proteomic Expression Changes in Large Cerebral Arteries After Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rat Are Regulated by the MEK-ERK1/2 Pathway. Anne H. Müller1 • Alistair V.G. Edwards2 • Martin R. Larsen2 • Janne Nielsen1 • Karin Warfvinge1,3 • Gro K. Povlsen1 • Lars Edvinsson1,3. Received: 22 February 2017 / Accepted: 28 June 2017 # The Author(s) 2017. This article is an open access publication. Abstract Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a serious clinical condition where leakage of blood into the subarachnoid space causes an acute rise in intracranial pressure and reduces cerebral blood flow, which may lead to delayed cerebral ischemia and poor outcome. In experimental SAH, we have previously shown that the outcome can be significantly improved by early inhibition of the MAPK/ERK kinase/ extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK/ERK1/2) pathway. The aim of this study was to apply mass spectrometry to investigate the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Preconditioning effect on cerebral vasospasm in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. AU - Kim, Young Woo. AU - Zipfel, Gregory J.. AU - Ogilvy, Christopher S.. AU - Pricola, Katie L.. AU - Welch, Babu G.. AU - Shakir, Nabeel. AU - Patel, Bhuvic. AU - Reavey-Cantwell, John F.. AU - Kelman, Craig R.. AU - Albuquerque, Felipe C.. AU - Kalani, M. Yashar S. AU - Hoh, Brian L.. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Background: Recent experimental evidence indicates that endogenous mechanisms against cerebral vasospasm can be induced via preconditioning. Objective: To determine whether these vascular protective mechanisms are also present in vivo in humans with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Methods: A multicenter retrospective cohort of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage was examined for ischemic preconditioning stimulus: preexisting steno-occlusive cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and/or previous cerebral infarct. Generalized estimating equation models were performed ...
The posterior cerebral artery (PCA) is one of a pair of blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood to the posterior aspect of the brain (occipital lobe) in human anatomy. It arises near the intersection of the posterior communicating artery and the basilar artery and connects with the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) and internal carotid artery via the posterior communicating artery (PCommA). The development of the PCA in fetal brain comes relatively late and arises from the fusion of several embryonic vessels near the caudal end of the PCommA supplying the mesencephalon and diencephalon of the fetus. The PCA begins as such, as a continuation of the PCommA in the fetus with only 10-30% of fetuses having a prominent basilar origin. The fetal carotid origin of the PCA usually regresses as the vertebral and basilar arteries develop with the PCommA reducing is size. In most adults, the PCA sources from the anterior portion of the basilar artery. Only about 19% of adults retain PCommA ...
This page contains the article A Population-Based Case-Series of Ontario Patients Who Develop a Vertebrobasilar Artery Stroke After Seeing a Chiropractor http://www.chiro.org/LINKS/ABSTRACTS/Population-Based_Case-Series_of_Ontario.shtml
This page contains the article A Population-Based Case-Series of Ontario Patients Who Develop a Vertebrobasilar Artery Stroke After Seeing a Chiropractor http://www.chiro.org/LINKS/ABSTRACTS/Population-Based_Case-Series_of_Ontario.shtml
While a wide array of pathological changes occur in cerebral arteries following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), the most consistent is endothelial damage. Since the endothelium normally modulates reflexes that influence vascular tone, any damage to it may represent a significant contributor to cerebral vasospasm following SAH. This experimental study investigates the correlation between ...
The vertebral arteries arise from the subclavian arteries, one on each side of the body, then enter deep to the transverse process of the level of the 6th cervical vertebrae (C6), or occasionally (in 7.5% of cases) at the level of C7. They then proceed superiorly, in the transverse foramen (foramen transversarium) of each cervical vertebra. Once they have passed through the transverse foramen of C1 (also known as the atlas), the vertebral arteries travel across the posterior arch of C1 and through the suboccipital triangle before entering the foramen magnum.. Nunziante Ippolito, a neapolitan physician, indicated the "angle of Nunziante Ippolito" to find vertebral artery, between anterior scalene muscle and Longus colli muscle.. Inside the skull, the two vertebral arteries join up to form the basilar artery at the base of the medulla oblongata. The basilar artery is the main blood supply to the brainstem and connects to the Circle of Willis to potentially supply the rest of the brain if there is ...
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도서관에서 가져오기! Cerebral vasospasm : neurovascular events after subarachnoid hemorrhage. [Mario Zuccarello;] -- The book contains 48 articles presented at the 11th International Conference on Cerebral Vasospasm held in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA, in July 2011. This collection of papers represents a cross-section of ...
A Randomized Clinical Trial with security and dose testing of Sildenafil Citrate in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a rupture of a cerebral aneurism for prevention of cerebral vasospasm. The cerebral vasospasm is a decrease in blood flow that occurs when the intracranial vessels lose their capability of self-control of dilations and contractions. Patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage without neurological deficits who underwent endovascular or surgical correction of the aneurysm can participate in this trial. They will be randomized to a daily doses of 75 mg of Sildenafil, 150 mg of Sildenafil or Placebo from the third to the 14th day post bleeding. Today there is no proven clinical treatment for prevention of cerebral vasospasm ...
We found the present case when retrospectively reviewing the files of patients with intracranial aneurysm in our institution. It concerns the coexistence of a rare developmental anomaly of the aortic arch vessels and a persistent carotid-vertebrobasilar communication variant. Since no common embryologic basis is known, this association was probably fortuitous. Each of these particular anomalies can pose unique diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties.. ...
In vertebrobasilar insufficiency, the blood flow to parts of your brain is reduced or stopped due to arterial hardening and blockage. Get more information here.
Symptoms, risks, surgical and non-surgical treatment | Dr. Newell has 25+ years of experience helping with Transient Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency. See pictures and videos here.
0034]The ECC 305 is disposed downstream of the dryer 315 and recovers from the transfer unit 340 the hydrogen gas from the slipstream 345, thereby increasing a productive efficiency of the electrochemical cell system 300. That is, use of the ECC 305 as described herein eliminates the venting (loss) of the hydrogen in the slipstream 345. Additionally (as described above), a mixture of hydrogen and water vapor from the phase separator 310 may also be provided to the ECC 305. Furthermore, the ECC 305 receives the slipstream 345 (including water vapor) and the hydrogen gas from the phase separator 310 (collectively indicated as input 320) at a first pressure, and in response to the supply of electrical power via the power supply 325, produces the compressed stream 327 at a second pressure greater than the first pressure. It will be appreciated that this will continue as necessary to provide the desired delivery pressure at the product output 350. Liquid water separated from by the phase separator ...
The cochlea receives its main blood supply from the basilar artery, via the anterior inferior cerebellar artery and the spiral modiolar artery. It is of clinica...
Cerebral vasospasm is associated with the abnormal presence of blood on the outer surface of a blood vessel. Contact us to learn about possible treatments.
Variations of the circle of Willis (CW) influence blood supply to the brain and adjacent structures in adults. We examined the formation of the CW in 20 human embryo samples at the end of the embryonic period using 3-D reconstructions of serial histological sections. The CW was closed in all samples, and did not form in a single plane, but was composed of multiple stair-like planes. The artery acutely curved at the caudal part of the CW, namely at the inlet of the basilar artery and bifurcation of the P1 segment of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA), reflecting flexure of the mesencephalon and diencephalon at this stage ...
WE LIVE in a world in which war and conflict abound, natural disasters strike frequently and, because of our global connectivity, infectious disease is just an incubation period away. In two cases, where the aneurysms involved vital pontine perforator arteries branching from the basilar artery, idealized geometries of these vessels were incorporated into the CFD models. We thus provide the first estimates of the relative contribution of neutral and selective processes on variation of ant cuticular profile. EAE was aggravated in uPA-/- and uPAR-/- mice, and this was accompanied by more severe histopathologic canadian pharcharmy online viagra features and microglial activation. In the manufacture of holographic gratings using coherent light there is an associated problem of optical noise, the conventional remedies for which involve various restrictions.. Stress Inducible Expression of AtDREB1A Transcription Factor in canadian pharmacy cialis Transgenic Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Conferred ...
Author: Anthony Rosner. Title: The Safety of Cervical Manipulation - Putting Stroke Risk in Perspective, Part 2. Summary: To date, the assessment options for vertebrobasilar artery risk have significant...
Several years ago (5) I started experiencing ringing in my ears, with pain. I moved to a higher altitude (5700) and after several weeks of headaches and pain, the local doctor thought it was altitude sickness. In warmer weather the symptoms disappeared. Only to return again in cold weather. Then the problem increased and I lost my hearing. It really became noticable in a restaurant where I abserved an infant screaming, but I could not hear it. But I did get alot of loud sounds coming from the kitchen. After going to see an ENT and several tests later I was sent to a neurologist. Menieres was one diagnosis. But all the test for my inner ear came back okay. The neurologist ordered an MRA and after we went thru it , the doctor noticed a abnormality in the basilar artery. Basically he described it as the left side is bent over and is sitting under my inner ear. Well this year I cannot hear out of my left ear and sounds I do hear are horribly loud. If I do bend over I get very dizzy and under extreme ...
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Not that i know off. ASUS imo has the best Fan control software (as long as you do know what fans you can run where), but for pure bios i dont like ASUS, first only the CPU header can be allowed below 60% (all chasis fans cant go below that), for CPU its 20%, and even then i couldnt go that low with my PLPS without fanxpert. For BIOS only no software, i like more MSI (at least on Z77 havent tried Z87 bios yet), the MSI has target % and minimum RPMs, i just did a build for friend on MSI Z77, and i placed a minimum of 40% (or around there, if i went lower the fan would tick) and a target CPU temp of 55C (you can vary this number), i chose that point mostly cause i didnt want the fan to ramp up before reaching that, that made the PC virtually indauble at idle, its not all nice on the MSI though, the chassis headers also has limitations like ASUS, i couldnt get Scythe Slipstream PWM below 800rpm (this fan can drop to 300rpm easily with intel mobo bios), this was unnecessary so i decided to use only ...
Vertebrobasilar artery syndrome occurs when the head rotates & the vertebral artery become temporarily occluded due to an abnormal bone spur or ligament.
The authors investigated the roles of endothelin (ET)-1 and the ETA receptor in the pathogenesis of delayed cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). A study was made of the preventive effect of a novel ETA receptor antagonist, BQ-123, on vasospasm and the expression of the ETA receptor messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) using a canine two-hemorrhage SAH model. Continuous intrathecal administration of BQ-123 (5 x 10(-6) mol/day) prevented narrowing of the basilar artery on Day 7 after SAH in 97.6% of cases in the study group versus 70.7% of cases in the control group (p | 0.05). While expression of the mRNA-coding ETA receptor was not detected in the control animals, it markedly increased on Day 3 after SAH and was also detected on Day 7. The results suggest that endothelin-1 and the ETA receptor participate in the pathogenesis of delayed cerebral vasospasm following SAH.
BACKGROUND: Vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia (VBD) is a rare vasculopathy. The etiology of this disease is unknown. Transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) of vertebrobasilar system refer to a transient (, 24 hours) lowering of blood flow in the posterior circulation of the brain. We present a case of dolichoectasia in the vertebrobasilar artery that presented with TIAs. CASE REPORT: A hypertensive 54-year-old man with true vertigo, nausea, imbalance, dysarthria, dysmetria, horizontal nystagmus, and gait ataxia was referred to Alzahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran ...
The dorsal intersegmental arteries in the cervical segments anastomose into a longitudinal channel called the vertebral artery. Ventral to the myelencephalon the vertebral artery on each side joins its counterpart in the midline to form the single basilar artery. The basilar artery supplies the myel- and metencephalon before it bifurcates near the mesencephalon into right and left posterior cerebral arteries that supply the di- and mesencephalon and later on the telencephalon. An anastomosis called the posterior communicating artery develops on each side connecting the posterior cerebral and internal carotid arteries. A circular vascular channel called the Circle of Willis is thereby completed at the base of the brain ...
BACKGROUND: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) often causes a prolongation of the corrected QT (QTc) interval during the acute phase. The aim of the present study was to examine independent risk factors for QTc prolongation in patients with SAH by means of multivariate analysis.. METHOD: We studied 100 patients who were admitted within 24 hours after onset of SAH. Standard 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG) was performed immediately after admission. QT intervals were measured from the ECG and were corrected for heart rate using the Bazett formula. We measured serum levels of sodium, potassium, calcium, adrenaline (epinephrine), noradrenaline (norepinephrine), dopamine, antidiuretic hormone, and glucose.. RESULTS: The average QTc interval was 466 +/- 46 ms. Patients were categorized into two groups based on the QTc interval, with a cutoff line of 470 ms. Univariate analyses showed significant relations between categories of QTc interval, and sex and serum concentrations of potassium, calcium, or ...
Arteries of the Neck and Head ... is the one that provides the blood to the upper right part of the chest, the right arm as well as the head and neck. This is done through an artery branch called the right vertebral artery. The vertebral arteries that are on the left and right, in turn, go into the basilar artery and then upward to the posterior cerebral artery. This provides most of the oxygenated blood to the brain. Both ...
Stroke Research and Treatment is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies in all aspects of stroke.
One in five strokes occurs in the posterior circulation, whose blood vessels (the vertebral and basilar arteries) supply the back of the brain. We have shown that posterior circulation TIA and minor stroke is followed by a high risk of further stroke.. One in five of these strokes is caused by narrowing of the vertebral arteries. Narrowing of the carotid artery (which supplies the front of the brain) can be successfully treated by surgery preventing further strokes. Surgical access to the vertebral arteries is difficult but it is now possible to access the narrowing by passing a wire up the artery and opening up the narrowing using a stent.. In pilot studies we and others have shown vertebral stenting appears to be relatively safe. It is now essential to evaluate in a large trial whether vertebral stenting prevents recurrent stroke. If so this treatment would be applicable to a large number of stroke and TIA patients.. In a number of specialised centres in the UK who already have expertise in ...
Variations of the Circle of Willis at the End of the Human Embryonic Period[4] "Variations of the circle of Willis (CW) influence blood supply to the brain and adjacent structures in adults. We examined the formation of the CW in 20 human embryo samples at the end of the embryonic period using 3-D reconstructions of serial histological sections. The CW was closed in all samples, and did not form in a single plane, but was composed of multiple stair-like planes. The artery acutely curved at the caudal part of the CW, namely, at the inlet of the basilar artery and bifurcation of the P1 segment of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA), reflecting flexure of the mesencephalon and diencephalon at this stage. Variations were observed in 17 of 20 samples-only anterior parts (anterior communicating artery [Acom] and anterior cerebral artery [ACA]) in 10 samples, only posterior parts (posterior communicating artery [Pcom]) in one sample, and both anterior and posterior parts in six samples. Variations ...
Variations of the Circle of Willis at the End of the Human Embryonic Period[4] "Variations of the circle of Willis (CW) influence blood supply to the brain and adjacent structures in adults. We examined the formation of the CW in 20 human embryo samples at the end of the embryonic period using 3-D reconstructions of serial histological sections. The CW was closed in all samples, and did not form in a single plane, but was composed of multiple stair-like planes. The artery acutely curved at the caudal part of the CW, namely, at the inlet of the basilar artery and bifurcation of the P1 segment of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA), reflecting flexure of the mesencephalon and diencephalon at this stage. Variations were observed in 17 of 20 samples-only anterior parts (anterior communicating artery [Acom] and anterior cerebral artery [ACA]) in 10 samples, only posterior parts (posterior communicating artery [Pcom]) in one sample, and both anterior and posterior parts in six samples. Variations ...
A hemoglobin preparation is administered following subarachnoid hemorrhage to dramatically reduce the tissue area of hypoperfusion and the extent of neuronal damage in the area of hypoperfusion.
A 57-year-old left-handed man smoker with hypertension and coronary artery disease presented to the clinic with complaints of left arm pain. He worked predominantly at a desk job but did multiple tasks around the house that required vigorous use of the upper extremity and hand. He stated that when he used his left hand for even short periods of time, he developed cramping and fatigue in his hand and forearm. If he performed a significant amount of work with his left arm he became dizzy and light-headed. He denied any focal neurologic deficits or loss of consciousness. ...
Preliminary Diagnosis: Vertebrobasilar insufficiency I. What imaging technique is first-line for this diagnosis Non-contrast CT of the head with CTA of the head and neck is the first-line imaging modality. II. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of this technique for diagnosis of vertebrobasilar insufficiency. Advantages Relatively fast and inexpensive imaging modality compared with companion MR/MRA…. ...
Intracranial aneurysm, also known as brain aneurysm, is a cerebrovascular disorder in which weakness in the wall of a cerebral artery or vein causes a localized dilation or ballooning of the blood vessel. Aneurysms in the posterior circulation (basilar artery, vertebral arteries and posterior communicating artery) have a higher risk of rupture. Basilar artery aneurysms represent only 3%-5% of all intracranial aneurysms but are the most common aneurysms in the posterior circulation. Cerebral aneurysms are classified both by size and shape. Small aneurysms have a diameter of less than 15 mm. Larger aneurysms include those classified as large (15 to 25 mm), giant (25 to 50 mm), and super-giant (over 50 mm). Saccular aneurysms, also known as berry aneurysms, appear as a round outpouching and are the most common form of cerebral aneurysm. Fusiform dolichoectatic aneurysms represent a widening of a segment of an artery around the entire blood vessel, rather than just arising from a side of an arterys ...
The posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) arises from the distal vertebral artery just prior to the formation of of the basilar artery. The PICA then courses posteriorly around the upper aspect of the medulla oblongata, passing between cranial nerves X and XI, over the inferior cerebellar peduncle to the undersurface of the cerebellum where it divides into two branches, with one anastamosing with branches of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery and the other with branches of the superior cerebellar artery. Loss of circulation in the PICA territory in particular can lead to lateral medullary syndrome or Wallenberg syndrome due to infarct in the dorsal lateral aspect of the medulla. The syndrome is diagnosed clinically by the loss of pain and temperature on the contralateral side of the body (due to involvement of the corticospinal tract) and ipselateral side of the face (due to involvement of the spinal trigeminal nucleus and tract). Other symptoms and signs associated with PICA infarcts ...
INTRODUCTION: Cerebral vasospasm is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) surviving the initial ictus. Commonly used techniques for vasospasm assessment are digital subtraction angiography and transcranial Doppler sonography. These techniques can reliably identify only the major vessel spasm and fail to estimate its haemodynamic significance. To overcome these issues and to enable comprehensive non-invasive assessment of vasospasm inside the interventional suite, a novel protocol involving measurement of parenchymal blood volume (PBV) using C-arm flat detector computed tomography (FDCT) was implemented. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients from the neuro-intensive treatment unit (ITU) with suspected vasospasm following aneurysmal SAH were scanned with a biplane C-arm angiography system using an intravenous contrast injection protocol. The PBV maps were generated using prototype software. Contemporaneous clinically indicated MR scan including
Diffuse cerebral vasospasm is a rare complication following tumour resection. This phenomenon seems to be even rarer in the paediatric population and more so following resections of posterior fossa tumours. Here we report diffuse cerebral vasospasm in a child with hypoglossal nerve Schwannoma eight days following resection of the tumour.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Distal anterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysms. T2 - Report of four cases. AU - Zager, Eric L.. AU - Shaver, Ellen G.. AU - Hurst, Robert W.. AU - Flamm, Eugene S.. PY - 2002/9. Y1 - 2002/9. N2 - Aneurysms of the distal anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) are rare; fewer than 100 cases have been reported. The authors detail their experience with four cases and present endovascular as well as microsurgical management options. The medical records and neuroimaging studies obtained in four patients who were treated at a single institution were reviewed. Clinical presentations, neuroimaging and intraoperative findings, and clinical outcomes were analyzed. There were three men and one woman; their mean age was 43 years. Two patients presented with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and two presented with ataxia and vertigo (one with tinnitus, the other with hearing loss). Angiographic studies demonstrated aneurysms of the distal segment of the AICA. In one patient with ...
The arteries of the base of the brain. Basilar artery labeled below center. The temporal pole of the cerebrum and the ... The right and left posterior cerebral arteries arise from the basilar artery, which is formed by the left and right vertebral ... Origin of arteries[edit]. The left and right internal carotid arteries arise from the left and right common carotid arteries. ... The vertebral arteries arise from the subclavian arteries. The anterior communicating artery connects the two anterior cerebral ...
More specifically, cases with damage to the basilar artery, the carotid artery and the vertebral artery have been reported. ... Rajasekharan, Chandrasekharan (2013). "Basilar artery thrombosis due to head banging: hazard of a religious ritual". BMJ Case ... Edvardsson, Bengt (7 Jul 2011). "Head banging associated with basilar artery thrombosis". Neurology India. 59: 478-9. doi: ... Egnor, M.R. (1991/1992). "Vertebral Artery Aneurysm - A Unique Hazard of Head Banging by Heavy Metal Rockers". Pediatric ...
Posterior to the clivus is the basilar artery. The pons sits on the clivus. Clivus is also used as an abbreviated term for the ... It forms a gradual sloping process at the anterior most portion of the basilar occipital bone at its junction with the sphenoid ... Just lateral to the clivus bilaterally is the foramen lacerum (the internal carotid artery reaches the middle cranial fossa ...
No canal in basioccipital or basispehnoid for basilar artery. Suprastapedial process of quadrate moderately large, distally ...
From the basilar artery are two posterior cerebral arteries. Branches of the basilar and PCA supply the occipital lobe, brain ... The internal carotid artery becomes the anterior cerebral artery and the middle central artery. The ACA transmits blood to the ... The carotid arteries cover the majority of the cerebrum. The common carotid artery divides into the internal and the external ... An aneurysm is an abnormal bulging of small sections of arteries, which increases the risk of artery rupture. Intracranial ...
... one or more of these three metabolites are implicated in the vasolilation of rat basilar artery, 12(R)-HETE and to a slightly ... "Arachidonate dilates basilar artery by lipoxygenase-dependent mechanism and activation of K(+) channels". American Journal of ... Ma, Y. H.; Harder, D. R.; Clark, J. E.; Roman, R. J. (1991). "Effects of 12-HETE on isolated dog renal arcuate arteries". The ... This antagonistic activity was responsible for the ability of 12(S)-HETE and 12(R)-HETE to relax mouse mesenteric arteries pre- ...
... including of the basilar artery and choroid plexus; and abnormal surrounding tissue growths, such as colloid cysts, ... End branches of the medial posterior choroidal arteries, superior thalamostriate, superior choroid veins and septal veins also ...
dead link] "Neuro Case 1 - Using Transcranial Doppler for Basilar Artery Occlusion". The Beacon News. Archived from the ...
Canal or deep groove in floor of basioccipital and basispehnoid for basilar artery. Suprastapedial process of quadrate large, ...
No canal or groove in floor of basioccipital or basisphenoid for basilar artery. Suprastapedial process of quadrate distally ...
2012). "Memantine inhibits α3β2-nAChRs-mediated nitrergic neurogenic vasodilation in porcine basilar arteries". PLoS ONE. 7 (7 ...
Flügel KA, Fuchs HH, Druschky KF (1977). "The "locked-in" syndrome: pseudocoma in thrombosis of the basilar artery (author's ... usually of the basilar artery Traumatic brain injury Result from lesion of the brain-stem Curare poisoning mimics a total ...
... results from occlusion of paramedian branches of the basilar artery. Alternating hemiplegia of ...
It contains: The basilar artery and the origin of the anteroinferior cerebellar artery (AICA). The origin of the superior ... The anterior communicating artery. Heubner's artery. The hypothalamic arteries. The origin of the fronto-orbital arteries. ... It contains: The optic chiasm The bifurcation of the basilar artery. Peduncular segments of the posterior cerebral arteries ( ... The posterior pericallosal arteries. The third portion of the superior cerebellar arteries. Perforating branches of the ...
Most commonly affected is the Vertebral Basilar Artery (Vertebral Basilar Dolichoectasia or Vertebrobasillar Dolichoectasia). ... In cases involving the basilar artery (VBD), the pathogenesis arises from direct compression of different cranial nerves. ... Seen in an MRI as two individual arteries at this hairpin, a carotid artery dolichoectasia can progress so far as to produce a ... Internal Carotid Artery dolichoectasia is particularly interesting because the artery normally already contains one hairpin ...
Delasobera, BE; Osborn, SR; Davis, JE (2012). "Thunderclap headache with orgasm: A case of basilar artery dissection associated ... Mauri, G; Vega, P; Murias, E; Vega, J; Ramón, C; Pascual, J (2012). "Fusiform aneurysms of the vertebral artery: A hidden cause ...
Basilar artery dissection has also been reported in connection with sexual activity, though most coital cephalalgia is benign ... A Case of Basilar Artery Dissection Associated with Sexual Intercourse". The Journal of Emergency Medicine. 43 (1): e43-e47. ... An Atlanta police officer died in 2009 from atheroschlerotic coronary artery disease while engaged in a threesome. His widow ... and the physical activity of sexual intercourse in patients with coronary artery disease can result in myocardial ischemia. The ...
On April 7, 2008, Haynes was diagnosed with a brain aneurysm of his basilar artery. He successfully underwent surgery for the ...
There is a deep groove present in the floor of the basioccipital for the basilar artery. The suprastapedial process is fused to ...
... is caused by blockage of the long circumferential branches of the basilar artery. It was described by ...
It transmits the facial and acoustic nerves and the internal auditory branch of the basilar artery. The lateral end of the ... is received into the angular interval between the posterior border of the great wing of the sphenoid bone and the basilar part ... for the passage of the greater petrosal nerve and for the petrosal branch of the middle meningeal artery lateral to the hiatus ... it transmits into the cranium the internal carotid artery, and the carotid plexus of nerves medial to the opening for the ...
This type was initially believed to be due to spasms of the basilar artery, the artery that supplies the brainstem. Now that ... pial arteries and extracranial arteries such as those of the scalp.[73] The role of vasodilatation of the extracranial arteries ... Kaniecki, RG (June 2009). "Basilar-type migraine". Current Pain and Headache Reports. 13 (3): 217-220. doi:10.1007/s11916-009- ... In a basilar migraine, a migraine with neurological symptoms related to the brain stem or with neurological symptoms on both ...
The plexus on the vertebral artery is continued on to the basilar, posterior cerebral, and cerebellar arteries. The plexus on ... the inferior thyroid artery accompanies the artery to the thyroid gland, and communicates with the recurrent and external ... on the medial side of the costocervical artery. Its form is irregular; it is larger in size than the middle cervical ganglion, ... one of which forms a loop around the subclavian artery and supplies offsets to it. This loop is named the ansa subclavia ( ...
He has experience with procedures such as elective stenting of the basilar artery and other intracranial vessels. His work on ...
By preventing the release of Ca2+, lomerizine prevents serotonin-induced contraction of the basilar artery, which can lead to ... This is hypothesized to be due to the drug's selectivity for cerebral arteries over peripheral arteries. No other side effects ... on serotonin-induced contraction of the basilar artery". Journal of pharmacological sciences. 111 (2): 221-5. doi:10.1254/jphs. ...
Originally the terms basilar artery migraine or basilar migraine were used but, since involvement of the basilar artery is ... basilar artery migraine; basilar migraine; basilar-type migraine) is a subtype of migraine with aura in which symptoms clearly ... Basilar migraine can present tingling and numbness, but true motor weakness and paralysis occur only in hemiplegic migraine. ... Effecting a differential diagnosis between basilar migraine and hemiplegic migraine is difficult. Often, the decisive symptom ...
Talk:Basilar artery. *Talk:Basilar membrane. *Talk:Basilar plexus. *Talk:Basivertebral veins ...
... suffered a Basilar Artery Stroke in August 2017, and passed away on September 1, 2017. His funeral was held at ...
Basilar artery. The basilar artery lies at the front of the brainstem in the midline and is formed from the union of the two ... The basilar artery (/ˈbæz.ɪ.lər/)[1][2] is one of the arteries that supplies the brain with oxygen-rich blood. ... "basilar - WordReference.com Dictionary of English". www.wordreference.com.. *^ Jones, Jeremy. "Basilar artery , Radiology ... The basilar artery arises from the union of the two vertebral arteries at the junction between the medulla oblongata and the ...
Acute basilar artery thrombosis is associated with a poor prognosis. However, the advent of high-quality, reliable, and ... encoded search term (Basilar%20Artery%20Thrombosis) and Basilar Artery Thrombosis What to Read Next on Medscape. Medscape ... Right vertebral artery angiography showing an occlusion with no flow in the basilar artery. ... Basilar Artery Thrombosis Differential Diagnoses. Updated: Oct 18, 2017 * Author: Salvador Cruz-Flores, MD, MPH, FAHA, FCCM, ...
It is formed where the two vertebral arteries join at the base of the skull. The basilar artery carries oxygenated blood to the ... The basilar artery is part of the blood supply system for the brain and central nervous system. ...
People with a basilar artery migraine typically experience a... ... Common basilar artery migraine symptoms include cold feet and ... People with a basilar artery migraine typically experience a minimum of two of the following symptoms: slurred speech, loss of ... A person who has a minimum of two attacks with at least two auras each is diagnosed as having a basilar artery migraine, ... Common basilar artery migraine symptoms include cold feet and hands, light and sound sensitivity, nausea and vomiting, ...
Its formed when two vertebral arteries conjoin. It gives blood to the inner ear and parts of the bra... ... This artery is located at the bottom of the skull. ... basilar posterior cerebral artery (thing). See all of basilar ... Related: basilar plexus. These are a network of small arteries between layers of the dura mater around the base of the skull. ... This artery is located at the bottom of the skull. Its formed when two vertebral arteries conjoin. It gives blood to the inner ...
Basilar Artery Thrombosis Basilar Artery Embolism Stroke of Basilar Artery Stroke Cerebrovascular Disorders Other: Intra- ... Outcomes of basilar artery occlusion in patients aged 75 years or older in the Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study. ... Acute basilar artery occlusion in the Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study: does gender matter? Stroke. 2010 Nov;41( ... Symptoms and signs compatible with ischemia in the basilar artery territory.. *Basilar artery occlusion (BAO) confirmed by CTA ...
Basilar artery occlusion and the dense artery sign in the newborn.. Bodensteiner JB1, Reitter BF, Sheth RD. ... artery at the tip of the basilar artery. The pattern of cerebral damage on MRI scan at 10 years of age confirmed the site of ... A child with basilar artery occlusion in the neonatal period is reported. The occlusion was documented by unenhanced computed ... The clinical features of basilar artery occlusion as seen in the adult are not apparent in the neonate. Recognition of the ...
Home » Professionals » Stroke Diagnosis » Neuropathology Image Library » Aneurysm of Basilar Artery Aneurysm of Basilar Artery ... Over 90% of aneurysms occur in the circle of Willis and in the proximal middle cerebral artery. An aneurysm is caused by a ... Most aneurysms occur at the bifurcation of large cerebral arteries. ...
This project is supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (award #111062), Alberta Innovates - Health Solutions, and by The Metabolomics Innovation Centre (TMIC), a nationally-funded research and core facility that supports a wide range of cutting-edge metabolomic studies. TMIC is funded by Genome Alberta, Genome British Columbia, and Genome Canada, a not-for-profit organization that is leading Canadas national genomics strategy with funding from the federal government. Maintenance, support, and commercial licensing is provided by OMx Personal Health Analytics, Inc. Designed by Educe Design & Innovation Inc. ...
Acute Basilar Artery Occlusion. Jill L. Ostrem, Jeffrey L. Saver, Jeffry R. Alger, Sidney Starkman, Megan C. Leary, Gary ... Acute Basilar Artery Occlusion. Jill L. Ostrem, Jeffrey L. Saver, Jeffry R. Alger, Sidney Starkman, Megan C. Leary, Gary ... Acute basilar artery occlusion can lead to substantial morbidity and mortality, estimated to be 80% to 90% in patients treated ... Acute Basilar Artery Occlusion. Diffusion-Perfusion MRI Characterization of Tissue Salvage in Patients Receiving Intra-Arterial ...
Relaxation effect of abacavir on rat basilar arteries.. [Rachel Wai Sum Li, Cui Yang, Shun Wan Chan, Maggie Pui Man Hoi, Simon ... The relaxation effect of abacavir on rat basilar arteries was studied using the myograph technique. Cyclic GMP and AMP levels ... Abacavir also increased the cGMP level in rat basilar arteries. Abacavir-induced relaxation was also abolished by adenosine A2 ... Short-term and long-term treatment of abacavir did not affect acetylcholine-induced relaxation in rat basilar arteries. ...
The basilar artery (middle of figure) arises from the vertebral arteries and terminates when it bifurcates in the left and ... In human anatomy, the basilar artery is one of the arteries that supplies the brain with oxygen-rich blood. ... From the basilar artery arises the superior inferior cerebellar artery (supplying the superior and inferior aspects of the ... vertebral artery. meningeal - spinal (posterior, anterior) - cerebellar (PICA). basilar: pontine - labyrinthine - cerebellar ( ...
Acute basilar artery thrombosis is associated with a poor prognosis. However, the advent of high-quality, reliable, and ... encoded search term (Basilar%20Artery%20Thrombosis) and Basilar Artery Thrombosis What to Read Next on Medscape. Related ... Right vertebral artery angiography showing an occlusion with no flow in the basilar artery. ... Basilar Artery Thrombosis Medication. Updated: Oct 18, 2017 * Author: Salvador Cruz-Flores, MD, MPH, FAHA, FCCM, FAAN, FACP, ...
As a result of its secure location, injury to the basilar artery is rare.1 Only 10% of traumatic aneurysms in the brain occur ... Traumatic Pseudoaneurysm of the Basilar Artery. McElroy, Kevin M. DO; Malone, Richard J. DO; Freitag, Warren B. MD; Keller, ... 4. Quintana F, Diez C, Gutierrez A, Diez ML, Austin O, Vazquez A: Traumatic aneurysm of the basilar artery. Am J Neuroradiol ... 1. Bank WO, Nelson PB, Drayer BP, Wilkins RH, Rosenbaum AE: Traumatic aneurysm of the basilar artery. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1978; ...
Basilar artery migraine and reversible imaging abnormalities. Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from American ... Basilar artery migraine and reversible imaging abnormalities.. J Maytal, R B Libman and E S Lustrin ... We report a case of a basilar artery migraine in a 17-year-old boy with transient CT and MR abnormalities after each of two ...
... and outcome in a multiethnic population of stroke survivors with basilar artery occlusive disease (BAOC). METHODS: Forty ... patients with infarcts in the basilar artery (BA) territory, alive 30 da ... Forty patients with infarcts in the basilar artery (BA) territory, alive 30 days after the ictus, participated in the study. BA ... and outcome in a multiethnic population of stroke survivors with basilar artery occlusive disease (BAOC). METHODS: ...
What is basilar artery occlusion? Meaning of basilar artery occlusion medical term. What does basilar artery occlusion mean? ... Looking for online definition of basilar artery occlusion in the Medical Dictionary? basilar artery occlusion explanation free ... basilar artery occlusion. basilar artery occlusion. an obstruction of the basilar artery, resulting in dysfunction involving ... A review of the literature focused on basilar artery pathology is very limited and only includes cases of basilar artery ...
Options for Recanalization Therapy in Basilar Artery Occlusion. Perttu J. Lindsberg, Lauri Soinne, Risto O. Roine, Turgut ... Options for Recanalization Therapy in Basilar Artery Occlusion. Perttu J. Lindsberg, Lauri Soinne, Risto O. Roine and Turgut ... Options for Recanalization Therapy in Basilar Artery Occlusion. Perttu J. Lindsberg, Lauri Soinne, Risto O. Roine and Turgut ... Basilar artery occlusion (BAO) is a relatively infrequent but catastrophic disease with dismal natural course, carrying 85% to ...
A 65-year-old female developed peduncular hallucinosis 3 days after rupture of a basilar-superior cerebellar artery aneurysm. ... Basilar Artery. Cerebellum / blood supply. Female. Hallucinations / etiology*. Humans. Intracranial Aneurysm / complications*, ... A 65-year-old female developed peduncular hallucinosis 3 days after rupture of a basilar-superior cerebellar artery aneurysm. ... Vasospasm of the perforating arteries to the upper brainstem, rather than direct brainstem damage caused by the bleeding, was ...
b,I am a 22 years old male suffering from basilar artery migraine for the past two years.,/b, I feel terribly confused before ... How can basilar artery migraine be treated?. Answered by: Dr Debashish Chowdhury , Professor of Neurology,. GB Pant Hospital, ... Q: I am a 22 years old male suffering from basilar artery migraine for the past two years. I feel terribly confused before ... How can basilar artery migraine be treated?. A:You have bad headaches. The headaches are preceded by confusional state and ...
The Basilar Artery on Computed Tomography Angiography Prognostic Score for Basilar Artery Occlusion.. [Fana Alemseged, Darshan ... Basilar artery occlusion is associated with high risk of disability and mortality. This study aimed to assess the prognostic ... A retrospective analysis of consecutive stroke patients with basilar artery occlusion diagnosed on computed tomographic ... the Basilar Artery on Computed Tomography Angiography (BATMAN) score. ...
Keywords : nervo troclear; dolicoectasia; artéria basilar; oftalmoplegia; compressão. · abstract in English · text in English ... Os exames de ressonância magnética e angioressonância evidenciaram dolicoectasia da artéria basilar, que comprimia a face ... Paresia isolada do nervo patético por compressão da artéria basilar dolicoectásica: relato de caso. Arq. Neuro-Psiquiatr. [ ...
Fenestrations or "windows" within the basilar artery occur as a result of failure of fusion of the neural arteries and of ... Fusion of the embryonic longitudinal neural arteries into a single basilar artery occurs in a craniocaudal direction (8) by ... Complete duplication of the basilar artery, with each vertebral artery continuing separately to form a posterior cerebral ... This case illustrates complete duplication or extreme fenestration of the basilar artery, with each vertebral artery ...
Since basilar artery occlusion (BAO) is associated with a high mortality and morbidity, its early detection is of great ... Purpose The hyperdense basilar artery sign (HBAS) is an indicator of vessel occlusion on non contrast-enhanced computer ... "Sensitivity of Hyperdense Basilar Artery Sign on Non-Enhanced Computed Tomography." PLoS ONE 10 (10): e0141096. doi:10.1371/ ... analyzed the images regarding the presence or absence of HBAS on NECT and performed HU measurements in the basilar artery. ...
Coloured X-ray arteriogram (angiogram) of the head of a patient (rear view), showing an aneurysm of the basilar artery. ... occurring at the point where the basilar artery (orange, runs vertically) divides into two cerebral arteries. The basilar ... Coloured X-ray arteriogram (angiogram) of the head of a patient (rear view), showing an aneurysm of the basilar artery. An ... artery runs along the pons of the brainstem. Aneurysms in the brain are associated with hypertension (high blood pressure). A ...
  • We present two cases in which a meningovasculitis and occlusion of the basilar artery were found in young adults with a Borrelia burgdorferi infection. (neurology.org)
  • D) Persistent occlusion of the basilar tip after three passes with a single stent retriever. (cmaj.ca)
  • METHODS: Forty patients with infarcts in the basilar artery (BA) territory, alive 30 days after the ictus, participated in the study. (biomedsearch.com)
  • AJOU Open Repository: Vertebral artery dominance contributes to basilar artery curvature and peri-vertebrobasilar junctional infarcts. (ajou.ac.kr)
  • Therapy of basilar artery occlusion: a systematic analysis comparing intra-arterial and intravenous thrombolysis. (medscape.com)
  • Conclusions- In this first report of diffusion-perfusion MRI in patients with acute basilar artery occlusions treated with intra-arterial thrombolysis, significant mismatch was visualized on pretreatment studies, suggesting that large volumes of salvageable tissue were present. (ahajournals.org)
  • 6,8 Introduction of an intra-arterial catheter to administer thrombolytics locally may at times be difficult and time-consuming, considering the often stenosed and elongated arteriosclerotic vertebral arteries, and can increase treatment delay if considered the sole therapy mode. (ahajournals.org)
  • Pain in hand arterial doppler shows interosseos artery enlarged. (healthtap.com)
  • Treatment included emergent intra-arterial tPA and mechanical thrombolysis of basilar artery clot, followed by later coiling of the vertebral artery to prevent recurring episodes of basilar artery ischemia. (luriechildrens.org)
  • The vessels with their branchings and connections create in the cerebral base two main arterial circles of the brain (circulus arteriosus cerebri) and the basilar artery ( a. basilaris ). (media.pl)
  • At day 29 of gestation, the paired longitudinal neural artery on both sides of the hindbrain unite in the midline to form the basilar arterial plexus. (statpearls.com)
  • The basilar arterial plexus communicates anteriorly and cranially via the posterior communicating arteries and caudally with the vertebral arteries. (statpearls.com)
  • At the major arteries, the arterial branches are listed separately following the designation branches . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Recently the results of the Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study BASICS, a prospective registry of patients with acute symptomatic BAO challenged the often-held assumption that intra-arterial treatment IAT is superior to IVT. (duhnnae.com)
  • article{f5cd5108-d65d-4e15-8bae-0b0ebd620ed1, abstract = {Based on the previous finding that 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) co-exists with norepinephrine (NE) in cerebrovascular sympathetic nerve fibers and can be released during electrical nerve stimulation, the postjunctional interaction between the two amines was studied in isolated basilar artery of guinea pig. (lu.se)
  • abstract = "Stimulation of adenylate cyclase appears to activate ATP-sensitive K+ channels in the basilar artery. (elsevier.com)
  • Left and right vertebral artery angiograms ( A and B ) and MR angiograms ( C and D ) in a 42-year-old man with rhizomelia and mild mental retardation. (ajnr.org)
  • Anteroposterior and lateral views (top row) and 3D reconstructed multiplanar images (bottom row) from a right vertebral artery injection showing the large 2 cm eccentric aneurysm involving the middle third of the basilar artery trunk. (bmj.com)
  • Interventional neuroradiologists (INR) felt the risks of mechanical thrombectomy outweighed the benefits as he had presented with mild basilar syndrome. (medcraveonline.com)
  • 34% women) with basilar artery occlusions that were treated with second-generation thrombectomy devices at a single center. (neurovascularexchange.com)
  • Vertebral artery patency and thrombectomy in basilar artery occlusions: is there a need for contralateral flow arrest? (neurovascularexchange.com)
  • Katušić, ZS 1991, ' Endothelium-independent contractions to jvg-monomethyl-l-arginine in canine basilar artery ', Stroke , vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 1399-1404. (elsevier.com)
  • A six-month follow-up angiogram showed remodeling of the basilar artery, and complete occlusion of the aneurysm. (bmj.com)
  • 8,Symptoms consistent with basilar artery occlusion include limb paralysis, bulbar or pseudobulbar paralysis of the cranial nerve motor nuclei, nystagmus, eye movement disturbances and coma. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Can temporal arteries mimic Tmj symptoms? (healthtap.com)
  • What symptoms can "anomalous right subclavian artery" cause? (healthtap.com)
  • Basilar artery migraines an unusual condition distinguished by headache related with a range of neurological symptoms. (naturalcurefor.com)
  • If one part of the circle becomes blocked or narrowed ( stenosed ) or one of the arteries supplying the circle is blocked or narrowed, blood flow from the other blood vessels can often preserve the cerebral perfusion well enough to avoid the symptoms of ischemia . (wikipedia.org)
  • Aortic arch syndrome refers to a group of signs and symptoms associated with structural problems in the arteries that branch off the aortic arch. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Symptoms vary according to which artery or other structure that has been affected. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Endothelium-dependent relaxation to aggregating platelets in isolated basilar arteries of control and hypercholesterolemic pigs. (ahajournals.org)
  • In rings of basilar arteries from control animals aggregating platelets caused endothelium-dependent relaxations, which were significantly inhibited by apyrase, an adenosine diphosphatase and triphosphatase, but were augmented by methiothepin, a combined S1- and S2-serotonergic blocker. (ahajournals.org)
  • We tested the hypothesis that dilator responses of the basilar artery to endothelium-dependent vasodilators are mediated by activation of tyrosine kinase in vivo. (elsevier.com)
  • These results suggest that dilator responses of the basilar artery to endothelium-dependent agonists, acetylcholine and bradykinin, are mediated in large part by activation of tyrosine kinase. (elsevier.com)
  • Purpose The hyperdense basilar artery sign (HBAS) is an indicator of vessel occlusion on non contrast-enhanced computer tomography (NECT) in acute stroke patients. (harvard.edu)
  • The death certificate and autopsy, completed by the Medical Examiner, listed "acute subarachnoid hemorrhage" due to "rupture of sacular cerebral aneurysm" as the cause of death with "focal coronary artery atherosclerosis" as a significant condition. (cdc.gov)