A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.
A republic in the north of South America, east of VENEZUELA and west of SURINAME. Its capital is Georgetown.
An order of fungi in the phylum BASIDIOMYCOTA having macroscopic basidiocarps. The members are characterized by their saprophytic activities as decomposers, particularly in the degradation of CELLULOSE and LIGNIN. A large number of species in the order have been used medicinally. (From Alexopoulos, Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp504-68)
The fruiting 'heads' or 'caps' of FUNGI, which as a food item are familiarly known as MUSHROOMS, that contain the FUNGAL SPORES.
The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).
An extensive order of basidiomycetous fungi whose fruiting bodies are commonly called mushrooms.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.
Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 28S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
A red yeast-like mitosporic fungal genus generally regarded as nonpathogenic. It is cultured from numerous sources in human patients.
A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of fungi.
Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The act or practice of literary composition, the occupation of writer, or producing or engaging in literary work as a profession.
A genus of fungi of the family Agaricaceae, order Agaricales; most species are poisonous.
A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. Members contain murrayanine, koenine, isomahanine, kwangsine, siamenol, murrayafoline A, murrayaquinone A and other cytotoxic carbazolequinones.
Poisoning from ingestion of mushrooms, primarily from, but not restricted to, toxic varieties.
Disorder occurring in the central or peripheral area of the cornea. The usual degree of transparency becomes relatively opaque.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A genus of white-spored mushrooms in the family Tricholomataceae. They form symbiotic partnerships (MYCORRHIZAE) with trees.
The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.
The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and viruses.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
Techniques used in microbiology.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria characterized by an outer membrane that contains glycosphingolipids but lacks lipopolysaccharide. They have the ability to degrade a broad range of substituted aromatic compounds.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A family of fungi, order POLYPORALES, found on decaying wood.
Magnesium oxide (MgO). An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral periclase. In aqueous media combines quickly with water to form magnesium hydroxide. It is used as an antacid and mild laxative and has many nonmedicinal uses.
An island in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is San Juan. It is a self-governing commonwealth in union with the United States. It was discovered by Columbus in 1493 but no colonization was attempted until 1508. It belonged to Spain until ceded to the United States in 1898. It became a commonwealth with autonomy in internal affairs in 1952. Columbus named the island San Juan for St. John's Day, the Monday he arrived, and the bay Puerto Rico, rich harbor. The island became Puerto Rico officially in 1932. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p987 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p436)
A basidiomycetous fungal genus of the family Agaricaceae, order Agaricales, which includes the field mushroom (A. campestris) and the commercial mushroom (A. bisporus).

The nuclear ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer as a target sequence to study intraspecific diversity of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Hebeloma cylindrosporum directly on pinus root systems. (1/1530)

Polymorphism of the nuclear ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer (IGS) of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Hebeloma cylindrosporum was studied to evaluate whether this sequence could be used in field studies to estimate the diversity of strains forming mycorrhizas on individual Pinus pinaster root systems. This sequence was amplified by PCR from 125 haploid homokaryotic strains collected in 14 P. pinaster stands along the Atlantic coast of France by using conserved oligonucleotide primers. Restriction enzyme digestion of the amplified 3.4-kbp-long IGS allowed us to characterize 24 alleles whose frequencies differed. Nine of these alleles were found only once, whereas about 60% of the strains contained four of the alleles. Local populations could be almost as diverse as the entire population along a 150-km stretch of coastline that was examined; for example, 13 alleles were found in a single forest stand. The IGS from one strain was partially sequenced, and the sequence data were used to design oligonucleotides which allowed separate PCR amplification of three different segments of the IGS. Most polymorphisms observed among the full-length IGS regions resulted from polymorphisms in an internal ca. 1,500-bp-long sequence characterized by length variations that may have resulted from variable numbers of a T2AG3 motif. This internal polymorphic sequence could not be amplified from the genomes of nine other Hebeloma species. Analysis of this internal sequence amplified from the haploid progenies of 10 fruiting bodies collected in a 70-m2 area resulted in identification of six allelic forms and seven distinct diplotypes out of the 21 possible different combinations. Moreover, optimization of the PCR conditions resulted in amplification of this sequence from more than 80% of the DNA samples extracted from individual H. cylindrosporum infected P. pinaster mycorrhizal root tips, thus demonstrating the usefulness of this sequence for studying the below-ground diversity of mycorrhizas formed by genets belonging to the same fungal species.  (+info)

Cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding a novel extracellular peroxidase from Trametes versicolor. (2/1530)

The white rot basidiomycete Trametes versicolor secretes a large number of peroxidases which are believed to be involved in the degradation of polymeric lignin. These peroxidases have been classified previously as lignin peroxidases or manganese peroxidases (MnP). We have isolated a novel extracellular peroxidase-encoding cDNA sequence from T. versicolor CU1, the transcript levels of which are repressed by low concentrations of Mn2+ and induced by nitrogen and carbon but not induced in response to a range of stresses which have been reported to induce MnP expression.  (+info)

Direct interaction of lignin and lignin peroxidase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium. (3/1530)

Binding properties of lignin peroxidase (LiP) from the basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium against a synthetic lignin (dehydrogenated polymerizate, DHP) were studied with a resonant mirror biosensor. Among several ligninolytic enzymes, only LiP specifically binds to DHP. Kinetic analysis revealed that the binding was reversible, and that the dissociation equilibrium constant was 330 microM. The LiP-DHP interaction was controlled by the ionization group with a pKa of 5.3, strongly suggesting that a specific amino acid residue plays a role in lignin binding. A one-electron transfer from DHP to oxidized intermediates LiP compounds I and II (LiPI and LiPII) was characterized by using a stopped-flow technique, showing that binding interactions of DHP with LiPI and LiPII led to saturation kinetics. The dissociation equilibrium constants for LiPI-DHP and LiPII-DHP interactions were calculated to be 350 and 250 microM, and the first-order rate constants for electron transfer from DHP to LiPI and to LiPII were calculated to be 46 and 16 s-1, respectively. These kinetic and spectral studies strongly suggest that LiP is capable of oxidizing lignin directly at the protein surface by a long-range electron transfer process. A close look at the crystal structure suggested that LiP possesses His-239 as a possible lignin-binding site on the surface, which is linked to Asp-238. This Asp residue is hydrogen-bonded to the proximal His-176. This His-Asp...proximal-His motif would be a possible electron transfer route to oxidize polymeric lignin.  (+info)

A different approach to treatment of phenylketonuria: phenylalanine degradation with recombinant phenylalanine ammonia lyase. (4/1530)

Phenylketonuria (PKU), with its associated hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA) and mental retardation, is a classic genetic disease and the first to have an identified chemical cause of impaired cognitive development. Treatment from birth with a low phenylalanine diet largely prevents the deviant cognitive phenotype by ameliorating HPA and is recognized as one of the first effective treatments of a genetic disease. However, compliance with dietary treatment is difficult and when it is for life, as now recommended by an internationally used set of guidelines, is probably unrealistic. Herein we describe experiments on a mouse model using another modality for treatment of PKU compatible with better compliance using ancillary phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.1.5) to degrade phenylalanine, the harmful nutrient in PKU; in this treatment, PAL acts as a substitute for the enzyme phenylalanine monooxygenase (EC 1.14.16.1), which is deficient in PKU. PAL, a robust enzyme without need for a cofactor, converts phenylalanine to trans-cinnamic acid, a harmless metabolite. We describe (i) an efficient recombinant approach to produce PAL enzyme, (ii) testing of PAL in orthologous N-ethyl-N'-nitrosourea (ENU) mutant mouse strains with HPA, and (iii) proofs of principle (PAL reduces HPA)-both pharmacologic (with a clear dose-response effect vs. HPA after PAL injection) and physiologic (protected enteral PAL is significantly effective vs. HPA). These findings open another way to facilitate treatment of this classic genetic disease.  (+info)

Molecular gene organisation and secondary structure of the mitochondrial large subunit ribosomal RNA from the cultivated Basidiomycota Agrocybe aegerita: a 13 kb gene possessing six unusual nucleotide extensions and eight introns. (5/1530)

The complete gene sequence and secondary structure of the mitochondrial LSU rRNA from the cultivated Basidiomycota Agrocybe aegerita was derived by chromosome walking. The A.aegerita LSU rRNA gene (13 526 nt) represents, to date, the longest described, due to the highest number of introns (eight) and the occurrence of six long nucleotidic extensions. Seven introns belong to group I, while the intronic sequence i5 constitutes the first typical group II intron reported in a fungal mitochondrial LSU rDNA. As with most fungal LSU rDNA introns reported to date, four introns (i5-i8) are distributed in domain V associated with the peptidyl-transferase activity. One intron (i1) is located in domain I, and three (i2-i4) in domain II. The introns i2-i8 possess homologies with other fungal, algal or protozoan introns located at the same position in LSU rDNAs. One of them (i6) is located at the same insertion site as most Ascomycota or algae LSU introns, suggesting a possible inheritance from a common ancestor. On the contrary, intron i1 is located at a so-far unreported insertion site. Among the six unusual nucleotide extensions, five are located in domain I and one in domain V. This is the first report of a mitochondrial LSU rRNA gene sequence and secondary structure for the whole Basidiomycota division.  (+info)

Lignocellulose degradation by Phanerochaete chrysosporium: purification and characterization of the main alpha-galactosidase. (6/1530)

The main alpha-galactosidase was purified to homogeneity, in 30% yield, from a solid culture of Phanerochaete chrysosporium on 1 part wheat bran/2 parts thermomechanical softwood pulp. It is a glycosylated tetramer of 50 kDa peptide chains, which gives the N-terminal sequence ADNGLAITPQMG(?W)NT(?W)NHFG(?W)DIS(?W)DTI. It is remarkably stable, with crude extracts losing no activity over 3 h at 80 degrees C, and the purified enzyme retaining its activity over several months at 4 degrees C. The kinetics of hydrolysis at 25 degrees C of various substrates by this retaining enzyme were measured, absolute parameters being obtained by active-site titration with 2',4',6'-trinitrophenyl 2-deoxy-2, 2-difluoro-alpha-D-galactopyranoside. The variation of kcat/Km for 1-naphthyl-alpha-D-galactopyranoside with pH is bell-shaped, with pK1=1.91 and pK2=5.54. The alphaD(V/K) value for p-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside is 1.031+/-0.007 at the optimal pH of 3.75 and 1.114+/-0.006 at pH7.00, indicating masking of the intrinsic effect at optimal pH. There is no alpha-2H effect on binding galactose [alphaD(Ki)=0.994+/-0.013]. The enzyme hydrolyses p-nitrophenyl beta-L-arabinopyranoside approximately 510 times slower than the galactoside, but has no detectable activity on the alpha-D-glucopyranoside or alpha-D-mannopyranoside. Hydrolysis of alpha-galactosides with poor leaving groups is Michaelian, but that of substrates with good leaving groups exhibits pronounced apparent substrate inhibition, with Kis values similar to Km values. We attribute this to the binding of the second substrate molecule to a beta-galactopyranosyl-enzyme intermediate, forming an E.betaGal. alphaGalX complex which turns over slowly, if at all. 1-Fluoro-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl fluoride, unlike alpha-D-galactopyranosyl fluoride, is a Michaelian substrate, indicating that the effect of 1-fluorine substitution is greater on the first than on the second step of the enzyme reaction.  (+info)

Biodegradative mechanism of the brown rot basidiomycete Gloeophyllum trabeum: evidence for an extracellular hydroquinone-driven fenton reaction. (7/1530)

We have identified key components of the extracellular oxidative system that the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum uses to degrade a recalcitrant polymer, polyethylene glycol, via hydrogen abstraction reactions. G. trabeum produced an extracellular metabolite, 2,5-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone, and reduced it to 2,5-dimethoxyhydroquinone. In the presence of 2,5-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone, the fungus also reduced extracellular Fe3+ to Fe2+ and produced extracellular H2O2. Fe3+ reduction and H2O2 formation both resulted from a direct, non-enzymatic reaction between 2,5-dimethoxyhydroquinone and Fe3+. Polyethylene glycol depolymerization by G. trabeum required both 2,5-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone and Fe3+ and was completely inhibited by catalase. These results provide evidence that G. trabeum uses a hydroquinone-driven Fenton reaction to cleave polyethylene glycol. We propose that similar reactions account for the ability of G. trabeum to attack lignocellulose.  (+info)

Aromatic ring cleavage of a non-phenolic beta-O-4 lignin model dimer by laccase of Trametes versicolor in the presence of 1-hydroxybenzotriazole. (8/1530)

The novel cleavage products, 2,3-dihydroxy-1-(4-ethoxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1-formyloxypropane (II) and 1-(4-ethoxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,2,3-trihydroxypropane-2,3-cyclic carbonate (III) were identified as products of a non-phenolic beta-O-4 lignin model dimer, 1,3-dihydroxy-2-(2,6-dimethoxylphenoxy)-1-(4-ethoxy-3-methoxypheny l)propane (I), by a Trametes versicolor laccase in the presence of 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (1-HBT). An isotopic experiment with a 13C-labeled lignin model dimer, 1,3-dihydroxy-2-(2,6-[U-ring-13C] dimethoxyphenoxy)-1-(4-ethoxy-3-methoxyphenyl)propane (I-13C) indicated that the formyl and carbonate carbons of products II and III were derived from the beta-phenoxy group of beta-O-4 lignin model dimer I as aromatic ring cleavage fragments. These results show that the laccase-1-HBT couple could catalyze the aromatic ring cleavage of non-phenolic beta-O-4 lignin model dimer in addition to the beta-ether cleavage, Calpha-Cbeta cleavage, and Calpha-oxidation.  (+info)

The yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous is used for the microbiological production of the antioxidant carotenoid astaxanthin. In this study, we established an optimal protocol for protein extraction and performed the first proteomic analysis of the strain ATCC 24230. Protein profiles before and during the induction of carotenogenesis were determined by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Among the approximately 600 observed protein spots, 131 non-redundant proteins were identified. Proteomic analyses allowed us to identify 50 differentially expressed proteins that fall into several classes with distinct expression patterns. These analyses demonstrated that enzymes related to acetyl-CoA synthesis were more abundant prior to carotenogenesis. Later, redox- and stress-related proteins were up-regulated during the induction of carotenogenesis. For the carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes mevalonate kinase and phytoene/squalene synthase, we observed
The potential of X. dendrorhous as a microbiological source of natural astaxanthin was recognized soon after the isolation of this yeast by Hermann Phaff and coworkers (21). So far, strategies to improve astaxanthin production in X. dendrorhous were based on classical mutagenesis and selection (2, 9, 13) and/or the improvement of fermentation conditions (4, 11). Here, we describe the use of recombinant DNA technology for metabolic engineering of the astaxanthin biosynthetic pathway in X. dendrorhous. The crtYB gene of X. dendrorhous encoding the chimeric phytoene synthase-lycopene cyclase was used to construct specific carotenoid biosynthetic mutants. The combination of a white phenotype and the resistance towards G418 and the results of a Southern blot analysis (Fig. 4) indicated a successful inactivation of the endogenous crtYB gene, by either a single or a double crossover event. From the difference in transformation efficiency between the vectors pPR16, pPR19F, and pPR2TN, it can be ...
Genome analyses of the wheat yellow (stripe) rust pathogen Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici reveal polymorphic and haustorial expressed secreted proteins as candidate effectors. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chromosome location, linkage with simple sequence repeat markers, and leaf rust resistance conditioned by gene Lr63 in wheat. AU - Kolmer, J. A.. AU - Anderson, J. A.. AU - Flor, J. M.. PY - 2010/11. Y1 - 2010/11. N2 - RL6137, a Thatcher backcross line of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has resistance to Puccinia triticina (causal agent of wheat leaf rust) derived from T. monococcum. To determine the chromosome location of this resistance, RL6137 was crossed with Thatcher and F2 individual seedlings were tested for segregation of leaf rust resistance and segregation of polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Leaf rust resistance genotypes of F2 individuals were confirmed with segregation of F3 families. The F2 seedlings and F3 families segregated for a single leaf rust resistance gene. The SSR markers barc 57 and barc 321 located on chromosome 3AS were tightly linked with the leaf rust resistance gene. The leaf rust resistance gene in RL6137 was designated as Lr63. This ...
Origin, Migration Routes and Worldwide Population Genetic Structure of the Wheat Yellow Rust Pathogen Puccinia striiformis f.sp. ...
The deployment of diverse sources of resistance in new cultivars underpins durable control of rust diseases. Aus27430 exhibited a moderate level of stripe rust resistance against Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) pathotypes currently prevalent in Australia. Aus27430 was crossed with the susceptible parent Avocet S (AvS) and subsequent filial generations were raised. Monogenic segregation observed among Aus27430/AvS F3 families was confirmed through stripe rust screening of an F6 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population, and the resistance locus was temporarily named YrAW5. Selective genotyping using an Illumina iSelect 90K wheat SNP bead chip array located YrAW5 in chromosome 6A. Genetic mapping of the RIL population with linked 90K SNPs that were converted into PCR-based marker assays, as well as SSR markers previously mapped to chromosome 6A, confirmed the chromosomal assignment for YrAW5. Comparative analysis of other stripe rust resistance genes located in chromosome 6A led to the ...
Infestation pattern of P. indica in barley roots. (a) By 8 dai, hyphae excessively occupy rhizodermal and cortical cells of the differentiation zone. The elongation zone is less colonized, with occasional intercellular subepidermal hyphal structures. The root cap is heavily infested with hyphae. (b-e) After penetration (arrows) fungal hyphae colonize the subepidermal layer. (b) To better visualize the position of hyphae in the z axis, a confocal laser scanning image consisting of 30 frames of adjacent focal planes (z axis) was displayed as a maximum projection with the fluorescent signal of the wheat germ agglutinin-stained fungal hyphae displayed in red for the upper (abaxial) 15 frames and in green for the lower (adaxial, subepidermal) 15 frames. (c and d) For visualization of plant cell walls, two close-up bright-field images of two different focal planes are superimposed with the respective frames of the fluorescence images. Intercellular hyphae start branching and proliferate within the ...
Additionally, a blast analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence of the astaxanthin synthase enzyme, the product of the crtS gene, shows a high level of similarity with cytochrome P450 hydroxylase. In other organisms that synthesize astaxanthin, such as the microalgae H. pluvialis and the bacteria Agrobacterium auriantiacum (Misawa et al., 1995) or Paracoccus haeundaensis (Lee and Kim, 2006), the step from ß-carotene to astaxanthin using several ketocarotenoids as intermediates are controlled by two genes. The gene crtW that codes for the enzyme ß-carotene ketolase catalyzes the introduction of the keto groups, while the gene crtZ that codes for the enzyme ß-carotene hydroxylase catalyzes the incorporation of the hydroxyl groups in positions C3 and C3. However, in X. dendrorhous, the step from ß-carotene to astaxanthin is controlled by a single gene, crtS, that codes for the enzyme astaxanthin synthase, which is a cytochrome P450 hydroxylase-type enzyme, subfamily 3A (Ojima et al., 2006), ...
论文信息:Xiaoguo Zhu, Tuo Qi , Qian Yang, Fuxin He, Chenglong Tan, Wei Ma, Ralf Thomas Voegele, Zhensheng Kang, and Jun Guo. Host-induced gene silencing of the MAPKK gene PsFUZ7 confers stable resistance to wheat stripe rust. Plant Physiology(2017) DOI:10.1104/pp.17.01223. JCR分区Q1,IF=6.456. 论文摘要:RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful genetic tool to accelerate research in plant biotechnology and to control biotic stresses by manipulating target gene expression. However, the potential of RNAi in wheat to efficiently and durably control the devastating stripe rust fungus Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), remained largely under explored, so far. To address this issue, we generated transgenic wheat lines expressing double-stranded RNA targeting PsFUZ7 transcripts of Pst. We analyzed expression of PsFUZ7 and related genes, and resistance traits of the transgenic wheat lines. We show that PsFUZ7 is an important pathogenicity factor which regulates infection and ...
Hypersensitive adult plant resistance genes Lr48 and Lr49 were named based on their genetic independence of the known adult plant resistance genes. This study was planned to determine genomic locations of these genes. Recombinant inbred line populations derived from crosses involving CSP44 and VL404, sources of Lr48 and Lr49, respectively, and the susceptible parent WL711, were used to determine the genomic locations of these genes. Bulked segregant analyses were performed using multiplex-ready PCR technology. Lr48 in genotype CSP44 was mapped on chromosome arm 2BS flanked by marker loci Xgwm429b (6.1 cM) and Xbarc7 (7.3 cM) distally and proximally, respectively. Leaf rust resistance gene Lr13, carried by the alternate parent WL711, was proximal to Lr48 and was flanked by Xksm58 (5.1 cM) and Xstm773-2 (8.7 cM). Lr49 was flanked by Xbarc163 (8.1 cM) and Xwmc349 (10.1 cM) on chromosome arm 4BL. The likely presence of the durable leaf rust resistance gene Lr34 in both CSP44 and VL404 was confirmed ...
Functional Characterization of Calcineurin Homologs PsCNA1-PsCNB1 in Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici Using a Host-Induced RNAi System. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
First Report of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Races with Virulence to Wheat Stem Rust Resistance Genes Sr31 and Sr24 in Eritrea. ...
Leaf rust resistance gene Lr21 is present in hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivars grown in Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan. Isolates of Puccinia triticina, the causal organism of wheat leaf rust, with virulence to this gene have not been previously detected in annual virulence surveys in the United States. (2). In 2010, hard red spring wheat cvs. Faller, RB07 (1), and Glenn, all with Lr21, had 0 to 5% levels of leaf rust severity, which was higher than in previous years in research plots in North Dakota and Minnesota. Leaf rust collections from wheat cultivars and germplasm lines with Lr21 at three locations in Minnesota and North Dakota were increased on plants of the leaf rust susceptible wheat Thatcher and the Thatcher line with Lr21. Single uredinia from the collections were isolated and increased on seedlings of Thatcher. The single uredinial isolates were inoculated to 7- to 8-day-old seedling plants of the set of 19 differential lines that ...
Wheat stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is one of the most destructive diseases of wheat worldwide. To establish compatibility with the host, Pst forms special infection structures to invade the plant with minimal damage to host cells. Although compatible interaction between wheat and Pst has been studied using various approaches, research on molecular mechanisms of the interaction is limited. The aim of this study was to develop an EST database of wheat infected by Pst in order to determine transcription profiles of genes involved in compatible wheat-Pst interaction. Total RNA, extracted from susceptible infected wheat leaves harvested at 3, 5 and 8 days post inoculation (dpi), was used to create a cDNA library, from which 5,793 ESTs with high quality were obtained and clustered into 583 contigs and 2,160 singletons to give a set of 2,743 unisequences (GenBank accessions: GR302385 to GR305127). The BLASTx program was used to search for homologous genes of the
The expression of wheat leaf rust resistance genes Lr34, LrT3, and Lr12 was studied in seedlings of cv. Thatcher and the near-isogenic Thatcher genotypes RL6058-Lr34, line 920-Lr34, line 922-LrT3, and RL6011-Lr12 inoculated at 8 and 13 days old. Several Mexican pathotypes of Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici were used for inoculation. Incubation was carried out at four temperature regimes (three greenhouse and one growth chamber). Gene Lr34 conferred resistance to all pathotypes, although the seedling infection types (ITs) varied among tests and ranged from slightly chlorotic flecks to 3+. Low ITs were best recognized in the older first leaves, which indicated that leaf growth stage affected the expression of resistance. The IT was influenced by the genetic background, temperature, and other environmental factors (perhaps light). The pathotype-specific response of LrT3 could be seen only at lower temperatures, whereas Lr12 was ineffective to all pathotypes at all temperature regimes. Gene Lr34 ...
Yellow rust is a potential threat to an already fragile Afghan wheat production system. The year 2009 to 2010 saw extensive yellow rust incidence in Afghanistan mainly due to Yr27 virulence. The 2012 to 2013 crop seasons also had yellow rust incidence throughout the country. A set of 20 wheat seed chain varieties was grown at six agro climatically different locations in the country to proactively detect any shift in yellow rust virulence spectrum in the country. Yellow rust incidence on these varieties was scored under natural conditions during flowering to dough crop stages. Results revealed widespread susceptible reaction of at least four wheat varieties viz., Diama 96, PBW154, Ghori 96 and Herat 99. Four other wheat varieties viz., Muqawim 09, Koshan 09, Rana 96 and Gul 96 showed susceptible reaction at least at one location; however, a total of 12 other seed chain varieties were confirmed resistant to prevalent yellow rust races under natural conditions. Results warrant caution in advocating
Abstract. Accepted 6th January, 2019. Wheat is one of the important cereal crops of Ethiopia. It ranks third in land coverage and total production after tef and maize and in productivity after maize and sorghum. Hararghe highlands are also considered to be suitable for wheat cultivation in the country. However, the production of wheat in this region is threatened by the stem rust disease. This study was conducted with the following objectives: to determine distribution, incidence and severity of wheat stem rust Puccinia graminis f.sp. tritici in Hararghe highlands. Field surveys were carried out in eight districts of east and west Haraghe zones. A total of 200 fields were surveyed. Stem rust occurred in 80% and 74% of the fields surveyed in East and West Hararghe zones, respectively. Its incidence was 38.32% and 30.43% in East and West Hararghe areas, respectively. There was significance difference among the zones, districts and peasant associations (P, 0.05). The highest mean severity (35.36%) ...
Stripe rust (also known as yellow rust), caused by the pathogen Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is a common and serious fungal disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) worldwide. To identify effective stripe rust resistance loci, a genome-wide association study was performed using 152 wheat landraces from the Yellow and Huai River Valleys in China based on Diversity Arrays Technology and simple sequence repeat markers. Phenotypic evaluation of the degree of resistance to stripe rust at the adult-plant stage under field conditions was carried out in five environments. In total, 19 accessions displayed stable, high degrees of resistance to stripe rust development when exposed to mixed races of Pst at the adult-plant stage in multi-environment field assessments. A marker-trait association analysis indicated that 51 loci were significantly associated with adult-plant resistance to stripe rust. These loci included 40 quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions for adult-plant resistance. Twenty ...
Sample extracts also were processed in PCR reaction mixtures with primer set Pme1:Pme2, specific for P. meibomiae (data not shown). No diagnostic 330 bp band was observed from any of the plant samples processed. Purified P. meibomiae DNA (80 ng in 4 l) was amplified in a positive control, and the diagnostic 330 bp band was observed. A faint band approximately 330 bp in size also was observed when P. pachyrhizi DNA (80 ng in 4 l) was used as a negative control. These results indicate that sample extracts should be processed with both primer sets, especially if a faint band is observed, because observation of a faint band produced with Ppa1:Ppa2 primers could indicate little P. pachyrhizi DNA in the sample or non-specific amplification of P. meibomiae DNA.. PCR product in DNA bands produced from amplification of soybean leaf extract was excised from the gel. DNA was extracted, purified (Qiaquick Gel Extraction kit, Qiagen Inc., Valencia, CA), and sent for sequencing to the DNA Sequencing Core ...
Isolates of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici belonging to the Ug99 race group are virulent to a broad spectrum of resistance genes, rendering most of the worlds wheat germplasm susceptible to stem rust (3). Following the initial detection of Ug99 (TTKSK, North American [NA] race notation) in Uganda, virulence to the widely used Sr31 resistance gene has been reported from
Citation: Qi, M., Link, T.I., Muller, M., Hirschburger, D., Pedley, K.F., Braun, E., Voegele, R.T., Baum, T., Whitham, S.A. 2016. A small cysteine-rich protein from the Asian soybean rust fungus, Phakopsora pachyrhizi, suppresses plant immunity. PLoS Pathogens. 12(9): e1005827. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1005827. Interpretive Summary: The Asian soybean rust fungus, Phakopsora pachyrhizi, is an obligate pathogen capable of causing explosive disease epidemics that drastically reduce the yield of soybean. Currently, the mechanisms by which P. pachyrhizi and other related fungi cause disease are poorly understood. The genome sequences and other data obtained from these fungi indicate that a variety of small proteins play essential roles that enable them to cause disease. These proteins, called effectors, are released by the pathogen and interfere with a plants ability to fight the disease. Here, we identify an effector protein produced by P. pachyrhizi and demonstrate that it is capable of ...
In Kansas, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is severely affected by the biotrophic fungus Puccinia triticina (leaf rust). Although resistant varieties have been developed, the fungus tends to overcome new sources resistance very quickly. Plants have evolved a single gene (R genes) defense network that can recognize specific pathogen effectors (Avr), in a gene-for-gene manor. In rusts, effectors are secreted proteins responsible for inducing the uptake of nutrients and inhibit host defense responses. Identification of secreted proteins during the infection may help to understand the mode of infection of P. triticina. Little is known about molecular interactions in the pathosystem wheat-leaf rust and no Avr genes from cereal rusts have been cloned. In order to understand pathogenicity in leaf rust and generate new alternatives for disease control, the goal of this research is identify P. triticina secreted proteins from a collection of expressed genes during the infection, and to characterize putative ...
Will is a plant pathologist at the Elizabeth Macarthur Agricultural Institute, Menangle, working on rust diseases. He is currently monitoring the Australian population of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, the plant pathogen that causes wheat stripe rust, for new incursions from overseas and for new virulence mutations.. Will has a PhD from the University of New South Wales. He has published multiple articles on plant‑microbe interactions in journals including Nature Plants and FEMS Microbiology Ecology and is an Adjunct Lecturer at the University of Sydney where he has co‑supervised postgraduate research students in the Faculty of Agriculture and Environment. Will also co‑supervises students in the School of Science and Health at Western Sydney University.. Will specialises in the rust diseases caused by Puccinia striiformis which includes stripe rusts of wheat, barley, cocksfoot and barley grass. Wheat stripe rust alone costs the Australian economy $127 million p.a. Will is interested ...
The Tremella Fuciformis Sorocarp Extract is derived from the tremella fuciformis which is a species of fungus belonging to the Tremella Genus also known as the Silver Ear mushroom from China. The fungus is comprised of 5 sugar units and contains a polymer molecular structure. The fungi are often cultivated and used for cuisine and medicinal purposes. In the past, Yang Guifei a beauty legend of China was said to have used the mushroom to soften and smooth the skin.. In skin care products, the ingredient has been found to help the skin retain moisture while preventing the breakdown of micro-blood vessels. As a result, Tremella Fuciformis Sorocarp Extract reduces the appearance of lines and wrinkles.. The Tremella Fuciformis Sorocarp is an acidic hetero-polysacchaaride that has been used since ancient times to beautify the skin. In addition to its moisturizing characteristics, the extract has been found to provide antioxidant activity. Research indicates that the Tremella Fuciformis has shown ...
AHDB has launched its Yellow Rust Watch List for winter wheat varieties on the Recommended List. By looking at the levels of yellow rust in trials around the UK, the Watch List identifies those varieties with a higher than expected level of the disease. This signifies that the variety may be prone to breakdown of resistance caused by the emergence of new yellow rust variants. Importantly, the List also shows this information against the national yellow rust ratings on the Recommended List. The higher the national rating, the more likely it is that new variants are not widespread, or have not been identified at all.. NIAB pathologist Dr Jane Thomas welcomed the introduction of the watch list. It helps to identify those varieties that should be monitored closely and gives growers additional information derived from the Recommended List system to help manage varieties effectively.. Dr Lucy James, who leads the UKCPVS project at NIAB, agreed. It is clear that the current yellow rust population in ...
Stripe (yellow) rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) is one of the most important wheat diseases in Egypt and worldwide. Isolates of (Pst) collected during 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 were identified in 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 growing seasons, respectively. Seven physiological races were identified in the first season i.e., 0E0, 4E0, 16E2, 16E128, 16E130, 60E153 and 60E177; while in the second season, 13 physiological races were identified i.e., 0E0, 6E0, 2E0, 2E16, 4E0, 4E4, 6E5, 6E20, 18E16, 34E16, 34E20, 38E20 and 70E4. Race 0E0 was the most frequent one followed by 4E0 and 6E4. Results obtained showed that Yr1, Yr5, YrSU, and YrSP were the most resistant genes against yellow rust in both growing seasons, while Yr7, Yr6 and Yr6+ were the most susceptible genes. These results are substantially important for wheat breeding programs for disease resistance.
Wheat yield and quality is influenced by many abiotic and biotic environmental factors. Pre- harvest sprouting (PHS) occurs when physiologically matured spikes are exposed to wet field conditions before harvest, which results in seed germination and causes significant losses in yield and end-use quality. Wheat stripe rust is one of the most important biotic factors reducing grain yield and quality. To investigate the genetic basis of the resistance to PHS and stripe rust in hard white winter wheat cultivars Danby and Tiger and develop molecular markers for marker- assisted breeding, a double haploid (DH) population, derived from those two cultivars, was genotyped with simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers and simple nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. This DH population was assessed for resistance to PHS and stripe rust in both greenhouse and field experiments. For PHS, one major resistant quantitative trait locus (QTL) was consistently detected on the short arm of chromosome 3A in all three ...
The fungi that cause rust diseases are fascinating; many require more than one host to survive, and all produce, in succession, two or more different types of spores during the growing season. Rust fungi are related to the mushrooms you purchase in the supermarket, but the spores produced by these organisms are found in rusty (yellow to orange to brown) pustules on leaves, stems, needles, and fruit. Rust fungi are biotrophs: they do not grow in absence of a living host, and they tend to have a narrow host range.. Some rust fungi have a unique life history; those fungi that need more than one host plant to complete their life cycle (called alternate hosts) are heteroecious. Examples of heteroecious rust diseases include the Gymnosporangium rusts (for example, cedar-apple rust and quince rust), ash rust, and fuchsia rust. Alternatively, other rust fungi do not require more than one host plant to survive; these rust fungi are autoecious and include hollyhock rust, pine-pine gall rust, and ...
Serpula lacrymans ATCC ® 36335™ Designation: 1 Application: fungus resistance testing testing wood preservatives Test strain for inhibitor tolerance
To identify new sources of resistance to Pst that were effective in different environments of the western United States, we performed field evaluations in three locations with very different ecological conditions. Despite these differences, we observed high correlations among IT and SEV values obtained from the different environments (Table 2). These high correlations suggest that there might be similar Pst populations across the western United States. This hypothesis is supported by the known paths of spore dispersal by wind (Chen 2005) and by periodic spore surveys across this region. In the last published Pst race survey from 2010 (Wan and Chen 2014), 20% of the races detected in California and Washington were shared between the two states (PSTv-8, PSTv-14, PSTv-36, PSTv-37, PSTv-40, and PSTv-41), providing further support to the previous hypothesis. The high correlations among environments were also reflected in high heritability for IT and SEV values (Table 1), which were favorable for the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sequence validation for the identification of the white-rot fungi Bjerkandera in public sequence databases. AU - JUNG, Paul Eunil. AU - FONG, Jonathan J.. AU - PARK, Myung Soo. AU - OH, Seung Yoon. AU - KIM, Changmu. AU - LIM, Young Woon. PY - 2014/10/1. Y1 - 2014/10/1. N2 - White-rot fungi of the genus Bjerkandera are cosmopolitan and have shown potential for industrial application and bioremediation. When distinguishing morphological characters are no longer present (e.g., cultures or dried specimen fragments), characterizing true sequences of Bjerkandera is crucial for accurate identification and application of the species. To build a framework for molecular identification of Bjerkandera, we carefully identified specimens of B. adusta and B. fumosa from Korea based on morphological characters, followed by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer region and 28S nuclear ribosomal large subunit. The phylogenetic analysis of Korean Bjerkandera specimens showed clear genetic ...
Emerging and re-emerging pathogens imperil public health and global food security. Responding to these threats requires improved surveillance and diagnostic systems. Despite their potential, genomic tools have not been readily applied to emerging or re-emerging plant pathogens such as the wheat yellow (stripe) rust pathogen Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (PST). This is due largely to the obligate parasitic nature of PST, as culturing PST isolates for DNA extraction remains slow and tedious. To counteract the limitations associated with culturing PST, we developed and applied a field pathogenomics approach by transcriptome sequencing infected wheat leaves collected from the field in 2013. This enabled us to rapidly gain insights into this emerging pathogen population. We found that the PST population across the United Kingdom (UK) underwent a major shift in recent years. Population genetic structure analyses revealed four distinct lineages that correlated to the phenotypic groups determined through
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Phellinus linteus (Japanese meshimakobu, Chinese song gen, Korean sanghwang, English Meshima, American English black hoof mushroom) is a medicinal mushroom used in Japan, Korea and China for centuries to prevent ailments as diverse as gastroenteric dysfunction, diarrhea, haemorrhage and cancers. It is shaped like a hoof, has a bitter taste, and in the wild grows on mulberry trees. The stems color ranges from dark brown to black. In Korean traditional medicine, the mushroom is consumed in the form of hot tea. Early research has suggested that Phellinus linteus has anti-breast cancer activity. A paper published by Harvard Medical School reported that Phellinus linteus is a promising anti-cancer agent, but that more research is required to understand the mechanisms behind its anti-cancer activity. Nine compounds were isolated from the active ethylacetate fraction of the fruiting body and identified as protocatechuic acid, protocatechualdehyde, caffeic acid, ellagic acid, hispidin, ...
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Parmasto, E. (1). Clavariachaetaceae, a family of neotropical Hymenochaetales (Basidiomycota) including clavarioid, pileate and resupinate species. Folia Cryptogamica Estonica, 47, 51-57. Retrieved from http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/FCE/article/view/ ...
Piriformospora indica is known as a fungus that can easily colonize a wide range of plants and enhance hosts growth and tolerance to abiotic stresses, including salinity. The mechanistic basis behind this phenomenon remains poorly understood. This work was aimed to fill in this gap and reveal mechanisms enhancing salinity tolerance in maize roots colonised by P. indica. A range of agronomic and physiological characteristics were compared between inoculated and non-inoculated maize plants under 0/100/200 mM NaCl conditions. The impact of P. indica inoculation or roots cytosolic K+ retention ability were also assessed using micro-electrode ion flux estimation technique. The results showed that inoculated plants had higher biomass, higher stomatal conductance, lower K+ efflux from roots and higher potassium content in shoots than non-inoculated plants under salt stress. Collectively, the results indicated that the beneficial effects of inoculation on plant performance under saline conditions were ...
Cyclophilins (CyP), conserved in all genera, are known to have regulatory responses of various cellular processes including stress tolerance. Interestingly, CyP has a crucial role as peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases (PPIases). Our earlier in silico based approach resulted into the identification of cyclophilin family from rice, Arabidopsis and yeast. In our recent report, we discovered a new OsCYP-25 from rice. Here, we identified a novel cyclophylin A-like protein (PiCyP) from Piriformospora indica which is responsible for abiotic stress tolerance in E. coli. Cyclophylin A-like protein (CyPA) (accession number GQ214003) was selected from cDNA library. The genomic organization CyPA revealed a 1304 bp of CyPA in P. indica genome, showing 10 exons and 9 introns. Further, CyPA was evident in PCR with gDNA and cDNA and Southern blot analysis. The phylogenetic examination of CyPA of P. indica showed that it is closed to human cyclophilin. The uniqueness of PiCyPA protein was apparent in western blot
We demonstrated and characterized the production of pro Vitamin A, beta-Carotene, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, by importing three carotegenic genes from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous, namely carotene desaturase, GGPP synthase, phytoene synthase. The quantification was done via HPLC analysis and spectrophotometric assays over time. We also ran a comparative study of our yeast strains efficiency in dough versus in lab conditions using a novel substrate, dough media plates. We observed production of significant amounts of beta-carotene from this strain. We have engineered a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to express L-ascorbic acid, or Vitamin C, for use in the baking of bread and brewing of beer. We codon-optimized three genes from the Vitamin C pathway of Arabidopsis thaliana and made them BioBrick compatible. These were then constructed de novo and assembled into expression cassettes. We are currently in the process of characterizing the Vitamin C production via HPLC and photospectrometric ...
Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: Phakopsora pachyrhizi is the causal agent of Asian soybean rust, a disease of leguminous plants that has recently become established in the U.S. We previously applied two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry to identify a set of extracellular proteins that were washed from urediniospores following 18 hours germination on sterile water. These proteins were mapped to cDNA clones from a P. pachyrhizi EST library, and a subset of five full length open reading frames were overexpressed in E. coli. The resulting recombinant proteins were then used to generate polyclonal antibodies. The antibodies recognized native forms of the proteins in P. pachyrhizi urediniospore extracts and in extracts from plants infected with P. pachyrhizi 3 to 14 days post inoculation. In previous analyses, all five of the secreted proteins contained predicted amino acid motifs for N- or O- linked glycosylation. Lectin blots have verified glycosylation ...
67 mikologoz osaturiko koalizio batek azken uneko sailkapen bat proposatu zuen 2007an[2]. Basidiomycota barruan 3 azpifilum onartu ziren (Pucciniomycotina, Ustilaginomycotina eta Agaricomycotina) eta klase mailako beste 2 taxon (Wallemiomycetes eta Entorrhizomycetes) hortik kanpo. Sailkapen berri honek aurretik existitzen ziren talde taxonomikoak berrantolatzea suposatu zuen.. Lehen basidiomikotoen taldea bi klasetan banatzen zen, Homobasidiomycetes klasea (perretxikoak barne hartzen zituena), eta Heterobasidiomycetes klasea (onddo gelatinakarak, herdoil-onddoak, lizunak). Hori baino lehenago, Basidiomycota osoari Basidiomycetes deitzen zitzaion, 1959an Ascomycetes-en pareko gisa sortu zen klase-izen orain baliogabea. Oraindik ere hainbatek basidiomizete eta askomizete terminoak erabiltzen dituzte Basidiomycota eta Ascomycota taldeez hitz egiteko.. Agaricomycotina taldean lehengo hainbat talde bildu dira: Hymenomycetes taldea (himenioa eratzen duten basidiomikotoak barne hartzen zituen klase ...
Stripe rust and leaf rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici Erikss. and P. triticina, respectively, are devastating fungal diseases of common wheat ( Triticum aestivumL.)....
Stem rust is one of the most devastating diseases affecting wheat worldwide. In North America the last epidemics were recorded in 1955, since then stem rust has been under control by the use of resistant cultivars and eradication of alternate hosts. Resistant cultivars have always been effective control of this disease worldwide. But in 1999 a new race of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, the causative agent of stem rust, was detected in Uganda that was virulent against the traditional wheat resistance genes, Sr31 and Sr38 (1). This race was denominated TTKS, or alternatively, Ug99. In 2003 race Ug99 was found in Kenya and in 2007 in Yemen (1-3). This virulent race could soon migrate to the Middle East and Central Asia and can attack many of the current cultivars in use worldwide (4, 5). Due to the widespread susceptibility to Ug99 and the potential perspectives of new widespread stem rust epidemics, the Global Rust Initiative (www.globalrust.org) set as one of its top priorities the monitoring ...
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Tremella Fuciformis, aka Snow Mushroom, has an ethereal white jelly-like appearance. Studies have shown that Tremella Fuciformis helps protect against cognitive decline (Alzheimers Disease and MCI), as well as increase overall learning and memory ability. Tremella Fuciformis also alleviates free radical activity and r
In plants, disease resistance mediated by the gene-for-gene mechanism involves the recognition of specific effector molecules produced by the pathogen either directly or indirectly by the resistance-gene products. This recognition triggers a series of signals, thereby serving as a molecular switch in regulating defense mechanisms by the plants. To understand the mechanism of action of the barley stem rust resistance gene Rpg1, we investigated the fate of the RPG1 protein in response to infection with the stem rust fungus, Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici. The investigations revealed that RPG1 disappears to undetectable limits only in the infected tissues in response to avirulent, but not virulent pathotypes. The RPG1 protein disappearance is rapid and appears to be due to specific protein degradation via the proteasome-mediated pathway as indicated by inhibition with the proteasomal inhibitor MG132, but not by other protease inhibitors ...
This paper reports the isolation of phenoloxidase-negative mutants of the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium and the results of a survey of idiophasic functions among these mutants. The mutant strains were isolated from a medium containing o-anisidine after gamma irradiation of wild-type spores and fell into four classes, divided by the manner in which they mineralized 14C-lignin wheat lignocellulose. Examples are strain LMT7, which degraded lignin at a rate similar to that of the wild type; strain LMT26, in which degradation was enhanced; strain LMT16, whose degradation rate was apparently unaffected, although the onset of lignin attack was delayed compared with that in the wild type; and strain LMT24, which was unable to evolve significant amounts of 14CO2 from the radiolabeled substrate. The mutants were not necessarily defective in other functions associated with idiophasic activities (intracellular cyclic AMP levels, sporulation, extracellular glucan production, veratryl alcohol ...
Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) is the causal agent of stripe (yellow) rust on wheat. It seriously threatens wheat production worldwide. The obligate biotrophic fungus is highly capable of producing new virulent races that can overcome resistance. Studying the inheritance of Pst virulence using the classical genetic approach was not possible until the recent discovery of its sexual stage on barberry plants. In the present study, 127 progeny isolates were obtained by selfing a representative Chinese Yellow Rust (CYR) race, CYR32, on Berberis aggregate. The parental isolate and progeny isolates were characterized by testing them on 25 wheat lines with different Yr genes for resistance and 10 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The 127 progeny isolates were classified into 27 virulence phenotypes, and 65 multi-locus genotypes. All progeny isolates and the parental isolate were avirulent to Yr5, Yr8, Yr10, Yr15, Yr24, Yr26, Yr32 and YrTr1; but virulent to Yr1, Yr2, Yr3, Yr4, Yr25, Yr44 and Yr76.
Yellow rust takes its name from the appearance of yellow-colored stripes produced parallel along the venations of each leaf blade. These yellow stripes are actually characteristic of uredinia that produce yellow colored urediniospores. Primary hosts of yellow rust are Triticum aestivum (bread wheat), Triticum turgidum (durum wheat), triticale, and a few Hordeum vulgare (barley) cultivars. The alternate host was discovered by accident in 2010.[2] Species of common barberry plants (the alternate host of wheat stem rust) were found harbouring stripe rust. When transferred to grass hosts, Kentucky Bluegrass was successfully infected and urediniospores were produced. Several species of Berberis were then investigated as alternate hosts of wheat stripe rust and inoculations were successful. The disease usually occurs early in the growth season, when temperature ranges between 2 and 15 °C (36 and 59 °F); but it may occur to a maximum of 23 °C (73 °F). High humidity and rainfall are favorable ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Glyoxylate-supported reactions catalyzed by Mn peroxidase of Phanerochaete chrysosporium. T2 - Activity in the absence of added hydrogen peroxide. AU - Kuan, I. Ching. AU - Tien, Ming. PY - 1993. Y1 - 1993. N2 - Mn peroxidases are H2O2-utilizing hemeproteins secreted by the lignin-degrading fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. We show here that glyoxylate is capable of supporting Mn peroxidase activity without added H2O2. This glyoxylate-supported activity is dependent upon Mn2+ and dioxygen. The involvement of superoxide is demonstrated by inhibition by superoxide scavenging agents, superoxide dismutase, or tetranitromethane. The addition of catalase resulted in dioxygen evolution, indicating that H2O2 is an intermediate in the reaction. Formate is one of the oxidation products of glyoxylate as detected by the formate dehydrogenase assay. The generation of H2O2 in the presence of Mn2+ and Mn peroxidase results in Mn3+ formation. Consequently, we show that the direct reaction ...
Influence of Carbon Source on the Production of Extracellular Ligninolytic Enzymes by Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Fangfang Wang,a Mingqiang Ai,a Guihua Yang,b Jiachuan Chen,b Xiulan Chen,a and Feng Huang a,*. The effect of altering the carbon source in the growing environment was investigated relative to the production of ligninolytic enzymes by Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Glucose, cellobiose, and cellulose (or mixtures thereof) were used as the carbon sources. Glucose oxidase and glyoxal oxidase activities in all carbon sources were produced during cultivation. High peak levels (0.17 to 0.24 IU/mL) of manganese peroxidase activity were observed only in mediums containing oligosaccharides. Lignin peroxidase activity was high in glucose medium (0.21 IU/mL of peak value); however, minimal amounts were formed in the cellulose medium (0.01 IU/mL of peak value). High amounts of cellobiose:quinone oxidoreductase (3.33-3.99 IU/mL of peak value) and cellobiose dehydrogenase (0.04-0.2 IU/mL of peak ...
Uromyces fabae THI2 protein: involved in vitamin B1 biosynthesis; isolated from the fungus Uromyces fabae; amino acid sequence in first source
After soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, was confirmed in the USA in 2004 in soybean (Glycine max) (4), sentinel plots were established in 2005 in 26 soybean-producing states to monitor its spread. Funding for establishing, sampling, and monitoring the plots came from the USDA, national, regional, and state soybean commodity boards, and state departments of agriculture, extension services, and universities. Sentinel plots were a minimum of 8 m × 16 m in size, planted as early as possible for a particular area, and represented either separate plots or marked areas in commercial fields that were monitored regularly by scouts primarily from state universities and extension services for soybean rust.. The presence of sentinel plots for soybean rust monitoring provided the potential for reducing the time and expense of extensive statewide travel for collection of soybean leaf samples for monitoring the incidence of other foliar diseases of soybean in Illinois. In many Midwestern states, ...
The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium degraded DDT [1,1,-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane], 3,4,3,4-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 2,4,5,2,-4,5-hexachlorobiphenyl, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, lindane (1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocylohexane), and benzo[a]pyrene to carbon dioxide. Model studies, based on the use of DDT, suggest that the ability of Phanerochaete chrysosporium to metabolize these compounds is dependent on the extracellular lignin-degrading enzyme system of this fungus. ...
The practice of exposing liquid cultures of the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium to a pure oxygen atmosphere under conditions of nutrient starvation has been widely adopted to induce lignin peroxidase (LiP) synthesis. Transmission electron microscopy was used to examine hyphal cells of carbon-limited cultures that had been exposed to an atmosphere of pure oxygen, and revealed evidence of a major loss in organization of cellular ultrastructure, which may be attributed to oxygen toxicity. Under some conditions (continuous agitation in air with cellulose as the carbon source) cultures will produce LiP without needing to be exposed to a pure oxygen atmosphere. A similar major loss of cellular ultrastructure was found in hyphal cells from such cultures upon examination. Investigation of the levels of H2O2, catalase and carbonyl content of intracellular proteins suggests that the latter cultures developed a hyperoxidant state because the rate of supply of carbon from cellulose hydrolysis was
Oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides is an excellent microbial lipid producer using carbohydrates as the feedstock [1]. Therefore, it is important to develop molecular biology tools to further manipulate this microorganism. Extraction of high-quality RNA from R. toruloides is particular challenging due to high level of polysaccharides, lipids and other secondary metabolites [2]. To obtain an optimal protocol for RNA extraction from R. toruloides, four methods, including guanidine thiocyanate [3], glass beads-hot acid phenol, glass beads-TRIzol, and modified RNAiso, were evaluated. RNA quality was assessed using UV absorbance (A260/A280 and A260/A230), agarose gel electrophoresis, reverse transcription (RT)-PCR reactions, and Gel-Pro analyzer 4.5. Large differences in RNA yield and quality among protocols were found. The optimum method was modified RNAiso method, where RNA was isolated using liquid nitrogen-RNAiso with salt precipitation and the addition of PVP andβ-mercaptoethanol. This ...
The present invention is in the field of plant breeding and disease resistance. More specifically, the invention includes a method for breeding soybean plants containing quantitative trait loci that are associated with resistance to Asian Soybean Rust (ASR), a fungal disease associated with Phakopsora spp. The invention further includes germplasm and the use of germplasm containing quantitative trait loci (QTL) conferring disease resistance for introgression into elite germplasm in a breeding program for resistance to ASR.
Kelussia odoratissima Mozaff. belonging to the Apiaceae family, is well known for its medicinal and nutritional importance, endemic to Iran. Seed dormancy is a major problem present in Kelussia odoratissima leading to low germination percentage; thus, improvement of seed germination and breaking seed dormancy is important. Piriformospora indica, a root-colonizing endophytic fungus, promotes plant growth, development and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. In order to evaluate the effects of different treatments of P. indica on seed germination traits of Kelussia odoratissima, an experiment was conducted based on completely randomized design with five treatments and three replications. The experimental treatments were application of fungal mycelium of P. indica (M), spore suspension of P. indica (S), the combination of Gibberellic acid and fungal mycelium (H+M), the combination of Gibberellic acid and spore suspension (H+S), and control (C). Based on the results the highest percentage of
The performance of a fluidized bed reactor using immobilized Phanerochaete chrysosporium to remove 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) from aqueous solution was investigated. The contribution of lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) secreted by Phanerochaete chrysosporium to the 2,4-DCP degradation was examined. Results showed that Lip and Mnp were not essential to 2,4-DCP degradation while their presence enhanced the degradation process and reaction rate. In sequential batch experiment, the bioactivity of immobilized cells was recovered and improved during the culture and the maximum degradation rate constant of 13.95 mg (Ld)−1 could be reached. In continuous bioreactor test, the kinetic behavior of the Phanerochaete chrysosporium immobilized on loofa sponge was found to follow the Monod equation. The maximum reaction rate was 7.002 mg (Lh)−1, and the saturation constant was 26.045 mg L−1. ...
APHOTOFUNGI - Photographic Stock Image Library Page for Heterobasidion annosum - Root Fomes (Polyporale images). A-P-H-O-T-O - Furthering environmental awareness and education through the medium of photography.
Objectives To target a carotenoid biosynthetic gene in the oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides by using the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (AMT) method.
Poplar trees synthesize flavan-3-ols (catechin and proanthocyanidins) as a defense against foliar rust fungi, but the regulation of this defense response is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of hormones in regulating flavan-3-ol accumulation in poplar during rust infection. We profiled levels of defense hormones, signaling genes, and flavan-3-ol metabolites in black poplar leaves at different stages of rust infection. Hormone levels were manipulated by external sprays, genetic engineering, and drought to reveal their role in rust fungal defenses. Levels of salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid, and abscisic acid increased in rust-infected leaves and activated downstream signaling, with SA levels correlating closely with those of flavan-3-ols. Pretreatment with the SA analog benzothiadiazole increased flavan-3-ol accumulation by activating the MYB-bHLH-WD40 complex and reduced rust proliferation. Furthermore, transgenic poplar lines overproducing SA exhibited higher amounts of ...
Since it was first reported in Brazil, Asian soybean rust has been considered the most significant disease in the crop. Successive applications of fungicid
Uromyces fabae is a major pathogen of broad bean, Vicia faba. U. fabae has served as a model among rust fungi to elucidate the development of infection structures, expression and secretion of cell wall degrading enzymes and gene expression. Using U. fabae, enormous progress was made regarding nutrient uptake and metabolism and in the search for secreted proteins and effectors. Here, we present results from a genome survey of U. fabae. Paired end Illumina sequencing provided 53 Gb of data. An assembly gave 59,735 scaffolds with a total length of 216 Mb. K-mer analysis estimated the genome size to be 329 Mb. Of a representative set of 23,153 predicted proteins we could annotate 10,209, and predict 599 secreted proteins. Clustering of the protein set indicates families of highly likely effectors. We also found new homologs of RTP1p, a prototype rust effector. The U. fabae genome will be an important resource for comparative analyses with U. appendiculatus and P. pachyrhizi and provide information regarding
A new gene for Ug99 resistance from wheat landrace PI 374670 was detected on the long arm of chromosome 7A. Wheat landrace PI 374670 has seedling and field resistance to stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp tritici Eriks. & E. Henn (Pgt) race TTKSK. To elucidate the inheritance of resistance, 216 BC1F2 families, 192 double haploid (DH) lines, and 185 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) were developed by crossing PI 374670 and the susceptible line LMPG-6. The parents and progeny were evaluated for seedling resistance to Pgt races TTKSK, MCCFC, and TPMKC. The DH lines were tested in field stem rust nurseries in Kenya and Ethiopia. The DH lines were genotyped with the 90K wheat iSelect SNP genotyping platform. Goodness-of-fit tests indicated that a single dominant gene in PI 374670 conditioned seedling resistance to the three Pgt races. The seedling resistance locus mapped to the long arm of chromosome 7A and this result was verified in the RIL population screened with the flanking SNP markers using
PCretro6 is a Ty1/Copia LTR retrotransposon found in the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium (Novikova et al 2005, unpublished). It belongs to pCretro clade within Branch 2 of the Ty1/Copia LTR retrotransposons family (Llorens et al. 2009). The genome of pCretro6 is about of 5 Kb in size (5049 bp long), including LTRs of 369 bp that flank one single Open Reading Frame (ORF) of 1394 amino acids. This retroelement encodes for the gag-pol polyprotein which domains organization is the typical of Ty1/Copia LTR retrotransposons (gag, protease, integrase, reverse transcriptase and ribonuclease H). ...
Phragmidium violaceum[4] maoy kaliwatan sa uhong kay sakop sa division nga Basidiomycota, ug nga una nga gihulagway ni Schultz, ug nga gihatagan sa eksakto nga ngalan ni Georg Winter ni adtong 1880. Ang Phragmidium violaceum kay sakop sa henero nga Phragmidium, ug pamilya nga Phragmidiaceae.[5][6] Walay nalista nga matang nga sama niini.[5]. ...
3AGN: Isomerization mechanism of aspartate to isoaspartate implied by structures of Ustilago sphaerogena ribonuclease U2 complexed with adenosine 3-monophosphate
Decay Resistance of Acetic, Propionic, and Butyric Anhydrides Modified Rubberwood Against Brown Rot (Coniophora puteana). Nuraishah Hassan,a,* Norul Hisham Hamid,a Mohammad Jawaid,b Paridah Md. Tahir,b and Salmiah Ujang c. Rubber trees were cut to the dimensions 25 mm x 140 mm x 1000 mm (R x T x L) and kiln-dried (10% to 12% moisture content, MC). The specimens (20 mm x 20 mm x 5 mm) (R x T x L) were prepared, and a Soxhlet extraction with toluene/methanol/acetone (4:1:1 by volume) was performed for 8 h. The specimens were oven-dried (103 °C for 24 h) and cooled (gel silica). Then, vacuum impregnation was conducted, and reactions with acetic, propionic, and butyric anhydrides took place for 0.25 h, 1 h, 4 h, 8 h, 10 h, 15 h, 24 h, 30 h, 36 h, and 48 h at 120 °C. The chemical bonding was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. The specimens were leached in deionized water and exposed to brown rot (Coniophora puteana) in an incubation room at 22 °C for 16 weeks. The fastest ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Virulence dynamics and phenotypic diversity of Puccinia coronata f.sp. avenae in Canada from 1974 to 1990. AU - Chong, J.. AU - Kolmer, J. A.. PY - 1993/1/1. Y1 - 1993/1/1. N2 - In the eastern region, frequency of virulence to Pc39 increased after the release of a cultivar with this resistance gene. Virulence to Pc38 and Pc39 increased in the prairie region after cultivars with these two genes were released. Frequencies of virulence to Pc35 and Pc56 fluctuated between 9-53% in the eastern region, even though these genes are not known to be present in oat cultivars grown there. In the prairie region, the frequencies of virulence to Pc35 and Pc40 fluctuate dbetween 21-60% from 1974-1990, and virulence to Pc46 increased from 7% in 1974 to 72% in 1985, even though these genes have not been used in commercial oat cultivars. The prairie population generally had higher levels of phenotypic diversity than did the eastern population in almost all years examined. -from Authors. AB - In the ...
Bread wheat is one of the most important food crops on the global scale. Stripe rust of wheat, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) became the largest biotic stress factor in the 21st century, limiting wheat ...
Recently, the wheat disease resistance gene Lr34 was cloned. Lr34 is a putative ABC transporter and provides non-specific, adult plant resistance to Puccinia triticina Eriks. (Krattinger et al, 2009. Science 323:1360). There is strong evidence that Lr34 enhances single resistance gene effects in wheat seedlings, and now that Lr34 has been cloned, this can be verified genetically. A cross between the isogenic wheat lines Thatcher Lr16 X Thatcher Lr16,34 was made, and 98 F2:6 near isogenic lines were evaluated for their response to Race 1 (BBBDB) of P. triticina in both seedlings and adult plants. Lines were scored for the presence or absence of Lr34 enhancement in seedlings and evaluated for adult plant resistance and leaf tip necrosis. Lr16 only lines had infection types of 2C while Lr16,34 lines had infection types of ;, 1. There are three known alleles of Lr34 and polymerase chain reaction primers are available for each. PCR reactions on the 98 NILs are in process, and the results will be ...
c) Control:. 1. Resistant cultivars. Resistant cultivars provide the most cost effective means of controlling rust. However, rust races are constantly changing and, once cultivar resistance is overcome, new races of rust can quickly increase to epidemic levels. For example, stem rust race 15B, which became prevalent in 1950, built up to epidemic levels by 1954 and caused severe damage to formerly resistant spring wheat cultivars like Thatcher. The regular appearance of new races of rust means that plant breeders must constantly search for new sources of resistance that can be incorporated into adapted cultivars.. Single source (gene) resistance may give a cultivar complete rust immunity, but it is the form of resistance that is the easiest for the rust to overcome. Cultivars with multiple sources of resistance usually provide the most effective long-term rust control. A more general resistance is found in slow rusting cultivars. Rust infection and growth is retarded on slow rusting cultivars ...
KEY MESSAGE : Asian soybean rust (ASR) resistance gene Rpp2 has been fine mapped into a 188.1 kb interval on Glyma.Wm82.a2, which contains a series of plant resistance (R) genes. Asian soybean rust (ASR), caused by the fungus Phakopsora pachyrihizi Syd. & P. Syd., is a serious disease in major soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] production countries worldwide and causes yield losses up to 75 %. Defin ...
Wheat stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, is present and a threat to production wherever wheat, barley, and other small grains are grown. In 1999, a new, more virulent strain of this fungus, known as Ug99, was confirmed in Uganda and Kenya. The new strain has the capability to overcome the most widely used and effective stem rust resistance genes. This new pathogen strain has since been found and confirmed in Ethiopia, Yemen, and recently Iran. To mitigate yield losses, effective management, and protection plans need to be developed and implemented as soon as possible. This article summarises the coordinated approach being taken in the US to address the possible appearance of Ug99 and its variants on wheat and barley ...
By Allan Fritz, Kansas State Wheat Breeder Traditionally, wheat breeders have been selecting for leaf rust resistance by finding lines with strong resistance to one or more races of leaf rust. The problem has been that other races of leaf rust inevitably come along that can overcome that strong, but narrow source of resistance. If that different race of leaf rust becomes widespread in the Southern Plains, the resistant variety rapidly becomes susceptible to leaf rust. That has happened to most wheat varieties in Kansas . . .
ID HQ189491; SV 1; linear; genomic RNA; STD; VRL; 646 BP. XX AC HQ189491; XX DT 09-FEB-2011 (Rel. 107, Created) DT 10-JAN-2012 (Rel. 111, Last updated, Version 2) XX DE Heterobasidion RNA virus 6 strain HetRV6-pa17 putative RNA-dependent RNA DE polymerase gene, partial cds. XX KW . XX OS Heterobasidion RNA virus 6 OC Viruses; Riboviria; dsRNA viruses. XX RN [1] RP 1-646 RX PUBMED; 22138214. RA Vainio E.J., Hyder R., Aday G., Hansen E., Piri T., Dogmus-Lehtijarvi T., RA Lehtijarvi A., Korhonen K., Hantula J.; RT Population structure of a novel putative mycovirus infecting the conifer RT root-rot fungus Heterobasidion annosum sensu lato; RL Virology 422(2):366-376(2012). XX RN [2] RP 1-646 RA Vainio E.J.; RT ; RL Submitted (27-AUG-2010) to the INSDC. RL Forest Pathology, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Jokiniemenkuja 1, RL Vantaa 01301, Finland XX DR MD5; 97a54be2ea39cd15ab238b4bb0c52bcd. XX FH Key Location/Qualifiers FH FT source 1..646 FT /organism=Heterobasidion RNA virus 6 FT ...
Polysaccharides extracted from the Phellinus linteus (PL) mushroom are known to possess anti-tumor effects. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the anti-tumor properties of PL remain to be explored. Experiments were carried out to unravel the anticancer effects of PL. The anti-cancer effects of PL were examined in SW480 colon cancer cells by evaluating cell proliferation, invasion and matrix metallo-proteinase (MMP) activity. The anti-angiogenic effects of PL were examined by assessing human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation and capillary tube formation. The in vivo effect of PL was evaluated in an athymic nude mouse SW480 tumor engraft model. PL (125-1000 μg/mL) significantly inhibited cell proliferation and decreased β-catenin expression in SW480 cells. Expression of cyclin D1, one of the downstream-regulated genes of β-catenin, and T-cell factor/lymphocyte enhancer binding factor (TCF/LEF) transcription activity were also significantly reduced by PL treatment. PL
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Juliano M. Baltazar, Sergio P. Gorjón, María Belén Pildain, Mario Rajchenberg, Rosa Mara B. da Silveira, Acanthocorticium brueggemannii, a new corticioid genus and species related to cyphelloid fungi in the euagarics clade (Agaricales, Basidiomycota), Botany, 2015, 93, 8, ...
The Polyporales is a clade of Agaricomycetes (Basidiomycota) that has historically been the repository for many of the macrofungi with poroid hymenophores (spore-bearing structures), including those with tough or perennial fruiting bodies (e.g., Fomes, Ganoderma), but excluding the fleshy Boletales. It is now well-established that polypores have evolved repeatedly in groups such as the Hymenochaetales, Gloeophyllales, Russulales and Thelephorales, and that not all Polyporales are poroid. Some of the non-poroid Polyporales include gilled mushrooms (Lentinus, Panus) and cauliflower fungi (Sparassis), but by far the greatestdiversity of non-poroid Polyporales are corticioid fungi, which are resupinate, crust-like forms. The Polyporales contains a major concentration of wood-decay fungi, as well as some timber pathogens. They play an important role in the carbon cycle, and their ligninolytic and cellulolytic enzymes have come under scrutiny for use in biofuel production, bioremediation, and ...
Fungal and oomycete pathogens cause some of the most devastating diseases in crop plants, and facilitate infection by delivering a large number of effector molecules into the plant cell. AvrM is a secreted effector protein from flax rust (Melampsora lini) that can internalize into plant cells in the absence of the pathogen, binds to phosphoinositides (PIPs), and is recognized directly by the resistance protein M in flax (Linum usitatissimum), resulting in effector-triggered immunity. We determined the crystal structures of two naturally occurring variants of AvrM, AvrM-A and avrM, and both reveal an L-shaped fold consisting of a tandem duplicated four-helix motif, which displays similarity to the WY domain core in oomycete effectors. In the crystals, both AvrM variants form a dimer with an unusual nonglobular shape. Our functional analysis of AvrM reveals that a hydrophobic surface patch conserved between both variants is required for internalization into plant cells, whereas the C-terminal ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterisation of seven Inocybe ectomycorrhizal morphotypes from a semiarid woody steppe. AU - Seress, Diána. AU - Dima, Bálint. AU - Kovács, Gábor M.. PY - 2016/4/1. Y1 - 2016/4/1. N2 - Ectomycorrhizas (ECM) of Inocybe species (Inocybaceae, Basidiomycota) formed by three host plant species (Populus alba, Salix rosmarinifolia and Pinus nigra) in a semiarid woody steppe of Hungary were studied. To identify the fungal partners, we performed phylogenetic analyses of nucleotide sequences for the internal transcribed spacer region of nuclear DNA (nrDNA ITS) together with sequences gained from public databases. Seven Inocybe ectomycorrhiza morphotypes were morpho-anatomically characterised. Five morphotypes were identified (I. phaeoleuca, I. psammophila, I. semifulva, I. splendens and I. subporospora), whereas two morphotypes represented unidentified Inocybe species. Differences were discernible among the morphotypes, and they showed general anatomical characteristics of Inocybe ...
Stem rust (caused by Pers.:Pers. f. sp. Eriks. & E. Henn.), a devastating disease of wheat (L.), was effectively controlled worldwide for the past 50 yr by deployment of stem rust resistance () genes in wheat cultivars. However, a new stem rust race, TTKSK (known as Ug99 or TTKS) that emerged in eastern Africa, is a cause of concern because it has broad virulence to currently deployed genes. To id ...
A phylogeny of the fungal phylum Basidiomycota. is presented based on a survey of 160 taxa and five nuclear genes. Two genes, rpb2, and tef1, are presented in detail. The rpb2 gene is more variable than tef1 and recovers well-supported clades at shallow and deep taxonomic levels. The tef1 gene recovers some deep and ordinal-level relationships but with greater branch support from nucleotides compared to amino acids. Intron placement is dynamic in tef1, often lineage-specific, and diagnostic for many clades. Introns are fewer in rpb2 and tend to be highly conserved by position. When both protein-coding loci are combined with sequences of nuclear ribosomal RNA genes, 18 inclusive clades of Basidiomycota are strongly supported by Bayesian posterior probabilities and 16 by parsimony bootstrapping. These numbers are greater than produced by single genes and combined ribosomal RNA gene regions. Combination of nrDNA with amino acid sequences, or exons with third codon positions removed, produces strong ...
Funded by: Artdatabanken, Sweden. Within this extensive project focus is on the diversity and phylogeny of corticioid fungi, viz. species forming thin, effused fruiting bodies on the underside of wood and other debris on the ground. These fungi are mostly saprophytes taking part in the decay of dead wood. Despite a general similarity in fruiting body construction they are phylogenetically extremely diverse, which is the reason our research has to consider all major groups within Agaricomycetes. The ultimate goal is to revise the classification of all corticioid fungi but also to discover and describe new species. Almost 2 000 species are known but inventories in tropical and subtropical regions reveal a huge amount of unknown species. All revisions are based on DNA data and we publish our results both in international journals and as identification manuals. Currently the main effort is directed towards two subprojects.. ...
An eco-friendly treatment of industrial effluents is a major environmental concern of the modern world in the face of stringent environmental legislations. By keeping in mind the extensive industrial applications of ligninolytic enzymes, this study was performed to purify, and immobilize the manganese peroxidase (MnP) produced from an indigenous strain of Ganoderma lucidum. The present study was also focused on investigating the capability of immobilized MnP for decolorization of dye containing textile effluents. A large magnitude of an indigenous MnP (882±13.3 U/mL) was obtained from white rot fungal strain G. lucidum in solid state bio-processing of wheat straw under optimized fermentation conditions (moisture, 50%; substrate, 5 g; pH, 5.5; temperature, 30°C; carbon source, 2% fructose; nitrogen source, 0.02% yeast extract; C: N ratio, 25:1; fungal spore suspension, 5 mL and fermentation time period, 4 days). After ammonium sulfate fractionation and Sephadex-G-100 gel filtration chromatography, MnP
Isolation and purification of Pyranose 2-oxidase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium and characterization of gene structure and regulation
The first steps of wood degradation by fungi lead to the release of toxic compounds known as extractives. To better understand how lignolytic fungi cope with the toxicity of these molecules, a transcriptomic analysis of Phanerochaete chrysosporium genes was performed in presence of oak acetonic extracts. It reveals that in complement to the extracellular machinery of degradation, intracellular antioxidant and detoxification systems contribute to the lignolytic capabilities of fungi presumably by preventing cellular damages and maintaining fungal health. Focusing on these systems, a glutathione transferase (PcGTT2.1) has been selected for functional characterization. This enzyme, not characterized so far in basidiomycetes, has been first classified as a GTT2 in comparison to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae isoform. However, a deeper analysis shows that GTT2.1 isoform has functionally evolved to reduce lipid peroxidation by recognizing high-molecular weight peroxides as substrates. Moreover, the ...
Common bunt (Tilletia tritici) and rust diseases (Puccinia sp.) was scored in 123 varieties of wheat species other than bread wheat. The species included Triticum spelta (90 lines), T.macha (18 lines), T.dicoccon (6 lines), T.timopheevii (3 lines) and one representative of each of the species T.vavilovii, T.karamyshevii, T. polonicum, T.carthlicum and T.compactum. Huge differences in bunt susceptibility were found in all species. Lines with low susceptibility were identified in Triticum spelta, T.macha, T.dicoccon, T.timopheevii and T.vavilovii but none in the few investigated lines of species T.karamyshevii, T. polonicum and T.carthlicum. All lines of T.macha, T.vavilovii and T.karamyshevii were susceptible to rust, were as resistance to this disease was frequent in T. spelta ...
White-rot fungi (WRF) are capable of degrading complex organic compounds such as lignin, and the enzymes that enable these processes can be used for the detoxification of recalcitrant organopollutants. The aim of this study is to evaluate a system based on the use of an in vitro ligninolytic enzyme for the detoxification of recalcitrant dye pollutants. The dyes selected for investigation were the anionic and cationic commercial azo dyes, basic blue 41 (BB41), acid black 1 (AB1), and reactive black 5 (RB5). A supernatant, cell-free culture of WRF with manganese peroxidase activity was used to investigate its degradative capacity under various conditions, and concentrations of cofactors, H2O2 and Mn2+. The assays were carried out using a 22 experimental designs whose variables were concentration of Mn2+ (33 and 1,000 μM) and semicontinuous dosage of the H2O2 (0.02 and 0.10 μmol) added at a frequency of 0.2 min−1. The response variables analyzed were the efficiency and the initial rate of the ...
Fine mapping of Yr47 and Lr52 in chromosome arm 5BS of wheat identified close linkage of the marker sun180 to both genes and its robustness for marker-assisted selection was demonstrated. The widely effective and genetically linked rust resistance genes Yr47 and Lr52 have previously been mapped in the short arm of chromosome 5B in two F3 populations (Aus28183/Aus27229 and Aus28187/Aus27229). The Aus28183/Aus27229 F3 population was advanced to generate an F6 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population to identify markers closely linked with Yr47 and Lr52. Diverse genomic resources including flow-sorted chromosome survey sequence contigs representing the orthologous region in Brachypodium distachyon, the physical map of chromosome arm 5BS, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) located in the 5BS6-0.81-1.00 deletion bin and resistance gene analog contigs of chromosome arm 5BS were used to develop markers to saturate the target region. Selective genotyping was also performed using the iSelect 90 K Infinium ...
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Basidiomycota; Thelephorales, Boletopsidaceae)" (PDF). North American Fungi. 3 (7): 5-15. doi:10.2509/naf2008.003.0072. ...
Lineage( full ) cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Opisthokonta; Fungi; Dikarya; Basidiomycota; Agaricomycotina; Agaricomycetes; ... "New sequestrate Ascomycota and Basidiomycota covered by the Northwest Forest Plan". Mycotaxon. 75: 153-79. Smith ME, Schell KJ ...
Lineage( full ) cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Opisthokonta; Fungi; Dikarya; Basidiomycota; Agaricomycotina; Agaricomycetes; ...
T.W.May & A.E.Wood (1997) Fungi of Australia Volume 2A: Catalogue and Bibliography of Australian Macrofungi 1. Basidiomycota. ... Catalogue and Bibliography of Australian Fungi 2 Basidiomycota p.p. & Myxomycota p.p. CSIRO Publishing. ISBN 0-643-06907-0 IPNI ...
Basidiomycota)". Kavaka. 3: 11-20. "GSD Species Synonymy: Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler". Species Fungorum. CAB International ...
Lineage( full ) cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Opisthokonta; Fungi; Dikarya; Basidiomycota; Agaricomycotina; Agaricomycetes; ...
T.W.May & A.E.Wood (1997) Fungi of Australia Volume 2A: Catalogue and Bibliography of Australian Macrofungi 1. Basidiomycota. ... Apart from fungi of the subkingdom Dikarya, such as those described above (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota), some non-Dikarya ... Representatives of all three subdivisions of the Basidiomycota are found in Australia. These are the Agaricomycotina (bracket ... Catalogue and Bibliography of Australian Fungi 2 Basidiomycota p.p. & Myxomycota p.p. CSIRO Publishing. ISBN 0-643-06907-0 May ...
Basidiomycota. CSIRO Publishing. ISBN 0-643-05929-6 Wood AE. (1990). Australian Mushrooms and Toadstools: How to identify them ...
Lineage( full ) cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Opisthokonta; Fungi; Dikarya; Basidiomycota; Agaricomycotina; Agaricomycetes; ...
"4 Basidiomycota." Marine Fungi: and Fungal-like Organisms (2012): 49. Fell, Jack W. "6 Yeasts in marine environments." Marine ...
Jones, E. B. Gareth; Fell, Jack W. (2012). "4 Basidiomycota". In Jones, E. B. Gareth; Pang, Ka-Lai (eds.). Marine Fungi: and ...
Basidiomycota, Elasmomycetaceae)". Mycotaxon. 80: 321-326. IPNI. Rogerson. Clark T. Rogerson, Expert on Fungi, Is Dead at 82 - ...
Cantharellales, Basidiomycota)". Cryptogamie, Mycologie. 32 (2): 191-7. doi:10.7872/crym.v32.iss2.2011.191. v t e. ...
Basidiomycota, Russulales) in Togo (West Africa): phylogeny and a new species described". IMA Fungus. 5 (1): 39-49. doi:10.5598 ... Basidiomycota) with conserved type". Taxon. 59: 447-453. doi:10.1002/tax.591031. Verbeken A, Nuytinck J (2013). "Not every ... Hibbett DH, Thorn RG (2001). "Basidiomycota: Homobasidiomycetes". In McLaughlin DJ, McLaughlin EG, Lemke PA (eds.). The Mycota ... Ginns J, Freeman GW (1994). "The Gloeocystidiellaceae (Basidiomycota, Hericiales) of North America". Bibliotheca Mycologica. ...
"Basidiomycota: Homobasidiomycetes". In McLaughlin DJ, McLaughlin EG, Lemke PA (eds.). The Mycota. VIIB. Systematics and ...
post., Boletales, Basidiomycota)". Sydowia. 56 (2): 237-40. Halling RE, Fechner N, Nuhn M, Osmundson T, Soytong K, Arora D, ...
Basidiomycota p.p. & Myxomycota p.p. Melbourne, Australia: CSIRO Publishing. p. 173. ISBN 978-0-643-06907-7. Miller Jr OK, ...
2001). Basidiomycota: Homobasidiomycetes. The Mycota VII Part B. In: McLaughlin DJ, McLaughlin EG, Lemke PA, eds. Systematics ...
Shiryaev A. (2008). "Diversity and distribution of thelephoroid fungi (Basidiomycota, Thelephorales) in the Sverdlovsk region, ... Basidiomycota p.p. & Myxomycota p.p. v. 2B. Csiro Publishing. p. 313. ISBN 978-0-643-06907-7. Miller OK, Miller H (2006). North ...
Basidiomycota p.p. & Myxomycota. 2B. CSIRO Publishing. p. 136. ISBN 978-0-643-06907-7. Saenz JA, Nassar M (1982). "Mushrooms of ...
ISBN 978-0-521-22703-2. T. W. May (2003). "Echinosteliales". Basidiomycota p.p. & Myxomycota p.p. Volume 2 of Catalogue and ...
Basidiomycota p.p. & Myxomycota p.p. Csiro Publishing. p. 66. ISBN 978-0-643-06907-7. Ramaria fennica in Index Fungorum. ...
post., Boletales, Basidiomycota)" (PDF). Sydowia. 56: 237-40. v t e. ...
Basidiomycota p.p. & Myxomycota. 2B. CSIRO Publishing. p. 117. ISBN 978-0-643-06907-7. Ponce de Leon P. (1968). "A revision of ... 2004). "Taxonomy" (PDF). Arizona Members of the Geastraceae and Lycoperdaceae (Basidiomycota, Fungi) (M.Sc. thesis). Arizona ...
Basidiomycota) from China". Mycotaxon. 116: 295-302. doi:10.5248/116.295. Yuan, Hai-Sheng; Kan, Yu-He (2015). "Molecular ...
Cystangium (Russulales, Basidiomycota)". Australian Systematic Botany. 16 (3): 371-400. doi:10.1071/SB02016. Moreno, G.; Galan ...
Basidiomycota p.p. & Myxomycota p.p. Csiro Publishing. p. 307. ISBN 978-0-643-06907-7.. ...
Cui, Bao-Kai; Dai, Yu-Cheng (2008). "Wood rotting fungi in eastern China 2. A new species of Fomitiporia (Basidiomycota) from ... nov (Hymenochaetales, Basidiomycota) from Guangxi, southern China". Mycological Progress. 11 (4): 907-13. doi:10.1007/s11557- ... Dai, Yu-Cheng (2010). "Hymenochaetaceae (Basidiomycota) in China". Fungal Diversity. 45 (1): 131-343. doi:10.1007/s13225-010- ...
2. Basidiomycota p.p. & Myxomycota. CSIRO Publishing. p. 331. ISBN 0-643-06907-0. Siller I, Dima B, Albert L, Vasas G, Fodor L ... Liu H, Fan L (2006). "The genus Battarrea (Tulostomatales, Basidiomycota) in China". Acta Botanica Yunnanica (in Chinese). 28 ( ...
Basidiomycota) with conserved type". Taxon. 59: 447-453. doi:10.1002/tax.591031. Barrie F. (2011). "Report of the General ... Russulales; Basidiomycota) in Alaska, based on soil and sporocarp DNA" (PDF). Molecular Ecology. 18 (10): 2213-2227. doi: ... Basidiomycota) in Europe". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 11: 40. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-40. PMC 3045908. PMID 21306639. Visser S ... Basidiomycota) in Korea". Fungal Diversity. 95: 275-335. doi:10.1007/s13225-019-00425-6. S2CID 149443885. Retrieved 2020-10-07 ...
Basidiomycota are filamentous fungi composed of hyphae (except for basidiomycota-yeast) and reproduce sexually via the ... However, some Basidiomycota are obligate asexual reproducers. Basidiomycota that reproduce asexually (discussed below) can ... previously commonly used to describe Basidiomycota. According to a 2008 estimate, Basidiomycota comprise three subphyla ( ... In some Basidiomycota the spores are not ballistic, and the sterigmata may be straight, reduced to stubbs, or absent. The ...
The bZIP intron basidiomycota is an unconventional bZIP intron found mainly in the Basidiomycota and some Mucoromycotina fungi ... In Basidiomycota, splicing results in excised introns from 20 to 101 nt in length and it was first described in Cryptococcus ...
Not all symbiotic Basidiomycota cause obvious harm to their partners, however. For example, some Basidiomycota, as well as a ... The Basidiomycota also includes yeasts (single-celled forms; Fell et al. 2001) and asexual species. Basidiomycota are found in ... The Microbial World: Basidiomycota. *Mycological Society of America. Extensive links to sites concerned with Basidiomycota and ... Many Basidiomycota obtain nutrition by decaying dead organic matter, including wood and leaf litter. Thus, Basidiomycota play a ...
A summary of Basidiomycota: The Club Fungi in s Fungi. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Fungi ... Like all fungi, Basidiomycota can undergo both asexual and sexual reproduction. Asexual Reproduction Basidiomycota reproduce ... Sexual reproduction in Basidiomycota takes place in the fruiting body, in specialized structures called basidia. The basidia is ... Basidiomycota have more septate hyphae than Zygomycota, though their septae are perforated, allowing cytoplasm to flow freely ...
Basidiomycota are filamentous fungi composed of hyphae (except for basidiomycota-yeast) and reproduce sexually via the ... Basidiomycota (/bəˌsɪdioʊmaɪˈkoʊtə/)[2] is one of two large divisions that, together with the Ascomycota, constitute the ... "Basidiomycota". Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House.. *^ a b Li, Liande; Wright, Sara J.; Krystofova, Svetlana; Park, ... some Basidiomycota are obligate asexual reproducers. Basidiomycota that reproduce asexually (discussed below) can typically be ...
Make research projects and school reports about Basidiomycota easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia ... Basidiomycota A Dictionary of Biology © A Dictionary of Biology 2004, originally published by Oxford University Press 2004. ... Home Plants and Animals Microbes, Algae, and Fungi Moneran and Protistan Basidiomycota ... Basidiomycota A phylum of fungi, formerly classified as a class (Basidiomycetes) or a subdivision (Basidiomycotina). Sexual ...
Basidiomycota. From MicrobeWiki, the student-edited microbiology resource. Revision as of 14:44, 15 June 2006 by Tashiror. ( ... "Basidiomycota: Activities and Lifestyle." The Microbial World. Geml J, Davis DD, Geiser DM. "Phylogenetic analyses reveal ... Some species of Basidiomycota are pathogens for both plants and animals. However, they are not all harmful. Some form symbiotic ... Basidiomycota is a classification that describes a wide variety of organisms. It is estimated that there are about 30,000 ...
The main characteristics of the phylum Basidiomycota include the formation of basidia on a fruiting body and the development of ... Basidiomycota produce basidiospores located on top of basidia. The basidiospores can separate from the basidia and can be ... A: The four types of fungi, which correspond to the four major phyla of the kingdom fungi, include Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, ... Many types of Basidiomycota are edible, but some, like the Amanita phalloides, can produce deadly toxins. ...
Agaric Basidiomycota Euagarics Foggy Haze Muscaria Outdoor Shots Toxic: 1 assigned downloads, like Fly agaric (Amanita muscaria ... Similar tags: agaric • basidiomycota • erhard nerger • euagarics • foggy • haze • muscaria • outdoor • shots • toxic Top tags: ...
Wikimedia Commonsen badira fitxategi gehiago, gai hau dutenak: Basidiomycota *↑ Moore, R.T. (1980) "Taxonomic proposals for the ... Basidiomycota filumak, Ascomycota filumarekin batera, Dikarya azpierreinua osatzen du. Azpierreinu honetan "goi onddo" deitu ... Basidiomycota barruan 3 azpifilum onartu ziren (Pucciniomycotina, Ustilaginomycotina eta Agaricomycotina) eta klase mailako ... Oraindik ere hainbatek basidiomizete eta askomizete terminoak erabiltzen dituzte Basidiomycota eta Ascomycota taldeez hitz ...
... identification and distribution of Basidiomycota - Mushrooms, Rusts, Smuts, Basidiomycetes, Club fungi -- Discover Life ...
Basidiomycota he:פטריות בסיסה ka:ბაზიდიუმიანი სოკოები lt:Papėdgrybiai hu:Bazídiumos gombák mk:Столпчести габи nl:Basidiomycota ... Basidiomycota at the Tree of Life Web Project. bg:Базидиеви гъби ca:Basidiomicet cs:Stopkovýtrusné houby da:Basidiesvampe de: ... Basidiomycota is one of two large phyla, that together with the Ascomycota, comprise the subkingdom Dikarya, which were in ... Basidiomycota Basidiomycetes from Ernst Haeckels 1904 Kunstformen der Natur. Basidiomycetes from Ernst Haeckels 1904 ...
Text function: club fungi ([[t:14914;Basidiomycota]]); [[t:14914;club fungi]]. Reference: club fungi (,a href="https://www. ...
ASM journals are the most prominent publications in the field, delivering up-to-date and authoritative coverage of both basic and clinical microbiology.. About ASM , Contact Us , Press Room. ASM is a member of. ...
Cortinariaceae (Agaricales, Basidiomycota) is one of the most diverse families of ectomycorrhizal fungi, containing several ... kew.org , Kew Science , Projects , Diversity and evolution of Cortinariaceae (Agaricales, Basidiomycota) ... Basidiomycota), a highly diverse and widespread ectomycorrhizal genus. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 92(4). ...
Aphyllophoroid fungi (Basidiomycota) of the middle part of Yenisei River basin, East Siberia, Russia. Karstenia 55: 43-60. ... Aphyllophoroid fungi (Basidiomycota) in Tunguska River basin, central East Siberia, Russia. Karstenia 55: 25-42.Google Scholar ... Notes on Aphyllophoroid fungi (Basidiomycota) in Kevo, collected in 2009. Kevo Notes 14: 1-22.Google Scholar ... Contribution to the Knowledge of Ramariopsis subarctica (Clavariaceae, Basidiomycota). *Discovery of Puccinia tiliaefolia ( ...
nov. (Coniophoraceae, Basidiomycota) from southern Vietnam. *Phylogeny and taxonomic revision of the Planistromellaceae ... Xylodon (Hymenochaetales, Basidiomycota) is the largest segregate genus of Hyphodontia s.l. Based on molecular and ... Phylogenetic and morphological studies in Xylodon (Hymenochaetales, Basidiomycota) with the addition of four new species. ... Phylogenetic and morphological studies in Xylodon (Hymenochaetales, Basidiomycota) with the addition of four new species ...
Kirschner, R., J. P. Sampaio, M. Gadanho, M. Weiß & F. Oberwinkler. 2001. Cuniculitrema polymorpha (Tremellales, gen. nov. and sp. nov.), a heterobasidiomycete vectored by bark beetles, which is the teleomorph of Sterigmatosporidium polymorphum. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 80: 149-161 ...
Spirin W, Zmitrovich I (2007) Frantisekia-a new polypore genus (Polyporales, Basidiomycota). Czech Mycol 59:141-152Google ... Miettinen O, Spirin V, Niemelä T (2012) Notes on genus Aporpium (Auriculariales, Basidiomycota), with a new species from ... Zhou LW, Dai YC (2013) Phylogeny and taxonomy of poroid and lamellate genera in the Auriculariales (Basidiomycota). Mycologia ... Malysheva V, Spirin V (2017) Taxonomy and phylogeny of the Auriculariales (Agaricomycetes, Basidiomycota) with stereoid ...
Albatrellus (Fungi: Basidiomycota) in Michigan. Michigan Botanist 33(3): 75-90. Guzmin, G. 1970. Monographfa del g6nero ... Page 65 ï~~2004 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 65 RARE AND UNUSUAL FUNGI (BASIDIOMYCOTA) OF THE HURON MOUNTAINS, MARQUETTE COUNTY, ... Both mycorrhizal and saprotrophic fruiting bodies were collected; all are Basidiomycota. Photographs were taken in the field ... Rare and Unusual Fungi (Basidiomycota) of the Huron Mountains, Marquette County, Michigan. Richter, Dana L. ...
Pictures © 2003, 2004, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2014 J.K. Lindsey. Please report errors to [email protected] Translations. Back to Ecology of Commanster. ...
Pictures © 2006, 2008, 2011, 2012, 2018 J.K. Lindsey. Please report errors to [email protected] Translations. Back to Ecology of Commanster. ...
Some November Basidiomycota Fungi (Earliest Dates) 1-14, [15-30] Trechispora farinacea - 1.11.05. Tomentella subclavigera - ...
The Species 2000/ITIS Catalogue of Life : 2006 Annual Checklist is a comprehensive index of all known plants, animals, fungi and micro-organisms. It can be used to search multiple databases simultaneously for the scientific name of an organism.
Mayroong kaugnay na impormasyon sa Wikispecies ang basidiomycota. Ang lathalaing ito na tungkol sa Biyolohiya ay isang usbong. ... Dikarya (Ascomycota, Basidiomycota) · Glomeromycota · Zygomycota · Blastocladiomycota · Chytridiomycota/Neocallimastigomycota · ... Kinuha mula sa "https://tl.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Basidiomycota&oldid=1465653" ...
Zhao Y, Liu X, Bai F (2019). Four new species of Tremella (Tremellales, Basidiomycota) based on morphology and DNA sequence ... Four new species of Tremella (Tremellales, Basidiomycota) based on morphology and DNA sequence data Dataset homepage ... Basidiomycota) based on morphology and DNA sequence data. MycoKeys 47: 75-95, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.47.29180 ...
Basidiomycota). Kurtziana [online]. 2012, vol.37, n.1, pp. 7-13. ISSN 1852-5962. ...
Dai Y (2017). Three new species of Fomitiporella (Hymenochaetales, Basidiomycota) based on the evidence from morphology and DNA ... Basidiomycota) based on the evidence from morphology and DNA sequence data. MycoKeys 30: 73-89, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/ ...
The genus Laetiporus (Basidiomycota, Polyporales) in east Asia. Mycol. Res 113:1283-1300. [ Links ]. ...
  • Basidiomycota ( / b ə ˌ s ɪ d i oʊ m aɪ ˈ k oʊ t ə / ) [2] is one of two large divisions that, together with the Ascomycota , constitute the subkingdom Dikarya (often referred to as the " higher fungi ") within the kingdom Fungi . (wikipedia.org)
  • Basidiomycota are filamentous fungi composed of hyphae (except for basidiomycota-yeast ) and reproduce sexually via the formation of specialized club-shaped end cells called basidia that normally bear external meiospores (usually four). (wikipedia.org)
  • The Agaricomycotina include what had previously been called the Hymenomycetes (an obsolete morphological based class of Basidiomycota that formed hymenial layers on their fruitbodies ), the Gasteromycetes (another obsolete class that included species mostly lacking hymenia and mostly forming spores in enclosed fruitbodies ), as well as most of the jelly fungi . (wikipedia.org)
  • Basidiomycota (/bəˌsɪdioʊmaɪˈkoʊtə/) is one of two large divisions that, together with the Ascomycota, constitute the subkingdom Dikarya (often referred to as the "higher fungi") within the kingdom Fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Traditionally, the Basidiomycota were divided into two classes, now obsolete: Homobasidiomycetes (alternatively called holobasidiomycetes), including true mushrooms Heterobasidiomycetes, including the jelly, rust and smut fungi Previously the entire Basidiomycota were called Basidiomycetes, an invalid class level name coined in 1959 as a counterpart to the Ascomycetes, when neither of these taxa were recognized as divisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Basidiomycota contains about 30,000 described species, which is 37% of the described species of true Fungi (Kirk et al. (tolweb.org)
  • The bZIP intron basidiomycota is an unconventional bZIP intron found mainly in the Basidiomycota and some Mucoromycotina fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • The division of fungi known as the club fungi, Basidiomycota, includes some of the most familiar fungi. (sparknotes.com)
  • Like all fungi, Basidiomycota can undergo both asexual and sexual reproduction. (sparknotes.com)
  • Basidiomycota A phylum of fungi, formerly classified as a class (Basidiomycetes) or a subdivision (Basidiomycotina). (encyclopedia.com)
  • basidium (pl. basidia) A specialized cell in fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota , in which nuclear fission and meiosis occur. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Basidiomycota: The Club Fungi by Eric Swann and David S. Hibbett. (kenyon.edu)
  • Like ascomycota, Basidiomycota contain numerous species of fungi and yeast, and the genetic structures of each are very different. (kenyon.edu)
  • The sexual spore stage separates Basidiomycota from other fungi, and they employ highly specialized parts to accomplish their reproduction. (reference.com)
  • The four types of fungi, which correspond to the four major phyla of the kingdom fungi, include Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Zygomycota and Deuteromycota. (reference.com)
  • Basidiomycota is one of two large phyla , that together with the Ascomycota , comprise the subkingdom Dikarya , which were in general what were called the "Higher Fungi" within the Kingdom Fungi . (wikidoc.org)
  • Basically, Basidiomycota are filamentous fungi composed of hyphae (except for those forming yeasts), and reproducing sexually via the formation of specialized club-shaped end cells called basidia that normally bear external spores (usually four), which are specialized meiospores called basidiospores . (wikidoc.org)
  • Cortinariaceae (Agaricales, Basidiomycota) is one of the most diverse families of ectomycorrhizal fungi, containing several thousand species found all over the world. (kew.org)
  • Page 65 ï~~2004 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 65 RARE AND UNUSUAL FUNGI (BASIDIOMYCOTA) OF THE HURON MOUNTAINS, MARQUETTE COUNTY, MICHIGAN Dana L. Richter School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science Michigan Technological University Houghton, MI 49931 [email protected] ABSTRACT Twenty-three species of fungi (Basidiomycota) which are uncommon or rarely encountered in the Lake States are reported from the forests of the Huron Mountains, Marquette Co., Michigan. (umich.edu)
  • Ang Basidiomycota ay isang uri ng phylum sa kahariang Fungi . (wikipedia.org)
  • Species boundaries and geographic distribution of corticioid fungi (resupinate Basidiomycota) are often poorly known. (springer.com)
  • Fungi from the genus Subulicystidium Parmasto 1968 (Hydnodontaceae, Trechisporales, Agaricomycetes, Basidiomycota) occur on moderately or strongly decayed wood and are common in many forest ecosystems, especially tropical ones. (springer.com)
  • La informacion filogenetica obtenida del analisis secuencial multigenico derivo en una innovacion de la clasificacion del Reino Fungi, introduciendo una nueva categoria-Subphylum--dentro de los 6 PHYLA aceptados: Ascomycota, Basidiomycota , Chytridiomycota, Glomermycota, Microspridia y Zygomycota. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota have an important role in the global carbon cycle due to their ability to decompose plant biomass that is the richest carbon source on earth. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The … Nested within the Kingdom Fungi, the Basidiomycota spend most of their life cycle underground before producing the recognizable fruiting bodies we see above ground. (kylewise.co.uk)
  • The subkingdom Dikarya contains both the Basidiomycota, and their cousins the Ascomycota, which are the puffy sac fungi. (kylewise.co.uk)
  • article:topic", "license:ccby", "authorname:mmorrow", "program:oeri" ], https://bio.libretexts.org/@app/auth/2/login?returnto=https%3A%2F%2Fbio.libretexts.org%2FBookshelves%2FBotany%2FBook%253A_A_Photographic_Atlas_for_Botany_(Morrow)%2F03%253A_Fungi_and_Lichens%2F3.06%253A_Basidiomycota_(Club_Fungi)%2F3.6.03%253A_Life_Cycles_of_Basidiomycetes, Assistant Professor (Botany and Environmental Science), ASCCC Open Educational Resources Initiative, https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0. (kylewise.co.uk)
  • The phylum Basidiomycota constitutes the second-largest higher taxonomic group of the Kingdom Fungi after the Ascomycota and comprises ca 35,000 species (Halling et al. (uni-hannover.de)
  • There are four major groups of fungi: Zygomycota, Ascomycota (sac fungi), Basidiomycota (club fungi), and Deuteromycota (fungi imperfecti). (eol.org)
  • The fungal group Basidiomycota, also known as the club fungi, includes some of the most familiar fungi. (eol.org)
  • 63 species of the thelephoroid fungi (Basidiomycota) are reported from the Sverdlovsk region (Russia), including fifteen new species for the region. (utlib.ee)
  • Fungi of the Basidiomycota, representing major pathogen lineages and mushroom-forming species, exhibit diverse means to achieve sexual reproduction, with particularly varied mechanisms to determine compatibilities of haploid mating partners. (unl.pt)
  • Open most introductory mycology books and you'll see that there are four main groups (phyla) of true fungi- Ascomycota , Basidiomycota , Chytridiomycota and Zygomycota (e. g. (apsnet.org)
  • Cyphobasidium gen. nov., a new lichen-inhabiting taxon in the Cystobasidiomycetes (Pucciniomycotina, Basidiomycota, Fungi). (diva-portal.org)
  • In the fungi, CM is believed to have arisen twice: in the Pezizomycotina of the Ascomycota and the Agaricomycotina of the Basidiomycota 3 . (nature.com)
  • The club fungi or basidiomycetes belonging to the phylum Basidiomycota produce basidiospores on club-shaped structures called basidia. (thoughtco.com)
  • Basidiomycetes, also known as the "club fungi," are classified in phylum Basidiomycota. (wikibooks.org)
  • Members of the Basidiomycota, commonly known as the club fungi or basidiomycetes, produce meiospores called basidiospores on club-like stalks called basidia. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Previously the entire Basidiomycota were called Basidiomycetes , an invalid class level name coined in 1959 as a counterpart to the Ascomycetes , when neither of these taxa were recognized as divisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The terms basidiomycetes and ascomycetes are frequently used loosely to refer to Basidiomycota and Ascomycota. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hori baino lehenago, Basidiomycota osoari Basidiomycetes deitzen zitzaion, 1959an Ascomycetes -en pareko gisa sortu zen klase-izen orain baliogabea. (wikipedia.org)
  • Asterophora salvaterrensis ( Basidiomycota , Agaricales), a new species from Galicia (Spain). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Gray (Agaricales, Basidiomycota ) is widely distributed and diversified genus having more than 400 species worldwide (Kirk et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Species of Laccaria (Hydnangiaceae, Agaricales , and Basidiomycota ) are well-known ectomycorrhizal symbionts of a broad range of hosts. (bvsalud.org)
  • Luangharn T, Karunarathna SC, Mortimer PE, Hyde KD, Thongklang N, Xu J (2019) A new record of Ganoderma tropicum (Basidiomycota, Polyporales) for Thailand and first assessment of optimum conditions for mycelia production. (pensoft.net)
  • Malysheva V, Spirin V (2017) Taxonomy and phylogeny of the Auriculariales (Agaricomycetes, Basidiomycota) with stereoid basidiocarps. (springer.com)
  • Basidiomycota filumak, Ascomycota filumarekin batera, Dikarya azpierreinua osatzen du. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subkingdom Dikarya is broken into two phyla, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. (thoughtco.com)
  • Other "toxins" produced by Basidiomycota include hallucinogens, which are produced by members of the genus Psilocybe (and other groups). (tolweb.org)
  • Xylodon (Hymenochaetales, Basidiomycota) is the largest segregate genus of Hyphodontia s.l. (usda.gov)
  • Miettinen O, Spirin V, Niemelä T (2012) Notes on genus Aporpium (Auriculariales, Basidiomycota), with a new species from temperate Europe. (springer.com)
  • Three new and one previously described species of Clavulina (Clavulinaceae, Cantharellales, Basidiomycota) are reported from the central Guiana Shield region from tropical rainforests dominated by ectomycorrhizal trees of the leguminous genus Dicymbe (Fabaceae subfam. (duke.edu)
  • Members of the Cantharellaceae (Cantharellales, Basidiomycota) are common ectomycorrhizal associates of the leguminous genus Dicymbe in the Pakaraima Mountains of Guyana. (researchgate.net)
  • Basidiomycota have more septate hyphae than Zygomycota, though their septae are perforated, allowing cytoplasm to flow freely between cells. (sparknotes.com)
  • 2001). The most conspicuous and familiar Basidiomycota are those that produce mushrooms, which are sexual reproductive structures. (tolweb.org)
  • Mushrooms belong to Basidiomycota. (globalresearch.ca)
  • A recent classification [4] adopted by a coalition of 67 mycologists recognizes three subphyla ( Pucciniomycotina , Ustilaginomycotina , Agaricomycotina ) and two other class level taxa ( Wallemiomycetes , Entorrhizomycetes ) outside of these, among the Basidiomycota. (wikipedia.org)
  • Basidiomycota barruan 3 azpifilum onartu ziren ( Pucciniomycotina , Ustilaginomycotina eta Agaricomycotina ) eta klase mailako beste 2 taxon ( Wallemiomycetes eta Entorrhizomycetes ) hortik kanpo. (wikipedia.org)
  • What are the main characteristics of phylum basidiomycota? (reference.com)
  • The main characteristics of the phylum Basidiomycota include the formation of basidia on a fruiting body and the development of basidiospores, according to the Tree of Life Web Project. (reference.com)
  • Basidiomycota produce basidiospores located on top of basidia. (reference.com)
  • This dataset contains the digitized treatments in Plazi based on the original journal article Ji, Xiao-Hong, Vlasak, Josef, Tian, Xue-Mei, Dai, Yu-Cheng (2018): Three new species of Fomitiporella (Hymenochaetales, Basidiomycota) based on the evidence from morphology and DNA sequence data. (gbif.org)
  • Family Clavariachaetaceae (Basidiomycota, Hymenochaetales), two its genera Clavariachaete and Dichochaete , and all four very rare species distributed in South America are described. (utlib.ee)
  • There are several genera classified in the Basidiomycota that are 1) poorly known, 2) have not been subjected to DNA analysis, or 3) if analysed phylogenetically do not group with as yet named or identified families, and have not been assigned to a specific family (i.e., they are incertae sedis with respect to familial placement). (wikipedia.org)
  • Typically haploid Basidiomycota mycelia fuse via plasmogamy and then the compatible nuclei migrate into each others mycelia and pair up with the resident nuclei. (wikidoc.org)
  • A big difference between humans and the Basidiomycota, is that their adult form is haploid, with the mycelia containing just one copy of the chromosomes. (kylewise.co.uk)
  • To overcome this barrier, we sequenced the draft genomes of the ectomycorrhizal sister species Rhizopogon vinicolor Smith and Zeller and R. vesiculosus Smith and Zeller (Basidiomycota, Boletales)-the first genomes available for Basidiomycota truffles-and characterized gene content and organization surrounding their mating type loci. (g3journal.org)
  • New species and distribution records for Clavulina (Cantharellales, Basidiomycota) from the Guiana Shield, with a key to the lowland neotropical taxa. (duke.edu)
  • A feature used to identify Basidiomycota, aside from the presence of basidia, is the degree of separation between individual cells. (sparknotes.com)
  • Sexual reproduction in Basidiomycota takes place in the fruiting body, in specialized structures called basidia. (sparknotes.com)
  • One of the unusual types of Basidiomycota are the gasteromycetes. (kenyon.edu)
  • Some interesting Gasteromycetes ( Basidiomycota ) in dry areas from Northeastern Brazil. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 2010) Radulodontia Hjortstam & Ryvarden (2008) Restilago Vánky (2008) Sinofavus W.Y.Zhuang (2008) Zanchia Rick (1958) Zygodesmus Corda (1837) Zygogloea P.Roberts (1994) Unlike animals and plants which have readily recognizable male and female counterparts, Basidiomycota (except for the Rust (Pucciniales)) tend to have mutually indistinguishable, compatible haploids which are usually mycelia being composed of filamentous hyphae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike higher animals and plants which have readily recognizable male and female counterparts, Basidiomycota (except for the Rust ( Pucciniales )) tend to have mutually indistinguishable, compatible haploids which are usually mycelia being composed of filamentous hyphae . (wikidoc.org)
  • Indeed, Basidiomycota are so variable that it is impossible to identify any morphological characteristics that are both unique to the group and constant in the group. (tolweb.org)
  • Reproductive organs of a Basidiomycota fungus is actually the diploid organ biology, is a feature that unites two. (kylewise.co.uk)
  • Symbiotic lifestyles (intimate associations with other living organisms) are well developed in the Basidiomycota. (tolweb.org)
  • Many types of Basidiomycota are edible, but some, like the Amanita phalloides, can produce deadly toxins. (reference.com)
  • Amanita ochroterrea and Amanita brunneiphylla (Basidiomycota), one species or two? (edu.au)
  • Ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota help their plant partners obtain mineral nutrients from the soil, and in return they receive sugars that the plants produce through photosynthesis. (tolweb.org)
  • Basidiomycota that reproduce asexually (discussed below) can typically be recognized as members of this division by gross similarity to others, by the formation of a distinctive anatomical feature (the clamp connection ), cell wall components, and definitively by phylogenetic molecular analysis of DNA sequence data. (wikipedia.org)
  • Basidiomycota reproduce asexually by either budding or asexual spore formation. (sparknotes.com)
  • However, some Basidiomycota reproduce asexually, and may or may not also reproduce sexually. (wikidoc.org)
  • Laetiporus caribensis se describe como una nueva especie dentro de este género, causando una pudrición castaña en angiospermas en la cuenca del Caribe. (scielo.org.ar)
  • Laetiporus caribensis se distingue de la mayoría de las otras especies en el género por tener basidiosporas más pequeñas. (scielo.org.ar)
  • Symbiotic Basidiomycota include important plant pathogens, such as "rusts" (Uredinales) and "smuts" (Ustilaginales), which attack wheat and other crops. (tolweb.org)
  • Basidiomycota is a classification that describes a wide variety of organisms. (kenyon.edu)
  • Other symbiotic Basidiomycota cause diseases in animals, including humans. (tolweb.org)
  • Not all symbiotic Basidiomycota cause obvious harm to their partners, however. (tolweb.org)
  • Basidiomycota typically form symbiotic relationships with other organisms, including termites, woodwasps and bark beetles, according to the Tree of Life Web Project. (reference.com)
  • In Basidiomycota, splicing results in excised introns from 20 to 101 nt in length and it was first described in Cryptococcus neoformans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pucciniomycotina taldean honako hauek daude: herdoil-onddoak, intsektuen bizkarroi edo sinbionte diren Septobasidium taldekoak, lizunen multzoko talde zahar bat ( Microbotryomycetes -en barrukoak), eta bakanak, bitxiak edo gutxitan aurkitzen diren beste onddo batzuk, gehienak landareen bizkarroiak. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, clamp connections are a kind of hyphal outgrowth that is unique to Basidiomycota, although they are not present in all Basidiomycota. (tolweb.org)
  • As now classified, the subphyla join and also cut across various obsolete taxonomic groups (see below) previously commonly used to describe Basidiomycota. (wikipedia.org)
  • Preliminary check-list of wood-inhabiting polypores (Aphyllophorales, Basidiomycota ) Mycotaxon 67: 323-340. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The spore prints of all collected basidiocarps were taken.The collected basidiomycota were identified. (bvsalud.org)