###### Basic Reproduction Number

###### Disease Transmission, Infectious

###### Disease Outbreaks

###### Epidemics

###### Models, Theoretical

###### Influenza, Human

###### Models, Biological

###### Models, Statistical

###### Insect Vectors

###### Computer Simulation

###### Communicable Disease Control

###### Population Dynamics

###### Quarantine

Restriction of freedom of movement of individuals who have been exposed to infectious or communicable disease in order to prevent its spread; a period of detention of vessels, vehicles, or travelers coming from infected or suspected places; and detention or isolation on account of suspected contagion. It includes government regulations on the detention of animals at frontiers or ports of entrance for the prevention of infectious disease, through a period of isolation before being allowed to enter a country. (From Dorland, 28th ed & Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)

###### Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype

###### Pandemics

###### Seasons

###### Schistosoma

###### Schistosoma mansoni

###### Encyclopedias as Topic

###### Smallpox Vaccine

A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)

###### Algorithms

###### Principal Component Analysis

###### Anisotropy

A physical property showing different values in relation to the direction in or along which the measurement is made. The physical property may be with regard to thermal or electric conductivity or light refraction. In crystallography, it describes crystals whose index of refraction varies with the direction of the incident light. It is also called acolotropy and colotropy. The opposite of anisotropy is isotropy wherein the same values characterize the object when measured along axes in all directions.

###### Hemorrhagic Fevers, Viral

A group of viral diseases of diverse etiology but having many similar clinical characteristics; increased capillary permeability, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia are common to all. Hemorrhagic fevers are characterized by sudden onset, fever, headache, generalized myalgia, backache, conjunctivitis, and severe prostration, followed by various hemorrhagic symptoms. Hemorrhagic fever with kidney involvement is HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME.

###### Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola

###### Ebolavirus

###### Marburg Virus Disease

## Utility of R0 as a predictor of disease invasion in structured populations. (1/105)

Early theoretical work on disease invasion typically assumed large and well-mixed host populations. Many human and wildlife systems, however, have small groups with limited movement among groups. In these situations, the basic reproductive number, R0, is likely to be a poor predictor of a disease pandemic because it typically does not account for group structure and movement of individuals among groups. We extend recent work by combining the movement of hosts, transmission within groups, recovery from infection and the recruitment of new susceptibles into a stochastic model of disease in a host metapopulation. We focus on how recruitment of susceptibles affects disease invasion and how population structure can affect the frequency of superspreading events (SSEs). We show that the frequency of SSEs may decrease with the reduced movement and the group sizes due to the limited number of susceptible individuals available. Classification tree analysis of the model results illustrates the hierarchical nature of disease invasion in host metapopulations. First, the pathogen must effectively transmit within a group (R0>1), and then the pathogen must persist within a group long enough to allow for movement among the groups. Therefore, the factors affecting disease persistence--such as infectious period, group size and recruitment of new susceptibles--are as important as the local transmission rates in predicting the spread of pathogens across a metapopulation. (+info)## Analyses of the 1957 (Asian) influenza pandemic in the United Kingdom and the impact of school closures. (2/105)

Many countries plan to close schools during a future influenza pandemic, although the potential impact is poorly understood. We apply a model of the transmission dynamics of pandemic influenza to consultation, serological and clinical data from the United Kingdom from the 1957 (Asian) influenza pandemic, to estimate the basic reproduction number (R0), the proportion of infected individuals who experience clinical symptoms and the impact of school/nursery closures. The R0 for Asian influenza was about 1.8 and 60-65% of infected individuals were estimated to have experienced clinical symptoms. During a future pandemic, closure of schools/nurseries could reduce the epidemic size only by a very small amount (<10%) if R0 is high (e.g. 2.5 or 3.5), and modest reductions, e.g. 22% might be possible if it is low (1.8) and schools are closed early, depending on assumptions about contact patterns. Further data on contact patterns and their dependence on school closures are needed. (+info)## A mathematical model of the dynamics of Salmonella Cerro infection in a US dairy herd. (3/105)

We developed a mathematical model of the transmission dynamics of salmonella to describe an outbreak of S. Cerro infection that occurred in a Pennsylvania dairy herd. The data were collected as part of a cooperative research project between the Regional Dairy Quality Management Alliance and the Agricultural Research Service. After the initial detection of a high prevalence of S. Cerro infection in the herd, a frequent and intensive sampling was conducted and the outbreak was followed for 1 year. The data showed a persistent presence of S. Cerro with a high prevalence of infection in the herd. The dynamics of host and pathogen were modelled using a set of nonlinear differential equations. A more realistically distributed (gamma-distributed) infectious period using multiple stages of infection was considered. The basic reproduction number was calculated and relevance to the intervention strategies is discussed. (+info)## The effect of heterogeneous infectious period and contagiousness on the dynamics of Salmonella transmission in dairy cattle. (4/105)

(+info)## Epidemic thresholds in dynamic contact networks. (5/105)

(+info)## Household structure and infectious disease transmission. (6/105)

(+info)## Latent coinfection and the maintenance of strain diversity. (7/105)

(+info)## Imported and autochthonous cases in the dynamics of dengue epidemics in Brazil. (8/105)

(+info)###### Basic reproduction number - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

###### On estimating the basic reproduction number for Schistosoma haema...: Ingenta Connect

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###### View source for STEM Model Creator/Tutorials - Eclipsepedia

###### Christopher Kribs, Ph.D.

###### Global Stability of an SIS Epidemic Model with Age of Vaccination | Springer for Research & Development

###### What is R0? How scientists calculate the risk and infection will spread | LocalHealthGuide

###### Covid-19 News - Page 366 - Off-Topic Talk - LENR Forum

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###### Real-time Investigation of Measles Epidemics with Estimate of Vaccine Efficacy

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###### Droplet nucleus

**Basic**

**reproduction**

**number**Atkinson, James; Chartier, Yves; Pessoa-Silva, Carmen Lúcia; Jensen, Paul; Li, Yuguo; Seto, Wing-Hong ...

###### Airborne transmission

... as they were spreading a much higher

**number**of aerosol particles than e.g. the act of shouting.**Basic****reproduction****number**... Thus the**number**of pathogens that can be transmitted through an airborne route is limited. Both aerosols and respiratory ... the**number**of diseases that can be spread through an airborne route is limited. Airborne infections usually occur by the ... the**number**of rainy days being more important than total precipitation; mean daily sunshine hours; latitude and altitude are ...###### Fecal-oral route

**Basic**

**reproduction**

**number**Toilet Vector control "Principles of Epidemiology: Chain of Infection". U.S. Centers for Disease ...

###### Saliva

A

**number**of commercially available saliva substitutes exist.**Basic****reproduction****number**Spittle cures Nosek, Thomas M. "Section ... and**reproduction**in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, a ...###### Respiratory droplet

**Basic**

**reproduction**

**number**Source control (respiratory disease) "Modality of human expired aerosol size distributions". Journal ... By contrast, a limited

**number**of diseases can be spread through airborne transmission after the respiratory droplet dries out. ... but speaking and coughing increases their

**number**. Droplet sizes range from < 1 µm to 1000 µm, and in typical breath there are ...

###### Infectivity

**Basic**

**reproduction**

**number**(

**basic**reproductive rate,

**basic**reproductive ratio, R0, or r nought) Stewart, AD; Logsdon, JM; Kelley ... This means that as a pathogen's ability to infect a greater

**number**of hosts increases, so does the level of harm it brings to ...

###### Force of infection

**Basic**

**reproduction**

**number**Compartmental models in epidemiology Epidemic Mathematical modelling of infectious disease Hens, N.; ... λ =

**number**of new infections

**number**of susceptible persons exposed × average duration of exposure {\displaystyle \lambda ={\ ... frac {\mbox{

**number**of new infections}}{{\mbox{

**number**of susceptible persons exposed}}\times {\mbox{average duration of exposure ...

###### Next-generation matrix

In population dynamics it is used to compute the

**basic****reproduction****number**for structured population models. It is also used in ... In epidemiology, the next-generation matrix is used to derive the**basic****reproduction****number**, for a compartmental model of the ... 1990) and van den Driessche and Watmough (2002). To calculate the**basic****reproduction****number**by using a next-generation matrix, ... The method to compute the**basic****reproduction**ratio using the next-generation matrix is given by Diekmann et al. ( ...###### Transmission risks and rates

The

**basic****reproduction****number**includes all secondary cases infected by a primary case, while x is only the**number**of secondary ... x is generally smaller than the**basic****reproduction****number**for the disease. That is defined as the**number**of individuals each ... Mathematical modelling in epidemiology**Basic****reproduction****number**Risk factor Transmission (medicine) Bugchasing and giftgiving ... If the**number**of susceptibles in the group is n and the**number**of secondary cases is x, then an estimation of the transmission ...###### Eigenvalues and eigenvectors

**Basic**

**reproduction**numberEdit. Main article:

**Basic**

**reproduction**

**number**. The

**basic**

**reproduction**

**number**(. R. 0. {\displaystyle R ... where each λi may be real but in general is a complex

**number**. The

**numbers**λ1, λ2, … λn, which may not all have distinct values ... for any non-zero real

**number**a. {\displaystyle a}. , is an eigenvector of A. {\displaystyle A}. with eigenvalue λ. =. 6. {\ ... Diekmann O, Heesterbeek JA, Metz JA (1990), "On the definition and the computation of the

**basic**

**reproduction**ratio R0 in models ...

###### Infectious period

Asymptomatic carrier

**Basic****reproduction****number**Generation time Incubation period Latent period Serial interval Viral shedding ...###### Endemic (epidemiology)

Assuming a completely susceptible population, that means that the

**basic****reproduction****number**(R0) of the infection must equal ... In a population with some immune individuals, the**basic****reproduction****number**multiplied by the proportion of susceptible ... depending on a**number**of factors, including the virulence of the disease and its mode of transmission. If a disease is in an ... the infection neither dies out nor does the**number**of infected people increase exponentially but the infection is said to be in ...###### Coxsackievirus

The

**basic****reproduction****number**(R0) for Coxsackievirus A16 (Cox A16) was estimated to a median of 2.50 with an interquartile ... Ma E, Fung C, Yip SH, Wong C, Chuang SK, Tsang T (Aug 2011). "Estimation of the**basic****reproduction****number**of enterovirus 71 and ... and ultimately resulted in the isolation of a large**number**of so-called "enteric" viruses from the gastrointestinal tract that ...###### Mathematical modelling of infectious disease

**Reproduction**numberEdit. Main article:

**Basic**

**reproduction**

**number**. The

**basic**

**reproduction**

**number**(denoted by R0) is a measure of ... As a consequence of this lower

**basic**

**reproduction**

**number**, the average age of infection A will also change to some new value Aq ... The

**basic**

**reproduction**

**number**(R0) of the disease, assuming everyone is susceptible, multiplied by the proportion of the ... The

**basic**

**reproduction**

**number**can be computed as a ratio of known rates over time: if an infectious individual contacts β other ...

###### Latent period (epidemiology)

For example, even though HIV/AIDS has a very low transmission potential per sexual act, its

**basic****reproduction****number**is still ... If the infectious period is long, then the measure of secondary infections (represented by the**basic****reproduction****number**, R0) ... Incubation period Infectious period Viral shedding Generation time Serial interval**Basic****reproduction****number**Asymptomatic ... In contrast, the effective reproductive**number**determines in what**number**the infections are spreading in the community with the ...###### Zika virus

The

**basic****reproduction****number**(R0, a measure of transmissibility) of Zika virus has been estimated to be between 1.4 and 6.6 . ... The viral protein**numbered**NS4A can lead to small head size (microcephaly) because it disrupts brain growth by hijacking a ... A**number**of countries issued travel warnings, and the outbreak was expected to significantly impact the tourism industry. ... The virus has also been isolated from a**number**of arboreal mosquito species in the genus Aedes, such as A. africanus, A. ...###### Outbreak response

... more extreme long-term non-pharmaceutical interventions so as to reverse the pandemic by reducing the

**basic****reproduction****number**... The**basic**strategies in the control of an outbreak are containment and mitigation. Containment may be undertaken in the early ... infectious disease specialists and a**number**of other specialties. Mathematics and mathematicians are often involved in ...###### Human-to-human transmission

In these cases, the

**basic****reproduction****number**of the virus, which is the average**number**of additional people that a single case ...###### Reed-Frost model

... the

**basic****reproduction****number**- in a large population when the initial**number**of infecteds is small, an infected individual is ... The following parameters are set initially: Size of the population**Number**of individuals already immune**Number**of cases ( ... Let I t {\displaystyle I_{t}} represent the**number**of cases of infection at time t {\displaystyle t} . Assume all cases recover ... Let S t {\displaystyle S_{t}} represent the**number**of susceptible individuals at time t {\displaystyle t} . Let B ( x ) {\ ...###### R (disambiguation)

... the

**number**of cases generated by one case in the current state of a population in epidemiology**Basic****reproduction****number**(R0), ... haplogroup Net**reproduction**rate (R0), the average**number**of offspring that would be born to a female given conforming ... a refrigerant**numbering**system R, the ratio between the minimum and maximum stresses in fracture mechanics R- or recall-button ... the expected**number**of cases directly generated by one case Haplogroup R (mtDNA), a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup ...###### R0

...

**basic****reproduction****number**, an important concept in epidemiology R0, net**reproduction**rate, an important concept in population ... This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the same title formed as a letter-**number**combination. If an internal ...###### List of MeSH codes (L01)

...

**basic****reproduction****number**MeSH L01.280.975.525.375 - incidence MeSH L01.280.975.525.750 - prevalence MeSH L01.280.975.550 - ...###### Allison McGeer

The

**basic****reproduction****number**of severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) was between 2.2 and 3.7, but ...###### List of MeSH codes (N01)

...

**basic****reproduction****number**MeSH N01.224.935.597.500 - incidence MeSH N01.224.935.597.750 - prevalence MeSH N01.224.935.698 - ...###### List of MeSH codes (E05)

...

**basic****reproduction****number**MeSH E05.318.308.985.525.375 - incidence MeSH E05.318.308.985.525.750 - prevalence MeSH E05.318. ...###### Body fluid

... peritoneal fluid Thoracocentesis to sample pleural fluid Amniocentesis to sample amniotic fluid

**Basic****reproduction****number**Blood ...###### R-value

... the

**Basic****reproduction****number**, the rate at which an infection is thought to spread R rating (disambiguation) R0, the**basic**...**reproduction****number**in epidemiology L-value (disambiguation) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title ...###### K-factor (marketing)

This usage is borrowed from the

**basic****reproduction****number**in the medical field of epidemiology in which a virus having a k- ... The formula is roughly as follows: i =**number**of invites sent by each customer {\displaystyle i={\text{**number**of invites sent ... "Distribution" ( i {\displaystyle i} ) measures the average**number**of people a host will contact while still infectious, and " ...###### Aedes aegypti

New research has attempted to estimate the

**basic****reproduction****number**, or R0 value, for Zika virus in several locations. ... "Preliminary estimation of the**basic****reproduction****number**of Zika virus infection during Colombia epidemic, 2015-2016". Travel ... In the environment, the antidote is unavailable to rescue mosquito**reproduction**, so the pest population is suppressed.[24] ... Since the latter is an uncritical**reproduction**of the former, they are both considered to antedate the starting point for ...###### Dugout (shelter)

**Reproductions**of these

**basic**family structures exist in museums and tourist information sites, such as the structure at the ... A small

**number**of these huts survive, and can be seen in the open air museums of Arnhem, Schoonoord, Barger-Compascuum and ... A large

**number**of pithouses have been archaeologically excavated throughout the American Southwest. ... Although the architectural styles used by these people evolved throughout their history, the pithouse remained a

**basic**...

###### Group 3 element

In this variant, the

**number**of f electrons in the most common (trivalent) ions of the f-block elements consistently matches ... Yttrium(III) oxide and lutetium(III) oxide exhibit weak**basic**character, but scandium(III) oxide is amphoteric.[48] Lanthanum( ... The element is known to damage cell membranes of water animals, causing several negative influences on**reproduction**and on the ... Ghiorso, Albert; Sikkeland, T.; Larsh, A. E.; Latimer, R. M. (1961). "New Element, Lawrencium, Atomic**Number**103". Phys. Rev. ...###### Ebola

"Unprecedented

**number**of medical staff infected with Ebola". World Health Organization (WHO). 25 August 2014. Archived from the ... immune cells carry the virus to nearby lymph nodes where further**reproduction**of the virus takes place.[54] From there the ... "**Basic**clinical and laboratory features of filoviral hemorrhagic fever". J Infect Dis. 204 (Supplement 3): S810-16. doi:10.1093 ... As the Ebola virus epidemic in West Africa developed in 2014, a**number**of popular self-published and well-reviewed books ...###### Abortion - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

**Numbers**and reasons for induced abortions[change , change source]. The

**number**of induced abortions done are different for ... Essential

**reproduction**(Blackwell 2000), p. 215. Retrieved 2007-02-21.. *↑ Paul, Annie. "The First Ache", New York Times 2008- ... Fetal Medicine:

**Basic**Science and Clinical Practice (Elsevier Health Sciences 1999), page 835. ... Equine

**Reproduction**, page 563 (Wiley-Blackwell 1993).. *↑ Berger, Joel W (5 May 1983). "Induced abortion and social factors in ...

###### Color balance

Comparisons of images balanced by diagonal transforms in a

**number**of different RGB spaces have identified several such spaces ... John A C Yule, Principles of Color**Reproduction**. New York: Wiley, 1967. ... without respect to any color sensing or**reproduction**model. In film photography, color balance is typically achieved by using ... must be transformed from the acquired values to new values that are appropriate for color**reproduction**or display. Several ...###### Pinophyta

**Reproduction**[edit]. Main article: Conifer cone. Most conifers are monoecious, but some are subdioecious or dioecious; all are ... The total

**number**of needles of all ages present on the 36-year-old tree in 1961 was 5.25 million weighing 14.25 kg. In 1961, ... This is the

**basic**pattern of the internal cel structure of conifer tree rings.[12] ... A

**number**of conifers originally introduced for forestry have become invasive species in parts of New Zealand, including radiata ...

###### Species distribution

The

**number**of individuals present in each sample is compared to the expected counts in the case of random distribution. The ... There are three**basic**types of population distribution within an area.. From top to bottom: uniform, random and clumped. ... Dispersion usually takes place at the time of**reproduction**. Populations within a species are translocated through many methods ... Studies have shown that larger packs of African wild dogs tend to have a greater**number**of successful kills. A prime example of ...###### Commercial sexual exploitation of children

"We believe that

**number**is really an undercount."[26] This is confirmed by SNRG-NYC's New York City population estimate of 2008 ... State-of-art technology in audiovisual equipment, development, and mass**reproduction**process.. Essentially the same as ... A national campaign in Thailand provided "9 years of**basic**education, ... awareness-raising activities to change attitudes ... the actual**number**of children involved in prostitution is likely to be much smaller: over 10 years only 827 cases a year had ...###### Cold fusion

The current reviewers identified a

**number**of**basic**science research areas that could be helpful in resolving some of the ... A few other research groups, however, reported successful**reproductions**of cold fusion during this time. In July 1989, an ... The most**basic**setup of a cold fusion cell consists of two electrodes submerged in a solution containing palladium and heavy ... The**number**of papers sharply declined after 1990 because of two simultaneous phenomena:[158] scientists abandoning the field ...###### Whale

A large

**number**of belugas were used from 1975 on, the first being dolphins.[136][137] The program also included training them ... See also: Right whale § Courtship and**reproduction**, and Fin whale § Breeding. Whales are fully aquatic creatures, which means ... Sonar interferes with the**basic**biological functions of whales-such as feeding and mating-by impacting their ability to ... Vincent and the Grenadines each year.[109] Several species that were commercially exploited have rebounded in**numbers**; for ...###### Pleiotropy

One

**basic**model of pleiotropy's origin describes a single gene locus to the expression of a certain trait. The locus affects ... Natural selection favors genes that are more beneficial prior to**reproduction**than after (leading to an increase in ... as the**number**of traits of an organism increases, the evolutionary rates of genes in the organism's population decrease.[10] ... Other more complex models compensate for some of the**basic**model's oversights, such as multiple traits or assumptions about how ...###### Reptile

"

**Numbers**of threatened species by major groups of organisms (1996-2012)" (PDF). IUCN Red List, 2010. IUCN. Archived from the ... ReproductionEdit. Crocodilian egg diagram. 1. eggshell, 2. yolk sac, 3. yolk (nutrients), 4. vessels, 5. amnion, 6. chorion, 7 ... The reptilian nervous system contains the same**basic**part of the amphibian brain, but the reptile cerebrum and cerebellum are ... Asexual**reproduction**has been identified in squamates in six families of lizards and one snake. In some species of squamates, a ...###### Observational learning

However a

**number**of studies now report that infants as young as seven days can imitate simple facial expressions. By the latter ... Albert Bandura, who is known for the classic Bobo doll experiment, identified this**basic**form of learning in 1961. The ... "Early Childhood Education as an Evolving 'Community of Practice' or as Lived 'Social**Reproduction**': researching the 'taken-for ... Within certain indigenous communities people do not typically seek out explanation beyond**basic**observation. This is because ...###### Piano concertos by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

In recent years, a

**number**of (more or less) complete sets of the concertos have been released; these include:. *DGG: Mozart Die ... Rather, it condenses and varies them so that the listener is not tired by simple**reproduction**. The genius of Mozart's mature ... from which the first movements of Mozart's piano concertos inherited their**basic**ritornello form. ... The next three concertos (K. 107/1, 2 and 3), which are not**numbered**, are arrangements of piano sonatas by J.C. Bach (Op 5. Nos ...###### Archaea

**Reproduction**. Asexual

**reproduction**, horizontal gene transfer. Asexual

**reproduction**, horizontal gene transfer. Sexual and ... One example is the methanogens that inhabit human and ruminant guts, where their vast

**numbers**aid digestion. Methanogens are ... The energy released is used to generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP) through chemiosmosis, the same

**basic**process that happens ... ReproductionEdit. Further information: Asexual

**reproduction**. Archaea reproduce asexually by binary or multiple fission, ...

###### Altruism

... , the experiment suggested, was not a superior moral faculty that suppresses

**basic**selfish urges but rather was**basic**... A**number**of theories have been proposed as explanations as well as criticisms regarding its existence. ... probability of survival or**reproduction**), but benefits, either directly or indirectly, another third-party individual, without ... New York:**Basic**Books. ISBN 0-465-02121-2.. *. Dawkins, Richard (1989). The Selfish Gene. Oxford Oxfordshire: Oxford University ...###### Human rights

Many of the

**basic**ideas that animated the human rights movement developed in the aftermath of the Second World War and the ... Kennedy, Duncan (1982). Legal Education and the**Reproduction**of Hierarchy. Journal of Legal Education Vol.32 (No. 591) ... A**number**of UN members have not joined the court and the ICC does not have jurisdiction over their citizens, and others have ... In addition to the political bodies whose mandate flows from the UN charter, the UN has set up a**number**of treaty-based bodies ...###### Mednarodni sistem enot - Wikipedija, prosta enciklopedija

FR Doc

**number**E8-11058. Pridobljeno dne 2009-10-28.. *↑ "Period or Comma? Decimal Styles over Time and Place" (PDF). Science ... "**Reproduction**(33 MB)" (PDF). Pridobljeno dne 2011-03-06.. ; "Transcription" (PDF). Pridobljeno dne 2011-03-06.. ... International vocabulary of metrology -**Basic**and general concepts and associated terms (VIM) (3rd izd.). International Bureau ... "Resolution 7 of the 9th meeting of the CGPM (1948): Writing and printing of unit symbols and of**numbers**". International Bureau ...###### Pasteur Institute

He was committed both to

**basic**research and its practical applications. As soon as his institute was created, Pasteur brought ... a subscription fund was opened to raise the money needed to provide the Institute the**number**of horses necessary to produce ... nevertheless the velocity of the bacteria's**reproduction**allowed, since it was constantly monitored, to interfere with an ... because it was necessary to act on a large**number**of generations to change the genetic foundation of a species, ...###### Embryology

"

**Reproduction**. 62 (1): 1-13. doi:10.1530/jrf.0.0620001. Three years later, the Estonian, Karl Ernst von Baer, finally found the ... the**basic**framework for understanding the molecular basis of embryonic development still rests largely on studies of ... In Drosophila, a**number**of genes have been identified that are involved in segmentation. ... Metal Ions Affecting**Reproduction**and Development". In Astrid Sigel, Helmut Sigel and Roland K. O. Sigel. Metal Ions in ...###### Translation

Nouns have no

**number**in Chinese. "If," writes Link, "you want to talk in Chinese about one rose, you may, but then you use a " ... "A good translation offers not a**reproduction**of the work but an interpretation, a re-representation, just as the performance of ... one author suggests that becoming an accomplished translator-after having already acquired a good**basic**knowledge of both ... Thus the literary translator must be familiar with the writings, lives, and thought of a large**number**of its 130 authors, ...###### Lesbian

**Basic**Books. ISBN 978-0465039074. .. *. Jeffreys, Sheila (2003). Unpacking Queer Politics: A Lesbian Feminist Perspective (1st ... Heart disease is listed by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services as the

**number**one cause of death for all women. ... Westernization brought new ideas that all sexual behavior not resulting in

**reproduction**was aberrant.[170] ... Lesbians of color are more likely to experience a

**number**of psychological issues due to the various experiences of sexism, ...

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One

**basic**mechanism which can produce mosaic tissue is mitotic recombination or somatic crossover. It was first discovered by ... The 46/47 annotation indicates that the XY cells have the normal**number**of 46 total chromosomes, and the XXY cells have a total ... Human**Reproduction**Update. 20 (4): 571-581. doi:10.1093/humupd/dmu016. ISSN 1355-4786.. ... normal skin spots appear early in life and increase in**number**and size over time.[10] ...###### Strepsirrhini

Most primates have two mammary glands,[116] but the

**number**and positions vary between species within strepsirrhines.[117] ...**Reproduction**in most strepsirrhine species tends to be seasonal, particularly in lemurs. Key factors that affect seasonal ... Most of the academic literature provides a**basic**framework for primate taxonomy, usually including several potential taxonomic ... which handles**basic**body functions and metabolic processes. This neural pathway differs from that used by the main olfactory ...###### RNA world

Origin of sexual

**reproduction**[edit]. Further information: Evolution of sexual**reproduction**. Eigen et al.[76] and Woese[77] ... Bell, Graham: The**Basics**of Selection. Springer, 1997. *^ Orgel LE (Oct 1994). "The origin of life on the earth". Scientific ... As the fittest sets of RNA molecules expanded their**numbers**, novel catalytic properties added by mutation, which benefitted ... Experiments with**basic**ribozymes, like Bacteriophage Qβ RNA, have shown that simple self-replicating RNA structures can ...###### Flea

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New York,

**Basic**Books, Inc. ISBN 0-674-57622-5. *Medina, J. (2008). Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at ... Abulcasis, Averroes, Avicenna, Avenzoar, and Maimonides, active in the Medieval Muslim world, described a**number**of medical ... of multiple memory systems related to different brain areas has challenged the idea of memory as a literal**reproduction**of the ... section.18**Basic**Neurochemistry: Molecular, Cellular, and Medical Aspects 6th ed. by George J. Siegel, Bernard W. Agranoff, R. ...###### Classifications of religious movements

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**Basic**Law of Saudi Arabia states: "[The Constitution of Saudi Arabia is] God's Book [the Qur'an] and the Sunnah of His ... In the late nineteenth century, there have been a**number**of works that help in clarifying what is involved in cults.[6] There ... Primarily gain new members through natural**reproduction**and the socialization of children into the ranks ... This church-sect typology has its origins in the work of Max Weber.[1] The**basic**premise is that there is a continuum along ...###### Paleontology

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**number**of distinct genera alive at any given time; that is, those whose first occurrence predates and whose last occurrence ... its**basic**principle is simple: the rates at which various radioactive elements decay are known, and so the ratio of the ... Sexual**reproduction**may be a prerequisite for specialisation of cells, as an asexual multicellular organism might be at risk of ... and an increasing**number**of professional geologists and fossil specialists. Interest increased for reasons that were not purely ...###### Fiber-optic communication

Alexander Graham Bell (October 1880). "On the Production and

**Reproduction**of Sound by Light". American Journal of Science. ... The choice between optical fiber and electrical (or copper) transmission for a particular system is made based on a**number**of ... The process of communicating using fiber-optics involves the following**basic**steps: *creating the optical signal involving the ... Single-mode fiber cables are commonly available in 12 km (7.5 mi) lengths, minimizing the**number**of splices required over a ...###### Loudspeaker

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**number**of bits (required for adequate sound**reproduction**quality), the physical size of a speaker ... The dynamic speaker operates on the same**basic**principle as a dynamic microphone, but in reverse, to produce sound from an ...**Number**of drivers (complete speaker systems only) - two-way, three-way, etc. ... Where high fidelity**reproduction**of sound is required, multiple loudspeaker transducers are often mounted in the same enclosure ...###### On estimating the **basic** **reproduction** **number** for Schistosoma haema...: Ingenta Connect

**Basic** **reproduction** **number** - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

It is an abbreviation for

**basic****reproduction****number**. If R0 , 1, a disease can become an epidemic. If R0 , 1, it cannot. Many ... Examples of making the effective**reproduction**rate lower than the**basic****reproduction**rate are using condoms to stop sexually ... Retrieved from "https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=**Basic**_**reproduction**_**number**&oldid=7104692" ... lower than the**basic****reproduction**rate (R0). An example of a vaccine that works really well is the smallpox vaccine, which ...###### An IDEA for Short Term Outbreak Projection: Nearcasting Using the **Basic** **Reproduction** **Number**

###### Complexity of the **Basic** **Reproduction** **Number** (R0) - Volume 25, **Number** 1-January 2019 - Emerging Infectious Diseases journal - CDC

... also called the

**basic****reproduction**ratio or rate or the**basic**reproductive rate, is an epidemiologic metric used to describe ... R0 must be estimated, reported, and applied with great caution because this**basic**metric is far from simple. ... The**basic****reproduction****number**(R0), also called the**basic****reproduction**ratio or rate or the**basic**reproductive rate, is an ... Volume 25,**Number**1-January 2019 Perspective. Complexity of the**Basic****Reproduction****Number**(R0) On This Page ...###### Table - **Basic** **Reproduction** **Number** of Chikungunya Virus Transmitted by Aedes Mosquitoes - Volume 26, **Number** 10-October 2020 -...

We estimated the weighted mean

**basic****reproduction****number**(R0) of chikungunya virus based on outbreak size. R0 was 3.4 (95% CI ... Volume 26,**Number**10-October 2020 Dispatch.**Basic****Reproduction****Number**of Chikungunya Virus Transmitted by Aedes Mosquitoes ... Approximation of the**basic****reproduction****number**R0 for vector-borne diseases with a periodic vector population. Bull Math Biol. ... Correlation of the**basic****reproduction****number**(R0) and eco-environmental variables in Colombian municipalities with chikungunya ...**Basic** **reproduction** **number** and transmission dynamics of common serogroups of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli | Applied and...

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###### What is **Basic** **Reproduction** **Number** R0 (R naught) - The Health News

The infectivity of a pathogen can be estimated by mathematical models that calculate the

**basic****reproduction****number**(R0, R ... Home/Diseases/What is**Basic****Reproduction****Number**R0 (R naught). Diseases. What is**Basic****Reproduction****Number**R0 (R naught). ... Table 1:**Basic****reproduction****number**R0 and community immunity needed to protect society from certain infectious diseases. (1)R0 ... The infectivity of a pathogen can be estimated by mathematical models that calculate the**basic****reproduction****number**(R0, R ...**Basic** **Reproduction** **Number** and Transmission Dynamics of Common Serogroups of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli | Applied and...

The

**basic****reproduction****number**(R0) measures the epidemiological fitness of a pathogen in a given host population and is one of ...**Basic****Reproduction****Number**and Transmission Dynamics of Common Serogroups of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Shi Chen, ... The**basic****reproduction****number**(R 0) was estimated using a Bayesian framework for each serogroup based on two criteria (using ... Let I* (percentage of infection in the pen) be the steady state, and we can derive the pen-level**basic****reproduction****number**(R0 ...###### Mapping the **basic** **reproduction** **number** (R0) for vector-borne diseases: A case study on bluetongue virus - NERC Open Research...

2009 Mapping the

**basic****reproduction****number**(R0) for vector-borne diseases: A case study on bluetongue virus. Epidemics, 1 (3). ... Mapping the**basic****reproduction****number**(R0) for vector-borne diseases: A case study on bluetongue virus ... Geographical maps indicating the value of the**basic****reproduction****number**, R0, can be used to identify areas of higher risk for ...###### Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of the **basic** **reproduction** **number** of diphtheria: a case study of a Rohingya refugee camp in...

... and thus we conducted an uncertainty analysis of the

**basic****reproduction****number**, R0. Methods A renewal process model was devised ... The**basic****reproduction****number**, R0, is interpreted as the average**number**of secondary cases that are produced by a single ... Univariate probability distribution of (A) the**basic****reproduction****number**, (B) a1 by December 11 and (C) a2 by December 12 from ... Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Diphtheria, Epidemiology, Outbreak,**Basic****reproduction****number**, Bangladesh, Refugee, Vaccination, ...**Basic** **reproduction** **number** - Wikiwand

The

**basic****reproduction****number**is not to be confused with the effective**reproduction****number**R {\displaystyle R} , which is the ... or**basic**reproductive**number**, denoted R 0 {\displaystyle R_{0)) ,[17] of an infection can be thought of as the expected**number**... Also, it is important to note that R 0 {\displaystyle R_{0)) is a dimensionless**number**and not a rate, which would have units ...**number**of cases generated in the current state of a population, which does not have to be the uninfected state. ...###### A New Model for Capturing the Spread of Computer Viruses on Complex-Networks

The main objective of Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society is to foster links between

**basic**and applied research relating to ... 2.**Basic****Reproduction****Number**and Equilibria. The**basic****reproduction****number**, which can be explained as the average**number**of ... containing the origin, a positive**number**, and a real eigenvector of , such that(C1). for all ,(C2). for all ,(C3)the origin ... The**basic****reproduction****number**of the model has been calculated. The global asymptotic stability of the virus-free equilibrium ...###### Remembering Chris Kochtitzky: A Conversation on COVID-19

The

**Basic****Reproduction****Number**(R0). Pronounced R naught and also called the**basic****reproduction**ratio or rate or the**basic**... Growing the**number**of available hospital and intensive care beds with ventilators and other relevant equipment ... Chris Kochtitzky: I believe that planners should know about some**basic**public health concepts related to COVID-19 to ... The most common strategies, irrespective of whether the**number**of cases is increasing, remaining the same, or decreasing, that ...###### Transmission Model of Hepatitis B Virus with the Migration Effect

3.

**Basic****Reproduction****Number**/Threshold Quantity. The**basic****reproduction****number**or the threshold quantity for the proposed model ... So, the**reproduction****number**given by is Here, shows the disease-free equilibrium (DFE), and , giving . The endemic equilibrium ... In Section 3 we find the**Basic****Reproduction****Number**, the disease-free equilibrium, and endemic equilibrium of the proposed model ... First, we obtained the**basic****reproduction****number**for the proposed model. The disease-free equilibrium is locally as well as ...###### Modeling and Cost Benefit Analysis to Guide Deployment of POC Diagnostics for Non-typhoidal Salmonella Infections with...

We show that even the use of imperfect POC diagnostics can significantly reduce total costs and

**number**of deaths, provided that ...**Basic****reproduction****number**. The**basic****reproduction****number**, \({ {\mathcal R} }_{0}\), for an infectious disease is the average ... The remaining**reproduction****numbers**are in the Supplementary Material. The**basic****reproduction****numbers**are directly proportional ... The first term of the**basic****reproduction****numbers**shown below is the average**number**of secondary infections generated by a ...###### Mathematical Aspects of Materials Science | SIAM

###### Frontiers | Evaluation of the Secondary Transmission Pattern and Epidemic Prediction of COVID-19 in the Four Metropolitan Areas...

As a result, we estimated that the

**basic**reproductive**number**R0 is 3.11 in Beijing, 2.78 in Shanghai, 2.02 in Guangzhou, and ... As a result, we estimated that the**basic**reproductive**number**, R0, was 2.91 in Beijing, 2.78 in Shanghai, 2.02 in Guangzhou, and ... For example, in Beijing, the predicted peak**number**of cases was 46... ... the predicated peak**number**of cases is around 466 at the peak time Feb 29, 2020; however, when the city conducts different ...###### Eigenvalues and eigenvectors - Wikipedia

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###### Preliminary prediction of the **basic** **reproduction** **number** of the Wuhan novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV - PubMed

Results: The

**basic****reproduction****number**fall between 2.8 and 3.3 by using the real-time reports on the**number**of 2019-nCoV- ... Impacts of different key parameters on the estimated**basic****reproduction****numbers**. The x‐axis is the**number**of cases with ... Preliminary prediction of the**basic****reproduction****number**of the Wuhan novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV Tao Zhou 1 , Quanhui Liu 2 , ... Preliminary prediction of the**basic****reproduction****number**of the Wuhan novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV Tao Zhou et al. J Evid Based ...###### Maths in a minute: "R nought" and herd immunity | plus.maths.org

The

**basic****reproduction**numberGiven an infectious disease, such as COVID-19, [maths]$R_0$[/maths] is the**basic****reproduction**... Two things many of us will have heard about over the last few weeks are the concept of herd immunity and a**number**called [maths ... The**number**of new infections after n generations for R0=2. ... When the**basic****reproduction****number**is less than 1 a very ... The**basic****reproduction****number**. Given an infectious disease, such as COVID-19, is the**basic****reproduction****number**of the disease: ...###### COVID-19 Pandemic Planning Scenarios | CDC

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###### Droplet nucleus - Wikipedia

###### Modelling and analysis of influenza A (H1N1) on networks | BMC Public Health | Full Text

... we estimate the

**basic****reproduction****number**R0 to be 1.6809 in China. Network modelling supplies a useful tool for studying the ... For the network model, we prove that the disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable when the**basic****reproduction**... The final size will depend on the vaccination starting time, T, the**number**of infective cases at time T and immunization ... Using the parameter estimates based on the observation data of the cumulative**number**of hospital notifications, ...###### Transmission dynamics and control of Ebola virus disease (EVD): a review | BMC Medicine | Full Text

... mathematical modeling offers useful insights into the risk of a major epidemic of EVD and the assessment of the impact of

**basic**... The**basic****reproduction****number**, R0. The**basic****reproduction****number**, R 0, is interpreted as the average**number**of secondary cases ... Hence, in this model the**basic****reproduction****number**, R 0, is given by the following expression:. R. 0. =. β. 0. 1. /. γ. a. 0. + ... Importantly, the above components for the**reproduction****number**underscore the fact that the actual**reproduction****number**could ...###### IJERPH | Free Full-Text | Correcting the Actual **Reproduction** **Number**: A Simple Method to Estimate R0 from Early Epidemic Growth...

The present study corrects the concept of the actual

**reproduction****number**, offering a simple framework for estimating R0 without ... The**basic****reproduction****number**, R0, a summary measure of the transmission potential of an infectious disease, is estimated from ... The**basic****reproduction****number**, R0, a summary measure of the transmission potential of an infectious disease, is estimated from ... Keywords: transmission; infectious diseases;**basic****reproduction****number**; epidemiology; statistical model; estimation techniques ...###### IJERPH | Free Full-Text | Analysis of Transmission and Control of Tuberculosis in Mainland China, 2005-2016, Based on the Age...

Furthermore, we estimated the

**basic****reproduction****number**R0 of 1.7858, with an obtained 95% confidence interval for R0 of ( ... The reported**number**of the active tuberculosis cases is about one million each year. The morbidity data for 2005-2012 reflect ...**basic****reproduction****number**; global stability; data fitting; uncertainty and sensitivity analysis tuberculosis; age group;**basic**... Furthermore, we estimated the**basic****reproduction****number**R0 of 1.7858, with an obtained 95% confidence interval for R0 of ( ...###### Estimate of the **Basic** **Reproduction** **Number** for COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. | J Prev Med Public Health;53(3...

An accurate estimation of the

**basic****reproduction****number**(R0) of COVID-19 would be beneficial for prevention programs. In light ... Estimate of the**Basic****Reproduction****Number**for COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-analy ... Estimate of the**Basic****Reproduction****Number**for COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. ... Articles were searched using the following keywords "COVID-19" and "**basic****reproduction****number**" or "R0." The heterogeneity among ...**Basic** **reproduction** **number** of coxsackievirus type A6 and A16 and enterovirus 71: estimates from outbreaks of hand, foot and...

We estimated the

**basic****reproduction****number**(R 0) of these enteroviruses to obtain a better understanding of their transmission ...**Basic****reproduction****number**of coxsackievirus type A6 and A16 and enterovirus 71: estimates from outbreaks of hand, foot and ...**Basic****reproduction****number**of coxsackievirus type A6 and A16 and enterovirus 71: estimates from outbreaks of hand, foot and ...**Basic****reproduction****number**of coxsackievirus type A6 and A16 and enterovirus 71: estimates from outbreaks of hand, foot and ...###### Re-estimation of **basic** **reproduction** **number** of COVID-19 based on the epidemic curve by symptom onset date. | Epidemiol Infect;:...

###### SEIHCRD model for COVID-19 spread scenarios, disease predictions and estimates the **basic** **reproduction** **number**, case fatality...

SEIHCRD model for COVID-19 spread scenarios, disease predictions and estimates the

**basic****reproduction****number**, case fatality ... the model will propagate and forecast dynamic evolution The model calculates the**Basic****reproduction****number**over time using ... SEIHCRD model for COVID-19 spread scenarios, disease predictions and estimates the**basic**r ... which improves the**basic**understanding of disease spread and results We have studied COVID-19 cases of six countries, where the ...EpidemiologyEpidemicInfectionsReproductiveOutbreakMeaslesInfectEstimateDeathsInfectionVaccination2019NaughtOutbreaksEpidemicsEstimationInfectious diseasesMathematical modelsCasesDisease2020EstimatesPandemicGlobally asymptotically stableCalculateDynamicsChikungunyaThresholdHeterogeneityInfectiveSusceptibleParametersVaccinatePopulationEffective reproductionCaseCompartmentalExponentialMetricSpreadKeywordsFrameworkInterventionsMeasuresData

###### Epidemiology3

- Dec 14, 2012) en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compartmental_models_in _epidemiology . (wolfram.com)
- In epidemiology, the basic reproduction number (R0) is used to measure the spread potential of a disease. (aps.org)
- The basic reproduction number R 0 is one of the most important concepts in modern infectious disease epidemiology. (royalsocietypublishing.org)

###### Epidemic12

- Likewise in an Ebola filovirus outbreak (see table 1) the number of reproduction was reduced from a theoretical 1.8 R 0 to 0.7 R , again using strict infection control measures that prevent the spread of infection and thus eliminate a potential epidemic and pandemic. (thehealthnews.org)
- We show that mathematical modeling offers useful insights into the risk of a major epidemic of EVD and the assessment of the impact of basic public health measures on disease spread. (biomedcentral.com)
- Remarkably, the current size of the ongoing EBOV epidemic far surpasses the total number of cases reported for all previous Ebola outbreaks combined. (biomedcentral.com)
- The basic reproduction number, R 0 , a summary measure of the transmission potential of an infectious disease, is estimated from early epidemic growth rate, but a likelihood-based method for the estimation has yet to be developed. (mdpi.com)
- Considering the estimated R0 for COVID-19, reducing the number of contacts within the population is a necessary step to control the epidemic . (bvsalud.org)
- Re-estimation of basic reproduction number of COVID-19 based on the epidemic curve by symptom onset date. (bvsalud.org)
- To understand the Ebola transmission dynamics, we formulate a compartmental epidemic model with exponentially decaying transmission rates and study the impact of control measures to basic public health using an SEIR model. (newton.ac.uk)
- We have calculated the basic reproduction number through next generation matrix and studied the spatial spread of the epidemic via reaction-diffusion modeling. (newton.ac.uk)
- The proposed Ebola epidemic model provides an estimate to the potential number of future cases. (newton.ac.uk)
- The Basic Reproduction Number in Epidemic Models with Periodic Demographics. (letu.edu)
- Assuming a basic reproduction number = 1.4, an 8-week vaccination campaign initiated 2 weeks before the epidemic onset reduced morbidity and mortality by 79-91% and 80-87%, respectively, compared to no vaccination. (biomedcentral.com)
- He has provided a number of rigorous mathematical tools for the study of structured populations, the problem of biological invasion, and the limiting behavior of epidemic and other population models. (aimsciences.org)

###### Infections14

- The infectivity of a pathogen can be estimated by mathematical models that calculate the basic reproduction number ( R 0 , R naught), defined as the number of secondary infections expected from each case of a disease in a fully susceptible population. (thehealthnews.org)
- We used data reported from January 24, 2020, to February 23, 2020, to fit a model of infection, estimate the likely number of infections in four high-risk metropolitan areas based on the number of cases reported, and increase the understanding of the COVID-19 spread pattern. (frontiersin.org)
- The number of new infections after n generations for R 0 =2. (maths.org)
- This parameter is now presented as the number of deaths per 1,000,000 infections for ease of interpretation. (cdc.gov)
- That's the average number of secondary infections caused by each case--in other words, when someone becomes infected with Ebola, the number of other people he/she is likely to infect. (huffingtonpost.com)
- A broad range of data analysis tools and forecasting models have been deployed since the beginning of 2020 to assess the spread of the disease, as well as the expected number of infections and numbers of deaths [ 1 - 3 ]. (smw.ch)
- Outcomes are expressed as the number of infections and deaths averted due to vaccination. (biomedcentral.com)
- is the expected number of new infections from a single infection in a population where all subjects are susceptible [1]. (wolfram.com)
- It is defined as the number of secondary infections produced by a first infection in a homogeneous susceptible population. (aps.org)
- We use their model ⁵ and published code with the latest data to calculate the total daily infections, unreported cases, and basic reproductive numbers in the Washington DC Metro Area. (medium.com)
- It is defined as the average number of secondary infections produced by an infection case in a population where everyone is susceptible ⁶ ⁷. (medium.com)
- Early large-scale serology studies suggest that the actual number of infections is 10-20 times the number of reported cases. (nature.com)
- In February, the Diamond Princess and its 4,000 passengers spent weeks in quarantine at port in Japan as the number of infections on board climbed, reaching 700. (japantimes.co.jp)
- At the national level, the number of new coronavirus infections is still small, even though there has been a slight increase in reported cases in July. (stm.fi)

###### Reproductive4

- The basic reproduction number (R 0 ), also called the basic reproduction ratio or rate or the basic reproductive rate, is an epidemiologic metric used to describe the contagiousness or transmissibility of infectious agents. (cdc.gov)
- The observed reproductive number calculated from actual disease spread studies, R , is a more useful term because it takes into account the actual transmission observed from infected individuals to susceptible individuals. (thehealthnews.org)
- As a result, we estimated that the basic reproductive number, R 0 , was 2.91 in Beijing, 2.78 in Shanghai, 2.02 in Guangzhou, and 1.75 in Shenzhen based on the data from January 24, 2020, to February 23, 2020. (frontiersin.org)
- It's meaningless to count the reproductive number of Indonesia as it is very vast and heterogeneous," Panji told the Post on Wednesday, adding that Bappenas data as of May 18 showed the RT varied widely between provinces. (thejakartapost.com)

###### Outbreak8

- Geographical maps indicating the value of the basic reproduction number, R0, can be used to identify areas of higher risk for an outbreak after an introduction. (nerc.ac.uk)
- We estimated the weighted mean basic reproduction number (R 0 ) of chikungunya virus based on outbreak size. (cdc.gov)
- We then estimated the weighted mean R 0 of CHIKV based on outbreak size, such as number of reported cases included in the estimation of R 0 in the original article, and further estimated the mean R 0 for different mosquito vectors and E1-A226V gene mutations. (cdc.gov)
- A critical piece of information in tracking an emerging outbreak - but a difficult one to establish this early on - is the number of new cases created by a single sick person. (thestar.com)
- The basic reproduction number is crucial for estimating how quickly an outbreak will grow, but can also change in response to external factors, like effective containment measures. (thestar.com)
- And an outbreak that is mostly mild but difficult to control can still result in a big death toll if huge numbers of people are infected. (thestar.com)
- A thought-provoking find from the SARS pandemic was that in the absence of super-spreading events, most infected individuals caused very few (if any) secondary contacts, but a low number of super-spreaders fueled the global outbreak. (novapublishers.com)
- Whether an outbreak spreads or dies out is largely dictated by a single number which is unique to that outbreak - the basic reproduction number. (preventionweb.net)

###### Measles3

- Measles, for example, has a reproduction number in excess of 10, according to Meyers. (huffingtonpost.com)
- The threshold is derived from a combination of vaccine effectiveness and the basic reproduction number R 0 (average number of people infected by each case), which is estimated at 12 to 18 for measles. (cmaj.ca)
- The basic reproduction number, or "R naught," of measles shows how contagious the disease is compared with other pathogens. (sciencenews.org)

###### Infect6

- is the basic reproduction number of the disease: the average number of people an infected person goes on to infect, given that everyone in the population is susceptible to the disease. (maths.org)
- the average number an infected person goes on to infect in a population where some people are immune (or some other interventions are in place). (maths.org)
- It is the average number of people that a single infectious person will infect over the course of their infection. (wikipedia.org)
- This model used the basic reproduction number (R 0 ) (i.e., the average number of people that one person with COVID-19 is likely to infect in a population without any immunity or any interventions) 4 to estimate how much contact tracing could reduce transmission and how quickly contacts need to quarantine. (cdc.gov)
- the virus is novel (that is, humanity is susceptible to it) and highly infectious (infected people can transmit it before they become symptomatic), and hence its exponential spread can be rapid: in the absence of adequate public health measures, the average number of people that a carrier goes on to infect raises significantly above 1, with the actual effective reproduction number depending on demography and crowdedness. (nature.com)
- In these cases, the basic reproduction number of the virus, which is the average number of additional people that a single case will infect without any preventative measures, can be as high as 3.9. (wikipedia.org)

###### Estimate6

- Importance and Highlights In this paper we describe a Bayesian modeling framework to estimate basic reproduction numbers of multiple serotypes of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli respectively according to a cross-sectional study. (asm.org)
- To estimate the basic reproduction number of the Wuhan novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). (cdc.gov)
- Using the parameter estimates based on the observation data of the cumulative number of hospital notifications, we estimate the basic reproduction number R 0 to be 1.6809 in China. (biomedcentral.com)
- Estimate of the Basic Reproduction Number for COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. (bvsalud.org)
- The current best estimate of SARS-CoV-2 reproduction number is 2.5, from CDC's Pandemic Planning Scenarios . (cdc.gov)
- Some key features of a mathematical description of an immune response are an estimate of the number of responding cells and the manner in which those cells divide, differentiate, and die. (aimsciences.org)

###### Deaths9

- We show that even the use of imperfect POC diagnostics can significantly reduce total costs and number of deaths, provided that the diagnostic gives results quickly enough that patients are likely to return or stay to receive targeted treatment. (nature.com)
- Professor Helen Ward , Director of Education at the School of Public Health and part of J-IDEA at Imperial, said: "Since we first launched Science Matters in February, the number of recorded cases of COVID-19 and deaths have grown exponentially. (imperial.ac.uk)
- It allows for producing time courses and cumulative numbers of influenza cases, outpatient visits, applied antiviral treatment doses, hospitalizations, deaths and work days lost due to sickness, all of which may be associated with economic aspects. (biomedcentral.com)
- The bills he studied were listings of numbers and causes of deaths published weekly. (wikipedia.org)
- Two dimensional simulation experiments show that infectious population and the number of deaths in Sierra Leone will increase up to one and a half year without control but it will decline after two years. (newton.ac.uk)
- Namely, the total number of deaths that may occur in the population. (coursera.org)
- Coincident with a water-supply crisis in São Paulo, which caused the general population to store water using improvised methods, the numbers of DENV cases (and related deaths) markedly increased in this state. (scielo.br)
- Subsequently, older adults, individuals with underlying health conditions and pregnant women (563.6 million) could be targeted for vaccination to reduce the number of individuals with severe COVID-19 outcomes, including hospitalizations, critical care admissions, and deaths. (springer.com)
- Reported confirmed cases and deaths (14-day rolling numbers) for countries that acted earlier and tested more widely (Singapore and Taiwan, which have never reached ten deaths within any two-week period, are outside the graph's range). (nature.com)

###### Infection7

- The basic reproduction number (R 0 ) of an infection is the mean number of secondary cases a single infectious person causes in a completely susceptible population. (cdc.gov)
- There have been a lot of modifications to the basic SIR model to study more complex diseases and infection mechanisms as well as control measures (Sudipa et al. (omicsonline.org)
- On the other hand, "If there are a significant number of people that may have the illness but may not be sick enough to seek medical care, they may be transmitting the infection in the community, and it might be harder to control," says Bogoch. (thestar.com)
- The basic epidemiological reproduction number of parasite infection ($R_0$) and the basic demographic reproduction number of infected hosts ($R_1$) are given. (aimsciences.org)
- 1, the number of infection cases increases. (medium.com)
- R0 represents the expected number of new cases that might be generated from one infection case, and the R0 can differ from region to region. (thejakartapost.com)
- In this paper, we present a model for the spread of a permanently immunizing infection in a population socially structured into households and workplaces/schools, and we propose and discuss a new household-to-household reproduction number R H for it. (royalsocietypublishing.org)

###### Vaccination4

- The ideal aim of any intervention, be it vaccination or social distancing, is to get the effective reproduction number down to under 1. (maths.org)
- The final size will depend on the vaccination starting time, T , the number of infective cases at time T and immunization schemes to follow. (biomedcentral.com)
- Models use basic assumptions or collected statistics along with mathematics to find parameters for various infectious diseases and use those parameters to calculate the effects of different interventions, like mass vaccination programmes. (wikipedia.org)
- Vaccination operates by reducing the number of susceptible individuals in the population (Keeling and Rohani, 2008). (omicsonline.org)

###### 20192

- The basic reproduction number fall between 2.8 and 3.3 by using the real-time reports on the number of 2019-nCoV-infected cases from People's Daily in China and fall between 3.2 and 3.9 on the basis of the predicted number of infected cases from international colleagues. (cdc.gov)
- The medical authority in China, especially in Wuhan city, reported on December 2019 a large number of highly fatal, rapidly spreading viral pneumonia caused by an unknown coronavirus. (frontiersin.org)

###### Naught1

- The basic reproduction number (R 0 ), pronounced "R naught," is intended to be an indicator of the contagiousness or transmissibility of infectious and parasitic agents. (cdc.gov)

###### Outbreaks3

- Correlation of the basic reproduction number (R 0 ) and eco-environmental variables in Colombian municipalities with chikungunya outbreaks during 2014-2016. (cdc.gov)
- Zika in Rio de Janeiro: Assessment of basic reproduction number and comparison with dengue outbreaks. (nih.gov)
- Outbreaks appear to be related to the level of the Nile and to the number of animals being imported. (utoronto.ca)

###### Epidemics1

- The beginning of the epidemics is characterised by the basic reproduction number R 0 , whereas the effective reproduction number R t describes its progression in time. (smw.ch)

###### Estimation2

- We incorporate different sensitivity levels of detecting different serotypes and evaluate their potential influence on the estimation of basic reproduction numbers. (asm.org)
- An accurate estimation of the basic reproduction number (R0) of COVID-19 would be beneficial for prevention programs. (bvsalud.org)

###### Infectious diseases1

- That, she says, is a bit higher than influenza's number but far lower than certain other infectious diseases. (huffingtonpost.com)

###### Mathematical models4

- Unfortunately conditions are not always ideal, and mathematical models estimating R 0 may not take into account factors such as the number of people recovering, population density (close contact), length of contact time, and other variables that may affect disease spread. (thehealthnews.org)
- With basic mathematical models, researchers can begin to forecast the progression of diseases and understand the effect of interventions on disease spread. (preventionweb.net)
- One of the simplest mathematical models of disease spread splits the population into three basic categories according to disease status. (preventionweb.net)
- One of the most important insights achieved from the analysis of simple mathematical models is the concept of basic reproduction number R 0 , defined as the average number of secondary cases generated by a 'typical' infectious case, throughout the infectious period, in a totally susceptible population. (royalsocietypublishing.org)

###### Cases14

- Dietz states that R 0 is "the number of secondary cases one case would produce in a completely susceptible population" ( 19 ). (cdc.gov)
- Fine supplements this definition with the description "average number of secondary cases" ( 17 ). (cdc.gov)
- Diekmann and colleagues use the description "expected number of secondary cases" and provide additional specificity to the terminology regarding a single case ( 13 ). (cdc.gov)
- The UK Hepatitis Foundation estimated in 2007 that the number of hepatitis B cases in the UK doubled in the previous 6 years chiefly due to immigration of infected people, many from the new member states of the European Union where the prevalence of viral hepatitis is higher. (hindawi.com)
- However, actual number of cases of people infected with the new virus is likely to be much higher than these numbers suggest, as most cases are not tested. (biomedcentral.com)
- Figure 1 shows the number of reported cases of H1N1 in China since June 2009. (biomedcentral.com)
- The present study corrects the concept of the actual reproduction number, offering a simple framework for estimating R 0 without assuming exponential growth of cases. (mdpi.com)
- The reported number of the active tuberculosis cases is about one million each year. (mdpi.com)
- A large number of mild cases can be both good and bad. (thestar.com)
- But a small number of people created large numbers of secondary cases - one documented "superspreader" was the source of 76 new cases, including in 12 health-care workers. (thestar.com)
- A metric that is often deployed to quantify the progress of the disease is the reproduction number, which is the expected number of secondary cases caused by a single infected individual over the infectious period. (smw.ch)
- The fundamental reason why we're seeing the number of cases we are is inadequate vaccine coverage among the exposed," he said. (harvard.edu)
- It measures the average number of secondary cases per infectious cases in a population made up of both susceptible and non-susceptible hosts. (medium.com)
- In the week before, the number of reported cases was 51, showing a slight growth in the number of cases reported in the two previous weeks, 42 cases in the week beginning 13 July and 38 cases in the week beginning 6 July. (stm.fi)

###### Disease14

- First, we find the basic threshold quantity Ro and then find the local asymptotic stability of disease-free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium. (hindawi.com)
- Immigrants for short visits and students should be subjected to tests to reduce the number of immigrants with disease. (hindawi.com)
- For the network model, we prove that the disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable when the basic reproduction is less than one. (biomedcentral.com)
- The basic reproduction number ( denoted by R 0 ) is a measure of how transferable a disease is. (wikipedia.org)
- Each disease has a specific number of days in which the contacts must be reached to prevent further spread, consistent with its natural history. (cdc.gov)
- The global asymptotic stability of the disease free equilibrium whenever R vac is proved, where R 0 is the reproduction number. (scirp.org)
- Though it is very simple, this model exhibits the basic structure associated to the spread of a disease in a population. (omicsonline.org)
- The basic reproduction number ( Rₒ ) measures the transmission potential of a disease. (medium.com)
- Every disease has a different 'basic reproduction number,' or R0, a measure of how contagious it is. (chicagotribune.com)
- We first define the basic reproduction number $\mathcal{R}_0$ for the disease transmission, which generalizes the existing definition of $\mathcal{R}_0$ for the system in spatially homogeneous environment. (aimsciences.org)
- The mathematical results show that the considered saturation effect in population of birds and psychological effect in population of human does not effect the stability of equilibria, if the disease is prevalent then it can affect the number of infected humans. (aimsciences.org)
- With a basic reproduction number of 2, the first person with the disease spreads it to two others, who each, on average, spread the disease to two others and then to two others each, and so on. (preventionweb.net)
- In countries as various as Armenia, Afghanistan, and Sierra Leone, the lack or deterioration of basic infrastructure has created a wealth of new breeding sites for the mosquitoes that spread the disease. (worldwatch.org)
- This helps calculate the speed a disease can spread by looking at the average number of others a person with the virus infects. (japantimes.co.jp)

###### 20201

- Like other research institutions, the HZI has been working under reduced conditions in basic operation with home office solutions for science and administration since 20 March 2020, in order to impede the spread of the virus and thus protect employees. (helmholtz-hzi.de)

###### Estimates3

- Existing estimates of the basic reproduction number, R0, for human schistosomes are mostly in the range 1-4, implying that schistosomes should be relatively easy to eliminate from endemic areas, which is contrary to practical experience. (ingentaconnect.com)
- We also compared the results of SIR and SEIR models, which give different estimates of the reproduction number, and provided an analytical relationship between the respective numbers. (smw.ch)
- Early estimates of the basic reproduction number for COVID-19 put it somewhere between 1.5 and 4, with a value of at least 2 in December and January . (preventionweb.net)

###### Pandemic2

- The reproduction number is broadly considered as a key indicator for the spreading of the COVID-19 pandemic. (smw.ch)
- Early in the pandemic, much attention was focused on the basic reproduction number (R0) of SARS-CoV-2. (japantimes.co.jp)

###### Globally asymptotically stable1

- A systematic analysis of this new model shows that the virus-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable when its basic reproduction is less than one, and the viral equilibrium is globally attractive when the basic reproduction is greater than one. (hindawi.com)

###### Calculate1

- We calculate the basic reproduction number and study the effects of various immunization schemes. (biomedcentral.com)

###### Dynamics1

- The basic reproduction number for each patch is computed and then the threshold dynamics of the model are established. (utoronto.ca)

###### Chikungunya1

- We used the search terms "Basic reproduction number" or "R 0 " AND "chikungunya" to identify published articles from Google Scholar and PubMed. (cdc.gov)

###### Threshold1

- Which means if you nudge transmission down just a little bit, you actually get below that threshold of a reproduction number of one, which means it's controllable. (thestar.com)

###### Heterogeneity1

- it exhibits great heterogeneity in terms of the numbers and the pattern of contacts. (biomedcentral.com)

###### Infective1

- Some numerical results for the proposed parameters are presented which can reduce the number of infective in the population of humans. (aimsciences.org)

###### Susceptible1

- The effective reproduction number ( Rₑ ) takes into account the fraction of the susceptible population, defined as Rₑ=Rₒ×S/N, where S is the susceptible population and N is the total population. (medium.com)

###### Parameters6

- Furthermore, we estimated the basic reproduction number R 0 of 1.7858, with an obtained 95% confidence interval for R 0 of (1.7752, 1.7963) by Latin hypercube sampling, and we completed a sensitivity analysis of R 0 in terms of some parameters. (mdpi.com)
- From such a model, cell counts (in terms of the number of divisions undergone) can be directly computed and thus key biological parameters such as population doubling time and precursor viability can be determined. (aimsciences.org)
- The parameters of the model included the reproduction number, the day of the first intervention and a reduction factor for the reproduction number. (smw.ch)
- By inferring these parameters from data, we identified when interventions became effective and determined the reproduction number before and after the measures had become effective. (smw.ch)
- An explicit formula for the basic reproduction number R 0 was obtained in terms of the demographic and epidemiological parameters of the model. (ajol.info)
- Based on the studies by Althaus and Chowell, the parameters were calculated and the basic reproduction number was estimated. (fisk.edu)

###### Vaccinate1

- Using publicly available data, we estimated the size of target population groups, and the number of days needed to vaccinate 70% of the target population. (springer.com)

###### Population8

- Bacaër N . Approximation of the basic reproduction number R 0 for vector-borne diseases with a periodic vector population. (cdc.gov)
- Rectangular and stationary age distribution , i.e., everybody in the population lives to age L and then dies, and for each age (up to L ) there is the same number of people in the population. (wikipedia.org)
- In [16] , the tuberculosis control is formulated and solved as an optimal control theory problem, indicating how a control term on the chemoprophylaxis should be introduced in the population to reduce the number of individuals with active TB. (scirp.org)
- However, in what became known as the 20/80 rule , an increasing number of studies and observations point towards a small number of individuals (20%) that are responsible for most (80%) transmission events in a population. (novapublishers.com)
- In this report, the population of cells is mathematically organized into compartments, with all cells in a single compartment having undergone the same number of divisions. (aimsciences.org)
- The rate of spread in an immune population is called the virus's effective reproduction rate, or R E . (harvard.edu)
- for a basic reproduction number between two and three, this would happen when 50-66% of the population has been infected. (nature.com)
- In addition to the number of exceedances of the daily limit value of PM 10 , we also considered population data and daily travelling information for each province. (bmj.com)

###### Effective reproduction2

- We can also use other measures to make the effective reproduction rate (R e , usually written R t with t for time) lower than the basic reproduction rate (R 0 ). (wikipedia.org)
- Examples of making the effective reproduction rate lower than the basic reproduction rate are using condoms to stop sexually transmitted diseases from spreading or not getting close to others ( physical distancing , often called social distancing ) to stop respiratory diseases from spreading. (wikipedia.org)

###### Case2

- Applying the ascertainment rate to the reported case numbers, we obtained the unreported case numbers and plotted them in a stacked histogram. (medium.com)
- We found 11 counties in the DC Metro area that have reported case numbers over 1,000. (medium.com)

###### Compartmental1

- A compartmental scheme is a scheme for estimating the variation in the number of individuals in each compartment over time. (scirp.org)

###### Exponential2

- The basic reproduction number of non-exponential models has yet to be calculated. (aps.org)
- In practice, the exponential growth predicted by the basic reproduction number is rarely sustained beyond a few generations. (preventionweb.net)

###### Metric1

- R 0 must be estimated, reported, and applied with great caution because this basic metric is far from simple. (cdc.gov)

###### Spread1

- Objectives A number of studies have shown that the airborne transmission route could spread some viruses over a distance of 2 meters from an infected person. (bmj.com)

###### Keywords1

- Articles were searched using the following keywords "COVID-19" and " basic reproduction number " or "R0. (bvsalud.org)

###### Framework1

- Although the basic conceptual framework is similar for each, the operational definitions are not always identical. (cdc.gov)

###### Interventions1

- Here we present an online tool for the data-driven inference and quantification of uncertainties for the reproduction number, as well as the time points of interventions for 51 European countries. (smw.ch)

###### Measures1

- To reduce this number below 1.0, governments have applied various kinds of measures, such as social distancing, travel restrictions, closing of public places, schools and nonessential production. (smw.ch)

###### Data1

- programs based on surveillance of all reproduction data and comparison of indexes with preset targets. (thefreedictionary.com)