###### Basic Reproduction Number

###### Disease Transmission, Infectious

###### Disease Outbreaks

###### Epidemics

###### Communicable Diseases

###### Models, Theoretical

###### Influenza, Human

###### Models, Biological

###### Models, Statistical

###### Insect Vectors

###### Computer Simulation

###### Communicable Disease Control

###### Population Dynamics

###### Quarantine

###### Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype

###### Pandemics

## Utility of R0 as a predictor of disease invasion in structured populations. (1/105)

Early theoretical work on disease invasion typically assumed large and well-mixed host populations. Many human and wildlife systems, however, have small groups with limited movement among groups. In these situations, the basic reproductive number, R0, is likely to be a poor predictor of a disease pandemic because it typically does not account for group structure and movement of individuals among groups. We extend recent work by combining the movement of hosts, transmission within groups, recovery from infection and the recruitment of new susceptibles into a stochastic model of disease in a host metapopulation. We focus on how recruitment of susceptibles affects disease invasion and how population structure can affect the frequency of superspreading events (SSEs). We show that the frequency of SSEs may decrease with the reduced movement and the group sizes due to the limited number of susceptible individuals available. Classification tree analysis of the model results illustrates the hierarchical nature of disease invasion in host metapopulations. First, the pathogen must effectively transmit within a group (R0>1), and then the pathogen must persist within a group long enough to allow for movement among the groups. Therefore, the factors affecting disease persistence--such as infectious period, group size and recruitment of new susceptibles--are as important as the local transmission rates in predicting the spread of pathogens across a metapopulation. (+info)## Analyses of the 1957 (Asian) influenza pandemic in the United Kingdom and the impact of school closures. (2/105)

Many countries plan to close schools during a future influenza pandemic, although the potential impact is poorly understood. We apply a model of the transmission dynamics of pandemic influenza to consultation, serological and clinical data from the United Kingdom from the 1957 (Asian) influenza pandemic, to estimate the basic reproduction number (R0), the proportion of infected individuals who experience clinical symptoms and the impact of school/nursery closures. The R0 for Asian influenza was about 1.8 and 60-65% of infected individuals were estimated to have experienced clinical symptoms. During a future pandemic, closure of schools/nurseries could reduce the epidemic size only by a very small amount (<10%) if R0 is high (e.g. 2.5 or 3.5), and modest reductions, e.g. 22% might be possible if it is low (1.8) and schools are closed early, depending on assumptions about contact patterns. Further data on contact patterns and their dependence on school closures are needed. (+info)## A mathematical model of the dynamics of Salmonella Cerro infection in a US dairy herd. (3/105)

We developed a mathematical model of the transmission dynamics of salmonella to describe an outbreak of S. Cerro infection that occurred in a Pennsylvania dairy herd. The data were collected as part of a cooperative research project between the Regional Dairy Quality Management Alliance and the Agricultural Research Service. After the initial detection of a high prevalence of S. Cerro infection in the herd, a frequent and intensive sampling was conducted and the outbreak was followed for 1 year. The data showed a persistent presence of S. Cerro with a high prevalence of infection in the herd. The dynamics of host and pathogen were modelled using a set of nonlinear differential equations. A more realistically distributed (gamma-distributed) infectious period using multiple stages of infection was considered. The basic reproduction number was calculated and relevance to the intervention strategies is discussed. (+info)## The effect of heterogeneous infectious period and contagiousness on the dynamics of Salmonella transmission in dairy cattle. (4/105)

(+info)## Epidemic thresholds in dynamic contact networks. (5/105)

(+info)## Household structure and infectious disease transmission. (6/105)

(+info)## Latent coinfection and the maintenance of strain diversity. (7/105)

(+info)## Imported and autochthonous cases in the dynamics of dengue epidemics in Brazil. (8/105)

(+info)**Basic Reproduction Number**(R0) is the average number of people an infected individual will transmit a disease to in a completely susceptible population.

The basic reproduction number, also known as the R0 value, is a measure of the average number of secondary infections caused by a single infected individual in a population that is completely susceptible to the infection. It is a key concept in epidemiology and is used to understand the potential for an infectious disease to spread within a population. The R0 value is calculated by dividing the average number of secondary infections caused by a single infected individual by the average time it takes for an infected individual to transmit the disease to others. It is a theoretical value that represents the maximum potential for an infectious disease to spread within a population, assuming that everyone is susceptible to the disease and that there are no other factors that could limit the spread of the disease. The R0 value is important because it can be used to predict the potential impact of an infectious disease outbreak and to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions aimed at controlling the spread of the disease. For example, if the R0 value for a particular disease is high, it may be necessary to implement strict control measures to prevent the disease from spreading widely within a population.

**Communicable diseases**are illnesses caused by pathogens that can be transmitted from person to person through various means such as respiratory droplets, bodily fluids, or contact with contaminated surfaces.

In the medical field, communicable diseases are infections that can be transmitted from one person to another through various means such as direct contact, respiratory droplets, bodily fluids, or contaminated surfaces. These diseases can be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites, and can affect people of all ages, genders, and backgrounds. Examples of communicable diseases include influenza, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, measles, mumps, rubella, chickenpox, hepatitis B and C, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and foodborne illnesses. These diseases can spread rapidly in crowded or poorly ventilated environments, and can cause serious health complications if left untreated. Preventing the spread of communicable diseases involves practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly, covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, avoiding close contact with sick individuals, and getting vaccinated when possible. Healthcare professionals also play a crucial role in identifying and treating communicable diseases, as well as implementing public health measures to control their spread.

**Influenza, Human**is a highly contagious respiratory illness caused by the influenza virus that affects humans.

Influenza, Human, also known as the flu, is a highly contagious respiratory illness caused by the influenza virus. It can cause mild to severe illness, and in some cases, can lead to death. The virus is transmitted through the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes, or by touching a surface contaminated with the virus and then touching the mouth, nose, or eyes. Symptoms of the flu can include fever, cough, sore throat, body aches, headache, chills, and fatigue. In severe cases, the flu can lead to pneumonia, which can be life-threatening. The flu is preventable through vaccination, and antiviral medications can be used to treat the illness.

**Computer simulation**in the medical field refers to the use of computer models to simulate and analyze biological systems, medical procedures, and treatment outcomes.

In the medical field, computer simulation refers to the use of computer models and algorithms to simulate the behavior of biological systems, medical devices, or clinical procedures. These simulations can be used to study and predict the effects of various medical interventions, such as drug treatments or surgical procedures, on the human body. Computer simulations in medicine can be used for a variety of purposes, including: 1. Training and education: Medical students and professionals can use computer simulations to practice and refine their skills in a safe and controlled environment. 2. Research and development: Researchers can use computer simulations to study the underlying mechanisms of diseases and develop new treatments. 3. Clinical decision-making: Physicians can use computer simulations to predict the outcomes of different treatment options and make more informed decisions about patient care. 4. Device design and testing: Engineers can use computer simulations to design and test medical devices, such as prosthetics or surgical instruments, before they are used in patients. Overall, computer simulations are a powerful tool in the medical field that can help improve patient outcomes, reduce costs, and advance medical knowledge.

**Communicable Disease Control**refers to the measures and strategies implemented to prevent and control the spread of infectious diseases from person to person or within a population.

Communicable Disease Control (CDC) refers to the measures taken to prevent and control the spread of infectious diseases from person to person or from animals to humans. It involves identifying, monitoring, and managing diseases that can be transmitted through various modes of transmission such as respiratory droplets, direct contact, fecal-oral route, vector-borne transmission, and sexual contact. The main goal of CDC is to reduce the incidence and impact of communicable diseases on public health by implementing strategies such as vaccination, hygiene practices, quarantine, isolation, and contact tracing. CDC also involves educating the public about the risks of communicable diseases and how to prevent their spread. In the medical field, CDC is an essential component of public health practice, and it plays a critical role in controlling outbreaks of infectious diseases and protecting the health of the population.

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###### Herd immunity

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###### COVID-19 pandemic on Diamond Princess

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###### Maia Majumder

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###### Spanish flu

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###### COVID-19 pandemic in Vietnam

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###### Kivu Ebola epidemic

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###### Western African Ebola virus epidemic

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###### Transmissibility

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###### Airborne transmission

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###### Fecal-oral route

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###### Saliva

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###### Zero-COVID

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###### SARS

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###### Infectious period

**Basic**

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###### Endemic (epidemiology)

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**number**can be high (hyperendemic) ...

###### Betaarterivirus suid 1

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**reproduction**

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###### Coxsackievirus

**basic**

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**number**of enterovirus 71 and ... and ultimately resulted in the isolation of a large

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###### Enterovirus 71

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###### Complexity of the **Basic** **Reproduction** **Number** (R0) - Volume 25, **Number** 1-January 2019 - Emerging Infectious Diseases journal - CDC

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**Number**1-January 2019 Perspective. Complexity of the

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**Basic** **Reproduction** **Number** (R0) of Major Infectious Diseases | The Geography of Transport Systems

**Basic**

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**Number**(R0) of Major Infectious Diseases.

**Basic**

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**Number**R0 of Major Infectious Diseases. Source ... The

**basic**

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**number**of a contagious disease, known as R0, is the

**number**of people per infected individual that will ... Contents › Appendix B - Applications and Case Studies › B.19 - Transportation and Pandemics ›

**Basic**

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###### Evolution and epidemic spread of SARS-CoV-2 in Brazil

###### A Deterministic Mathematical Model for Direct and Indirect Transmission Dynamics of Typhoid Fever

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###### Global Dynamics of a Discretized Heroin Epidemic Model with Time Delay

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###### The Dynamical Analysis of Computer Viruses Model with Age Structure and Delay

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###### How does coronavirus COVID-19 compare to flu? - ABC News

###### Rich dynamics of a simple delay host-pathogen model of cell-to-cell infection for plant virus

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###### Vietnam

###### Eden TEKWA | Research Associate | Doctor of Philosophy | McGill University, Montréal | McGill | Department of Biology |...

**basic**

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**number**of COVID-19 across countries ... Social, economic, and environmental factors influencing the

**basic**

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###### University of Glasgow - Research - Research units A-Z - MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research - About Us - People...

**basic**

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**number**(R0) estimated at between 12 ... The University of Glasgow is a registered Scottish charity: Registration

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###### They Did the Monster Math | University of Pittsburgh

###### Tech Science Press - Publisher of Open Access Journals

###### Volume 14

**basic**

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**number**(R0) ... so social distancing affects both the effective

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###### Pandemics - COVID-19 Science Projects (Page 2)

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**number**of a disease, quantifies ...

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###### Mukhtar2018 - Modelling the effect of bednet coverage on malaria transmission in South Sudan. | BioModels

###### How Trump's Coronavirus Blame for WHO and China Falls Flat

**basic**

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###### WHO EMRO | Modelling of seasonal influenza and estimation of the burden in Tunisia | Volume 22, issue 7 | EMHJ volume 22, 2016

**basic**

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**basic**

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###### The Latest: Fears S Korea losing control over 2nd virus wave - McKinnon Broadcasting

**basic**

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**number**of virus carriers, which measures the

**number**of infections caused by an individual, has ... The

**number**of cases in the state is the highest in two months and has accounted for more than 80% of Australias new cases over ... Any

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**number**of new cases and the 102 deaths from the virus in Australia are low compared to many other countries. ...

###### Second meeting of the International Health Regulations (2005) (IHR) Emergency Committee regarding the multi-country outbreak of...

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###### Disease effects on **reproduction** can cause population cycles in seasonal environments - Fingerprint
- The University of...

**basic**

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###### COVID-19 Pulmonary Management: Practice Essentials, Pathogenesis of COVID-19, Clinical Features of COVID-19

**basic**

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**number**(R0 /R naught) is an epidemiologic entity that helps predict the expected

**number**of cases from ... Owing to the limited

**number**of reported cases of COVID-19 in the first trimester, it is still unclear if the viral infection ... However, it is possible that there might be a higher

**number**of patients with undiagnosed respiratory disease. ...

###### Talk:2409: Steepen the Curve - explain xkcd

**Basic**

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**number**of cases requiring hospitalization. And the idea was ...

###### Plus it

###### Risk estimation and prediction of the transmission of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) in the mainland of China excluding...

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**reproduction**ratio- Re(t), of the disease transmission in the mainland of China excluding Hubei ... method and estimate the control

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**Basic**

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**basic**

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###### Dryad | Data -- What's stirring in the reservoir? modelling mechanisms of henipavirus circulation in fruit bat hosts

###### Modeling the transmission of new coronavirus in São Paulo State, Brazil -- Assessing epidemiological impacts of isolating young...

**number**of severe CoViD-19 cases and deaths due to this disease ... from which we calculated the

**basic**

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**number**of severe CoViD-19 cases and deaths due to this disease ...

###### Naught3

- The basic reproduction number (R 0 ), pronounced "R naught," is intended to be an indicator of the contagiousness or transmissibility of infectious and parasitic agents. (cdc.gov)
- One of these is called the 'basic reproduction number', otherwise known as the R naught, or R0. (abc.net.au)
- Although dynamic, the basic reproduction number (R 0 /R naught) is an epidemiologic entity that helps predict the expected number of cases from exposure to a single case, assuming all the individuals in the given population are susceptible. (medscape.com)

###### Person with COVID-191

- The average number of people that one person with COVID-19 is likely to infect in a population without any immunity (from previous infection) or any interventions. (cdc.gov)

###### Susceptible4

- Dietz states that R 0 is "the number of secondary cases one case would produce in a completely susceptible population" ( 19 ). (cdc.gov)
- The basic reproduction number of a contagious disease, known as R0, is the number of people per infected individual that will be generated throughout its infectious period in a susceptible population. (transportgeography.org)
- The rapid screening for antibody levels in the healthy population, such as health care workers, is important for quickly assessing the number of susceptible individuals when a measles outbreak occurs. (gla.ac.uk)
- The basic reproduction number R 0 is the average number of secondary infections due to an infective case during the infectious period when everyone else in the population is susceptible [ 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)

###### Contagious1

- Measles is perhaps the most contagious infectious viral disease, with a basic reproduction number (R 0 ) estimated at between 12 and 18. (gla.ac.uk)

###### Infections3

- The R0 refers to the number of secondary infections generated from one infected individual, said Sanjaya Senanyake, an infectious diseases specialist from the Australian National University. (abc.net.au)
- Some communities see early, large waves of infected individuals, while others see smaller numbers of infections over a longer period of time, and others may not appear to have an epidemic at all. (sciencebuddies.org)
- He said the basic reproduction number of virus carriers, which measures the number of infections caused by an individual, has reached nearly 1.8 for the period between April 30 and June 11. (kusi.com)

###### Symptomatic3

- From the estimated numbers of symptomatic cases, we estimated that the critical proportions of the population that should be vaccinated were 15%, 4% and 10% respectively. (who.int)
- Running the model for the different values of R0, we quantified the number of symptomatic clinical cases, the clinical attack rates, the symptomatic clinical attack rates and the number of deaths. (who.int)
- Symptomatic Case Fatality Ratio: The number of symptomatic individuals who die of the disease among al individuals experiencing symptoms from the infection. (cdc.gov)

###### Reproductive3

- The basic reproduction number (R 0 ), also called the basic reproduction ratio or rate or the basic reproductive rate, is an epidemiologic metric used to describe the contagiousness or transmissibility of infectious agents. (cdc.gov)
- Further, we calculate the model's basic reproductive number and study its sensitivity to LLINs' coverage and its efficacy. (ebi.ac.uk)
- There is widespread consensus that improving the coverage and quality of Reproductive Maternal Newborn and Child Health (RMNCH) these interventions should be the focus of policies, associated programmes, innovations and it feeds to achieving aspects of Sustainable Development Goal number 3. (who.int)

###### Disease5

- Disease modeling uses the differential equation called the basic reproduction number, or R nought , ( R 0 = x ) to represent the average spread of an infection. (pitt.edu)
- Because of Operation Warpspeed and scientific advances we now have vaccines in an unprecedented short period of time, so that if we can continue to keep the contagion rate low enough we will eventually have enough people vaccinated that the number of disease cases (and deaths) will drop off dramatically. (explainxkcd.com)
- We parameterize the model by using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method and estimate the control reproduction number ( R c ), as well as the effective daily reproduction ratio- R e ( t ), of the disease transmission in the mainland of China excluding Hubei province. (biomedcentral.com)
- The epidemiological scenarios focused mainly on evaluating the number of severe CoViD-19 cases and deaths due to this disease when isolation is introduced in a population. (harvard.edu)
- Effective reproduction numbers are commonly overestimated early in a disease outbreak. (who.int)

###### Epidemic3

- The higher the value of R0, the higher the risk of an epidemic or a pandemic since each individual can potentially infect a larger number of people with the risk of exponential growth. (transportgeography.org)
- Any number above 1 indicates a growing epidemic. (kusi.com)
- Nishiura H, Chowell G, Safan M, Castillo-Chavez C. Pros and cons of estimating the reproduction number from early epidemic growth rate of influenza A (H1N1) 2009. (who.int)

###### Deaths1

- This parameter is not necessarily equivalent to the number of reported deaths per reported cases, because many cases and deaths are never confirmed to be COVID-19, and there is a lag in time between when people are infected and when they die. (cdc.gov)

###### Estimates5

- Estimates of the incubation period, serial interval and reproduction number for COVID-19 were obtained and compared. (who.int)
- Although reproduction number estimates ranged from 0.3 to 14.8, in 33 studies (63%), they fell between 2 and 3. (who.int)
- The calculated incubation period was similar over the study period and in different settings, whereas estimates of the serial interval and effective reproduction number were setting-specific. (who.int)
- Estimates of the effective reproduction number varied with the setting and the underlying model assumptions. (who.int)
- Quantifying TB transmission: a systematic review of reproduction number and serial interval estimates for tuberculosis. (who.int)

###### Ratio1

- By calculating the effective reproduction ratio, we prove that the contact rate should be kept at least less than 30% of the normal level by April, 2020. (biomedcentral.com)

###### Infectious1

- Our novel approach helps clarify mechanisms of viral persistence and circulation in wild bats, including estimated ranges for key parameters such as the basic reproduction number and the duration of the infectious period. (datadryad.org)

###### Pandemic1

- The virus can be spread fairly easily, including by people who are infected but display no symptoms, and as a result, we are in the middle of a global pandemic, with nearly all countries in the world reporting an increasing number of infected individuals. (sciencebuddies.org)

###### Average2

- Fine supplements this definition with the description "average number of secondary cases" ( 17 ). (cdc.gov)
- But despite conducting more than 1.3 million tests, the highest number in Africa, it currently takes an average of 12 days to get results, which medical experts say is much too long to do any effective tracking and quarantining. (kusi.com)

###### Programme1

- by UNDP/UNFPA/WHO/World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction. (who.int)

###### Measures1

- While the basic reproduction number with control measures is defined as the control reproduction number R c . (biomedcentral.com)

###### Results2

- Through some rigorous analyses, an explicit formula for the basic reproduction number of the model is calculated, and some results about stability and instability of equilibria for the model are established. (hindawi.com)
- From the numerical simulation results, we notice a basic reproduction number, [Formula: see text], confirming a substantial increase of incidence cases if no form of intervention takes place in the community. (ebi.ac.uk)

###### Control1

- Basic infection control for health care providers / Mike Kennamer. (who.int)

###### Describe1

- The topological complexity is a homotopy invariant that can be thought of as the minimum number of continuous instructions required to describe the movement of the robots between any initial configuration to any final one without collisions. (siam.org)

###### Model1

- It has been recently used as a preprocessing step for new model order reduction methods, so it is important to keep the number of new variables small. (siam.org)

###### Strategies1

- Strategies were presented for the prevention of disorders of reproduction, neurotoxic disorders, noise induced hearing loss, dermatological conditions, and psychological disorders brought on by exposures to hazardous working conditions. (cdc.gov)

###### Studies3

- Fifty-two studies estimated the reproduction number. (who.int)
- Current studies have shown that the number of mild and asymptomatic cases may be even greater. (bvsalud.org)
- Research needs concerning psychological disturbances center on basic studies and intervention studies to evaluate the effects of psychosocial job enhancement in terms of psychological well being. (cdc.gov)

###### Period1

- COVID-19 has stood out with a high impact on public health due to the high number of cases with infection in a short period of time. (bvsalud.org)

###### Case1

- Diekmann and colleagues use the description "expected number of secondary cases" and provide additional specificity to the terminology regarding a single case ( 13 ). (cdc.gov)

###### Time1

- Therefore, the choice of the anticoagulant and coagulant, rotation force and number of centrifugations, time elapsed between the sample activation and its clinical use, and the method of blood collection are some factors affecting PRP biological effect 6,7,20 . (bvsalud.org)

###### Sample1

- Sample dates, bat ID numbers, and NiVsG mean fluorescence index (MFI) values from Luminex assays applied to blood samples from captive Eidolon helvum. (datadryad.org)

###### Additional1

- From data collected in the São Paulo State, we estimated the transmission and additional mortality rates, from which we calculated the basic reproduction number R0. (harvard.edu)

###### Limit1

- There was a lot of talk of trying to get the basic reproduction number R0 as close to 1 as possible to limit that exponential growth curve we're all so familiar with now. (explainxkcd.com)

###### National1

- In Vietnam, ILRI partners with a number of institutions, such as the government ministries, universities, national research institutes, development agencies and the private sector, to plan and implement the research programs. (ilri.org)