**Basic Reproduction Number**: The expected number of new cases of an infection caused by an infected individual, in a population consisting of susceptible contacts only.

**Disease Transmission, Infectious**: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).

**Disease Outbreaks**: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.

**Epidemics**: Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.

**Communicable Diseases**

**Models, Theoretical**: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

**Influenza, Human**: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.

**Models, Biological**: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

**Models, Statistical**: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.

**Insect Vectors**: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.

**Reproduction**: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)

**Computer Simulation**: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.

**Communicable Disease Control**: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.

**Population Dynamics**: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.

**Quarantine**: Restriction of freedom of movement of individuals who have been exposed to infectious or communicable disease in order to prevent its spread; a period of detention of vessels, vehicles, or travelers coming from infected or suspected places; and detention or isolation on account of suspected contagion. It includes government regulations on the detention of animals at frontiers or ports of entrance for the prevention of infectious disease, through a period of isolation before being allowed to enter a country. (From Dorland, 28th ed & Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)

**Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype**: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.

**Pandemics**: Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.

**Time Factors**: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.

**Seasons**: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)

**Schistosoma**: A genus of trematode flukes belonging to the family Schistosomatidae. There are over a dozen species. These parasites are found in man and other mammals. Snails are the intermediate hosts.

**Schistosoma mansoni**: A species of trematode blood flukes of the family Schistosomatidae. It is common in the Nile delta. The intermediate host is the planorbid snail. This parasite causes schistosomiasis mansoni and intestinal bilharziasis.

**Encyclopedias as Topic**: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)

**Astronomical Processes**: The behavior and interactions of matter and energy in outer space.

**Algorithms**: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.

**Principal Component Analysis**: Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.

**Anisotropy**: A physical property showing different values in relation to the direction in or along which the measurement is made. The physical property may be with regard to thermal or electric conductivity or light refraction. In crystallography, it describes crystals whose index of refraction varies with the direction of the incident light. It is also called acolotropy and colotropy. The opposite of anisotropy is isotropy wherein the same values characterize the object when measured along axes in all directions.

**History, 19th Century**: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.

**Hemorrhagic Fevers, Viral**: A group of viral diseases of diverse etiology but having many similar clinical characteristics; increased capillary permeability, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia are common to all. Hemorrhagic fevers are characterized by sudden onset, fever, headache, generalized myalgia, backache, conjunctivitis, and severe prostration, followed by various hemorrhagic symptoms. Hemorrhagic fever with kidney involvement is HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME.

**Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola**: A highly fatal, acute hemorrhagic fever, clinically very similar to MARBURG VIRUS DISEASE, caused by EBOLAVIRUS, first occurring in the Sudan and adjacent northwestern (what was then) Zaire.

**Ebolavirus**: A genus in the family FILOVIRIDAE consisting of several distinct species of Ebolavirus, each containing separate strains. These viruses cause outbreaks of a contagious, hemorrhagic disease (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER, EBOLA) in humans, usually with high mortality.

**Ebola Vaccines**: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent EBOLA HEMORRHAGIC FEVER.

**Marburg Virus Disease**: An RNA virus infection of rhesus, vervet, and squirrel monkeys transmissible to man.

**Ape Diseases**: Diseases of chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.

**PubMed**: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.

**Medicine in Art**

**Periodicals as Topic**: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.

**Books**

**Publishing**: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.

**MEDLINE**: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).

**Serial Publications**: Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)

**Paraguay**

**Archives**

**Biological Science Disciplines**: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.

**Hantavirus**: A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE causing HANTAVIRUS INFECTIONS, first identified during the Korean war. Infection is found primarily in rodents and humans. Transmission does not appear to involve arthropods. HANTAAN VIRUS is the type species.

**Hantavirus Infections**: Infections with viruses of the genus HANTAVIRUS. This is associated with at least four clinical syndromes: HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME caused by viruses of the Hantaan group; a milder form of HFRS caused by SEOUL VIRUS; nephropathia epidemica caused by PUUMALA VIRUS; and HANTAVIRUS PULMONARY SYNDROME caused by SIN NOMBRE VIRUS.

**Measles**: A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.

**Measles Vaccine**: A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

**Measles virus**: The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.

**Cross Protection**: Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.

**Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine**: A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.

**World Health Organization**: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.

## Utility of R0 as a predictor of disease invasion in structured populations. (1/105)

Early theoretical work on disease invasion typically assumed large and well-mixed host populations. Many human and wildlife systems, however, have small groups with limited movement among groups. In these situations, the basic reproductive number, R0, is likely to be a poor predictor of a disease pandemic because it typically does not account for group structure and movement of individuals among groups. We extend recent work by combining the movement of hosts, transmission within groups, recovery from infection and the recruitment of new susceptibles into a stochastic model of disease in a host metapopulation. We focus on how recruitment of susceptibles affects disease invasion and how population structure can affect the frequency of superspreading events (SSEs). We show that the frequency of SSEs may decrease with the reduced movement and the group sizes due to the limited number of susceptible individuals available. Classification tree analysis of the model results illustrates the hierarchical nature of disease invasion in host metapopulations. First, the pathogen must effectively transmit within a group (R0>1), and then the pathogen must persist within a group long enough to allow for movement among the groups. Therefore, the factors affecting disease persistence--such as infectious period, group size and recruitment of new susceptibles--are as important as the local transmission rates in predicting the spread of pathogens across a metapopulation. (+info)## Analyses of the 1957 (Asian) influenza pandemic in the United Kingdom and the impact of school closures. (2/105)

Many countries plan to close schools during a future influenza pandemic, although the potential impact is poorly understood. We apply a model of the transmission dynamics of pandemic influenza to consultation, serological and clinical data from the United Kingdom from the 1957 (Asian) influenza pandemic, to estimate the basic reproduction number (R0), the proportion of infected individuals who experience clinical symptoms and the impact of school/nursery closures. The R0 for Asian influenza was about 1.8 and 60-65% of infected individuals were estimated to have experienced clinical symptoms. During a future pandemic, closure of schools/nurseries could reduce the epidemic size only by a very small amount (<10%) if R0 is high (e.g. 2.5 or 3.5), and modest reductions, e.g. 22% might be possible if it is low (1.8) and schools are closed early, depending on assumptions about contact patterns. Further data on contact patterns and their dependence on school closures are needed. (+info)## A mathematical model of the dynamics of Salmonella Cerro infection in a US dairy herd. (3/105)

We developed a mathematical model of the transmission dynamics of salmonella to describe an outbreak of S. Cerro infection that occurred in a Pennsylvania dairy herd. The data were collected as part of a cooperative research project between the Regional Dairy Quality Management Alliance and the Agricultural Research Service. After the initial detection of a high prevalence of S. Cerro infection in the herd, a frequent and intensive sampling was conducted and the outbreak was followed for 1 year. The data showed a persistent presence of S. Cerro with a high prevalence of infection in the herd. The dynamics of host and pathogen were modelled using a set of nonlinear differential equations. A more realistically distributed (gamma-distributed) infectious period using multiple stages of infection was considered. The basic reproduction number was calculated and relevance to the intervention strategies is discussed. (+info)## The effect of heterogeneous infectious period and contagiousness on the dynamics of Salmonella transmission in dairy cattle. (4/105)

(+info)## Epidemic thresholds in dynamic contact networks. (5/105)

(+info)## Household structure and infectious disease transmission. (6/105)

(+info)## Latent coinfection and the maintenance of strain diversity. (7/105)

(+info)## Imported and autochthonous cases in the dynamics of dengue epidemics in Brazil. (8/105)

(+info)**Basic**

**reproduction**numberEdit. Main article:

**Basic**

**reproduction**

**number**. The

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**basic****reproduction****number**(also called**basic****reproduction**ratio). This ratio is derived as the expected**number**of ... For this model, the**basic****reproduction****number**is: R 0 = a μ + a β μ + γ . {\displaystyle R_{0}={\frac {a}{\mu +a}}{\frac {\beta ... The role of the**basic****reproduction****number**is extremely important. In fact, upon rewriting the equation for infectious ... The model consists of three compartments- S for the**number**susceptible, I for the**number**of infectious, and R for the**number**...**Reproduction**numberEdit. Main article:

**Basic**

**reproduction**

**number**. The

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**number**(denoted by R0) is a measure of ... As a consequence of this lower

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**number**(R0) of the disease, assuming everyone is susceptible, multiplied by the proportion of the ... The

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**number**(

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**basic**reproductive ratio, R0, or r nought) Stewart, AD; Logsdon, JM; Kelley ... This means that as a pathogen's ability to infect a greater

**number**of hosts increases, so does the level of harm it brings to ...

New research has attempted to estimate the

**basic****reproduction****number**, or R0 value, for Zika virus in several locations. ... "Preliminary estimation of the**basic****reproduction****number**of Zika virus infection during Colombia epidemic, 2015-2016". Travel ... Since the latter is an uncritical**reproduction**of the former, they are both considered to antedate the starting point for ... In the environment, the antidote is unavailable to rescue mosquito**reproduction**, so the pest population is suppressed. The ...... the

**basic****reproduction****number**can be calculated as the sum of the**reproduction****number**for each transition time into the disease ... This quantity is called the**basic****reproduction****number**, denoted by R0, which can be defined as the**number**of secondary ... the**basic****reproduction****number**is R0 = β/γ This value quantifies the transmission potential of a disease. If the**basic**... As a consequence of this lower**basic****reproduction****number**, the average age of infection A will also change to some new value Aq ...Assuming a completely susceptible population, that means that the

**basic****reproduction****number**(R0) of the infection must equal 1 ... the**basic****reproduction****number**multiplied by the proportion of susceptible individuals in the population (S) must be 1. This ... depending on a**number**of factors, including the virulence of the disease and its mode of transmission. If a disease is in ... the infection neither dies out nor does the**number**of infected people increase exponentially but the infection is said to be in ...Ma E, Fung C, Yip SH, Wong C, Chuang SK, Tsang T (Aug 2011). "Estimation of the

**basic****reproduction****number**of enterovirus 71 and ... The**basic**reproductive**number**(R0) for Coxsackievirus A16 (Cox A16) was estimated to a median of 2.50 with an interquartile ... and ultimately resulted in the isolation of a large**number**of so-called "enteric" viruses from the gastrointestinal tract that ...Ma E, Fung C, Yip SH, Wong C, Chuang SK, Tsang T (Aug 2011). "Estimation of the

**basic****reproduction****number**of enterovirus 71 and ... The**basic**reproductive**number**(R0) for enterovirus 71 (EV71) was estimated to a median of 5.48 with an interquartile range of ... Total**number**of cases of Hand Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) and herpangina in Taiwan was 129,106. The outbreaks of the ... Xinhua reported the**number**of people infected also rose from 4,000 to 15,799. Enteroviruses were isolated from a total of 1,892 ...... is given by the equilibrium

**number**of infected individuals, I {\displaystyle I} . The mean**basic****reproduction****number**, averaged ... The mean and variance of these individual**basic****reproduction****numbers**, E [ ν ] {\displaystyle \mathrm {E} [\nu ]} and V a r [ ν ... This finding aided in making an early estimate of the**basic****reproduction****number**R 0 {\displaystyle R_{0}} of the pandemic. ... These differences can be acknowledged by assuming that the**basic****reproduction****number**is a random variable ν {\displaystyle \nu ...The

**basic****reproduction****number**includes all secondary cases infected by a primary case, while x is only the**number**of secondary ... x is generally smaller than the**basic****reproduction****number**for the disease. That is defined as the**number**of individuals each ... If the**number**of susceptibles in the group is n and the**number**of secondary cases is x, then an estimation of the transmission ... There are a**number**of difficulties in using this relation. The first is that it is very difficult to measure contact rates ...The

**basic****reproduction****number**R0 is the average**number**of secondary infections caused by a typical infective person in a ... The**basic**reproductive**number**is found by multiplying the average**number**of contacts by the average probability that a ... R0 =**Number**of contacts X Shedding potential The individual reproductive**number**represents the**number**of secondary infections ... The greater the**number**of immunized individuals, the less likely an outbreak can occur because there are fewer susceptible ...... incidence and

**basic****reproduction****number**calculated from a cross-sectional serological survey on the island of Gozo, Malta. ...In epidemiology, the next-generation matrix is a method used to derive the

**basic****reproduction****number**, for a compartmental model ... 1990) and van den Driessche and Watmough (2002). To calculate the**basic****reproduction****number**by using a next-generation matrix, ...... the

**basic****reproduction****number**-in a large population when the initial**number**of infecteds is small, an infected individual is ... The following parameters are set initially: - Size of the population -**Number**of individuals already immune -**Number**of cases ( ... Let I t {\displaystyle I_{t}} represent the**number**of cases of infection at time t {\displaystyle t} . Assume all cases recover ... Let S t {\displaystyle S_{t}} represent the**number**of susceptible individuals at time t {\displaystyle t} . Let B ( x ) {\ ...... an insurgent movement in Southern Thailand

**Basic****reproduction****number**, a measure of the speed in which an epidemic spreads Berne ... ISO 3-letter country code Bulk Richardson**number**, meteorological**number**relating vertical stability and vertical shear Bunte ...In medicine, transmissibility is a synonym for

**basic****reproduction****number**Transmitter, a device for propagating electronic ...... or R00 may refer to: Haplogroup R0, a gene R0, the Brussels Ring-road R0,

**basic****reproduction****number**, an important concept in ...This threshold can be calculated by taking R0, the

**basic****reproduction****number**, or the average**number**of new infections caused by ... Althaus, C. L. (2014). "Estimating the**Reproduction****Number**of Ebola Virus (EBOV) During the 2014 Outbreak in West Africa". PLoS ... Biggerstaff, M; Cauchemez, S; Reed, C; Gambhir, M; Finelli, L (2014). "Estimates of the**reproduction****number**for seasonal, ... To account for this, the effective reproductive**number**Re, also written as Rt, or the average**number**of infections caused at ......

**basic****reproduction****number**MeSH N01.224.935.597.500 --- incidence MeSH N01.224.935.597.750 --- prevalence MeSH N01.224.935.698 ...**Reproductions**of these

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**number**of these huts survive, and can be seen in the open air museums of Arnhem, Schoonoord, Barger-Compascuum and ... A large

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**basic****reproduction****number**for influenza is generally around 1.4). However, the generation time for influenza is extremely ... There are a**number**of rapid tests for the flu. One is called a Rapid Molecular Assay, when an upper respiratory tract specimen ... One important**basic**research program is the Influenza Genome Sequencing Project, which is creating a library of influenza ... A**number**of biologics, therapeutic vaccines and immunobiologics are also being investigated for treatment of infection caused ...The farm has a large

**number**of cows, buffalos, bulls (for**reproduction**), goats and sheep. Okara have all the**basic**physical and ... A large**number**of Rao are also found in the capital city of Islamabad, where they speak Urdu with Ranghari accent. Okara is ... Their 15th century folk sardar, Mir Chakar Rind, migrated from Sibi, with a large**number**of his people to this area and settled ... The population mostly relies on agriculture as their main source of livelihood, although a**number**of people work in factories ...Almost all cells readily stain with a

**number**of**basic**dyes due to the electrostatic attraction between negatively charged ... A host can be anything living and can attain to asexual and sexual**reproduction**.[41] The clearance of the pathogens, either ... A**basic**form of contagion theory was proposed by Persian physician Ibn Sina (known as Avicenna in Europe) in The Canon of ... Despite the huge**number**of wounds seen in clinical practice, there are limited quality data for evaluated symptoms and signs. A ...In this variant, the

**number**of f electrons in the most common (trivalent) ions of the f-block elements consistently matches ... Yttrium(III) oxide and lutetium(III) oxide exhibit weak**basic**character, but scandium(III) oxide is amphoteric.[48] Lanthanum( ... The element is known to damage cell membranes of water animals, causing several negative influences on**reproduction**and on the ... Ghiorso, Albert; Sikkeland, T.; Larsh, A. E.; Latimer, R. M. (1961). "New Element, Lawrencium, Atomic**Number**103". Phys. Rev. ...Existing estimates of the

**basic****reproduction****number**, R0, for human schistosomes are mostly in the range 1-4, implying that ... Source: Tropical Medicine & International Health, Volume 1,**Number**4, 1 August 1996, pp. 456-463(8) ...... model is a parsimonious function that uses the

**basic****reproduction****number**R0, along with a discounting factor to project the ... growth of outbreaks using only**basic**epidemiological information (e.g., daily incidence counts). Principal Findings Compared to ...... also called the

**basic****reproduction**ratio or rate or the**basic**reproductive rate, is an epidemiologic metric used to describe ... R0 must be estimated, reported, and applied with great caution because this**basic**metric is far from simple. ... The**basic****reproduction****number**(R0), also called the**basic****reproduction**ratio or rate or the**basic**reproductive rate, is an ... Volume 25,**Number**1-January 2019 Perspective. Complexity of the**Basic****Reproduction****Number**(R0) On This Page ...**Basic**

**reproduction**

**number**and transmission dynamics of common serogroups of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. Shi Chen, ... The

**basic**

**reproduction**

**number**(R0) was estimated using a Bayesian framework for each serogroup based on two criteria (using ... Importance and Highlights In this paper we describe a Bayesian modeling framework to estimate

**basic**

**reproduction**

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**Basic**

**reproduction**

**number**and transmission dynamics of common serogroups of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli ...

The

**basic****reproduction****number**(R0) measures the epidemiological fitness of a pathogen in a given host population and is one of ...**Basic****Reproduction****Number**and Transmission Dynamics of Common Serogroups of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Shi Chen, ... The**basic****reproduction****number**(R 0) was estimated using a Bayesian framework for each serogroup based on two criteria (using ... Let I* (percentage of infection in the pen) be the steady state, and we can derive the pen-level**basic****reproduction****number**(R0 ...2009 Mapping the

**basic****reproduction****number**(R0) for vector-borne diseases: A case study on bluetongue virus. Epidemics, 1 (3). ... Mapping the**basic****reproduction****number**(R0) for vector-borne diseases: A case study on bluetongue virus ... Geographical maps indicating the value of the**basic****reproduction****number**, R0, can be used to identify areas of higher risk for ...... and thus we conducted an uncertainty analysis of the

**basic****reproduction****number**, R0. Methods A renewal process model was devised ... The**basic****reproduction****number**, R0, is interpreted as the average**number**of secondary cases that are produced by a single ... Univariate probability distribution of (A) the**basic****reproduction****number**, (B) a1 by December 11 and (C) a2 by December 12 from ... Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Diphtheria, Epidemiology, Outbreak,**Basic****reproduction****number**, Bangladesh, Refugee, Vaccination, ...The

**basic****reproduction****number**is not to be confused with the effective**reproduction****number**R {\displaystyle R} , which is the ... or**basic**reproductive**number**, denoted R 0 {\displaystyle R_{0)) ,[17] of an infection can be thought of as the expected**number**... Also, it is important to note that R 0 {\displaystyle R_{0)) is a dimensionless**number**and not a rate, which would have units ...**number**of cases generated in the current state of a population, which does not have to be the uninfected state. ...The main objective of Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society is to foster links between

**basic**and applied research relating to ... 2.**Basic****Reproduction****Number**and Equilibria. The**basic****reproduction****number**, which can be explained as the average**number**of ... containing the origin, a positive**number**, and a real eigenvector of , such that(C1). for all ,(C2). for all ,(C3)the origin ... The**basic****reproduction****number**of the model has been calculated. The global asymptotic stability of the virus-free equilibrium ...3.

**Basic****Reproduction****Number**/Threshold Quantity. The**basic****reproduction****number**or the threshold quantity for the proposed model ... So, the**reproduction****number**given by is Here, shows the disease-free equilibrium (DFE), and , giving . The endemic equilibrium ... In Section 3 we find the**Basic****Reproduction****Number**, the disease-free equilibrium, and endemic equilibrium of the proposed model ... First, we obtained the**basic****reproduction****number**for the proposed model. The disease-free equilibrium is locally as well as ...We show that even the use of imperfect POC diagnostics can significantly reduce total costs and

**number**of deaths, provided that ...**Basic****reproduction****number**. The**basic****reproduction****number**, \({ {\mathcal R} }_{0}\), for an infectious disease is the average ... The remaining**reproduction****numbers**are in the Supplementary Material. The**basic****reproduction****numbers**are directly proportional ... The first term of the**basic****reproduction****numbers**shown below is the average**number**of secondary infections generated by a ...On the

**Basic****Reproduction****Number**of Reaction-Diffusion Epidemic Models. By Pierre Magal, Glenn F. Webb, and Yixiang Wu. SIAM ... The**basic****reproduction****number**$R_0$ serves as a threshold parameter of many epidemic models for disease... ...As a result, we estimated that the

**basic**reproductive**number**R0 is 3.11 in Beijing, 2.78 in Shanghai, 2.02 in Guangzhou, and ... As a result, we estimated that the**basic**reproductive**number**, R0, was 2.91 in Beijing, 2.78 in Shanghai, 2.02 in Guangzhou, and ... For example, in Beijing, the predicted peak**number**of cases was 46... ... the predicated peak**number**of cases is around 466 at the peak time Feb 29, 2020; however, when the city conducts different ...**Basic**

**reproduction**numberEdit. Main article:

**Basic**

**reproduction**

**number**. The

**basic**

**reproduction**

**number**(. R. 0. {\displaystyle R ... where each λi may be real but in general is a complex

**number**. The

**numbers**λ1, λ2, … λn, which may not all have distinct values ... for any non-zero real

**number**a. {\displaystyle a}. , is an eigenvector of A. {\displaystyle A}. with eigenvalue λ. =. 6. {\ ... Diekmann O, Heesterbeek JA, Metz JA (1990), "On the definition and the computation of the

**basic**

**reproduction**ratio R0 in models ...

Results: The

**basic****reproduction****number**fall between 2.8 and 3.3 by using the real-time reports on the**number**of 2019-nCoV- ... Impacts of different key parameters on the estimated**basic****reproduction****numbers**. The x‐axis is the**number**of cases with ... Preliminary prediction of the**basic****reproduction****number**of the Wuhan novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV Tao Zhou 1 , Quanhui Liu 2 , ... Preliminary prediction of the**basic****reproduction****number**of the Wuhan novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV Tao Zhou et al. J Evid Based ...The

**basic****reproduction****number**fall between 2.8 and 3.3 by using the real-time reports on the**number**of 2019-nCoV-infected cases ... Preliminary prediction of the**basic****reproduction****number**of the Wuhan novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV.. Zhou T1, Liu Q2, Yang Z3, ... To estimate the**basic****reproduction****number**of the Wuhan novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). ... we estimate the**basic****reproduction****number**of 2019-nCoV according to the reported confirmed cases and suspected cases, as well ...**Basic**

**reproduction**

**number**(R0): The average

**number**of people that one person with COVID-19 is likely to infect in a population ... Parameter values for viral transmissibility include Doubling Time and

**Basic**

**Reproduction**

**Number**(R0) ... The estimation of the

**basic**

**reproduction**

**number**for infectious diseases. Stat Methods Med Res. 1993;2:23-41). ... Median

**number**of days from symptom onset to hospitalization. *Median

**number**of days of hospitalization among those not admitted ...

... we estimate the

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**reproduction****number**decreased to 1.55 after social distancing interventions were implemented. ... we estimated the**reproduction****number**as 4.4 (95% CI 3.9-4.9) by using a generalized growth model and 3.5 (95% CI 1.3-8.1) by ... we calculated**basic****reproduction****numbers**(R0). During the early transmission phase, R0 quantifies the average**number**of ... A) Growth rate, r; B) scaling of the growth rate parameter, p; C) mean**basic****reproduction****number**,... ...Its

**basic****reproduction****number**is 12 to 18.3 Only 1 other vaccine-preventable infectious agent is as contagious (Bordetella ... all others have a**basic****reproduction****number**that ranges from 4 to 7. Due to this contagiousness, a very high rate of community ...EpidemiologyEpidemicMeaslesOutbreakVaccinationInfectiveCalculate the basicEndemic equilibria2019OutbreaksEquilibriaMathematical BiosciencesDiseaseEquilibriumCasesThresholdPeriodicKnown as super-spreadersPopulationDynamicsEbolaMathcalModelEnterovirus 71BiologicalEstimate the basicModelsNaughtEpidemicsTimeStochasticExhibitsViralFrameworkSpatialDenotesEradication

- Dec 14, 2012) en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compartmental_models_in _epidemiology . (wolfram.com)
- In epidemiology, the basic reproduction number (R0) is used to measure the spread potential of a disease. (aps.org)
- The discounted reproductive number for epidemiology. (aimsciences.org)
- In epidemiology, an infection is said to be endemic (from Greek ἐν en "in, within" and δῆμος demos "people") in a population when that infection is maintained in the population without the need for external inputs. (wikipedia.org)
- In epidemiology, the next-generation matrix is a method used to derive the basic reproduction number, for a compartmental model of the spread of infectious diseases. (wikipedia.org)

- We show that mathematical modeling offers useful insights into the risk of a major epidemic of EVD and the assessment of the impact of basic public health measures on disease spread. (biomedcentral.com)
- Remarkably, the current size of the ongoing EBOV epidemic far surpasses the total number of cases reported for all previous Ebola outbreaks combined. (biomedcentral.com)
- The basic reproduction number, R 0 , a summary measure of the transmission potential of an infectious disease, is estimated from early epidemic growth rate, but a likelihood-based method for the estimation has yet to be developed. (mdpi.com)
- To determine the transmission potential of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in Iran in 2020, we estimated the reproduction number as 4.4 (95% CI 3.9-4.9) by using a generalized growth model and 3.5 (95% CI 1.3-8.1) by using epidemic doubling time. (cdc.gov)
- As the epidemic continues, the effective reproduction number (R e ) offers a time-dependent record of the average number of secondary cases per case as the number of susceptible persons becomes depleted and control interventions take effect. (cdc.gov)
- To understand the Ebola transmission dynamics, we formulate a compartmental epidemic model with exponentially decaying transmission rates and study the impact of control measures to basic public health using an SEIR model. (newton.ac.uk)
- We have calculated the basic reproduction number through next generation matrix and studied the spatial spread of the epidemic via reaction-diffusion modeling. (newton.ac.uk)
- The proposed Ebola epidemic model provides an estimate to the potential number of future cases. (newton.ac.uk)
- The Basic Reproduction Number in Epidemic Models with Periodic Demographics. (letu.edu)
- dI ( t ) = i 0 × exp( × t ) in which i 0 denotes the number of initial cases on December 1, 2019 ( 5 ), and denotes the epidemic growth rate during December 1, 2019-January 22, 2020. (cdc.gov)
- He has provided a number of rigorous mathematical tools for the study of structured populations, the problem of biological invasion, and the limiting behavior of epidemic and other population models. (aimsciences.org)
- To push these basic models to further realism, other compartments are often included, most notably the recovered/removed/immune compartment (denoted R). Once one is able to model an infectious pathogen with compartmental models, one can predict the various properties of the pathogen spread, for example the prevalence (total number of infected from the epidemic) and the duration of the epidemic. (wikipedia.org)
- Also, one can understand how different situations may affect the outcome of the epidemic, e.g., what the best technique is for issuing a limited number of vaccines in a given population. (wikipedia.org)
- During an epidemic, the number of susceptible individuals falls rapidly as more of them are infected and thus enter the infectious and recovered compartments. (wikipedia.org)
- On SIR-models with Markov-modulated events: Length of an outbreak, total size of the epidemic and number of secondary infections. (aimsciences.org)
- An infection that starts as an epidemic will eventually either die out (with the possibility of it resurging in a theoretically predictable cyclical manner) or reach the endemic steady state, depending on a number of factors, including the virulence of the disease and its mode of transmission. (wikipedia.org)

- Measles, for example, has a reproduction number in excess of 10, according to Meyers. (huffingtonpost.com)
- The threshold is derived from a combination of vaccine effectiveness and the basic reproduction number R 0 (average number of people infected by each case), which is estimated at 12 to 18 for measles. (cmaj.ca)
- Estimation of the basic reproduction number of measles during an outbreak in a partially vaccinated population. (cdc.gov)
- Wallinga J , Lévy-Bruhl D , Gay NJ , Wachmann CH . Estimation of measles reproduction ratios and prospects for elimination of measles by vaccination in some western European countries. (cdc.gov)

- Geographical maps indicating the value of the basic reproduction number, R0, can be used to identify areas of higher risk for an outbreak after an introduction. (nerc.ac.uk)
- To determine the transmission potential of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and thereby guide outbreak response efforts, we calculated basic reproduction numbers (R 0 ). (cdc.gov)
- 0 range of 12-40 ( 1-5 ), meaning that 1 case introduced into of an outbreak-response vaccination campaign to onset a susceptible (naive) population will produce, on average, of an effective immune response of those vaccinated is that number of secondary cases. (cdc.gov)
- A thought-provoking find from the SARS pandemic was that in the absence of super-spreading events, most infected individuals caused very few (if any) secondary contacts, but a low number of super-spreaders fueled the global outbreak. (novapublishers.com)
- We estimated the basic (R 0 ) and effective (R e ) reproduction numbers for 7,094 norovirus outbreaks reported to the National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS) during 2009-2017 and used regression models to assess whether transmission varied by outbreak setting. (cdc.gov)
- The recent Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa (2013-2016) resulted in 28,616 confirmed, probable, and suspected cases of Ebola virus disease and 11,310 deaths ( 6 ), which may still underestimate the actual numbers ( 7 ). (frontiersin.org)
- It was the first Ebolavirus outbreak that affected multiple countries, was introduced to another country via air travel, and resulted in a significant number of human disease cases outside of Africa ( 5 , 6 ). (frontiersin.org)
- The basic reproduction number $R_0$ and effectiveness of reactive interventions during dengue epidemics: The 2002 dengue outbreak in Easter Island, Chile. (aimsciences.org)
- The greater the number of immunized individuals, the less likely an outbreak can occur because there are fewer susceptible contacts. (wikipedia.org)

- The final size will depend on the vaccination starting time, T , the number of infective cases at time T and immunization schemes to follow. (biomedcentral.com)
- Models use basic assumptions or collected statistics along with mathematics to find parameters for various infectious diseases and use those parameters to calculate the effects of different interventions, like mass vaccination programmes. (wikipedia.org)
- Vaccination operates by reducing the number of susceptible individuals in the population (Keeling and Rohani, 2008). (omicsonline.org)

- Here they considered nonlinear saturating type incidence and they studied the effect of this type of incidence rate on the basic reproduction number and the equilibrium level of the infective population. (hindawi.com)
- Some numerical results for the proposed parameters are presented which can reduce the number of infective in the population of humans. (aimsciences.org)

- We calculate the basic reproduction number and study the effects of various immunization schemes. (biomedcentral.com)
- We calculate the basic reproduction numbers for each disease that provide threshold conditions, which determine whether a disease dies out or becomes endemic in the absence of the other disease. (aimsciences.org)

- Also when the basic reproduction number is greater than unity, there are multiple endemic equilibria. (hindawi.com)

- To estimate the basic reproduction number of the Wuhan novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). (cdc.gov)
- The basic reproduction number fall between 2.8 and 3.3 by using the real-time reports on the number of 2019-nCoV-infected cases from People's Daily in China and fall between 3.2 and 3.9 on the basis of the predicted number of infected cases from international colleagues. (cdc.gov)
- December 1, 2019-January 22, 2020, we used the mean daily number of passengers traveling to the top 27 foreign destinations from Wuhan during 2018-2019, which were provided in other recent studies ( 1 - 3 ). (cdc.gov)

- Zika in Rio de Janeiro: Assessment of basic reproduction number and comparison with dengue outbreaks. (nih.gov)
- Such diseases tend to occur in cycles of outbreaks due to the variation in number of susceptibles (S(t)) over time. (wikipedia.org)

- the authors used standard contact rate between susceptibles and alcoholism, getting alcoholism reproductive number and discussing the existence and stability of two equilibria. (hindawi.com)
- The mathematical results show that the considered saturation effect in population of birds and psychological effect in population of human does not effect the stability of equilibria, if the disease is prevalent then it can affect the number of infected humans. (aimsciences.org)

- N. Bacaër and R. Ouifki, Growth rate and basic reproduction number for population models with a simple periodic factor,, Mathematical Biosciences , 210 (2007), 647. (aimsciences.org)

- First, we find the basic threshold quantity Ro and then find the local asymptotic stability of disease-free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium. (hindawi.com)
- Immigrants for short visits and students should be subjected to tests to reduce the number of immigrants with disease. (hindawi.com)
- For the network model, we prove that the disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable when the basic reproduction is less than one. (biomedcentral.com)
- For the nonautonomous case, by introducing the basic reproduction number defined by the spectral radius, we study the uniform persistence and extinction of the disease. (hindawi.com)
- In the constant controls case, by determining the basic reproduction number, we study the existence and stability of the disease-free and endemic steady-state solutions of the model. (hindawi.com)
- The basic reproduction number ( denoted by R 0 ) is a measure of how transferable a disease is. (wikipedia.org)
- Though it is very simple, this model exhibits the basic structure associated to the spread of a disease in a population. (omicsonline.org)
- A metric that is often deployed to quantify the progress of the disease is the reproduction number, which is the expected number of secondary cases caused by a single infected individual over the infectious period. (smw.ch)
- Alcohol damages almost all parts of the body and contribute to a number of human diseases including but not limited to liver cirrhosis, pancreatitis, heart disease, and sexual dysfunction and can eventually be deadly [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
- The disease cannot break out again until the number of susceptibles has built back up as a result of offspring being born into the susceptible compartment. (wikipedia.org)
- Every disease has a different 'basic reproduction number,' or R0, a measure of how contagious it is. (chicagotribune.com)
- Here it is shown that reducing the basic reproduction number below one is not enough to eliminate the disease as backward bifurcation occurs for this model. (hindawi.com)
- We first define the basic reproduction number $\mathcal{R}_0$ for the disease transmission, which generalizes the existing definition of $\mathcal{R}_0$ for the system in spatially homogeneous environment. (aimsciences.org)
- We also derive the invasion reproduction numbers that determine whether or not a disease can invade into a population in which the other disease is endemic. (aimsciences.org)
- The calculations of the invasion reproduction numbers suggest a new aspect in their interpretation - the class from which the initial disease carrier arises is important for understanding the invasion dynamics and biological interpretation of the expressions of the reproduction numbers. (aimsciences.org)
- The basic reproduction number $\mathcal{R}_0$ is defined and evaluated directly for this model, and uniform persistence of the disease and threshold dynamics are obtained. (aimsciences.org)
- The model has a disease-free equilibrium which is unstable when the basic reproduction number is greater than unity. (scirp.org)
- For the disease, clustering always increases the basic reproduction number of the disease in networks with whether positive cluster or negative cluster. (aimsciences.org)
- Despite the nonlinearity and complexity of the system, the basic reproduction number exhibits a nice linear property: it is simply the sum of two basic reproduction numbers for direct and indirect disease transmissions respectively. (aimsciences.org)
- Even if the whole group in question is susceptible, x is generally smaller than the basic reproduction number for the disease. (wikipedia.org)
- That is defined as the number of individuals each infected individual will go on to infect themselves, in a population with no resistance to the disease. (wikipedia.org)

- A systematic analysis of this new model shows that the virus-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable when its basic reproduction is less than one, and the viral equilibrium is globally attractive when the basic reproduction is greater than one. (hindawi.com)
- The basic reproduction number $\mathcal{R}_0$ is obtained as the spectral radius of the next generation operator, and it is shown that if $\mathcal{R}_0 1$, then an endemic equilibrium exists. (aimsciences.org)
- At the same time, it has a unique endemic equilibrium when the basic reproduction number is greater than unity. (scirp.org)

- Dietz states that R 0 is "the number of secondary cases one case would produce in a completely susceptible population" ( 19 ). (cdc.gov)
- Fine supplements this definition with the description "average number of secondary cases" ( 17 ). (cdc.gov)
- Diekmann and colleagues use the description "expected number of secondary cases" and provide additional specificity to the terminology regarding a single case ( 13 ). (cdc.gov)
- Future updates may incorporate new information from serosurvey studies which provide data on the total number of people infected in addition to reported symptomatic cases. (cdc.gov)
- However, actual number of cases of people infected with the new virus is likely to be much higher than these numbers suggest, as most cases are not tested. (biomedcentral.com)
- Figure 1 shows the number of reported cases of H1N1 in China since June 2009. (biomedcentral.com)
- The reported number of the active tuberculosis cases is about one million each year. (mdpi.com)
- [email protected]#The number of confirmed and suspected cases of the COVID-19 in Hubei province is still increasing. (bvsalud.org)
- During the early transmission phase, R 0 quantifies the average number of secondary cases generated by a primary case in a completely susceptible population, absent interventions or behavioral changes. (cdc.gov)
- We used 2 methods to quantify the reproduction number by using the curve of reported COVID-19 cases in Iran and its 5 regions ( Appendix Table 1). (cdc.gov)
- Because the reported national number of new cases did not match the sum of new cases reported in Iran's 5 regions on March 5, we treated each time series as independent and used the data as reported. (cdc.gov)
- The basic reproduction number (R 0 ) is the average number of secondary cases that arise from a primary case in a completely susceptible population. (cdc.gov)
- The fundamental reason why we're seeing the number of cases we are is inadequate vaccine coverage among the exposed," he said. (harvard.edu)
- The basic reproduction number includes all secondary cases infected by a primary case, while x is only the number of secondary cases within the group in question. (wikipedia.org)
- The following parameters are set initially: - Size of the population - Number of individuals already immune - Number of cases (usually set at 1) - Probability of adequate contact With this information, a simple formula allows the calculation of how many individuals will be infected, and how many immune, in the next time interval. (wikipedia.org)

- Our analysis identifies a basic reproduction number that acts as a threshold between population extinction and persistence. (aimsciences.org)
- In networks with double poisson distributions, power law-poisson distribution, poisson-power law distributions and double power law distributions, we find that cluster is positive(the clustering coefficient is increasing on the expected number of triangles) when the average degree of lines is fixed and the moment of triangles is less than some threshold. (aimsciences.org)
- Once the moment of triangles exceeds that threshold, cluster will become negative(the clustering coefficient is decreasing on the expected number of triangles). (aimsciences.org)

- The results show that for the periodic system the basic reproduction number is more accurate than the average reproduction number. (hindawi.com)
- We also find that, with periodic intervention, the result is not much significantly different with constant intervention based on reduced number of the infected human population. (hindawi.com)
- The basic reproduction number of discrete SIR and SEIS models with periodic parameters. (aimsciences.org)
- The aim of this article is to provide formulas and properties of the basic reproduction number, $\mathcal R_0$, for a within-host virus model with periodic combination drug treatment. (aimsciences.org)
- Remarks on basic reproduction ratios for periodic abstract functional differential equations. (aimsciences.org)

- Some individuals have significantly higher than average individual reproductive numbers and are known as super-spreaders. (wikipedia.org)

- Rectangular and stationary age distribution , i.e., everybody in the population lives to age L and then dies, and for each age (up to L ) there is the same number of people in the population. (wikipedia.org)
- However, in what became known as the 20/80 rule , an increasing number of studies and observations point towards a small number of individuals (20%) that are responsible for most (80%) transmission events in a population. (novapublishers.com)
- To represent that the number of susceptible, infected and recovered individuals may vary over time (even if the total population size remains constant), we make the precise numbers a function of t (time): S(t), I(t) and R(t). (wikipedia.org)
- The basic principles of insect population and suppression and management. (wikipedia.org)
- The original purpose of branching processes was to serve as a mathematical model of a population in which each individual in generation n produces some random number of individuals in generation n + 1, according, in the simplest case, to a fixed probability distribution that does not vary from individual to individual. (wikipedia.org)
- The South-central Black Rhinoceros, which lives in Zimbabwe, South Africa, and Tanzania, had a population of around 9,090 in 1980, but due to a wave of illegal poaching for its horn their numbers decreased to 1,300 in 1995. (wikipedia.org)
- The population of Javan rhinos numbers only around 65-68 animals. (wikipedia.org)
- A population with a size that increases geometrically is a population where generations of reproduction do not overlap. (wikipedia.org)
- In each generation there is an effective population size denoted as Ne which constitutes the number of individuals in the population that are able to reproduce and will reproduce in any reproductive generation in concern. (wikipedia.org)
- The number of new bacteria appearing per unit time is proportional to the present population. (wikipedia.org)
- Oncofertility Saturday Academy (OSA) is a science program designed to engage a diverse population of high school girls from Chicago and San Diego to explore the basic science, clinical applications, and career options in reproductive science, cancer biology, and oncofertility. (wikipedia.org)

- mathematical analyses established that the global dynamics of the model were determined by the basic reproduction number. (hindawi.com)
- We formulate and analyze a deterministic mathematical model which incorporates some basic epidemiological features of the co-dynamics of malaria and tuberculosis. (aimsciences.org)
- Using an numerical example, we demonstrate that models having the same reproductive number but different numbers of progression stages can exhibit different transient transmission dynamics. (aimsciences.org)
- We further demonstrate that the local and global dynamics of the system are related to the basic reproduction number. (aimsciences.org)

- Media Centre, "Summary report of a WHO High-level meeting on Ebola vaccines access and financing," Tech. Rep., 2014, http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/ebola/23-october-2014/en/ . (hindawi.com)

- The model provides an approximate estimate of the basic reproduction number $\mathcal{R}_0=1.23$ in Xinjiang, China. (aimsciences.org)
- The reproductive number $\mathcal R_0$ is derived. (aimsciences.org)
- The results suggest that an effective strategy to contain vector-borne diseases is decreasing the basic reproduction number $\mathcal{R}_0$ below one. (aimsciences.org)

- The parameters of the model included the reproduction number, the day of the first intervention and a reduction factor for the reproduction number. (smw.ch)
- As implied by the variable function of t, the model is dynamic in that the numbers in each compartment may fluctuate over time. (wikipedia.org)
- Controllability of a basic cochlea model. (aimsciences.org)
- On the exact number of monotone solutions of a simplified Budyko climate model and their different stability. (aimsciences.org)
- First, the basic reproduction number $\R_{0}$ is defined for this SIS PDE model. (aimsciences.org)
- The basic model is the mixed mating model, which is based on the assumption that every fertilisation is either self-fertilisation or completely random cross-fertilisation. (wikipedia.org)
- A number of countries purchased the Model 1900 Parabellum in 7.65×21 mm Parabellum (.30 Luger) caliber and issued the pistol on a limited basis to officers and mounted troops, including Germany, Switzerland, and the United States. (wikipedia.org)
- And while the S scale market has seen a number of brass model manufacturers, today the major brass model supplier in S scale/S gauge is River Raisin Models. (wikipedia.org)

- The basic reproductive number (R0) for enterovirus 71 (EV71) was estimated to a median of 5.48 with an interquartile range of 4.20 to 6.51. (wikipedia.org)

- The traits of these objects are passed on through chromosomes by a means similar to biological reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
- Many would regard his outstanding contribution to be his ability to see the coherent biological process behind reproduction, where his work is an outstanding example of translational research from experimental studies to clinical investigation of andrological disorders. (wikipedia.org)
- Recently the Endocrine Society released a statement on endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) specifically listing obesity, diabetes, female reproduction, male reproduction, hormone-sensitive cancers in females, prostate cancer in males, thyroid, and neurodevelopment and neuroendocrine systems as being affected biological aspects of being exposed to EDCs. (wikipedia.org)
- Afterwards, he received a Lecturer position in Biological Anthropology at University College London (1969-74) where he continued his research on the reproduction of mouse lemurs and comparative work on morphology of the skull, brain, postcranial skeleton and reproductive system in primates. (wikipedia.org)
- Modern medicine is based on discoveries of basic biological research and their implementation in applied research. (wikipedia.org)

- Using the parameter estimates based on the observation data of the cumulative number of hospital notifications, we estimate the basic reproduction number R 0 to be 1.6809 in China. (biomedcentral.com)
- The objectives of this study are 1) to estimate the basic reproduction number (R0) of COVID-19 reflecting the infectiousness of the virus and 2) to assess the effectiveness of a range of controlling intervention. (bvsalud.org)
- New research has attempted to estimate the basic reproduction number, or R0 value, for Zika virus in several locations. (wikipedia.org)

- We also compared the results of SIR and SEIR models, which give different estimates of the reproduction number, and provided an analytical relationship between the respective numbers. (smw.ch)
- The basic reproduction number of non-exponential models has yet to be calculated. (aps.org)
- On the basic reproduction number $R_0$ in sexual activity models for HIV/AIDS epidemics: Example from Yunnan, China. (aimsciences.org)
- The performance of discrete models of low reynolds number swimmers. (aimsciences.org)
- A number of models have been used to describe the parameters of plant mating systems. (wikipedia.org)

- The basic reproduction number (R 0 ), pronounced "R naught," is intended to be an indicator of the contagiousness or transmissibility of infectious and parasitic agents. (cdc.gov)

- The beginning of the epidemics is characterised by the basic reproduction number R 0 , whereas the effective reproduction number R t describes its progression in time. (smw.ch)

- Next, we take the controls as time and formulate the appropriate optimal control problem and obtain the optimal control strategy to minimize both the number of infectious humans and the associated costs. (hindawi.com)
- Here we present an online tool for the data-driven inference and quantification of uncertainties for the reproduction number, as well as the time points of interventions for 51 European countries. (smw.ch)
- These variables (S, I, and R) represent the number of people in each compartment at a particular time. (wikipedia.org)
- Super-spreaders have been identified who excrete a higher than normal number of pathogens during the time they are infectious. (wikipedia.org)
- Khalid Masud learnt basics of Arabic and Persian from his father Saif U Rehman who was an Arabic teacher at his time. (wikipedia.org)
- Studies show that most of their feeding time is spent on basic fruit which consumes around 80% of that time. (wikipedia.org)
- 6. Group Size, Reproduction, and Time-Energy Budgets 7. (wikipedia.org)

- The random variables of a stochastic process are indexed by the natural numbers. (wikipedia.org)

- it exhibits great heterogeneity in terms of the numbers and the pattern of contacts. (biomedcentral.com)
- As a curator, he has also overseen a number of exhibits at The Field Museum, including Images of the Afterlife and "Scenes from the Stone Age: The Cave Paintings of Lascaux. (wikipedia.org)

- Although viruses can differ with respect to many phenotypes, phylodynamic studies have to date tended to focus on a limited number of viral phenotypes. (wikipedia.org)

- Although the basic conceptual framework is similar for each, the operational definitions are not always identical. (cdc.gov)
- The Forest Legislation 1993 of the Russian Federation is the basic legal framework for forest management. (wikipedia.org)

- The design of speaker systems for Ambisonic playback is governed by several constraints: the desired spatial operating range (horizontal-only, hemispherical, full-sphere), the predominant resolution (= Ambisonic order) of the expected program material, the desired localisation performance and size of listening area versus the available number of speakers and amplification channels, and the theoretically optimal distribution of speakers versus the actually available placement and/or rigging options. (wikipedia.org)

- denotes the number of free virions. (hindawi.com)

- Polio, in 2014 even though it was closer than ever to eradication in 2012, saw numbers of those infected rise dramatically. (globalresearch.ca)