Helix-Loop-Helix Motifs: Recurring supersecondary structures characterized by 20 amino acids folding into two alpha helices connected by a non-helical "loop" segment. They are found in many sequence-specific DNA-BINDING PROTEINS and in CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.Inhibitor of Differentiation Proteins: Inhibitor of differentiation proteins are negative regulators of BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. They inhibit CELL DIFFERENTIATION and induce CELL PROLIFERATION by modulating different CELL CYCLE regulators.Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 3-beta: A forkhead transcription factor that regulates expression of metabolic GENES and is involved in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. Mutations in HNF-3beta have been associated with CONGENITAL HYPERINSULINISM.Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 3-gamma: A winged-helix transcription factor that regulates GENE expression in metabolic tissues. It plays a role in HOMEOSTASIS of GLUCOSE and controls expression of GLUT2 PROTEIN.Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 3-alpha: A forkhead transcription factor that is an essential activator of GLUCAGON gene expression.Forkhead Transcription Factors: A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Winged-Helix Transcription Factors: A subfamily of HELIX-TURN-HELIX DNA-binding proteins that contain a variable length loop adjacent to the HTH motif. The loop connects two anti-parallel strands and forms a wing when bound to DNA.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Helix (Snails): A genus of chiefly Eurasian and African land snails including the principal edible snails as well as several pests of cultivated plants.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Sp1 Transcription Factor: Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Transcription Factor AP-1: A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors: A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Transcription Factor AP-2: A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.Transcription Factors, TFII: The so-called general transcription factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE II and that are required to initiate transcription. They include TFIIA; TFIIB; TFIID; TFIIE; TFIIF; TFIIH; TFII-I; and TFIIJ. In vivo they apparently bind in an ordered multi-step process and/or may form a large preinitiation complex called RNA polymerase II holoenzyme.Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors: A family of zinc finger transcription factors that share homology with Kruppel protein, Drosophila. They contain a highly conserved seven amino acid spacer sequence in between their ZINC FINGER MOTIFS.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Chromatin Immunoprecipitation: A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.YY1 Transcription Factor: A ubiquitously expressed zinc finger-containing protein that acts both as a repressor and activator of transcription. It interacts with key regulatory proteins such as TATA-BINDING PROTEIN; TFIIB; and ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.STAT3 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.Transcription Factor TFIID: The major sequence-specific DNA-binding component involved in the activation of transcription of RNA POLYMERASE II. It was originally described as a complex of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN and TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS. It is now know that TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE PROTEINS may take the place of TATA-box binding protein in the complex.GATA4 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is expressed in the MYOCARDIUM of developing heart and has been implicated in the differentiation of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. GATA4 is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION and regulates transcription of cardiac-specific genes.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Zinc Fingers: Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.Activating Transcription Factor 3: An activating transcription factor that plays a key role in cellular responses to GENOTOXIC STRESS and OXIDATIVE STRESS.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.NFATC Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of highly conserved calcineurin- and DNA-binding domains. NFAT proteins are activated in the CYTOPLASM by the calcium-dependent phosphatase CALCINEURIN. They transduce calcium signals to the nucleus where they can interact with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 or NF-KAPPA B and initiate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development. NFAT proteins stimulate T-CELL activation through the induction of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES such as INTERLEUKIN-2.

A conserved motif in goosecoid mediates groucho-dependent repression in Drosophila embryos. (1/5432)

Surprisingly small peptide motifs can confer critical biological functions. One example is the WRPW tetrapeptide present in the Hairy family of transcriptional repressors, which mediates recruitment of the Groucho (Gro) corepressor to target promoters. We recently showed that Engrailed (En) is another repressor that requires association with Gro for its function. En lacks a WRPW motif; instead, it contains another short conserved sequence, the En homology region 1 (eh1)/GEH motif, that is likely to play a role in tethering Gro to the promoter. Here, we characterize a repressor domain from the Goosecoid (Gsc) developmental regulator that includes an eh1/GEH-like motif. We demonstrate that this domain (GscR) mediates efficient repression in Drosophila blastoderm embryos and that repression by GscR requires Gro function. GscR and Gro interact in vitro, and the eh1/GEH motif is necessary and sufficient for the interaction and for in vivo repression. Because WRPW- and eh1/GEH-like motifs are present in different proteins and in many organisms, the results suggest that interactions between short peptides and Gro represent a widespread mechanism of repression. Finally, we investigate whether Gro is part of a stable multiprotein complex in the nucleus. Our results indicate that Gro does not form stable associations with other proteins but that it may be able to assemble into homomultimeric complexes.  (+info)

Physical interaction of the bHLH LYL1 protein and NF-kappaB1 p105. (2/5432)

The LYL1 gene was first identified upon the molecular characterization of the t(7;9)(q35;p13) translocation associated with some human T-cell acute leukemias (T-ALLs). In adult tissues, LYL1 expression is restricted to hematopoietic cells with the notable exclusion of the T cell lineage. LYL1 encodes a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein highly related to TAL-1, whose activation is also associated with a high proportion of human T-ALLs. A yeast two-hybrid system was used to identify proteins that specifically interact with LYL1 and might mediate its activities. We found that p105, the precursor of NF-kappaB1 p50, was the major LYL1-interacting protein in this system. The association between LYL1 and p105 was confirmed both in vitro and in vivo in mammalian cells. Biochemical studies indicated that the interaction was mediated by the bHLH motif of LYL1 and the ankyrin-like motifs of p105. Ectopic expression of LYL1 in a human T cell line caused a significant decrease in NF-kappaB-dependent transcription, associated with a reduced level of NF-kappaB1 proteins.  (+info)

A molecular pathway revealing a genetic basis for human cardiac and craniofacial defects. (3/5432)

Microdeletions of chromosome 22q11 are the most common genetic defects associated with cardiac and craniofacial anomalies in humans. A screen for mouse genes dependent on dHAND, a transcription factor implicated in neural crest development, identified Ufd1, which maps to human 22q11 and encodes a protein involved in degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. Mouse Ufd1 was specifically expressed in most tissues affected in patients with 22q11 deletion syndrome. The human UFD1L gene was deleted in all 182 patients studied with 22q11 deletion, and a smaller deletion of approximately 20 kilobases that removed exons 1 to 3 of UFD1L was found in one individual with features typical of 22q11 deletion syndrome. These data suggest that UFD1L haploinsufficiency contributes to the congenital heart and craniofacial defects seen in 22q11 deletion.  (+info)

Expression of Mash1 in basal cells of rat circumvallate taste buds is dependent upon gustatory innervation. (4/5432)

Mash1, a mammalian homologue of the Drosophila achaete-scute proneural gene complex, plays an essential role in differentiation of subsets of peripheral neurons. In this study, using RT-PCR and in situ RT-PCR, we investigated if Mash1 gene expression occurs in rat taste buds. Further, we examined dynamics of Mash1 expression in the process of degeneration and regeneration in denervated rat taste buds. In rat tongue epithelium, Mash1 gene expression is confined to circumvallate, foliate, and fungiform papilla epithelia that include taste buds. In taste buds, Mash1-expressing cells are round cells in the basal compartment. In contrast, the mature taste bud cells do not express the Mash1 gene. Denervation and regeneration experiments show that the expression of Mash1 requires gustatory innervation. We conclude that Mash1 is expressed in cells of the taste bud lineage, and that the expression of Mash1 in rat taste buds is dependent upon gustatory innervation.  (+info)

Dynamic expression of lunatic fringe suggests a link between notch signaling and an autonomous cellular oscillator driving somite segmentation. (5/5432)

The metameric organization of the vertebrate trunk is a characteristic feature of all members of this phylum. The origin of this metamerism can be traced to the division of paraxial mesoderm into individual units, termed somites, during embryonic development. Despite the identification of somites as the first overt sign of segmentation in vertebrates well over 100 years ago, the mechanism(s) underlying somite formation remain poorly understood. Recently, however, several genes have been identified which play prominent roles in orchestrating segmentation, including the novel secreted factor lunatic fringe. To gain further insight into the mechanism by which lunatic fringe controls somite development, we have conducted a thorough analysis of lunatic fringe expression in the unsegmented paraxial mesoderm of chick embryos. Here we report that lunatic fringe is expressed predominantly in somite -II, where somite I corresponds to the most recently formed somite and somite -I corresponds to the group of cells which will form the next somite. In addition, we show that lunatic fringe is expressed in a highly dynamic manner in the chick segmental plate prior to somite formation and that lunatic fringe expression cycles autonomously with a periodicity of somite formation. Moreover, the murine ortholog of lunatic fringe undergoes a similar cycling expression pattern in the presomitic mesoderm of somite stage mouse embryos. The demonstration of a dynamic periodic expression pattern suggests that lunatic fringe may function to integrate notch signaling to a cellular oscillator controlling somite segmentation.  (+info)

The development and evolution of bristle patterns in Diptera. (6/5432)

The spatial distribution of sensory bristles on the notum of different species of Diptera is compared. Species displaying ancestral features have a simple organization of randomly distributed, but uniformly spaced, bristles, whereas species thought to be more derived bear patterns in which the bristles are aligned into longitudinal rows. The number of rows of large bristles on the scutum was probably restricted to four early on in the evolution of cyclorraphous Brachyceran flies. Most species have stereotyped patterns based on modifications of these four rows. The possible constraints placed upon the patterning mechanisms due to growth and moulting within the Diptera are discussed, as well as within hemimetabolous insects. The holometabolic life cycle and the setting aside of groups of imaginal cells whose function is not required during the growth period, may have provided the freedom necessary for the evolution of elaborate bristle patterns. We briefly review the current state of knowledge concerning the complex genetic pathways regulating achaete-scute gene expression and bristle pattern in Drosophila melanogaster, and consider mechanisms for the genetic regulation of the bristle patterns of other species of Diptera.  (+info)

Bar homeobox genes are latitudinal prepattern genes in the developing Drosophila notum whose expression is regulated by the concerted functions of decapentaplegic and wingless. (7/5432)

In Drosophila notum, the expression of achaete-scute proneural genes and bristle formation have been shown to be regulated by putative prepattern genes expressed longitudinally. Here, we show that two homeobox genes at the Bar locus (BarH1 and BarH2) may belong to a different class of prepattern genes expressed latitudinally, and suggest that the developing notum consists of checker-square-like subdomains, each governed by a different combination of prepattern genes. BarH1 and BarH2 are coexpressed in the anterior-most notal region and regulate the formation of microchaetae within the region of BarH1/BarH2 expression through activating achaete-scute. Presutural macrochaetae formation also requires Bar homeobox gene activity. Bar homeobox gene expression is restricted dorsally and posteriorly by Decapentaplegic signaling, while the ventral limit of the expression domain of Bar homeobox genes is determined by wingless whose expression is under the control of Decapentaplegic signaling.  (+info)

Dual role of extramacrochaetae in cell proliferation and cell differentiation during wing morphogenesis in Drosophila. (8/5432)

The Extramacrochaetae (emc) gene encodes a transcription factor with an HLH domain without the basic region involved in interaction with DNA present in other proteins that have this domain. EMC forms heterodimers with bHLH proteins preventing their binding to DNA, acting as a negative regulator. The function of emc is required in many developmental processes during the development of Drosophila, including wing morphogenesis. Mitotic recombination clones of both null and gain-of-function alleles of emc, indicate that during wing morphogenesis, emc participates in cell proliferation within the intervein regions (vein patterning), as well as in vein differentiation. The study of relationships between emc and different genes involved in wing development reveal strong genetic interactions with genes of the Ras signalling pathway (torpedo, vein, veinlet and Gap), blistered, plexus and net, in both adult wing phenotypes and cell behaviour in genetic mosaics. These interactions are also analyzed as variations of emc expression patterns in mutant backgrounds for these genes. In addition, cell proliferation behaviour of emc mutant cells varies depending on the mutant background. The results show that genes of the Ras signalling pathway are co-operatively involved in the activity of emc during cell proliferation, and later antagonistically during cell differentiation, repressing EMC expression.  (+info)

*NPAS1

... is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor. NPAS3 Zhou YD, Barnard M, Tian H, Li X, Ring HZ, Francke U, Shelton J, ... "Characterization of a subset of the basic helix-loop-helix-PAS superfamily that interacts with components of the dioxin ...

*HLF (gene)

"Entrez Gene: HLF hepatic leukemia factor". LeBrun DP (May 2003). "E2A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors in human ... This gene encodes a member of the proline and acidic-rich (PAR) protein family, a subset of the bZIP transcription factors. The ... "Enhanced binding of HLF/DBP heterodimers represents one mechanism of PAR protein transactivation of the factor VIII and factor ... Hunger SP, Li S, Fall MZ, Naumovski L, Cleary ML (June 1996). "The proto-oncogene HLF and the related basic leucine zipper ...

*Neurogenins

Li HJ, Ray SK, Singh NK, Johnston B, Leiter AB (Oct 2011). "Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors and enteroendocrine ... is a Class-A basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor that acts as a regulator for neuronal differentiation, and acts ... The promotion of GFAP transcription induced glial differentiation. Neurogenin 2 (Ngn2) is a bHLH transcription factor involved ... Another transcription factor that may be a downstream target of Ngn3 is Nkx2.2 because it's often coexpressed with it. Studies ...

*ANKS1B

LeBrun DP (2004). "E2A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors in human leukemia". Front. Biosci. 8 (1-3): s206-22. doi: ... "Regulation of amyloid precursor protein expression and secretion via activation of ERK1/2 by hepatocyte growth factor in HEK293 ...

*MYF6

Myogenics factor are basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors. MYF-6 is a gene that encodes a protein involved in ... "A novel type of calmodulin interaction in the inhibition of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors". Biochemistry. 39 (15 ... "Differential interactions of Id proteins with basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factors". The Journal of Biological ... The portion of the protein integral to myogenesis regulation is a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain that is conserved among ...

*MYF5

... belongs to a family of proteins known as myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs). These basic helix loop helix transcription ... "Differential interactions of Id proteins with basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factors". The Journal of Biological ... MRF family members include Myf5, MyoD (Myf3), myogenin, and MRF4 (Myf6). This transcription factor is the earliest of all MRFs ... As for its clinical significance, the aberration of this transcription factor provides part of the mechanism for how hypoxia ( ...

*Cyclin D1

Ratineau C, Petry MW, Mutoh H, Leiter AB (March 2002). "Cyclin D1 represses the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, ... Inoue K, Sherr CJ (Mar 1998). "Gene expression and cell cycle arrest mediated by transcription factor DMP1 is antagonized by D- ... Zhang T, Liu WD, Saunee NA, Breslin MB, Lan MS (2009). "Zinc finger transcription factor INSM1 interrupts cyclin D1 and CDK4 ... Cyclin D1-CDK4 also associates with several transcription factors and transcriptional co-regulators. Independent of CDK, cyclin ...

*LOC642658

Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor scleraxis is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SCXB gene. GRCh38: Ensembl ... LOC642658 similar to Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor scleraxis". ...

*NEUROD1

It is a member of the NeuroD family of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors. The protein forms heterodimers with ... Ratineau C, Petry MW, Mutoh H, Leiter AB (March 2002). "Cyclin D1 represses the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, ... Ratineau C, Petry MW, Mutoh H, Leiter AB (March 2002). "Cyclin D1 represses the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, ... "A novel type of calmodulin interaction in the inhibition of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors". Biochemistry. 39 (15 ...

*MyoD

... basic helix loop helix) transcription factors act sequentially in myogenic differentiation. MRF family members include MyoD, ... "Differential interactions of Id proteins with basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factors". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (32): 19785-93 ... now referred to as basic helix loop helix) for dimerization and a basic site upstream of this bHLH region facilitated DNA ... Finkel T, Duc J, Fearon ER, Dang CV, Tomaselli GF (January 1993). "Detection and modulation in vivo of helix-loop-helix protein ...

*TAL1

The protein encoded by TAL1 is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor. TAL1 has been shown to interact with: CBFA2T3, ... Green AR, Begley CG (1993). "SCL and related hemopoietic helix-loop-helix transcription factors". Int. J. Cell Cloning. 10 (5 ... "The LIM protein RBTN2 and the basic helix-loop-helix protein TAL1 are present in a complex in erythroid cells". Proc. Natl. ... "The LIM protein RBTN2 and the basic helix-loop-helix protein TAL1 are present in a complex in erythroid cells". Proc. Natl. ...

*SIM2

Cross-talk between basic helix-loop-helix/per-Arnt-Sim homology transcription factors". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. ... Cross-talk between basic helix-loop-helix/per-Arnt-Sim homology transcription factors". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. ... Ooe N, Saito K, Mikami N, Nakatuka I, Kaneko H (Jan 2004). "Identification of a novel basic helix-loop-helix-PAS factor, NXF, ... Ooe N, Saito K, Mikami N, Nakatuka I, Kaneko H (Jan 2004). "Identification of a novel basic helix-loop-helix-PAS factor, NXF, ...

*Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator

Cross-talk between basic helix-loop-helix/per-Arnt-Sim homology transcription factors". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (12): 10236-43. doi: ... Ooe N, Saito K, Mikami N, Nakatuka I, Kaneko H (January 2004). "Identification of a novel basic helix-loop-helix-PAS factor, ... Wang GL, Jiang BH, Rue EA, Semenza GL (1995). "Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 is a basic-helix-loop-helix-PAS heterodimer regulated ... "Characterization of a subset of the basic-helix-loop-helix-PAS superfamily that interacts with components of the dioxin ...

*Endothelial stem cell

This gene encodes the basic helix-loop-helix structure and functions as a transcription factor. Embryos lacking Tal1 fail to ... In addition, basic fibroblast growth factor FGF-2 is also involved in promoting angioblasts from the mesoderm. After ... Prox-1is a homeobox transcription factor found in lymphatic ECs (LECs). For example, specific mRNAs such as VEGFR-3 and p57Kip2 ... "Lymphatic endothelial reprogramming of vascular endothelial cells by the Prox-1 homeobox transcription factor". EMBO Journal. ...

*HES1

This protein belongs to the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family of transcription factors. It is a transcriptional repressor of ... Jögi A, Persson P, Grynfeld A, Påhlman S, Axelson H (2002). "Modulation of basic helix-loop-helix transcription complex ... a basic helix-loop-helix repressor of neuronal differentiation". Genes Dev. 11 (23): 3168-81. doi:10.1101/gad.11.23.3168. PMC ... and promoter analysis of the gene encoding the mouse helix-loop-helix factor HES-1. Negative autoregulation through the ...

*MYCL1

... is a bHLH (basic helix-loop-helix) transcription factor implicated in lung cancer. MYCL1 has been shown to interact with ... Blackwood EM, Eisenman RN (Mar 1991). "Max: a helix-loop-helix zipper protein that forms a sequence-specific DNA-binding ... Lüscher B (2001). "Function and regulation of the transcription factors of the Myc/Max/Mad network". Gene. 277 (1-2): 1-14. doi ... a useful prognostic factor of poor outcomes in colorectal cancer". Clin. Cancer Res. 10 (5): 1758-1763. doi:10.1158/1078-0432. ...

*DTX1

... it may play a role in basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor activity. DTX1 has been shown to interact with EP300. GRCh38 ...

*ATOH1

This protein belongs to the basic helix-loop-helix (BHLH) family of transcription factors. It activates E-box dependent ... "Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor profiling of lung tumors shows aberrant expression of the proneural gene atonal ... "The intestine-specific homeobox gene Cdx2 induces expression of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Math1". ... Leow CC, Polakis P, Gao WQ (Nov 2005). "A role for Hath1, a bHLH transcription factor, in colon adenocarcinoma". Annals of the ...

*Sterol regulatory element-binding protein

SREBPs belong to the basic-helix-loop-helix leucine zipper class of transcription factors. Unactivated SREBPs are attached to ... Gasic GP (Apr 1994). "Basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factor and sterol sensor in a single membrane-bound molecule". Cell ... a basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper protein that controls transcription of the low density lipoprotein receptor gene". Cell ... SREBPs have a structure similar to E-box-binding helix-loop-helix (HLH) proteins. However, in contrast to E-box-binding HLH ...

*TAL2

... is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors. Tumor-specific alterations of the TAL2 gene ... Baer R (December 1993). "TAL1, TAL2 and LYL1: a family of basic helix-loop-helix proteins implicated in T cell acute leukaemia ... 1992). "TAL2, a helix-loop-helix gene activated by the (7;9)(q34;q32) translocation in human T-cell leukemia". Proc. Natl. Acad ... a helix-loop-helix gene activated by the (7;9)(q34;q32) translocation in human T-cell leukemia". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. ...

*Ethylin Wang Jabs

... a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, in Saethre-Chotzen syndrome". Nature Genetics. 15 (1): 36-41. doi:10.1038/ng0197 ... She discovered that similar mutations in the same gene, fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 or FGFR2, cause both Jackson-Weiss ... "Jackson-Weiss and Crouzon syndromes are allelic with mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptor 2". Nature Genetics. 8 (3 ...

*HAND2

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the basic helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors. This gene product is ... "The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors dHAND and eHAND exhibit dimerization characteristics that suggest complex ... Dai YS, Cserjesi P (April 2002). "The basic helix-loop-helix factor, HAND2, functions as a transcriptional activator by binding ... transcription factor binding. • activating transcription factor binding. • E-box binding. • protein binding. • protein ...

*TCF21 (gene)

TCF21 encodes a transcription factor of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family, which manages cell-fate specification, ... Lu J, Chang P, Richardson JA, Gan L, Weiler H, Olson EN (August 2000). "The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor ... Funato N, Ohyama K, Kuroda T, Nakamura M (February 2003). "Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor epicardin/capsulin/Pod-1 ... basic helix-loop-helix) family of transcription factors. This protein is predicted to span 179 amino acid residues and contains ...

*NEUROD2

"Interaction of PKN with a neuron-specific basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, NDRF/NeuroD2". Brain Research. Molecular ... "Interaction of PKN with a neuron-specific basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, NDRF/NeuroD2". Brain Research. Molecular ... This gene encodes a member of the neuroD family of neurogenic basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins. Expression of this gene ... a NeuroD family basic helix-loop-helix protein". Brain Research. Molecular Brain Research. 60 (1): 107-14. doi:10.1016/S0169- ...

*Mef2

"Combinatorial control of muscle development by basic helix-loop-helix and MADS-box transcription factors". Proc Natl Acad Sci ... Mef2c upregulates the expression of the homeodomain transcription factors DLX5 and DLX6, two transcription factors that are ... Mammalian Mef2 can cooperate with bHLH transcription factors to turn non-muscle cells in culture into muscle. bHLH factors can ... In the field of molecular biology, myocyte enhancer factor-2 (Mef2) proteins are a family of transcription factors which ...

*OLIG1

"Identification of a novel family of oligodendrocyte lineage-specific basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors". Neuron. 25 ... McLellan AS, Langlands K, Kealey T (Dec 2002). "Exhaustive identification of human class II basic helix-loop-helix proteins by ... McLellan AS, Langlands K, Kealey T (Dec 2002). "Exhaustive identification of human class II basic helix-loop-helix proteins by ... "Dynamic expression of basic helix-loop-helix Olig family members: implication of Olig2 in neuron and oligodendrocyte ...

*Protein kinase N1

"Interaction of PKN with a neuron-specific basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, NDRF/NeuroD2". Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res ... which is a potential transcription factor". Exp. Cell Res. 241 (2): 363-72. doi:10.1006/excr.1998.4060. PMID 9637778. Takahashi ...
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Hand2 has no effect on the initial stages of sympathetic neuron development, including the expression of the proneural gene ascl1 and the pan-autonomic regulatory genes phox2b and phox2a, nor on generic neuronal differentiation as assessed by the expression of elavl3. Therefore, hand2 seems to be required selectively for initial noradrenergic but not pan-neuronal differentiation.. Hand2 has been considered an important member of the transcriptional network controlling sympathetic neuron development due to its ability to induce the generation of noradrenergic/catecholaminergic neurons in gain-of-function experiments (Howard et al., 1999; Howard et al., 2000). Overexpression is an important tool to identify candidate target genes, but in the sympathetic lineage different effects were observed upon transcription factor overexpression compared with in vivo loss-of-function approaches. Gata2/3, for instance, is essential for Th expression during normal development of sympathetic neurons but has ...
Background: Neuronal differentiation is largely under the control of basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) proneural transcription factors that play key roles during development of the embryonic nervous system. In addition to well-characterised regulation of their expression, increasing evidence is emerging for additional post-translational regul... read moreation of proneural protein activity. Of particular interest is the bHLH proneural factor Neurogenin2 (Ngn2), which orchestrates progression from neural progenitor to differentiated neuron in several regions of the central nervous system. Previous studies have demonstrated a key role for cell cycle-dependent multi-site phosphorylation of Ngn2 protein at Serine-Proline (SP) sites for regulation of its neuronal differentiation activity, although the potential structural and functional consequences of phosphorylation at different regions of the protein are unclear. read less. ...
Conformational changes in inhibitory PAS domain protein associated with binding of HIF-1α and Bcl-xL in living cells.Conformational changes in inhibitory PAS domain protein associated with binding of HIF-1α and Bcl-xL in living cells. ...
Neurogenin-3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NEUROG3 gene.[5]. Neurogenin-3 is expressed in endocrine progenitor cells and is required for endocrine cell development in the pancreas and intestine.[6] It belongs to a family of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors involved in the determination of neural precursor cells in the neuroectoderm.[7]. Neurogenin 3 (NGN3) is expressed by 2-10% of acinar and duct cells in the histologically normal adult human pancreas. NGN3+ cells isolated from cultured exocrine tissue by coexpressed cell surface glycoprotein CD133 have a transcriptome consistent with exocrine dedifferentiation, a phenotype that resembles endocrine progenitor cells during development, and a capacity for endocrine differentiation in vitro.[8] Human[9] and rodent[10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18] exocrine cells have been reprogrammed into cells with an islet cell-like phenotype following direct expression of NGN3 or manipulation that leads to its ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors are required for proper formation of the vertebrate and invertebrate nervous systems (Bertrand et al., 2002). The vertebrate neural bHLH transcription factors have been classified into subgroups based on their temporal pattern of expression (Lee, 1997) and on their homology to Drosophila proneural genes (Bertrand et al., 2002). The factors Mash1, a homolog of the Drosophila Achaete-scute genes (Johnson et al., 1990), and Math1, a homolog of the Drosophila atonal gene (Akazawa et al., 1995), both belong to the early expressed sub-group of bHLH factors because of their expression in progenitor cells of the developing neural tube, but they reside in distinct sub-classes based on sequence homology (Bertrand et al., 2002). Gene knockout studies have demonstrated essential roles for these factors in the formation of specific populations of neurons (Ben-Arie et al., 1997; Bermingham et al., 1999; Bermingham et al., 2001; Fode et al., 2000; Gowan et ...
endothelial PAS domain-containing protein 1: a Per-Arnt/AhR-Sim basic helix-loop-helix factor similar to hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha; RefSeq NM_010137 (mouse); do not confuse with hepatic leukemia factor
Proneural bHLH genes have been shown to play important roles in specifying neural fates/diversities in both the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The developing vertebrate retina expresses several such genes, such as achaete-scute homologue 1 (ash1), atonal homologue 3 (ath3), ath5, neuroD, neurogenin1 (ngn1), ngn2, ngn3, NSCL1, and NSCL2. Proneural bHLH genes known to be expressed in retinal progenitor cells include ash1, ath3, ngn1, ngn2, and ngn3. 16-21 Analysis of retinal explants derived from ash1-null mice indicated that ash1 participates in the production of late-born neurons, including rod photoreceptors and bipolar cells. 22 In the chick retina, ash1 was proposed to promote amacrine cells, 23 and this was later confirmed experimentally. 24 Studies have indicated ath3 in the production of bipolar and amacrine cells. 25-27 Ngn2 is expressed in the proliferating zone, 25,28 including cells still in the cell cycle. 29,30 In the mouse retina, regions lacking ngn2 ...
Vertebrate neurogenesis involves sequential actions of transcription factors. neurogenins, encoding Atonal-related bHLH transcription factors, function as neuronal determination genes in Xenopus. neurogenins and antother bHLH factor gene, Mash1, are expressed in distinct subsets or areas of cells giving rise to neurons, suggesting that these genes play important roles to generate distinct populations of neurons. A mammalian homologue of BarH (MBH1) is expressed in a complementary pattern to Mash1 expression in the developing nervous system like neurogenins. Forced expression of MBH1 down-regulates expression of Mash1 and up-regulates neurogenin2/Math4A, a member of neurogenins, in P19 cells during neuronal differentiation. This suggests that MBH1 is a potential regulator of mammalian neural bHLH genes, thereby establishing distinct pathways of neuronal differentiation ...
Introduction: Neuronal PAS4 (nPAS4) -formerly known as LE-PAS- is a helix-loop-helix-PAS (HLH-PAS) transcription factor that has recently been cloned as the vertebrate homologue of the drosophila protein dysfusion (dys). In drosophila, the lack of dys is characterized by impaired midline fusion of tracheal tubes. Forced expression of dys results in aberrant sprouting of tracheal tubes in drosophila. In neurons, nPAS4 plays a role in the formation of GABA-releasing synapses. Based on the morphological similarity between tracheal tube formation and angiogenesis, we aimed to investigate the role of nPAS4 in angiogenesis in vertebrates.. Methods and Results: RT-PCR and Western blotting analyses showed that nPAS4 is expressed at low levels in various endothelial cell lines. The expression of nPAS4 is not upregulated by angiogenic growth factors but is induced by hypoxia. Moreover, membrane depolarization using potassium chloride results in a calcium-dependent upregulation of nPAS4. When nPAS4 ...
Image via Wikipedia The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, neurogenin-1 is known to regulate neural development and neurite outgrowth. As such, it makes for a particularly interesting point to begin to understand mental illness and its complex developmental origins. The recent paper by Ho et al., Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor NEUROG1 and schizophrenia: Effects on illness…
Proneural genes encode transcription factors of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) class which are responsible for the development of neuroectodermal progenitor cells. Proneural genes have multiple functions in neural development. They integrate positional information and contribute to the specification of progenitor-cell identity. From the same ectodermal cell types, neural or epidermal cells can develop based on interactions between proneural and neurogenic genes. Neurogenic genes are so called because loss of function mutants show an increase number of developed neural precursors. On the other hand, proneural genes mutants fail to develop neural precursor cells. The proneural genes are expressed in groups of cells (proneural clusters) from which one progenitor cell - typically the one in the middle - will be singled out, leading to the formation of many different types of neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Proneural genes encode a group of bHLH proteins that play crucial ...
Transcription Factor 3: A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that plays a role in determining cell fate during embryogenesis. It forms a heterodimer with TWIST TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and ACHAETE-SCUTE GENE COMPLEX-related TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
HEA798Hu, High Sensitive ELISA Kit for Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1 Alpha (HIF1a), 低氧诱导因子1α(HIF1a)检测试剂盒(酶联免疫吸附试验法,高敏型), HIF1-A; MOP1; PASD8; Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor; ARNT-interacting protein; Basic-helix-loop-helix-PAS protein MOP1; Class E basic helix-loop-helix protein 78 | 仅供体外研究使用,不用于临床诊断!请索取进口关税税单及报关单!
On the other hand, E‐boxes are absent from an unexpectedly high proportion of TAL1 peaks (14% in Jurkat and 24% in erythroid cells) (Figure 6C). Consistent with this, the de novo motif search did not identify E‐boxes as the top overrepresented motif in erythroid or Jurkat cells (Figure 6A, left and middle panels). Instead, in erythroid cells, a Gata motif ranks first within overrepresented sites, and two variants of this motif are also among the top 7 overrepresented motifs (Figure 6A, middle panel). Furthermore, virtually all TAL1 peaks (96%) contain a Gata motif while only 76% contain an E‐box within a 100‐bp radius of the peak summit (Figure 6C). In erythroid cells, Gata motifs are also on average closer to TAL1 peak summits than E‐boxes, with 80% of TAL1 peaks containing a Gata site within 35 bp of the peak summit versus only 50% containing an E‐box within this distance (Figure 6C). This is consistent with previous studies showing cooccupation of TAL1 and GATA1 at many genomic ...
The bHLH transcription factor Hand1 is essential for placentation and cardiac morphogenesis but how its developmental activity is regulated is largely unknown. We recently showed that Hand1 is sequestered in the nucleoli of rodent trophoblast stem (TS) cells by the I-mfa domain-containing protein HICp40 and that this is associated with their proliferation and continuing self-renewal. However when these cells commit to differentiate into trophoblast giant (TG) cells, Hand1 is phosphorylated by the polo-like kinase Plk4 (Sak) and released into the nucleus to activate downstream target genes. This event underlies the release of Hand1 from the nucleolus and represents the molecular switch that promotes mitotic cell cycle exit and the onset of endoreduplication. In this brief discussion we examine the wider implications of these findings and address some of the unanswered questions that remain.
Neurogenin 3 and its downstream target NeuroD are basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors which promote endocrine differentiation in the gastrointestinal tract. However, mice lacking Ngn3 still produce several hormones in the stomach. Lineage tracing mouse models demonstrated that a majority of hormone cells in the corpus region of the stomach did not express Ngn3 or NeuroD during differentiation. Serotonin and histamine cells were entirely NeuroD-independently derived, and serotonin cells were additionally entirely Ngn3-independently derived. In this study, we isolated serotonin and histamine cells from the gastric corpus of transgenic mice expressing the fluorescent marker CFP. Serotonin cells expressed multiple mast cell markers by RT-PCR, and were found to be nearly absent in a mast cell-deficient mouse model. Labeled bone marrow transplant mice showed all serotonin cells derived from bone marrow. Histamine-expressing ECL cells, while lacking NeuroD, did not appear to express granulocyte or
The zinc finger E-box-binding transcription factor Zeb1 plays a pivotal role in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Numerous studies have focused on the molecular mechanisms by which Zeb1 contributes to this process. However, the functions of Zeb1 beyond the epithelial-mesenchymal transition remain largely elusive. Using a transdifferentiation system to convert mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) into functional neurons via the neuronal transcription factors achaete-scute family bHLH (basic helix-loop-helix) transcription factor1 (Ascl1), POU class 3 homeobox 2 (POU3F2/Brn2), and neurogenin 2 (Neurog2, Ngn2) (ABN), we found that Zeb1 was up-regulated during the early stages of transdifferentiation ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Human eHAND, but not dHAND, is down-regulated in cardiomyopathies. AU - Natarajan, Aruna. AU - Yamagishi, Hiroyuki. AU - Ahmad, Ferhaan. AU - Li, Duanxiang. AU - Roberts, Robert. AU - Matsuoka, Rumiko. AU - Hill, Sandra. AU - Srivastava, Deepak. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - The progression of cardiomyopathy to congestive heart failure is often associated with the expression of fetal cardiac-specific genes. In mice, the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, dHAND and eHAND, are expressed in a cardiac chamber-specific fashion and are essential for fetal cardiac development, but are down-regulated in the adult. Their expression in specific chambers of healthy and diseased human hearts has not been studied previously. Human dHAND and eHAND were mapped to human chromosomes 4q33 and 5q33, respectively, by fluorescent in situ hybridization, RNA from the four chambers of healthy human adult hearts, and from hearts of patients with several forms of cardiomyopathy, was obtained and ...
The SCL gene encodes a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor with a pivotal role in the development of endothelium and of all hematopoietic lineages. SCL is also expressed in the central nervous system, although its expression pattern has not been examined in detail and its function in neural …
J:89474 Morikawa Y, Cserjesi P, Extra-embryonic vasculature development is regulated by the transcription factor HAND1. Development. 2004 May;131(9):2195-204 ...
TCF4 Antibody is a Rabbit Polyclonal antibody against TCF4. This gene encodes transcription factor 4, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor. The encoded protein recognizes an Ephrussi-box (E-box) binding site (CANNTG) - a motif first identifie
5291 Evasion from oncogene-induced senescence and apoptosis has recently emerged as being crucial for promoting tumorigenesis in vivo. The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors Twist1 and Twist2 have been found to abrogate oncogene-induced apoptosis and Twist1 overexpression has been reported in a large variety of human solid cancers including carcinomas, sarcomas, melanomas and neuroblastomas. We show that both Twist proteins also override Ras- and ErbB2-induced senescence in murine and human cells, by simultaneously shutting-down p53- and RB-dependent pathways. In addition, like Twist1, Twist2 has an altered expression in a set of primary tumours and tumour cell lines, indicating that both genes might similarly contribute to tumour progression. Our results suggest the existence of a novel class of proteins whose oncogenic potential specifically derives from their ability to antagonize gatekeepers and which we propose to name "gate-jumpers". ...
The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor stem cell leukaemia (SCL) is a master regulator of haematopoiesis, where SCL is pivotal in cell fate determination and differentiation. SCL has also been detected in CNS, where other members of the bHLH-family have been shown to be indispensable for neuronal development; however, no detailed expression pattern of SCL has so far been described. We have generated a map of SCL expression in the embryonic and adult mouse brain based on histochemical analysis of LacZ reporter gene expression in sequential sections of brain tissue derived from SCL-LacZ knockin mice. The expression of LacZ was confirmed to reflect SCL expression by in situ hybridisation. LacZ expression was found in a range of different diencephalic, mesencephalic and metencephalic brain nuclei in adult CNS. Co-localisation of LacZ with the neuronal marker NeuN indicated expression in post-mitotic neurons in adulthood. LacZ expression by neurons was confirmed in tissue culture analysis.
J:165754 Watanabe T, Koibuchi N, Chin MT, Transcription factor CHF1/Hey2 regulates coronary vascular maturation. Mech Dev. 2010 Sep-Dec;127(9-12):418-27 ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-HIF-2 alpha/EPAS1 Antibody (ep190b) [HRP]. Validated: WB, ELISA, IHC, IHC-P. Tested Reactivity: Human, Mouse, Rat, and more. 100% Guaranteed.
ATOH8 antibody (atonal homolog 8 (Drosophila)) for ELISA, IHC-P, WB. Anti-ATOH8 pAb (GTX85296) is tested in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
The KOMP Repository Collection is located at the MMRRC at the University of California, Davis and Childrens Hospital Oakland Research Institute. Question? Comments? For Mice, Cells, and germplasm please contact us at [email protected], US 1-888-KOMP-MICE or International +1-530-752-KOMP, or for vectors [email protected] or +1-510-450-7917 ...
This gene encodes a member of the basic helix-loop-helix and PAS domain-containing family of transcription factors. The encoded protein is localized to the nucleus and may regulate genes involved in neurogenesis. Chromosomal abnormalities that affect the coding potential of this gene are associated with schizophrenia and mental retardation. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009 ...
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p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
How to strengthen your mental math, Maths is present in many aspects of daily life. But here are seven ways to make your child a maths champion. Here are tips on math learning.
NeuroD1兔多克隆抗体(ab16508)可与小鼠, 人, 小吻翎电鳗样本反应并经WB, IHC, ICC, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被7篇文献引用并得到8个独立的用户反馈。
NeuroD1兔多克隆抗体(ab76685)可与人样本反应并经WB, IHC, ICC/IF实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
Simple Math Question. Doing the following math, why is it that the results are not all returning yes? SELECT (9.2+7.9+0+4.0+2.6+1.3), case when...
I found the Algebrator helpful. I still have a lot to learn about using it. I do believe it was worth the money I paid for it. I have one more math class to take and I am sure I will put the Algebrator to good use then ...
61 10 / \ 63-62 60-59 9 , , 67 64 58 55 8 / \ / \ / \ 69-68 66-65 57-56 54-53 7 , , 70 52 6 / \ 71 51 5 \ / 72 50 4 , , 73 15 49 3 / / \ \ 75-74 17-16 14-13 48-47 2 , , , , 76 18 12 46 1 / / 4---3 \ \ 77 19 . , 11 45 Y=0 \ \ 1---2 / / 78 20 10 44 -1 , , , 79-80 5--6 8--9 42-43 -2 \ \ / / 81 7 41 -3 , , 82 40 -4 / \ 83 39 -5 \ / 84 38 -6 , 21-22 24-25 33-34 36-37 -7 \ / \ / \ / 23 26 32 35 -8 , , 27-28 30-31 -9 \ / 29 -10 ^ -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 X=0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ...
Экономические системы Латинской Америки процветают с 2003 года. Их ВВП, включая предварительный показатель за 2006 год, вырос на 17%, средний годовой темп роста составил 4,3%, а прирост ВВП на душу населения равен 12%. Несмотря на столь внушительные показатели, ситуация, когда Латинская Америка испытывает положительный экономический рост в течение четырех лет подряд, возникает лишь второй раз за 25 лет. Как долго продолжатся такие хорошие времена? Этот недавний рост произошел благодаря буму цен на сырьевые товары, который включил в себя не только ...
im using the PF tek for my puerto ricans, im just gonna keep them as cakes to get faster results. but anyways, ive heared that PRs can overlay super easy and can affect fruiting. any ideas on how
Stem cells derived from dental tissues—dental stem cells—are favored due to their easy acquisition. Among them, dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) extracted from the dental pulp have many advantages, such as high proliferation and a highly purified population. Although their ability for neurogenic differentiation has been highlighted and neurogenic differentiation using electrospun nanofibers (NFs) has been performed, graphene-incorporated NFs have never been applied for DPSC neurogenic differentiation. Here, reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-polycaprolactone (PCL) hybrid electrospun NFs were developed and applied for enhanced neurogenesis of DPSCs. First, RGO-PCL NFs were fabricated by electrospinning with incorporation of RGO and alignments, and their chemical and morphological characteristics were evaluated. Furthermore, in vitro NF properties, such as influence on the cellular alignments and cell viability of DPSCs, were also analyzed. The influences of NFs on DPSCs neurogenesis were also
[38 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Myc Proto Oncogene Protein (Transcription Factor p64 or Class E Basic Helix Loop Helix Protein 39 or MYC) - Pipeline Review, H2 2017 report by Global Markets Direct. Myc Proto Oncogene Protein (Transcription Factor p64 or Class E...
This gene encodes a member of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor family. Members of this family contain two highly conserved and functionally distinct domains: the basic domain targets sequence-specific DNA binding, while the helix-loop-helix domain facilitates protein interaction. Studies of a related gene in mouse suggest that the encoded protein may function as a transcriptional repressor in the pancreas and brain, and that it is required for normal retinal function. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013 ...
Regulatory proteins have been identified in embryonic development of the endocrine pancreas. It is unknown whether these factors can also play a role in the formation of pancreatic endocrine cells from postnatal nonendocrine cells. The present study demonstrates that adult human pancreatic duct cells can be converted into insulin-expressing cells after ectopic, adenovirus-mediated expression of the class B basic helix-loop-helix factor neurogenin 3 (ngn3), which is a critical factor in embryogenesis of the mouse endocrine pancreas. Infection with adenovirus ngn3 (Adngn3) induced gene and/or protein expression of NeuroD/beta2, Pax4, Nkx2.2, Pax6, and Nkx6.1, all known to be essential for beta-cell differentiation in mouse embryos. Expression of ngn3 in adult human duct cells induced Notch ligands Dll1 and Dll4 and neuroendocrine- and beta-cell-specific markers: it increased the percentage of synaptophysin- and insulin-positive cells 15-fold in ngn3-infected versus control cells. Infection with NeuroD
Oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factor 2 (Olig2) is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor expressed in oligodendroglial tumors of the brain. It is also known as protein kinase C binding protein 2 (PRKCBP2), oligodendrocyte transcription factor 2, oligodendrocyte-specific bHLH transcription factor 2, BHLHB1, bHLHe19, OLIGO2, and RACK17. Olig2 protein plays an essential role in regulating the development of oligodendrocytes and motor neurons. Chromosomal translocations in the OLIG2 gene have been associated with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and development of Down syndrome. Olig2 expression is useful in distinguishing diffuse gliomas from other types of brain tumors.. ...
Oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factor 2 (Olig2) is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor expressed in oligodendroglial tumors of the brain. It is also known as protein kinase C binding protein 2 (PRKCBP2), oligodendrocyte transcription factor 2, oligodendrocyte-specific bHLH transcription factor 2, BHLHB1, bHLHe19, OLIGO2, and RACK17. Olig2 protein plays an essential role in regulating the development of oligodendrocytes and motor neurons. Chromosomal translocations in the OLIG2 gene have been associated with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and development of Down syndrome. Olig2 expression is useful in distinguishing diffuse gliomas from other types of brain tumors.. ...
in Developmental Biology (2005), 285(1), 211-23. Pancreas development relies on a network of transcription factors belonging mainly to the Homeodomain and basic Helix-Loop-Helix families. We show in this study that, in zebrafish, sox4, a member of the ... [more ▼]. Pancreas development relies on a network of transcription factors belonging mainly to the Homeodomain and basic Helix-Loop-Helix families. We show in this study that, in zebrafish, sox4, a member of the SRY-like HMG-box (SOX) family, is required for proper endocrine cell differentiation. We found that two genes orthologous to mammalian Sox4 are present in zebrafish and that only one of them, sox4b, is strongly expressed in the pancreatic anlage. Transcripts of sox4b were detected in mid-trunk endoderm from the 5-somite stage, well before the onset of expression of the early pancreatic gene pdx-1. Furthermore, by fluorescent double in situ hybridization, we found that expression of sox4b is mostly restricted to precursors of the ...
Inhibitor of DNA binding (Id) proteins function as inhibitors of members of the basic helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors and have been demonstrated to play an important role in regulating lymphopoiesis. However, the role of these proteins in regulation of myelopoiesis is currently unclear. In this study, we have investigated the role of Id1 and Id2 in the regulation of granulopoiesis. Id1 expression was initially up-regulated during early granulopoiesis, which was then followed by a decrease in expression during final maturation. In contrast, Id2 expression was up-regulated in terminally differentiated granulocytes. In order to determine whether Id expression plays a critical role in regulating granulopoiesis, Id1 and Id2 were ectopically expressed in CD34(+) cells by retroviral transduction. Our experiments demonstrate that constitutive expression of Id1 inhibits eosinophil development, whereas in contrast neutrophil differentiation was modestly enhanced. Constitutive Id2 expression
Two signals - an external one from retinoic acid and an internal one from the transcription factor Neurogenin2 - cooperate to activate chromatin (the basic material of chromosomes) and help determine that certain nerve progenitor cells become motor neurons, said researchers from Baylor College of Medicine in a report in the current issue of the journal Neuron.
As in the previous problem, supposed ,math,{\mathcal{F}},/math, be a coherent sheaf on a locally noetherian scheme ,math,X,/math,. The fiber of ,math,{\mathcal{F}},/math, at a point ,math,x\in X,/math, is the ,math,k(x),/math,-vector space ,math,i^*{\mathcal{F}},/math, for the natural map ,math,i:{\mathop{Spec}}(k(x))\to X,/math, (where ,math,k(x),/math, is the residue field of ,math,x\in X,/math,). Denote by ,math,\phi(x),/math, the dimension ,math,\dim_{k(x)} i^*{\mathcal{F}},/math,.,p,(a) Show that the function ,math,\phi(x),/math, is upper semi-continuous: for every ,math,n,/math,, the set ,math,\{x\in X:\phi(x)\ge n\},/math, is closed.,/p,,p,(b) Suppose ,math,X,/math, is reduced. Show that ,math,{\mathcal{F}},/math, is locally free if and only if ,math,\phi(x),/math, is constant on each connected component of ,math,X,/math,. (Do you see why we impose the assumption that ,math,X,/math, is reduced here?),/p ...
Twist1 and Twist2 are highly conserved people of the Twist subfamily of bHLH proteins responsible for the transcriptional regulation of the developmental programs in mesenchymal cell lineages. regulatory elements made up of the consensus sequence 5′-NCANNTGN-3′ (termed E-box). E-boxes are found in the regulatory regions of many lineage specific genes which account for the numerous pathways regulated by these transcription factors (1-3). The bHLH transcription factors are classified into three major classes: the ubiquitous Class A bHLH factors that include E2-2 HEB and the two isoforms of the E2A gene E12/E47 (also known as E proteins); the tissue-restricted Class B bHLH factors; and the inhibitory HLH proteins constituted by the Id proteins which lack the basic region used Mouse monoclonal to KSHV ORF45 to contact DNA. The Twist proteins form a subfamily of the Class B bHLH factors. These include Paraxis (1) Scleraxis (4) Hand1 (5) Hand2 (6) Twist1 and BTZ044 Twist2. In this family of ...
TCF21 encodes a transcription factor of the basic helix-loop-helix family. The TCF21 product is mesoderm specific, and expressed in embryonic epicardium, mesenchyme-derived tissues of lung, gut, gonad, and both mesenchymal and glomerular epithelial cells in the kidney. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008] ...
Heyl - Heyl (untagged) - Mouse hairy/enhancer-of-split related with YRPW motif-like (Heyl), (10ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
The inhibitor of DNA binding and cell differentiation (Id) proteins are dominant negative regulators of the helix-loop-helix transcription factor family and play a key role during development as well as in vascular disorders and cancer. In fact, impairing the Id-protein activity in cancer cells reduces cell growth and even chemoresistance. Recently, we have shown that a synthetic Id-protein ligand (1Y) consisting of a cyclic nonapeptide can reduce the viability of the two breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and T47D and of the bladder cancer cells T24 to about 50% at concentrations ≥100μM ...
This gene encodes a basic helix-loop-helix protein expressed in various tissues. The encoded protein can interact with ARNTL or compete for E-box binding sites in the promoter of PER1 and repress CLOCK/ARNTLs transactivation of PER1. This gene is believed to be involved in the control of circadian rhythm and cell differentiation. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014 ...
https://issues.apache.org/jira/browse/MATH-746?page=com.atlassian.jira.plugin.system.issuetabpanels:all-tabpanel ] Gilles updated MATH-746: ------------------------ Description: This issue is meant to contain a list of tasks to be completed before the release. * Remarks to be added to the *release notes*: ** Experimental code: {{BOBYQAOptimizer}} (cf. MATH-621) *** Many code paths untested *** Looking for volunteers to improve the code readability, robustness and performance *** Looking for volunteers to extend the test suite ** {{FastMath}} is not always faster than {{Math}} (issue MATH-740) ** List of new features * Create a "release branch" * Disable CheckStyle scanning of {{BOBYQAOptimizer}} (/) ({{r1244855}}) * Comment out "print" statements in {{BOBYQAOptimizerTest}} (/) ({{r1244975}}) * Remove unit test class {{BatteryNISTTest}} * Remove class {{PivotingQRDecomposition}} * Comment out "print" statement in {{SymmLQTest}} (/) ({{r1244992}}) (removed in {{r1244996}}) * Findbugs: ** ...
Anti-BHLHE40 antibody | Application: WB, ELISA | Predicted species reactivity: Human, Mouse | Product type: Polyclonal Antibody | Alias: BHLHE40,Class E basic helix-loop-helix protein 40,BHLHB2; DEC1; SHARP2; STRA13
Rabbit anti MAX (pSer11) antibody recognizes MAX, also known as protein max, class D basic helix-loop-helix protein 4, bHLHd4 or Myc-assoc
In both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, the β-cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas are either destroyed or defective, resulting in insufficient insulin production. To study β-cells in development and disease, Shimajiri et al. generated a mouse in which expression of green fluorescent protein and secreted alkaline phosphatase is driven using the regulatory regions of the β-cell-specific neurogenin-3 gene. Pancreatic organ cultures derived from these mice allow developing β-cells to be visualised. In addition, this model system enables tracking the fate of developing β-cells in response to various stimuli.. Page 268. ...
HEY1 antibody, C-term (hes related family bHLH transcription factor with YRPW motif 1) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-HEY1 pAb (GTX42614) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Mutagenesis of the mouse Bhlhb4 gene. A: Gene targeting strategy showing partial restriction map of WT Bhlhb4 allele, the targeting vector, the targeted ES cell
Described herein are compounds and pharmaceutical compositions containing such compounds, which inhibit the activity of Olig2. Also described herein are methods of using such Olig2 inhibitors, alone and in combination with other compounds, for treating cancer and other diseases. In particular the Olig2 inhibitors may be used to treat glioblastoma.
Dash-dotted line: logarithmic profile; solid line: obtained from equation (8); symbols: experimental data (Sukhodolov et al). a) profile 2: ,math,y_0 = 0.062 cm,/math,; ,math,h = 145 cm,/math,; ,math,u_\tau = 3.82 cm/s,/math,. b) profile 4: ,math,y_0 = 0.113 cm,/math,; ,math,h = 164.5 cm,/math,; ,math,u_\tau = 3.97 cm/s,/math, ; values of ,math,y_0 , h, u_\tau,/math, are from [[#References,[Sukhodolov et al. (1998 ...
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BIEXTENSIONS OF 1-MOTIVES BY 1-MOTIVES arxiv:math/ v1 [math.nt] 5 Feb 2004 CRISTIANA BERTOLIN Abstract. Let S be a scheme. In this paper, we define the notion of biextensions of 1-motives by 1-motives.
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This sequence is defined implicitly. List the first six terms of this sequence. a0 = 1 and an+1 = an + (1/(2^n)) The 0 and the ans are suppose to be...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Upregulation of Npas4 protein expression by chronic administration of amphetamine in rat nucleus accumbens in vivo. AU - Guo, Ming Lei. AU - Xue, Bing. AU - Jin, Dao Zhong. AU - Liu, Zhen Guo. AU - Fibuch, Eugene E.. AU - Mao, Li Min. AU - Wang, John Q.. PY - 2012/10/24. Y1 - 2012/10/24. N2 - The neuronal PAS domain protein 4 (Npas4) is a transcription factor that is almost exclusively expressed in the mammalian brain. As an activity-dependent transcription factor, Npas4 regulates the transcription of discrete genes and transcriptionally controls the experience-dependent learning and memory. In this study, we explored the impact of the psychostimulant amphetamine (AMPH) on Npas4 protein expression in the rat striatum. We found that acute systemic injection of AMPH had a minimal effect on protein levels of Npas4 in the caudate putamen (CPu) and nucleus accumbens (NAc), while AMPH readily increased protein products of the immediate early gene c-Fos in these regions. In contrast, ...
article{cd7f6278-687b-4a1d-9f0d-d122c28d5b7f, abstract = {Postnatal neurogenesis takes place in two brain regions, the hippocampus and the subventricular zone (SVZ). The transcriptional cascade controlling hippocampal neurogenesis has been described in detail; however, the transcriptional control of olfactory bulb neurogenesis is still not well mapped. In this study, we provide insights into the molecular events controlling postnatal olfactory bulb neurogenesis. We first show the existence of diverse neural stem cell/progenitor populations along the SVZ-rostral migratory stream (RMS) axis, focusing on those expressing the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor Mash1. We provide evidence that Mash1-derived progenies generate oligodendrocytic and neuronal precursors through the transient expression of the bHLH transcription factors Olig2 and neurogenin2 (Ngn2), respectively. Furthermore, we reveal that Ngn2-positive progenies express the T-box transcription factors Tbr2 and Tbr1, which ...
THE wing surface of lepidopteran adults is covered by wing scales, which function in heat preservation, mimesis, touch, etc. (Nijhout 1991). Lepidopteran scales and Drosophila bristles are considered homologous structures on the basis of the similarities in their cell lineages and the expression of a few molecular markers (Overton 1966, 1967; Galant et al. 1998). Development of the Drosophila bristle is regulated by the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors of the Achaete-Scute Complex (AS-C). Within the clusters of cells expressing achaete (ac) and scute (sc), some are selected to become sensory organ precursors, which then form and innervate the mature bristles (Skeath and Carroll 1991; Jan and Jan 1994). In ac/sc double-mutant flies, the majority of the bristles are lost; on the contrary, ectopic expression of ac and/or sc can induce extra bristles (Garcia-Bellido 1979; Campuzano et al. 1986; Balcells et al. 1988; Rodriguez et al. 1990). In the butterfly Precis coenia, the AS-C ...
0026] Electrical stimulation devices implanted in the stomach of obese patients have been reported to have variable positive effects on weight loss (Zhang C, Ng K L, Li J D, He F, Anderson D J, Sun Y E, and Zhou Q Y. Prokineticin 2 is a target gene of proneural basic helix-loop-helix factors for olfactory bulb neurogenesis. J Biol Chem 282: 6917-6921, 2007), with improvements in glucose control in T2D patients secondary to weight loss. This stimulation would not be expected to act directly on L-cells since these cells are absent from the stomach. Intestinal electrical stimulation studies in obese or diabetic patients are fewer in number and tend to report the resulting neural and motility effects. For example, in diabetic neuropathy, electrical stimulation of the duodenum, which is located at the oral end of the small intestine, results in nerve responses that are weaker than in control patients (Frokjaer J B, Andersen S D, Ejskaer N, Funch-Jensen P, Arendt-Nielsen L, Gregersen H, and Drewes A M ...
The Proline-Rich Homeodomain protein (PRH/Hex) is a transcription factor that functions as an important regulator of vertebrate development and many other processes in the adult including haematopoiesis. The Groucho/TLE family of co-repressor proteins also regulate development and modulate the activity of many DNA-binding transcription factors during a range of diverse cellular processes including haematopoiesis. We have shown previously that PRH is a repressor of transcription in haematopoietic cells and that an Eh-1 motif present within the N-terminal transcription repression domain of PRH mediates binding to Groucho/TLE proteins and enables co-repression. Here we demonstrate that PRH regulates the nuclear retention of TLE proteins during cellular fractionation. We show that transcriptional repression and the nuclear retention of TLE proteins requires PRH to bind to both TLE and DNA. In addition, we characterise a trans-dominant negative PRH protein that inhibits wild type PRH activity by ...
Previous studies have shown that E-protein transcription factors in the thymus have important roles, both in the very earliest stages of thymocyte development and in the regulation of key thymocyte transitions (Murre 2005; Kee 2009; and Jones and Zhuang, 2011). In particular, they have provided convincing evidence that preTCR and TCR signaling leads to successively more profound down-regulation of E-protein levels and that such down-regulation is a precondition for DN to DP transitions and DP to SP transitions (Engel et al., 2001; Jones and Zhuang, 2007; Jones-Mason et al., 2012). Here, we used inducible E-protein KO mice (E2Af/f/HEBf/f/Er-cre mice) to study the effect of E-proteins (and the related effect of Id proteins) on the development of Foxp3+ T reg cells. We found that induced Foxp3+ T reg cell (iT reg cell) development in peripheral tissues was significantly increased both in vitro and in vivo in E-protein KO mice. In addition, this increase in iT reg cell development was accompanied by ...
Metastasis is the final and fatal step in the progression of breast cancer. Currently available therapeutic strategies at this stage of cancer progression are often nonspecific, have only marginal efficacy, and are highly toxic. This is in part due to the lack of knowledge about the molecular mechanisms regulating the development of aggressive cancers. Therapeutic approaches targeting only specific mechanisms involved in the development of aggressive breast cancers are urgently need. The expectation would be that this strategy would reduce unwanted toxicities associated with the therapy itself.. We previously showed that the helix-loop-helix protein Id-1, an inhibitor of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, plays a crucial role during breast cancer progression (4). Id-1 stimulated proliferation, migration, and invasion in breast cancer cells (13, 16). Moreover, targeting Id-1 expression partially in breast cancer cells reduced invasion in vitro and breast cancer metastasis in ...
The bHLH transcription factor ATOH7 (Math5) is crucial for developing retinal ganglion cell (RGC) fate. the developing sight as explained by immediate fluorescence (Fig. 1B). GFP expression Aclacinomycin A was observed by E12. 5 various and E13. 5 matching to the maximum time of reflection (Fig. 1C 1 contrary to expression which will diminishes following E14 Even so. 5 GFP expression remained to E18. 5 (Fig. 1E). This is most likely as a result of high steadiness of the H2B-GFP fusion healthy proteins. The stability allowed us to adhere to the fortune of was not a longer stated thereby featuring an opportunity to compare and contrast this pseudo-tracing method to lineage looking up studies that used even more conventional strategies (Brzezinski ain al. 2012 Yang ain al. the year 2003 P0 retinas showed strong and about equal numbers of GFP reflection in the ganglion cell Aclacinomycin A part and interior nuclear part and much sluggish expression inside the outer indivisible layer (Fig. 1F). The ...
ATOH1 - ATOH1 (Myc-DDK-tagged)-Human atonal homolog 1 (Drosophila) (ATOH1) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor belonging to the class A family; acts as a general negative regulator of cell proliferation; binds specifically to oligomers of E-box motifs; forms heterodimers with other bHLH proteins of both class A and class B, e.g. E2A, TAL1, myogenin and MyoD; implicated in myogenesis, hematopoiesis and neurogenesis ...
This protein belongs to the basic helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors. It is a transcriptional repressor;of genes that require a bHLH protein for their transcription. The protein has a particular type of basic domain that;contains a helix interrupting protein that binds to the N-box rather than the canonical E-box.
This gene encodes a member of the E protein (class I) family of helix-loop-helix transcription factors. E proteins activate transcription by binding to regulatory E-box sequences on target genes as heterodimers or homodimers, and are inhibited by heterodimerization with inhibitor of DNA-binding (class IV) helix-loop-helix proteins. E proteins play a critical role in lymphopoiesis, and the encoded protein is required for B and T lymphocyte development. Deletion of this gene or diminished activity of the encoded protein may play a role in lymphoid malignancies. This gene is also involved in several chromosomal translocations that are associated with lymphoid malignancies including pre-B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (t(1;19), with PBX1), childhood leukemia (t(19;19), with TFPT) and acute leukemia (t(12;19), with ZNF384). Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene, and a pseudogene of this gene is located on the short arm of chromosome ...
use Hash::Util qw( hash_seed all_keys lock_keys unlock_keys lock_value unlock_value lock_hash unlock_hash lock_keys_plus hash_locked hidden_keys legal_keys ); %hash = (foo =, 42, bar =, 23); # Ways to restrict a hash lock_keys(%hash); lock_keys(%hash, @keyset); lock_keys_plus(%hash, @additional_keys); # Ways to inspect the properties of a restricted hash my @legal = legal_keys(%hash); my @hidden = hidden_keys(%hash); my $ref = all_keys(%hash,@keys,@hidden); my $is_locked = hash_locked(%hash); # Remove restrictions on the hash unlock_keys(%hash); # Lock individual values in a hash lock_value (%hash, foo); unlock_value(%hash, foo); # Ways to change the restrictions on both keys and values lock_hash (%hash); unlock_hash(%hash); my $hashes_are_randomised = hash_seed() != 0 ...
bHLH transcription factors have common roles in inducing neuronal differentiation, but distinct roles in neuronal subtype specification, functions that are contingent on developmental context (Parras et al., 2002; Nakada et al., 2004a; Powell et al., 2004; Reeves and Posakony, 2005). To determine Atoh1-specific targets, we first identified transcripts specific to the Atoh1 lineage and not common to the neighboring dorsal Neurog1 lineage. Significantly, we identified five new Atoh1-specific targets and their responsive enhancers using a combination of microarray expression data, ChIP-seq experiments, and enhancer-reporter assays.. Previously, known direct targets of Atoh1 in vivo in the developing neural tube or cerebellum included the homeodomain transcription factors, Barhl1 and Barhl2 (Saba et al., 2005; Kawauchi and Saito, 2008), the Sonic hedgehog transcriptional effector, Gli2 (Flora et al., 2009), and Atoh1 itself (Helms et al., 2000). The direct Atoh1 targets identified here have diverse ...
HEY bHLH transcription factors have been shown to regulate multiple key steps in cardiovascular development. They can be induced by activated NOTCH receptors, but other upstream stimuli mediated by TGFß and BMP receptors may elicit a similar response. While the basic and helix-loop-helix domains exhibit strong similarity, large parts of the proteins are still unique and may serve divergent functions. The striking overlap of cardiac defects in HEY2 and combined HEY1/HEYL knockout mice suggested that all three HEY genes fulfill overlapping function in target cells. We therefore sought to identify target genes for HEY proteins by microarray expression and ChIPseq analyses in HEK293 cells, cardiomyocytes, and murine hearts. HEY proteins were found to modulate expression of their target gene to a rather limited extent, but with striking functional interchangeability between HEY factors. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed a much greater number of potential binding sites that again largely overlap ...
HEY bHLH transcription factors have been shown to regulate multiple key steps in cardiovascular development. They can be induced by activated NOTCH receptors, but other upstream stimuli mediated by TGFß and BMP receptors may elicit a similar response. While the basic and helix-loop-helix domains exhibit strong similarity, large parts of the proteins are still unique and may serve divergent functions. The striking overlap of cardiac defects in HEY2 and combined HEY1/HEYL knockout mice suggested that all three HEY genes fulfill overlapping function in target cells. We therefore sought to identify target genes for HEY proteins by microarray expression and ChIPseq analyses in HEK293 cells, cardiomyocytes, and murine hearts. HEY proteins were found to modulate expression of their target gene to a rather limited extent, but with striking functional interchangeability between HEY factors. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed a much greater number of potential binding sites that again largely overlap ...
Groups of genes sharing similar motifs may be used at different steps of a same developmental process. In this review, we discuss the significance of this phenomenon in the case of the basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) proteins that are involved at different steps of the development of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) of Drosophila.
https://issues.apache.org/jira/browse/MATH-462?page=com.atlassian.jira.plugin.system.issuetabpanels:comment-tabpanel&focusedCommentId=12975166#action_12975166 ] Pavel Ryzhov commented on MATH-462: ----------------------------------- 1. Im still novice in Java and Eclipse as the last experience with Java is from year 2003. So im still in progress of customizing Eclipse to Apache standards. I hope it become compliant with the standard in few iterations. 2. Normal distribution case had a bug. Ill fix it. But generic case definitely needs some aggressive testing as mean estimation is often violated. I hope it happens due to "heavy tails" of stable distribution. But im going to re-verify if the implementation exactly matches the algo. As soon as I do it, Ill repost the patch. , Random Generator from Stable Distribution , ----------------------------------------- , , Key: MATH-462 , URL: https://issues.apache.org/jira/browse/MATH-462 , Project: Commons Math , Issue Type: New Feature , Reporter: ...
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Scientists have examined fruit flies to discover cells that can survival low-levels of oxygen or hypoxia. They have discovered the hairy gene, that has a survival switch that helps cells and tissues to survive a low-oxygen environment. This research has implications for people suffering from diseases that involve hypoxia or tissue that has been oxygen deprived.
ID1 / BHLHB24, 0.4 ml. |div class=value|The protein encoded by this gene is a helix-loop-helix (HLH) protein that can form heterodimers with members of the basic HLH family of transcription factors.
Mouse polyclonal antibody raised against a full-length human FIGLA protein. FIGLA (AAI48799.1, 1 a.a. ~ 219 a.a) full-length human protein. (H00344018-B01P) - Products - Abnova
Suppose [[AP_Statistics_Curriculum_2007_Distrib_Binomial , ,math,Y~Binomial(n, p),/math,]] and ,math,Y=Y_1+ Y_2+ Y_3+\cdots+ Y_n,/math,, where [[AP_Statistics_Curriculum_2007_Distrib_Binomial , ,math,Y_k~Bernoulli(p),/math,]] , ,math,E(Y_k)=p,/math, & ,math,Var(Y_k)=p(1-p),/math,. Then ,math,E(Y)=np,/math,, ,math,Var(Y)=np(1-p),/math, and ,math,SD(Y)= {np(1-p ...
org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.differentiation.FiniteDifferencesDifferentiator (implements java.io.Serializable, org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.differentiation.UnivariateFunctionDifferentiator, org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.differentiation.UnivariateMatrixFunctionDifferentiator, org.apache.commons.math3.analysis.differentiation.UnivariateVectorFunctionDifferentiator ...
Kit Component:- KN312584G1, Olig3 gRNA vector 1 in pCas-Guide vector- KN312584G2, Olig3 gRNA vector 2 in pCas-Guide vector- KN312584D, donor vector…
use strict; use warnings; use Data::Dumper; my $ams_hosts = [ { domainId =, 1, deviceIp =, 172.16.133.56, deviceType =, 3, deviceName =, AMS }, { domainId =, 1, deviceIp =, 172.16.133.57, deviceType =, 3, deviceName =, ams_57 } ]; my %ams_ips_hash = map { $_-,{deviceIp} =, 1 } @{$ams_hosts}; print Dumper( \%ams_ips_hash ...
Shop Transducin-like enhancer protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Transducin-like enhancer protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Abstract. Skeletal muscle fibre types are determined by the activity of motor neurons, hormones, stretch and probably cell lineage. The electrical activity of the motor neurons might, through an unknown pathway, influence the expression of a unique set of muscle specific genes in the different fibre types.. MRF4 is a member of a family of myogenic basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors (bHLH) that is important for the development of muscle fibres. These transcription factors are also suggested to be important in adult muscle, where they might be a possible link between electrical activity and expression of muscle specific genes. The myogenic bHLH transcription factors MyoD and myogenin has been shown to possible be involved in the regulation of fibre type specificity. This role is also proposed for MRF4, based on the high amount of MRF4 mRNA that is expressed in all adult skeletal muscle types and that it seems to be preferentially expressed in slow fibre types.. In this thesis I wanted to ...
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor ArH is a nuclear receptor and as such a transcription factor which has been shown to be activated by dioxins and other environmental toxins. Upon ligand binding it is translocated to the nucleus, binds dioxin responsive elements on the DNA, and triggers gene activation notably of CYP 1 monoxygenases, which in turn degradate dioxins to more soluble compounds thus facilitating their removal. It not only binds dioxins, but polyaromatic substances like benzopyrenes in tobacco smoke and a variety of plant substances like e.g. indigo.. Its structure as basic helix loop helix (bHLH) protein has been determined.. It has been questionable how a molecule with such a ligand profile has survived evolution. Groups from Berlin have now determined bacterial secondary products as ligands of the receptor, too. In a paper in Nature this week they describe Pseudomonas aeruginosa phenazines and Mycobacterium tuberculosis phthiols as ligands which activate anti-bacterial responses in ...
1. DeloukasP, KanoniS, WillenborgC, FarrallM, AssimesTL, et al. (2012) Large-scale association analysis identifies new risk loci for coronary artery disease. Nat Genet 45: 25-33.. 2. SchunkertH, KonigIR, KathiresanS, ReillyMP, AssimesTL, et al. (2011) Large-scale association analysis identifies 13 new susceptibility loci for coronary artery disease. Nat Genet 43: 333-338.. 3. LuX, WangL, ChenS, HeL, YangX, et al. (2012) Genome-wide association study in Han Chinese identifies four new susceptibility loci for coronary artery disease. Nat Genet 44: 890-894.. 4. HidaiH, BardalesR, GoodwinR, QuertermousT, QuertermousEE (1998) Cloning of capsulin, a basic helix-loop-helix factor expressed in progenitor cells of the pericardium and the coronary arteries. Mech Dev 73: 33-43.. 5. LuJ, RichardsonJA, OlsonEN (1998) Capsulin: a novel bHLH transcription factor expressed in epicardial progenitors and mesenchyme of visceral organs. Mech Dev 73: 23-32.. 6. QuagginSE, Vanden HeuvelGB, IgarashiP (1998) Pod-1, a ...
The hypoxic response in humans is mediated by the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF), for which prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs) act as oxygen-sensing components. The evolutionary origins of the HIF system have been previously unclear. We demonstrate a functional HIF system in the simplest animal, Trichoplax adhaerens: HIF targets in T. adhaerens include glycolytic and metabolic enzymes, suggesting a role for HIF in the adaptation of basal multicellular animals to fluctuating oxygen levels. Characterization of the T. adhaerens PHDs and cross-species complementation assays reveal a conserved oxygen-sensing mechanism. Cross-genomic analyses rationalize the relative importance of HIF system components, and imply that the HIF system is likely to be present in all animals, but is unique to this kingdom.
BACKGROUND: Replacing beta-cells by islet-transplantation can cure type 1 diabetes, but up to 70% of beta-cells die within 10 days of transplantation. ARNT (Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor Nuclear Translocator) regulates beta-cell function, and potentially survival. Lack of ARNT impairs the ability of beta-cells to respond to physiological stress and potentiates the onset of diabetes, but the exact role of ARNT in graft outcome is unknown. AIM: To investigate the effect of beta-cell deletion of ARNT on graft outcomes. METHODS: Islets were isolated from donor mice which had beta-cell specific ARNT-deletion (beta-ARNT) or littermate floxed controls. The islets were transplanted into diabetic SCID recipients in ratios of (a) 3 donors: 1 recipient, (b) 1 donor: 1 recipient or (c) (1/2) of the islets from 1 donor: 1 recipient. After 28 days, the kidney containing the graft was removed (nephrectomy) to exclude regeneration of the endogenous pancreas. RESULTS: In the supra-physiological-mass model (3:1), both groups
The LIM only protein 2 (LMO2) is a key regulator of hematopoietic stem cell development whose ectopic expression in T cells leads to the onset of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Through its LIM domains, LMO2 is thought to function as the scaffold for a DNA-binding transcription regulator complex, including the basic helix-loop-helix proteins SCL/TAL1 and E47, the zinc finger protein GATA-1, and LIM-domain interacting protein LDB1. To understand the role of LMO2 in the formation of this complex and ultimately to dissect its function in normal and aberrant hematopoiesis, we solved the crystal structure of LMO2 in complex with the LID domain of LDB1 at 2.4 Å resolution. We observe a largely unstructured LMO2 kept in register by the LID binding both LIM domains. Comparison of independently determined crystal structures of LMO2 reveals large movements around a conserved hinge between the LIM domains. We demonstrate that such conformational flexibility is necessary for binding of LMO2 to its partner ...

The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor neuroD is expressed in the rod lineage of the teleost retina.  - PubMed - NCBIThe basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor neuroD is expressed in the rod lineage of the teleost retina. - PubMed - NCBI

The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor neuroD is expressed in the rod lineage of the teleost retina.. Hitchcock P1, ... we sought to characterize the cellular expression of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor neuroD in the ... Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors. *Histamine Agonists. *Nerve Tissue Proteins. *Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Kakuk-Atkins+L%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50

Myc Proto Oncogene Protein (Transcription Factor p64 or Class E Basic Helix Loop Helix Protein 39 or MYC) - Pipeline Review, H2...Myc Proto Oncogene Protein (Transcription Factor p64 or Class E Basic Helix Loop Helix Protein 39 or MYC) - Pipeline Review, H2...

Myc Proto Oncogene Protein (Transcription Factor p64 or Class E... ... 38 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Myc Proto Oncogene Protein (Transcription Factor p64 or Class E Basic Helix Loop Helix ... Myc Proto Oncogene Protein (Transcription Factor p64 or Class E Basic Helix Loop Helix Protein 39 or MYC) - Myc (c-Myc) protein ... Myc Proto Oncogene Protein (Transcription Factor p64 or Class E Basic Helix Loop Helix Protein 39 or MYC) - Drug Profiles. BGA- ...
more infohttp://www.reportsnreports.com/reports/1222401-myc-proto-oncogene-protein-transcription-factor-p64-or-class-e-basic-helix-loop-helix-protein-39-or-myc-pipeline-review-h2-2017.html

Forkhead box transcription factor 1: role in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy - topic of research paper in Basic...Forkhead box transcription factor 1: role in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy - topic of research paper in Basic...

FOXOs consists of highly conserved forkhead/winged helix DNA-binding domain, which encompasses the most common 110 amino acids ... inflammatory cytokines stimulate FOXO1 and may be indulged in positive feedback loop. This was supported by the findings of ... Forkhead box transcription factor 1 is a pleiotropic transcription factor that plays a pivotal role in a variety of ... Forkhead box transcription factor 1: role in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy Academic research paper on Basic ...
more infohttps://cyberleninka.org/article/n/535013

A Classification of Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors of SoybeanA Classification of Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors of Soybean

... Karen A. Hudson1 and Matthew E. Hudson2 ... Karen A. Hudson and Matthew E. Hudson, "A Classification of Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors of Soybean," ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2015/603182/cta/

Basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factors - WikipediaBasic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factors - Wikipedia

Basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factors are, as their name indicates, transcription factors containing both ... Basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factors at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings ( ... Basic helix-loop-helix and leucine zipper motifs. Examples include Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor and Sterol ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basic_helix-loop-helix_leucine_zipper_transcription_factors

Identification of a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor expressed in mammary gland alveolar cells and required for...Identification of a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor expressed in mammary gland alveolar cells and required for...

A key family of transcription factors used in mammary gland development is the helix-loop-helix/basic helix-loop-helix (HLH/ ... Identification of a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor expressed in mammary gland alveolar cells and required for ... Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors/deficiency. *Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors/genetics ... In this study, we identify Mist1 as a tissue-restricted Class II bHLH transcription factor expressed in lactating mammary ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16645041?dopt=Abstract

The Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor NEUROG3 Is Required for Development of the Human Endocrine Pancreas | DiabetesThe Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor NEUROG3 Is Required for Development of the Human Endocrine Pancreas | Diabetes

The Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor NEUROG3 Is Required for Development of the Human Endocrine Pancreas. ... The Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor NEUROG3 Is Required for Development of the Human Endocrine Pancreas ... The Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor NEUROG3 Is Required for Development of the Human Endocrine Pancreas ... The Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor NEUROG3 Is Required for Development of the Human Endocrine Pancreas ...
more infohttp://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/64/7/2497

HIF1A - Hypoxia inducible factor 1, alpha subunit (Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor) - Bos taurus (Bovine) - HIF1A...HIF1A - Hypoxia inducible factor 1, alpha subunit (Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor) - Bos taurus (Bovine) - HIF1A...

Hypoxia inducible factor 1, alpha subunit (Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor)Imported. ,p>Information which has been ... tr,A0JND0,A0JND0_BOVIN Hypoxia inducible factor 1, alpha subunit (Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor) OS=Bos taurus GN ... Hypoxia inducible factor 1, alpha subunit (Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor). ... transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II transcription factor binding Source: Ensembl. *transcription factor binding ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/A0JND0

New members of the Drosophila Myc transcription factor subfamily revealed by a genome-wide examination for basic helix-loop...New members of the Drosophila Myc transcription factor subfamily revealed by a genome-wide examination for basic helix-loop...

The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins represent an evolutionary conserved class of transcription factors that are known to ... New members of the Drosophila Myc transcription factor subfamily revealed by a genome-wide examination for basic helix-loop- ... These new genes belong to various subfamilies of bHLH transcription factors, such as the Daughterless, Hairy-Enhancer of split ... helix genes.. Peyrefitte S., Kahn D., Haenlin M.. ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/citations/11404084

Myc Proto Oncogene Protein Transcription Factor p64 or Class E Basic Helix Loop Helix Protein 39 or MYC  Pipeline Review, H1...Myc Proto Oncogene Protein Transcription Factor p64 or Class E Basic Helix Loop Helix Protein 39 or MYC Pipeline Review, H1...

Myc Proto Oncogene Protein Transcription Factor p64 or Class E Basic Helix Loop Helix Protein 39 or MYC Pipeline Review, H1 ... Inducible Factor 1 Alpha ARNT Interacting Protein or Basic Helix Loop Helix PAS Protein MOP1 or Class E Basic Helix Loop Helix ... Inducible Factor 1 Alpha ARNT Interacting Protein or Basic Helix Loop Helix PAS Protein MOP1 or Class E Basic Helix Loop Helix ... Protein Transcription Factor p64 or Class E Basic Helix Loop Helix Protein 39 or MYC Pipeline Review, H1 2018. ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/news/article/3564798/Myc-Proto-Oncogene-Protein-Transcription-Factor-p64-or-Class-E-Basic-Helix.html

Myc Proto Oncogene Protein (Transcription Factor p64 or Class E Basic Helix Loop Helix Protein 39 or MYC) - Pip Review, H2 2018Myc Proto Oncogene Protein (Transcription Factor p64 or Class E Basic Helix Loop Helix Protein 39 or MYC) - Pip Review, H2 2018

Transcription Factor p64 or Class E Basic Helix Loop Helix Protein 39 or MYC) - Pip Review, H2 2018Myc Proto Oncogene Protein ( ... Myc Proto Oncogene Protein (Transcription Factor p64 or Class E Basic Helix Loop Helix Protein 39 or MYC) - Myc (c-Myc) protein ... It also reviews key players involved in Myc Proto Oncogene Protein (Transcription Factor p64 or Class E Basic Helix Loop Helix ... The report reviews Myc Proto Oncogene Protein (Transcription Factor p64 or Class E Basic Helix Loop Helix Protein 39 or MYC) ...
more infohttps://www.aarkstore.com/pharmaceuticals-healthcare/978223/myc-proto-oncogene-protein-transcription-factor-p64-or-class-e-basic-helix-loop-helix-protein-39-or-myc-pip-review-h2-2018

A Novel Molecular Recognition Motif Necessary for Targeting Photoactivated Phytochrome Signaling to Specific Basic Helix-Loop...A Novel Molecular Recognition Motif Necessary for Targeting Photoactivated Phytochrome Signaling to Specific Basic Helix-Loop...

Toledo-Ortiz, G., Huq, E., and Quail, P.H. (2003). The Arabidopsis basic/helix-loop-helix transcription factor family. Plant ... Here, we have identified two basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors, designated PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR5 ( ... Update on the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor gene family in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell 15, 2497-2502. ... The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor family in plants: A genome-wide study of protein structure and functional ...
more infohttp://www.plantcell.org/content/16/11/3033?ijkey=b270d8bfe61a81db220594dbdd56a37293964b6a&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

RePub, Erasmus University Repository:
  The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor SHARP1 is an oncogenic driver in MLL...RePub, Erasmus University Repository: The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor SHARP1 is an oncogenic driver in MLL...

The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor SHARP1 is an oncogenic driver in MLL-AF6 acute myelogenous leukemia. ... The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor SHARP1 is an oncogenic driver in MLL-AF6 acute myelogenous leukemia. Nature ... Here, we identify the circadian clock transcription factor SHARP1 as a novel oncogenic target in MLL-AF6 AML, which has the ...
more infohttps://repub.eur.nl/pub/106107

Myc Proto Oncogene Protein (Transcription Factor p64 or Class E Basic Helix Loop Helix Protein 39 or MYC) - Pip Review, H2 2018...Myc Proto Oncogene Protein (Transcription Factor p64 or Class E Basic Helix Loop Helix Protein 39 or MYC) - Pip Review, H2 2018...

Transcription Factor p64 or Class E Basic Helix Loop Helix Protein 39 or MYC) - Pip Review, H2 2018 Size and Share Published in ... Myc Proto Oncogene Protein (Transcription Factor p64 or Class E Basic Helix Loop Helix Protein 39 or MYC) - Pip Review, H2 2018 ... Myc Proto Oncogene Protein (Transcription Factor p64 or Class E Basic Helix Loop Helix Protein 39 or MYC) - Myc (c-Myc) protein ... It also reviews key players involved in Myc Proto Oncogene Protein (Transcription Factor p64 or Class E Basic Helix Loop Helix ...
more infohttps://www.researchmoz.us/myc-proto-oncogene-protein-transcription-factor-p64-or-class-e-basic-helix-loop-helix-protein-39-or-myc-pip-review-h2-2018-report.html

Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Tax Protein Inhibits the Expression of the Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor MyoD...Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Tax Protein Inhibits the Expression of the Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor MyoD...

Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Tax Protein Inhibits the Expression of the Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor MyoD ... Tax was found to target the muscle-specific basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor MyoD. The Tax-induced increase in ... In these cells, which displayed unchanged levels of the ubiquitous basic helix-loop-helix E2A factors and Id proteins, ... A potential mechanism for Tax-mediated repression of the transcriptional activity of basic helix-loop-helix factors. J. Biol. ...
more infohttp://cgd.aacrjournals.org/cgi/content/full/12/12/613

Expression of the Microphthalmia-associated Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factor Miin Avian Neuroretina...Expression of the Microphthalmia-associated Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factor Miin Avian Neuroretina...

The mi gene encodes a basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor (Mi) with tissue-restricted expression. To ... Aksan I., Goding C. R. Targeting the microphthalmia basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper transcription factor to a subset of E ... Expression of the Microphthalmia-associated Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factor Miin Avian Neuroretina ... crucial dependence on the Mitf basic-helix-loop-helix-zipper transcription factor. Development (Camb.), 124: 2377-2386, 1997.. ...
more infohttp://cgd.aacrjournals.org/cgi/content/full/10/7/525

Challenges in Targeting a Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor with Hydrocarbon-Stapled PeptidesChallenges in Targeting a Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor with Hydrocarbon-Stapled Peptides

Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors play critical roles in organism development and disease by regulating cell ... Challenges in Targeting a Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor with Hydrocarbon-Stapled Peptides. DSpace/Manakin ... These data highlight potential pitfalls in peptide-based targeting of bHLH transcription factors given the liabilities of their ... Thus, α-helical decoys have been proposed as potential targeted therapies for pathologic bHLH ... read more transcription. Here ...
more infohttps://dspace.library.uu.nl/handle/1874/343734

Gentaur Molecular :Prosci \ Transcription factors containing a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) motif regulate expression of...Gentaur Molecular :Prosci \ Transcription factors containing a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) motif regulate expression of...

Transcription factors containing a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) motif regulate expression of tissue-specific genes in a number ... Product name : Transcription factors containing a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) motif regulate expression of tissue-specific ... 25-056 Transcription factors containing a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) motif regulate expression of tissue-specific genes in a ... Related products : Transcription factors containing a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) motif regulate expression of tissue- ...
more infohttp://www.antibody-antibodies.com/product1949417-search-Transcription_factors_containing_a_basic_helix_loop_helix_

The myogenic basic helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors sh by Kanaklata Roy, Ivana L. de la Serna et al."The myogenic basic helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors sh" by Kanaklata Roy, Ivana L. de la Serna et al.

The myogenic basic helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors, MyoD, Myf5, myogenin, and MRF4, can each activate the ... The myogenic basic helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors, MyoD, Myf5, myogenin, and MRF4, can each activate the ... The myogenic basic helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors shows similar requirements for SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling ... "The myogenic basic helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors shows similar requirements for SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling ...
more infohttps://escholarship.umassmed.edu/oapubs/728/

The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor family in plants: a genome-wide study of protein structure and functional...The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor family in plants: a genome-wide study of protein structure and functional...

The Arabidopsis basic/helix-loop-helix transcription factor family.. Toledo-Ortiz G, Huq E, Quail PH., Plant Cell 15(8), 2003 ... A classification of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors of soybean.. Hudson KA, Hudson ME., Int J Genomics 2015(), ... Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors and epidermal cell fate determination in Arabidopsis.. Zhao H, Li X, Ma L., Plant ... Update on the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor gene family in Arabidopsis thaliana.. Bailey PC, Martin C, Toledo- ...
more infohttps://pub.uni-bielefeld.de/publication/1867691

nature.com searchnature.com search

Identification and expression analysis of the apple (Malus × domestica) basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor family * ... basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor family . Opens in a new window. ...
more infohttp://www.nature.com/search?author=%22Ran%20Wan%22&error=cookies_not_supported&code=bcd2b314-5cb6-40b2-9c60-25ad8292efc3

Clade IVa Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors Form Part of a Conserved Jasmonate Signaling Circuit for the Regulation...Clade IVa Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors Form Part of a Conserved Jasmonate Signaling Circuit for the Regulation...

Clade IVa Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors Form Part of a Conserved Jasmonate Signaling Circuit for the Regulation ... The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors (TFs) bHLH iridoid synthesis 1 (BIS1) and Triterpene Saponin Activating ... enzymes involved in the specific terpenoid pathway of one of these species can be transactivated by the orthologous bHLH factor ...
more infohttps://www.biology.lu.se/alex-van-moerkercke/publication/0c8e7b44-d773-4c76-a7dd-69bffe00097f

ATF5 regulates β-cell survival during stress | PNASATF5 regulates β-cell survival during stress | PNAS

Inhibitory interactions with basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor E47. J Biol Chem 272(45):28349-28359. ... the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) regulates the expression of 4ebp1 ... In particular, the bZIP domain containing the C/EBP transcription factor C/EBPβ is highly expressed in β cells (48) and can be ... 2012) Transcription factor ATF5 is required for terminal differentiation and survival of olfactory sensory neurons. Proc Natl ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/114/6/1341

NOTCH2 gene | Cancer Genetics WebNOTCH2 gene | Cancer Genetics Web

Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors. *Chromosome 1. *Messenger RNA. *Calcium-Binding Proteins ... Hes1 encodes a basic helix-loop-helix-type protein, and represses target gene expression. Here, we report that deletion of the ... The transcription factor hairy and enhancer of split-1 (Hes1) is well-characterized as a downstream target of Notch signaling. ... regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent - stem cell maintenance - tissue regeneration - transcription initiation from RNA ...
more infohttp://www.cancerindex.org/geneweb/NOTCH2.htm

VHL | Cancer Genetics WebVHL | Cancer Genetics Web

Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors. *Single Nucleotide Polymorphism. *Kidney Cancer. *Genetic Predisposition ... regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent - response to stress - transcription factor binding - ubiquitin-protein ligase ... The Wilms tumor transcription factor (WT1) was originally classified as a tumor suppressor, but it is now known to also be ... This protein is involved in the ubiquitination and degradation of hypoxia-inducible-factor (HIF), which is a transcription ...
more infohttp://www.cancerindex.org/geneweb/VHL.htm
  • Here, we developed a library of stabilized α-helices of OLIG2 (SAH-OLIG2) to test the capacity of hydrocarbon-stapled peptides to disrupt OLIG2 homodimerization, which drives the development and chemoresistance of glioblastoma multiforme, one of the deadliest forms of human brain cancer. (uu.nl)
  • Myostatin (or GDF-8), a member of the Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily, was first identified in mice by McPherron et al. (biologists.org)
  • Members of this Type 1 transmembrane protein family share structural characteristics including an extracellular domain consisting of multiple epidermal growth factor-like (EGF) repeats, and an intracellular domain consisting of multiple, different domain types. (cancerindex.org)
  • One such factor is chronic elevation in the concentration of intracellular Ca 2+ ([Ca 2+ ] i ), sometimes called excitotoxicity ( 4 ), which may be triggered by sustained β-cell depolarization resulting from chronic stimulation. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) is a rapidly responding intracellular effector of neurotransmitter signaling and growth factor signaling in mature neurons ( Lonze and Ginty, 2002 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • However, myocardial CaMKII is excessively activated during disease conditions where it contributes to loss of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, membrane hyperexcitability, premature cell death, and hypertrophic and inflammatory transcription. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Neurog3 is required for development of all pancreatic endocrine cell types in mice ( 5 - 7 ) and does this through direct and indirect regulation of downstream targets, including the transcription factors NeuroD1 ( 8 ), Rfx6 ( 9 ), Pax4 ( 10 ), Nkx6.1 ( 11 , 12 ), Arx ( 13 ), and others. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Here, we found that exposure to the selective LSD1 inhibitor ORY-1001 activated the NOTCH pathway, resulting in the suppression of the transcription factor ASCL1 and the repression of SCLC tumorigenesis. (sciencemag.org)
  • Twin studies suggest that about one-third of the risk is due to genetic factors, independent of other known erectile dysfunction risk factors. (pnas.org)
  • As a result, there are no confirmed genetic risk factors for erectile dysfunction. (pnas.org)
  • Twin studies support the role of genetic risk factors underlying erectile dysfunction, but no specific genetic variants have been identified. (pnas.org)
  • In type 2 diabetes (T2D), pancreatic β-cells fail to respond appropriately to metabolic stresses brought on by age, obesity, and genetic risk factors. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Recent studies have demonstrated the relation of these factors, that is, Spdef functions downstream of Atoh1 . (hindawi.com)
  • Singularly, SPDEF, a transcription factor associated with mucus metaplasia, was rarely detected in mucus cells in IPF. (bmj.com)
  • Mucus cells lining abnormal airways from patients with IPF expressed MUC5B and SOX2 but lacked SAM pointed domain containing ETS transcription factor (SPDEF) and forkhead box A3(FOXA3). (bmj.com)
  • Several previously known partners of STAT1, as well as new partners, were identified by TIC-OATFA, including the upstream stimulatory factors 1 and 2 (USF1, USF2), nuclear factor of activated T cells, TATA box-binding protein, nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2, nuclear factor-kappa B, and nuclear factor 1. (curehunter.com)
  • Both USF1 and nuclear factor-kappa B are well known to interact with STAT1, but the other five TFs are previously unreported STAT1 interaction partners. (curehunter.com)
  • Via Smad3, the MRTF-Smad3 complexes bind to a newly identified cis-element GCCG-like motif in the promoter region of Canis familiaris and the human slug gene, which activates slug transcription and thereby dissociation of cell-cell contacts. (rupress.org)
  • However, here we show that Ig loci are not opened globally but that recombination is localized.The induced repertoire seen at 24 hours does not change significantly over time indicating the absence of many secondary rearrangements and also suggesting a direct targeting mechanism.We propose that accessibility occurs in a local manner, and that binding sites for factors facilitating accessibility are therefore likely to be associated with individual gene segments. (nih.gov)
  • We propose that accessibility occurs in a local manner, and that binding sites for factors facilitating accessibility are therefore likely to be associated with individual gene segments. (nih.gov)
  • Mist1 null (Mist1(KO)) lactating mammary glands were defective in normal lobuloalveolar organization, exhibiting shedding of cells into the alveolus lumen and premature activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling pathway. (nih.gov)
  • Apert, Pfeiffer, Jackson-Weiss, and Crouzon syndromes result from mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 ( FGFR2 ) gene, which maps to band 10q25-q26. (medscape.com)
  • Some patients with Pfeiffer syndrome have demonstrated mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 ( FGFR1 ) gene, which maps to band 8p11.2-12. (medscape.com)
  • For instance, the disruption of calcineurin, a Ca 2+ -dependent phosphatase, or Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II or IV, two Ca 2+ -dependent kinases, profoundly impairs β-cell function, likely by modulating the activity of Ca 2+ -responsive transcription factors such as NFAT, CREB, and TORC2 ( 5 - 9 ). (diabetesjournals.org)