Recurring supersecondary structures characterized by 20 amino acids folding into two alpha helices connected by a non-helical "loop" segment. They are found in many sequence-specific DNA-BINDING PROTEINS and in CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
Inhibitor of differentiation proteins are negative regulators of BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. They inhibit CELL DIFFERENTIATION and induce CELL PROLIFERATION by modulating different CELL CYCLE regulators.
A forkhead transcription factor that regulates expression of metabolic GENES and is involved in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. Mutations in HNF-3beta have been associated with CONGENITAL HYPERINSULINISM.
A winged-helix transcription factor that regulates GENE expression in metabolic tissues. It plays a role in HOMEOSTASIS of GLUCOSE and controls expression of GLUT2 PROTEIN.
A forkhead transcription factor that is an essential activator of GLUCAGON gene expression.
A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A subfamily of HELIX-TURN-HELIX DNA-binding proteins that contain a variable length loop adjacent to the HTH motif. The loop connects two anti-parallel strands and forms a wing when bound to DNA.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
A genus of chiefly Eurasian and African land snails including the principal edible snails as well as several pests of cultivated plants.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.
The so-called general transcription factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE II and that are required to initiate transcription. They include TFIIA; TFIIB; TFIID; TFIIE; TFIIF; TFIIH; TFII-I; and TFIIJ. In vivo they apparently bind in an ordered multi-step process and/or may form a large preinitiation complex called RNA polymerase II holoenzyme.
A family of zinc finger transcription factors that share homology with Kruppel protein, Drosophila. They contain a highly conserved seven amino acid spacer sequence in between their ZINC FINGER MOTIFS.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A ubiquitously expressed zinc finger-containing protein that acts both as a repressor and activator of transcription. It interacts with key regulatory proteins such as TATA-BINDING PROTEIN; TFIIB; and ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.
The major sequence-specific DNA-binding component involved in the activation of transcription of RNA POLYMERASE II. It was originally described as a complex of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN and TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS. It is now know that TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE PROTEINS may take the place of TATA-box binding protein in the complex.
A GATA transcription factor that is expressed in the MYOCARDIUM of developing heart and has been implicated in the differentiation of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. GATA4 is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION and regulates transcription of cardiac-specific genes.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.
An activating transcription factor that plays a key role in cellular responses to GENOTOXIC STRESS and OXIDATIVE STRESS.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of highly conserved calcineurin- and DNA-binding domains. NFAT proteins are activated in the CYTOPLASM by the calcium-dependent phosphatase CALCINEURIN. They transduce calcium signals to the nucleus where they can interact with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 or NF-KAPPA B and initiate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development. NFAT proteins stimulate T-CELL activation through the induction of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES such as INTERLEUKIN-2.

A conserved motif in goosecoid mediates groucho-dependent repression in Drosophila embryos. (1/5432)

Surprisingly small peptide motifs can confer critical biological functions. One example is the WRPW tetrapeptide present in the Hairy family of transcriptional repressors, which mediates recruitment of the Groucho (Gro) corepressor to target promoters. We recently showed that Engrailed (En) is another repressor that requires association with Gro for its function. En lacks a WRPW motif; instead, it contains another short conserved sequence, the En homology region 1 (eh1)/GEH motif, that is likely to play a role in tethering Gro to the promoter. Here, we characterize a repressor domain from the Goosecoid (Gsc) developmental regulator that includes an eh1/GEH-like motif. We demonstrate that this domain (GscR) mediates efficient repression in Drosophila blastoderm embryos and that repression by GscR requires Gro function. GscR and Gro interact in vitro, and the eh1/GEH motif is necessary and sufficient for the interaction and for in vivo repression. Because WRPW- and eh1/GEH-like motifs are present in different proteins and in many organisms, the results suggest that interactions between short peptides and Gro represent a widespread mechanism of repression. Finally, we investigate whether Gro is part of a stable multiprotein complex in the nucleus. Our results indicate that Gro does not form stable associations with other proteins but that it may be able to assemble into homomultimeric complexes.  (+info)

Physical interaction of the bHLH LYL1 protein and NF-kappaB1 p105. (2/5432)

The LYL1 gene was first identified upon the molecular characterization of the t(7;9)(q35;p13) translocation associated with some human T-cell acute leukemias (T-ALLs). In adult tissues, LYL1 expression is restricted to hematopoietic cells with the notable exclusion of the T cell lineage. LYL1 encodes a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein highly related to TAL-1, whose activation is also associated with a high proportion of human T-ALLs. A yeast two-hybrid system was used to identify proteins that specifically interact with LYL1 and might mediate its activities. We found that p105, the precursor of NF-kappaB1 p50, was the major LYL1-interacting protein in this system. The association between LYL1 and p105 was confirmed both in vitro and in vivo in mammalian cells. Biochemical studies indicated that the interaction was mediated by the bHLH motif of LYL1 and the ankyrin-like motifs of p105. Ectopic expression of LYL1 in a human T cell line caused a significant decrease in NF-kappaB-dependent transcription, associated with a reduced level of NF-kappaB1 proteins.  (+info)

A molecular pathway revealing a genetic basis for human cardiac and craniofacial defects. (3/5432)

Microdeletions of chromosome 22q11 are the most common genetic defects associated with cardiac and craniofacial anomalies in humans. A screen for mouse genes dependent on dHAND, a transcription factor implicated in neural crest development, identified Ufd1, which maps to human 22q11 and encodes a protein involved in degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. Mouse Ufd1 was specifically expressed in most tissues affected in patients with 22q11 deletion syndrome. The human UFD1L gene was deleted in all 182 patients studied with 22q11 deletion, and a smaller deletion of approximately 20 kilobases that removed exons 1 to 3 of UFD1L was found in one individual with features typical of 22q11 deletion syndrome. These data suggest that UFD1L haploinsufficiency contributes to the congenital heart and craniofacial defects seen in 22q11 deletion.  (+info)

Expression of Mash1 in basal cells of rat circumvallate taste buds is dependent upon gustatory innervation. (4/5432)

Mash1, a mammalian homologue of the Drosophila achaete-scute proneural gene complex, plays an essential role in differentiation of subsets of peripheral neurons. In this study, using RT-PCR and in situ RT-PCR, we investigated if Mash1 gene expression occurs in rat taste buds. Further, we examined dynamics of Mash1 expression in the process of degeneration and regeneration in denervated rat taste buds. In rat tongue epithelium, Mash1 gene expression is confined to circumvallate, foliate, and fungiform papilla epithelia that include taste buds. In taste buds, Mash1-expressing cells are round cells in the basal compartment. In contrast, the mature taste bud cells do not express the Mash1 gene. Denervation and regeneration experiments show that the expression of Mash1 requires gustatory innervation. We conclude that Mash1 is expressed in cells of the taste bud lineage, and that the expression of Mash1 in rat taste buds is dependent upon gustatory innervation.  (+info)

Dynamic expression of lunatic fringe suggests a link between notch signaling and an autonomous cellular oscillator driving somite segmentation. (5/5432)

The metameric organization of the vertebrate trunk is a characteristic feature of all members of this phylum. The origin of this metamerism can be traced to the division of paraxial mesoderm into individual units, termed somites, during embryonic development. Despite the identification of somites as the first overt sign of segmentation in vertebrates well over 100 years ago, the mechanism(s) underlying somite formation remain poorly understood. Recently, however, several genes have been identified which play prominent roles in orchestrating segmentation, including the novel secreted factor lunatic fringe. To gain further insight into the mechanism by which lunatic fringe controls somite development, we have conducted a thorough analysis of lunatic fringe expression in the unsegmented paraxial mesoderm of chick embryos. Here we report that lunatic fringe is expressed predominantly in somite -II, where somite I corresponds to the most recently formed somite and somite -I corresponds to the group of cells which will form the next somite. In addition, we show that lunatic fringe is expressed in a highly dynamic manner in the chick segmental plate prior to somite formation and that lunatic fringe expression cycles autonomously with a periodicity of somite formation. Moreover, the murine ortholog of lunatic fringe undergoes a similar cycling expression pattern in the presomitic mesoderm of somite stage mouse embryos. The demonstration of a dynamic periodic expression pattern suggests that lunatic fringe may function to integrate notch signaling to a cellular oscillator controlling somite segmentation.  (+info)

The development and evolution of bristle patterns in Diptera. (6/5432)

The spatial distribution of sensory bristles on the notum of different species of Diptera is compared. Species displaying ancestral features have a simple organization of randomly distributed, but uniformly spaced, bristles, whereas species thought to be more derived bear patterns in which the bristles are aligned into longitudinal rows. The number of rows of large bristles on the scutum was probably restricted to four early on in the evolution of cyclorraphous Brachyceran flies. Most species have stereotyped patterns based on modifications of these four rows. The possible constraints placed upon the patterning mechanisms due to growth and moulting within the Diptera are discussed, as well as within hemimetabolous insects. The holometabolic life cycle and the setting aside of groups of imaginal cells whose function is not required during the growth period, may have provided the freedom necessary for the evolution of elaborate bristle patterns. We briefly review the current state of knowledge concerning the complex genetic pathways regulating achaete-scute gene expression and bristle pattern in Drosophila melanogaster, and consider mechanisms for the genetic regulation of the bristle patterns of other species of Diptera.  (+info)

Bar homeobox genes are latitudinal prepattern genes in the developing Drosophila notum whose expression is regulated by the concerted functions of decapentaplegic and wingless. (7/5432)

In Drosophila notum, the expression of achaete-scute proneural genes and bristle formation have been shown to be regulated by putative prepattern genes expressed longitudinally. Here, we show that two homeobox genes at the Bar locus (BarH1 and BarH2) may belong to a different class of prepattern genes expressed latitudinally, and suggest that the developing notum consists of checker-square-like subdomains, each governed by a different combination of prepattern genes. BarH1 and BarH2 are coexpressed in the anterior-most notal region and regulate the formation of microchaetae within the region of BarH1/BarH2 expression through activating achaete-scute. Presutural macrochaetae formation also requires Bar homeobox gene activity. Bar homeobox gene expression is restricted dorsally and posteriorly by Decapentaplegic signaling, while the ventral limit of the expression domain of Bar homeobox genes is determined by wingless whose expression is under the control of Decapentaplegic signaling.  (+info)

Dual role of extramacrochaetae in cell proliferation and cell differentiation during wing morphogenesis in Drosophila. (8/5432)

The Extramacrochaetae (emc) gene encodes a transcription factor with an HLH domain without the basic region involved in interaction with DNA present in other proteins that have this domain. EMC forms heterodimers with bHLH proteins preventing their binding to DNA, acting as a negative regulator. The function of emc is required in many developmental processes during the development of Drosophila, including wing morphogenesis. Mitotic recombination clones of both null and gain-of-function alleles of emc, indicate that during wing morphogenesis, emc participates in cell proliferation within the intervein regions (vein patterning), as well as in vein differentiation. The study of relationships between emc and different genes involved in wing development reveal strong genetic interactions with genes of the Ras signalling pathway (torpedo, vein, veinlet and Gap), blistered, plexus and net, in both adult wing phenotypes and cell behaviour in genetic mosaics. These interactions are also analyzed as variations of emc expression patterns in mutant backgrounds for these genes. In addition, cell proliferation behaviour of emc mutant cells varies depending on the mutant background. The results show that genes of the Ras signalling pathway are co-operatively involved in the activity of emc during cell proliferation, and later antagonistically during cell differentiation, repressing EMC expression.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Genome-wide analysis of basic/helix-loop-helix transcription factor family in rice and Arabidopsis. AU - Li, Xiaoxing. AU - Duan, Xuepeng. AU - Jiang, Haixiong. AU - Sun, Yujin. AU - Tang, Yuanping. AU - Yuan, Zheng. AU - Guo, Jingkang. AU - Liang, Wanqi. AU - Chen, Liang. AU - Yin, Jingyuan. AU - Ma, Hong. AU - Wang, Jian. AU - Zhang, Dabing. PY - 2006/8. Y1 - 2006/8. N2 - The basic/helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors and their homologs form a large family in plant and animal genomes. They are known to play important roles in the specification of tissue types in animals. On the other hand, few plant bHLH proteins have been studied functionally. Recent completion of whole genome sequences of model plants Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and rice (Oryza sativa) allows genome-wide analysis and comparison of the bHLH family in flowering plants. We have identified 167 bHLH genes in the rice genome, and their phylogenetic analysis indicates that they form well-supported ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Author(s): Reeves, Nick Lee | Abstract: In 1975 Antonio García-Bellido proposed that selector genes such as the homeotic transcription factors do not themselves participate in the differentiation of the body segments they specify but instead activate (or select) a set of downstream realisator genes that encode the proteins that carry out cell differentiation (Garcia- Bellido, 1975). Since then numerous genetic and molecular studies of development have borne out this view. The proneural transcription factors act as selector genes to specify neural cell types in the ectoderm. I have taken a systematic genomics approach to discover the set of realisator genes activated by the proneural transcription factors (proneural genetic program) in the developing peripheral nervous system. This approach has led to the discovery of 30 new genes expressed specifically in the sensory organ anlagen (proneural clusters and sensory organ precursors). These new genes encode a diverse array of implied protein functions
Hand2 has no effect on the initial stages of sympathetic neuron development, including the expression of the proneural gene ascl1 and the pan-autonomic regulatory genes phox2b and phox2a, nor on generic neuronal differentiation as assessed by the expression of elavl3. Therefore, hand2 seems to be required selectively for initial noradrenergic but not pan-neuronal differentiation.. Hand2 has been considered an important member of the transcriptional network controlling sympathetic neuron development due to its ability to induce the generation of noradrenergic/catecholaminergic neurons in gain-of-function experiments (Howard et al., 1999; Howard et al., 2000). Overexpression is an important tool to identify candidate target genes, but in the sympathetic lineage different effects were observed upon transcription factor overexpression compared with in vivo loss-of-function approaches. Gata2/3, for instance, is essential for Th expression during normal development of sympathetic neurons but has ...
Background: Neuronal differentiation is largely under the control of basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) proneural transcription factors that play key roles during development of the embryonic nervous system. In addition to well-characterised regulation of their expression, increasing evidence is emerging for additional post-translational regul... read moreation of proneural protein activity. Of particular interest is the bHLH proneural factor Neurogenin2 (Ngn2), which orchestrates progression from neural progenitor to differentiated neuron in several regions of the central nervous system. Previous studies have demonstrated a key role for cell cycle-dependent multi-site phosphorylation of Ngn2 protein at Serine-Proline (SP) sites for regulation of its neuronal differentiation activity, although the potential structural and functional consequences of phosphorylation at different regions of the protein are unclear. read less. ...
Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors play diverse roles in controlling many developmental events. Although a great deal is understood about how bHLH factors activate gene transcription via E-box DNA consensus sequences, studies of bHLH factor function in higher eukaryotes often have b …
Conformational changes in inhibitory PAS domain protein associated with binding of HIF-1α and Bcl-xL in living cells.Conformational changes in inhibitory PAS domain protein associated with binding of HIF-1α and Bcl-xL in living cells. ...
Neurogenin-3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NEUROG3 gene.[5]. Neurogenin-3 is expressed in endocrine progenitor cells and is required for endocrine cell development in the pancreas and intestine.[6] It belongs to a family of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors involved in the determination of neural precursor cells in the neuroectoderm.[7]. Neurogenin 3 (NGN3) is expressed by 2-10% of acinar and duct cells in the histologically normal adult human pancreas. NGN3+ cells isolated from cultured exocrine tissue by coexpressed cell surface glycoprotein CD133 have a transcriptome consistent with exocrine dedifferentiation, a phenotype that resembles endocrine progenitor cells during development, and a capacity for endocrine differentiation in vitro.[8] Human[9] and rodent[10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18] exocrine cells have been reprogrammed into cells with an islet cell-like phenotype following direct expression of NGN3 or manipulation that leads to its ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors are required for proper formation of the vertebrate and invertebrate nervous systems (Bertrand et al., 2002). The vertebrate neural bHLH transcription factors have been classified into subgroups based on their temporal pattern of expression (Lee, 1997) and on their homology to Drosophila proneural genes (Bertrand et al., 2002). The factors Mash1, a homolog of the Drosophila Achaete-scute genes (Johnson et al., 1990), and Math1, a homolog of the Drosophila atonal gene (Akazawa et al., 1995), both belong to the early expressed sub-group of bHLH factors because of their expression in progenitor cells of the developing neural tube, but they reside in distinct sub-classes based on sequence homology (Bertrand et al., 2002). Gene knockout studies have demonstrated essential roles for these factors in the formation of specific populations of neurons (Ben-Arie et al., 1997; Bermingham et al., 1999; Bermingham et al., 2001; Fode et al., 2000; Gowan et ...
endothelial PAS domain-containing protein 1: a Per-Arnt/AhR-Sim basic helix-loop-helix factor similar to hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha; RefSeq NM_010137 (mouse); do not confuse with hepatic leukemia factor
Proneural bHLH genes have been shown to play important roles in specifying neural fates/diversities in both the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The developing vertebrate retina expresses several such genes, such as achaete-scute homologue 1 (ash1), atonal homologue 3 (ath3), ath5, neuroD, neurogenin1 (ngn1), ngn2, ngn3, NSCL1, and NSCL2. Proneural bHLH genes known to be expressed in retinal progenitor cells include ash1, ath3, ngn1, ngn2, and ngn3. 16-21 Analysis of retinal explants derived from ash1-null mice indicated that ash1 participates in the production of late-born neurons, including rod photoreceptors and bipolar cells. 22 In the chick retina, ash1 was proposed to promote amacrine cells, 23 and this was later confirmed experimentally. 24 Studies have indicated ath3 in the production of bipolar and amacrine cells. 25-27 Ngn2 is expressed in the proliferating zone, 25,28 including cells still in the cell cycle. 29,30 In the mouse retina, regions lacking ngn2 ...
Westerman BA, Breuer RH, Poutsma A, Chhatta A, Noorduyn LA, Koolen MG, Postmus PE, Blankenstein MA, Oudejans CB (2007). Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor profiling of lung tumors shows aberrant expression of the proneural gene atonal homolog 1 (ATOH1, HATH1, MATH1) in neuroendocrine tumors. The International Journal of Biological Markers. 22 (2): 114-23. PMID 17549667 ...
Vertebrate neurogenesis involves sequential actions of transcription factors. neurogenins, encoding Atonal-related bHLH transcription factors, function as neuronal determination genes in Xenopus. neurogenins and antother bHLH factor gene, Mash1, are expressed in distinct subsets or areas of cells giving rise to neurons, suggesting that these genes play important roles to generate distinct populations of neurons. A mammalian homologue of BarH (MBH1) is expressed in a complementary pattern to Mash1 expression in the developing nervous system like neurogenins. Forced expression of MBH1 down-regulates expression of Mash1 and up-regulates neurogenin2/Math4A, a member of neurogenins, in P19 cells during neuronal differentiation. This suggests that MBH1 is a potential regulator of mammalian neural bHLH genes, thereby establishing distinct pathways of neuronal differentiation ...
Introduction: Neuronal PAS4 (nPAS4) -formerly known as LE-PAS- is a helix-loop-helix-PAS (HLH-PAS) transcription factor that has recently been cloned as the vertebrate homologue of the drosophila protein dysfusion (dys). In drosophila, the lack of dys is characterized by impaired midline fusion of tracheal tubes. Forced expression of dys results in aberrant sprouting of tracheal tubes in drosophila. In neurons, nPAS4 plays a role in the formation of GABA-releasing synapses. Based on the morphological similarity between tracheal tube formation and angiogenesis, we aimed to investigate the role of nPAS4 in angiogenesis in vertebrates.. Methods and Results: RT-PCR and Western blotting analyses showed that nPAS4 is expressed at low levels in various endothelial cell lines. The expression of nPAS4 is not upregulated by angiogenic growth factors but is induced by hypoxia. Moreover, membrane depolarization using potassium chloride results in a calcium-dependent upregulation of nPAS4. When nPAS4 ...
Image via Wikipedia The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, neurogenin-1 is known to regulate neural development and neurite outgrowth. As such, it makes for a particularly interesting point to begin to understand mental illness and its complex developmental origins. The recent paper by Ho et al., Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor NEUROG1 and schizophrenia: Effects on illness…
Proneural genes encode transcription factors of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) class which are responsible for the development of neuroectodermal progenitor cells. Proneural genes have multiple functions in neural development. They integrate positional information and contribute to the specification of progenitor-cell identity. From the same ectodermal cell types, neural or epidermal cells can develop based on interactions between proneural and neurogenic genes. Neurogenic genes are so called because loss of function mutants show an increase number of developed neural precursors. On the other hand, proneural genes mutants fail to develop neural precursor cells. The proneural genes are expressed in groups of cells (proneural clusters) from which one progenitor cell - typically the one in the middle - will be singled out, leading to the formation of many different types of neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Proneural genes encode a group of bHLH proteins that play crucial ...
Transcription Factor 3: A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that plays a role in determining cell fate during embryogenesis. It forms a heterodimer with TWIST TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and ACHAETE-SCUTE GENE COMPLEX-related TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
dHAND and eHAND are basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that play critical roles in cardiac development. The HAND genes have a complementary left-right cardiac asymmetry of expression with dHAND predominantly on the right side and eHAND on the left side of the looped heart tube. Here we sho …
HEA798Hu, High Sensitive ELISA Kit for Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1 Alpha (HIF1a), 低氧诱导因子1α(HIF1a)检测试剂盒(酶联免疫吸附试验法,高敏型), HIF1-A; MOP1; PASD8; Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor; ARNT-interacting protein; Basic-helix-loop-helix-PAS protein MOP1; Class E basic helix-loop-helix protein 78 | 仅供体外研究使用,不用于临床诊断!请索取进口关税税单及报关单!
On the other hand, E‐boxes are absent from an unexpectedly high proportion of TAL1 peaks (14% in Jurkat and 24% in erythroid cells) (Figure 6C). Consistent with this, the de novo motif search did not identify E‐boxes as the top overrepresented motif in erythroid or Jurkat cells (Figure 6A, left and middle panels). Instead, in erythroid cells, a Gata motif ranks first within overrepresented sites, and two variants of this motif are also among the top 7 overrepresented motifs (Figure 6A, middle panel). Furthermore, virtually all TAL1 peaks (96%) contain a Gata motif while only 76% contain an E‐box within a 100‐bp radius of the peak summit (Figure 6C). In erythroid cells, Gata motifs are also on average closer to TAL1 peak summits than E‐boxes, with 80% of TAL1 peaks containing a Gata site within 35 bp of the peak summit versus only 50% containing an E‐box within this distance (Figure 6C). This is consistent with previous studies showing cooccupation of TAL1 and GATA1 at many genomic ...
The bHLH transcription factor Hand1 is essential for placentation and cardiac morphogenesis but how its developmental activity is regulated is largely unknown. We recently showed that Hand1 is sequestered in the nucleoli of rodent trophoblast stem (TS) cells by the I-mfa domain-containing protein HICp40 and that this is associated with their proliferation and continuing self-renewal. However when these cells commit to differentiate into trophoblast giant (TG) cells, Hand1 is phosphorylated by the polo-like kinase Plk4 (Sak) and released into the nucleus to activate downstream target genes. This event underlies the release of Hand1 from the nucleolus and represents the molecular switch that promotes mitotic cell cycle exit and the onset of endoreduplication. In this brief discussion we examine the wider implications of these findings and address some of the unanswered questions that remain.
Neurogenin 3 and its downstream target NeuroD are basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors which promote endocrine differentiation in the gastrointestinal tract. However, mice lacking Ngn3 still produce several hormones in the stomach. Lineage tracing mouse models demonstrated that a majority of hormone cells in the corpus region of the stomach did not express Ngn3 or NeuroD during differentiation. Serotonin and histamine cells were entirely NeuroD-independently derived, and serotonin cells were additionally entirely Ngn3-independently derived. In this study, we isolated serotonin and histamine cells from the gastric corpus of transgenic mice expressing the fluorescent marker CFP. Serotonin cells expressed multiple mast cell markers by RT-PCR, and were found to be nearly absent in a mast cell-deficient mouse model. Labeled bone marrow transplant mice showed all serotonin cells derived from bone marrow. Histamine-expressing ECL cells, while lacking NeuroD, did not appear to express granulocyte or
The zinc finger E-box-binding transcription factor Zeb1 plays a pivotal role in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Numerous studies have focused on the molecular mechanisms by which Zeb1 contributes to this process. However, the functions of Zeb1 beyond the epithelial-mesenchymal transition remain largely elusive. Using a transdifferentiation system to convert mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) into functional neurons via the neuronal transcription factors achaete-scute family bHLH (basic helix-loop-helix) transcription factor1 (Ascl1), POU class 3 homeobox 2 (POU3F2/Brn2), and neurogenin 2 (Neurog2, Ngn2) (ABN), we found that Zeb1 was up-regulated during the early stages of transdifferentiation ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Human eHAND, but not dHAND, is down-regulated in cardiomyopathies. AU - Natarajan, Aruna. AU - Yamagishi, Hiroyuki. AU - Ahmad, Ferhaan. AU - Li, Duanxiang. AU - Roberts, Robert. AU - Matsuoka, Rumiko. AU - Hill, Sandra. AU - Srivastava, Deepak. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - The progression of cardiomyopathy to congestive heart failure is often associated with the expression of fetal cardiac-specific genes. In mice, the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, dHAND and eHAND, are expressed in a cardiac chamber-specific fashion and are essential for fetal cardiac development, but are down-regulated in the adult. Their expression in specific chambers of healthy and diseased human hearts has not been studied previously. Human dHAND and eHAND were mapped to human chromosomes 4q33 and 5q33, respectively, by fluorescent in situ hybridization, RNA from the four chambers of healthy human adult hearts, and from hearts of patients with several forms of cardiomyopathy, was obtained and ...
The passage from proliferation to terminal differentiation is critical for normal development and is often perturbed in malignancies. To define the molecular mechanisms that govern this process during erythropoiesis, we have used tagging/proteomics approaches and characterized protein complexes nucleated by TAL-1/SCL, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that specifies the erythrocytic lineage. In addition to known TAL-1 partners, GATA-1, E2A, HEB, LMO2 and Ldbl, we identify the ETO2 repressor as a novel component recruited to TAL-1 complexes through interaction with E2A/HEB. Ectopic expression and siRNA knockdown experiments in hematopoietic progenitor cells show that ETO2 actively represses erythroid TAL-1 target genes and governs the expansion of erythroid progenitors. At the onset of erythroid differentiation, a change in the stoichiometry of ETO2 within the TAL-1 complex activates the expression of known erythroid-specific TAL-1 target genes and of Gfi-1b and p21 Cip, encoding two ...
J:89474 Morikawa Y, Cserjesi P, Extra-embryonic vasculature development is regulated by the transcription factor HAND1. Development. 2004 May;131(9):2195-204 ...
TCF4 Antibody is a Rabbit Polyclonal antibody against TCF4. This gene encodes transcription factor 4, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor. The encoded protein recognizes an Ephrussi-box (E-box) binding site (CANNTG) - a motif first identifie
5291 Evasion from oncogene-induced senescence and apoptosis has recently emerged as being crucial for promoting tumorigenesis in vivo. The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors Twist1 and Twist2 have been found to abrogate oncogene-induced apoptosis and Twist1 overexpression has been reported in a large variety of human solid cancers including carcinomas, sarcomas, melanomas and neuroblastomas. We show that both Twist proteins also override Ras- and ErbB2-induced senescence in murine and human cells, by simultaneously shutting-down p53- and RB-dependent pathways. In addition, like Twist1, Twist2 has an altered expression in a set of primary tumours and tumour cell lines, indicating that both genes might similarly contribute to tumour progression. Our results suggest the existence of a novel class of proteins whose oncogenic potential specifically derives from their ability to antagonize gatekeepers and which we propose to name gate-jumpers. ...
The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor stem cell leukaemia (SCL) is a master regulator of haematopoiesis, where SCL is pivotal in cell fate determination and differentiation. SCL has also been detected in CNS, where other members of the bHLH-family have been shown to be indispensable for neuronal development; however, no detailed expression pattern of SCL has so far been described. We have generated a map of SCL expression in the embryonic and adult mouse brain based on histochemical analysis of LacZ reporter gene expression in sequential sections of brain tissue derived from SCL-LacZ knockin mice. The expression of LacZ was confirmed to reflect SCL expression by in situ hybridisation. LacZ expression was found in a range of different diencephalic, mesencephalic and metencephalic brain nuclei in adult CNS. Co-localisation of LacZ with the neuronal marker NeuN indicated expression in post-mitotic neurons in adulthood. LacZ expression by neurons was confirmed in tissue culture analysis.
This gene encodes a nuclear protein belonging to the hairy and enhancer of split-related (HESR) family of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-type transcriptional repressors. Expression of this gene is induced by the Notch and c-Jun signal transduction pathways. Two similar and redundant genes in mouse are required for embryonic cardiovascular development, and are also implicated in neurogenesis and somitogenesis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Buy HEY1 elisa kit, Dog hairy/enhancer-of-split related with YRPW motif 1 ELISA Kit-NP_001002953.1 (MBS9329067) product datasheet at MyBioSource, ELISA Kits
J:165754 Watanabe T, Koibuchi N, Chin MT, Transcription factor CHF1/Hey2 regulates coronary vascular maturation. Mech Dev. 2010 Sep-Dec;127(9-12):418-27 ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-HIF-2 alpha/EPAS1 Antibody (ep190b) [HRP]. Validated: WB, ELISA, IHC, IHC-P. Tested Reactivity: Human, Mouse, Rat, and more. 100% Guaranteed.
ATOH8 antibody (atonal homolog 8 (Drosophila)) for ELISA, IHC-P, WB. Anti-ATOH8 pAb (GTX85296) is tested in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
The KOMP Repository Collection is located at the MMRRC at the University of California, Davis and Childrens Hospital Oakland Research Institute. Question? Comments? For Mice, Cells, and germplasm please contact us at [email protected], US 1-888-KOMP-MICE or International +1-530-752-KOMP, or for vectors [email protected] or +1-510-450-7917 ...
Just as in Solution ,math,2,/math, and ,math,3,,/math, we rewrite ,math,\dfrac{1}{20^{20}},/math, as ,math,\dfrac{5^{20}}{10^{40}}.,/math, We can then look at the number of digits in powers of ,math,5,/math,. ,math,5^1=5,/math,, ,math,5^2=25,/math,, %5^3=125,math,, ,/math,5^4=625,math,, ,/math,5^5=3125,math,, ,/math,5^6=15625,math,, %5^7=78125,/math, and so on. We notice after a few iterations that every power of five with an exponent of ,math,1 (\mod 3),/math,, the number of digits doesnt increase. This means ,math,5^20,/math, should have ,math,20,/math, digits minus ,math,6,/math, since there are ,math,6,/math, numbers which are ,math,1 (\mod 3),/math, from ,math,0,/math, to ,math,20,/math,, or ,math,14,/math, digits total. This means our expression can be written as ,math,\dfrac{k\cdot10^{14}}{10^{40}},/math,, where ,math,k,/math, is in the range ,math,[1,10),/math,. Canceling gives ,math,\dfrac{k}{10^{26}},/math,, or 26 zeroes before the ,math,k,/math, since the number ,math,k,/math, should ...
Problem == A three-dimensional rectangular box with dimensions ,math>X,/math>, ,math>Y,/math>, and ,math>Z,/math> has faces whose surface areas are ,math>24,/math>, ,math>24,/math>, ,math>48,/math>, ,math>48,/math>, ,math>72,/math>, and ,math>72,/math> square units. What is ,math>X,/math> + ,math>Y,/math> + ,math>Z,/math>? ,math> \textbf{(A) }18 \qquad \textbf{(B) }22 \qquad \textbf{(C) }24 \qquad \textbf{(D) }30 \qquad \textbf{(E) }36 \qquad ,/math> ==Solution 1== Let ,math>X,/math> be the length of the shortest dimension and ,math>Z,/math> be the length of the longest dimension. Thus, ,math>XY = 24,/math>, ,math>YZ = 72,/math>, and ,math>XZ = 48,/math>. Divide the first two equations to get ,math>\frac{Z}{X} = 3,/math>. Then, multiply by the last equation to get ,math>Z^2 = 144,/math>, giving ,math>Z = 12,/math>. Following, ,math>X = 4,/math> and ,math>Y = 6,/math>. The final answer is ,math>4 + 6 + 12 = 22,/math>. ,math>\boxed{B},/math> ==Solution 2== If you find the GCD of ,math>24,/math>, ...
This gene encodes a member of the basic helix-loop-helix and PAS domain-containing family of transcription factors. The encoded protein is localized to the nucleus and may regulate genes involved in neurogenesis. Chromosomal abnormalities that affect the coding potential of this gene are associated with schizophrenia and mental retardation. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009 ...
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p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Next-day shipping cDNA ORF clones derived from Atoh8 atonal bHLH transcription factor 8 available at GenScript, starting from $99.00.
Stem cells derived from dental tissues—dental stem cells—are favored due to their easy acquisition. Among them, dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) extracted from the dental pulp have many advantages, such as high proliferation and a highly purified population. Although their ability for neurogenic differentiation has been highlighted and neurogenic differentiation using electrospun nanofibers (NFs) has been performed, graphene-incorporated NFs have never been applied for DPSC neurogenic differentiation. Here, reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-polycaprolactone (PCL) hybrid electrospun NFs were developed and applied for enhanced neurogenesis of DPSCs. First, RGO-PCL NFs were fabricated by electrospinning with incorporation of RGO and alignments, and their chemical and morphological characteristics were evaluated. Furthermore, in vitro NF properties, such as influence on the cellular alignments and cell viability of DPSCs, were also analyzed. The influences of NFs on DPSCs neurogenesis were also
Dive into the research topics of Neuronal PAS domain protein 4 (Npas4) controls neuronal homeostasis in pentylenetetrazole-induced epilepsy through the induction of Homer1a. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
[38 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Myc Proto Oncogene Protein (Transcription Factor p64 or Class E Basic Helix Loop Helix Protein 39 or MYC) - Pipeline Review, H2 2017 report by Global Markets Direct. Myc Proto Oncogene Protein (Transcription Factor p64 or Class E...
Dive into the research topics of Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylates and negatively regulates basic helix-loop-helix-PAS transcription factor BMAL1. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Members of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family of transcription factors play important roles in a wide range of developmental processes. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide survey using the chicken (|i|Gallus gallus|/i|) genomic database, and identified 104 bHLH sequences belonging to 42 gene families in an effort to characterize the chicken bHLH transcription factor family. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that chicken has 50, 21, 15, 4, 8, and 3 bHLH members in groups A, B, C, D, E, and F, respectively, while three members belonging to none of these groups were classified as orphans. A comparison between chicken and human bHLH repertoires suggested that both organisms have a number of lineage-specific bHLH members in the proteomes. Chromosome distribution patterns and phylogenetic analyses strongly suggest that the bHLH members should have arisen through gene duplication at an early date. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment statistics showed 51 top GO annotations of biological processes counted
This gene encodes a member of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor family. Members of this family contain two highly conserved and functionally distinct domains: the basic domain targets sequence-specific DNA binding, while the helix-loop-helix domain facilitates protein interaction. Studies of a related gene in mouse suggest that the encoded protein may function as a transcriptional repressor in the pancreas and brain, and that it is required for normal retinal function. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013 ...
Regulatory proteins have been identified in embryonic development of the endocrine pancreas. It is unknown whether these factors can also play a role in the formation of pancreatic endocrine cells from postnatal nonendocrine cells. The present study demonstrates that adult human pancreatic duct cells can be converted into insulin-expressing cells after ectopic, adenovirus-mediated expression of the class B basic helix-loop-helix factor neurogenin 3 (ngn3), which is a critical factor in embryogenesis of the mouse endocrine pancreas. Infection with adenovirus ngn3 (Adngn3) induced gene and/or protein expression of NeuroD/beta2, Pax4, Nkx2.2, Pax6, and Nkx6.1, all known to be essential for beta-cell differentiation in mouse embryos. Expression of ngn3 in adult human duct cells induced Notch ligands Dll1 and Dll4 and neuroendocrine- and beta-cell-specific markers: it increased the percentage of synaptophysin- and insulin-positive cells 15-fold in ngn3-infected versus control cells. Infection with NeuroD
Oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factor 2 (Olig2) is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor expressed in oligodendroglial tumors of the brain. It is also known as protein kinase C binding protein 2 (PRKCBP2), oligodendrocyte transcription factor 2, oligodendrocyte-specific bHLH transcription factor 2, BHLHB1, bHLHe19, OLIGO2, and RACK17. Olig2 protein plays an essential role in regulating the development of oligodendrocytes and motor neurons. Chromosomal translocations in the OLIG2 gene have been associated with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and development of Down syndrome. Olig2 expression is useful in distinguishing diffuse gliomas from other types of brain tumors.. ...
Oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factor 2 (Olig2) is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor expressed in oligodendroglial tumors of the brain. It is also known as protein kinase C binding protein 2 (PRKCBP2), oligodendrocyte transcription factor 2, oligodendrocyte-specific bHLH transcription factor 2, BHLHB1, bHLHe19, OLIGO2, and RACK17. Olig2 protein plays an essential role in regulating the development of oligodendrocytes and motor neurons. Chromosomal translocations in the OLIG2 gene have been associated with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and development of Down syndrome. Olig2 expression is useful in distinguishing diffuse gliomas from other types of brain tumors.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Small molecules enable neurogenin 2 to efficiently convert human fibroblasts into cholinergic neurons. AU - Liu, Meng Lu. AU - Zang, Tong. AU - Zou, Yuhua. AU - Chang, Joshua C.. AU - Gibson, Jay R.. AU - Huber, Kimberly M.. AU - Zhang, Chun Li. N1 - Funding Information: We thank the members of the Zhang lab for discussions and reagents. We also thank Eric Olson, Jane Johnson and Derek Smith for critical reading of the manuscript. C.-L.Z. is a W. W. Caruth Jr. Scholar in Biomedical Research. This work was supported by the Whitehall Foundation Award (2009-12-05), the Welch Foundation Award (I-1724), The Ellison Medical Foundation Award (AG-NS-0753-11) and NIH Grants (1DP2OD006484 and R01NS070981; to C.-L.Z.). Copyright: Copyright 2014 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - Cell fate can be reprogrammed by modifying intrinsic and extrinsic cues. Here we show that two small molecules (forskolin and dorsomorphin) enable the transcription factor Neurogenin 2 ...
in Developmental Biology (2005), 285(1), 211-23. Pancreas development relies on a network of transcription factors belonging mainly to the Homeodomain and basic Helix-Loop-Helix families. We show in this study that, in zebrafish, sox4, a member of the ... [more ▼]. Pancreas development relies on a network of transcription factors belonging mainly to the Homeodomain and basic Helix-Loop-Helix families. We show in this study that, in zebrafish, sox4, a member of the SRY-like HMG-box (SOX) family, is required for proper endocrine cell differentiation. We found that two genes orthologous to mammalian Sox4 are present in zebrafish and that only one of them, sox4b, is strongly expressed in the pancreatic anlage. Transcripts of sox4b were detected in mid-trunk endoderm from the 5-somite stage, well before the onset of expression of the early pancreatic gene pdx-1. Furthermore, by fluorescent double in situ hybridization, we found that expression of sox4b is mostly restricted to precursors of the ...
Inhibitor of DNA binding (Id) proteins function as inhibitors of members of the basic helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors and have been demonstrated to play an important role in regulating lymphopoiesis. However, the role of these proteins in regulation of myelopoiesis is currently unclear. In this study, we have investigated the role of Id1 and Id2 in the regulation of granulopoiesis. Id1 expression was initially up-regulated during early granulopoiesis, which was then followed by a decrease in expression during final maturation. In contrast, Id2 expression was up-regulated in terminally differentiated granulocytes. In order to determine whether Id expression plays a critical role in regulating granulopoiesis, Id1 and Id2 were ectopically expressed in CD34(+) cells by retroviral transduction. Our experiments demonstrate that constitutive expression of Id1 inhibits eosinophil development, whereas in contrast neutrophil differentiation was modestly enhanced. Constitutive Id2 expression
Breast cancer is a heterogenous disease. It is becoming increasingly apparent that in many breast cancers, a minority of neoplastic cells comprising the tumor are drivers of the malignant, metastatic seeding ability and inherent chemoresistance of a tumor. We term these cells Tumor Propagating Cells (TPCs), referring only to their functional activity and not to their cell of origin. The characterization of TPCs has been largely hindered by the lack of reliable methods for the isolation and purification of these cells including the current best practice of using cell surface markers. Our strategy to isolate TPCs is to develop molecular probes that report on the activity of pathways controlling the TPC phenotype. We have identified a transcription factor, Id1 (Inhibitor of Differentiation 1) which is expressed by a rare cell in ~ 50% of Hormone receptor negative (HR-) breast cancers. The Id family (Id1-4) are basic Helix Loop Helix (bHLH) proteins which hetero-dimerize with other bHLH ...
Adipose-tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) have received considerable attention due to their easy access, expansion potential, and differentiation ca...
Two signals - an external one from retinoic acid and an internal one from the transcription factor Neurogenin2 - cooperate to activate chromatin (the basic material of chromosomes) and help determine that certain nerve progenitor cells become motor neurons, said researchers from Baylor College of Medicine in a report in the current issue of the journal Neuron.
Somatic muscle is derived from a subset of embryonic mesoderm. In Drosophila, Twist (Twi), a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, is a candidate regulator of mesodermal differentiation and myogenesis. Altering amounts of Twist after gastrulation revealed that high levels of Twist are required for somatic myogenesis and block the formation of other mesodermal derivatives. Expression of twist in the ectoderm drives these cells into myogenesis. Thus, after an initial role in gastrulation, twist regulates mesodermal differentiation and propels a specific subset of mesodermal cells into somatic myogenesis. Vertebrate homologs of twist may also participate in the subdivision of mesoderm.. ...
The intestinal epithelium is largely maintained by self-renewing stem cells but with apparently committed progenitors also contributing, particularly following tissue damage. However, the mechanism of, and requirement for, progenitor plasticity in mediating pathological response remain unknown. Here we show that phosphorylation of the transcription factor Atoh1 is required for both the contribution of secretory progenitors to the stem cell pool and for a robust regenerative response. As confirmed by lineage tracing, Atoh1+ cells (Atoh1(WT)CreERT2 mice) give rise to multilineage intestinal clones both in the steady state and after tissue damage. In a phosphomutant Atoh1(9S/T-A)CreERT2 line, preventing phosphorylation of ATOH1 protein acts to promote secretory differentiation and inhibit the contribution of progenitors to self-renewal. Following chemical colitis, Atoh1+ cells of Atoh1(9S/T-A)CreERT2 mice have reduced clonogenicity that affects overall regeneration. Progenitor plasticity maintains robust
As in the previous problem, supposed ,math,{\mathcal{F}},/math, be a coherent sheaf on a locally noetherian scheme ,math,X,/math,. The fiber of ,math,{\mathcal{F}},/math, at a point ,math,x\in X,/math, is the ,math,k(x),/math,-vector space ,math,i^*{\mathcal{F}},/math, for the natural map ,math,i:{\mathop{Spec}}(k(x))\to X,/math, (where ,math,k(x),/math, is the residue field of ,math,x\in X,/math,). Denote by ,math,\phi(x),/math, the dimension ,math,\dim_{k(x)} i^*{\mathcal{F}},/math,.,p,(a) Show that the function ,math,\phi(x),/math, is upper semi-continuous: for every ,math,n,/math,, the set ,math,\{x\in X:\phi(x)\ge n\},/math, is closed.,/p,,p,(b) Suppose ,math,X,/math, is reduced. Show that ,math,{\mathcal{F}},/math, is locally free if and only if ,math,\phi(x),/math, is constant on each connected component of ,math,X,/math,. (Do you see why we impose the assumption that ,math,X,/math, is reduced here?),/p ...
Twist1 and Twist2 are highly conserved people of the Twist subfamily of bHLH proteins responsible for the transcriptional regulation of the developmental programs in mesenchymal cell lineages. regulatory elements made up of the consensus sequence 5′-NCANNTGN-3′ (termed E-box). E-boxes are found in the regulatory regions of many lineage specific genes which account for the numerous pathways regulated by these transcription factors (1-3). The bHLH transcription factors are classified into three major classes: the ubiquitous Class A bHLH factors that include E2-2 HEB and the two isoforms of the E2A gene E12/E47 (also known as E proteins); the tissue-restricted Class B bHLH factors; and the inhibitory HLH proteins constituted by the Id proteins which lack the basic region used Mouse monoclonal to KSHV ORF45 to contact DNA. The Twist proteins form a subfamily of the Class B bHLH factors. These include Paraxis (1) Scleraxis (4) Hand1 (5) Hand2 (6) Twist1 and BTZ044 Twist2. In this family of ...
TCF21 encodes a transcription factor of the basic helix-loop-helix family. The TCF21 product is mesoderm specific, and expressed in embryonic epicardium, mesenchyme-derived tissues of lung, gut, gonad, and both mesenchymal and glomerular epithelial cells in the kidney. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008] ...
ID2 (Inhibitor Of DNA Binding 2, Dominant Negative Helix-Loop-Helix Protein), Authors: Menno C van Zelm. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
Anti-NSCL1 (HEN1; Helix-loop-helix protein 1) Polyclonal Antibody, Unconjugated from CHEMICON,Recognizes NSCL1. The molecular weight of the protein is 14,616 Daltons.,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product
Heyl - Heyl (untagged) - Mouse hairy/enhancer-of-split related with YRPW motif-like (Heyl), (10ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
The inhibitor of DNA binding and cell differentiation (Id) proteins are dominant negative regulators of the helix-loop-helix transcription factor family and play a key role during development as well as in vascular disorders and cancer. In fact, impairing the Id-protein activity in cancer cells reduces cell growth and even chemoresistance. Recently, we have shown that a synthetic Id-protein ligand (1Y) consisting of a cyclic nonapeptide can reduce the viability of the two breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and T47D and of the bladder cancer cells T24 to about 50% at concentrations ≥100μM ...
This gene encodes a basic helix-loop-helix protein expressed in various tissues. The encoded protein can interact with ARNTL or compete for E-box binding sites in the promoter of PER1 and repress CLOCK/ARNTLs transactivation of PER1. This gene is believed to be involved in the control of circadian rhythm and cell differentiation. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014 ...
https://issues.apache.org/jira/browse/MATH-746?page=com.atlassian.jira.plugin.system.issuetabpanels:all-tabpanel ] Gilles updated MATH-746: ------------------------ Description: This issue is meant to contain a list of tasks to be completed before the release. * Remarks to be added to the *release notes*: ** Experimental code: {{BOBYQAOptimizer}} (cf. MATH-621) *** Many code paths untested *** Looking for volunteers to improve the code readability, robustness and performance *** Looking for volunteers to extend the test suite ** {{FastMath}} is not always faster than {{Math}} (issue MATH-740) ** List of new features * Create a release branch * Disable CheckStyle scanning of {{BOBYQAOptimizer}} (/) ({{r1244855}}) * Comment out print statements in {{BOBYQAOptimizerTest}} (/) ({{r1244975}}) * Remove unit test class {{BatteryNISTTest}} * Remove class {{PivotingQRDecomposition}} * Comment out print statement in {{SymmLQTest}} (/) ({{r1244992}}) (removed in {{r1244996}}) * Findbugs: ** ...
Anti-BHLHE40 antibody | Application: WB, ELISA | Predicted species reactivity: Human, Mouse | Product type: Polyclonal Antibody | Alias: BHLHE40,Class E basic helix-loop-helix protein 40,BHLHB2; DEC1; SHARP2; STRA13
Wong J, Funes-Duran M, Ahlberg J, Round J, OConnell R, Miller R, Chen E, Richmond PA, Vierra CA (2001). Characterization of a basic helix-loop-helix protein, ABF-1: nuclear localization, transcriptional properties, and interaction with Id-2. DNA Cell Biol. 20 (8): 465-71. doi:10.1089/104454901316976091. PMID 11560778 ...
Rabbit anti MAX (pSer11) antibody recognizes MAX, also known as protein max, class D basic helix-loop-helix protein 4, bHLHd4 or Myc-assoc
In both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, the β-cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas are either destroyed or defective, resulting in insufficient insulin production. To study β-cells in development and disease, Shimajiri et al. generated a mouse in which expression of green fluorescent protein and secreted alkaline phosphatase is driven using the regulatory regions of the β-cell-specific neurogenin-3 gene. Pancreatic organ cultures derived from these mice allow developing β-cells to be visualised. In addition, this model system enables tracking the fate of developing β-cells in response to various stimuli.. Page 268. ...
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HEY1 antibody, C-term (hes related family bHLH transcription factor with YRPW motif 1) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-HEY1 pAb (GTX42614) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
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Mutagenesis of the mouse Bhlhb4 gene. A: Gene targeting strategy showing partial restriction map of WT Bhlhb4 allele, the targeting vector, the targeted ES cell
Described herein are compounds and pharmaceutical compositions containing such compounds, which inhibit the activity of Olig2. Also described herein are methods of using such Olig2 inhibitors, alone and in combination with other compounds, for treating cancer and other diseases. In particular the Olig2 inhibitors may be used to treat glioblastoma.
Dash-dotted line: logarithmic profile; solid line: obtained from equation (8); symbols: experimental data (Sukhodolov et al). a) profile 2: ,math,y_0 = 0.062 cm,/math,; ,math,h = 145 cm,/math,; ,math,u_\tau = 3.82 cm/s,/math,. b) profile 4: ,math,y_0 = 0.113 cm,/math,; ,math,h = 164.5 cm,/math,; ,math,u_\tau = 3.97 cm/s,/math, ; values of ,math,y_0 , h, u_\tau,/math, are from [[#References,[Sukhodolov et al. (1998 ...
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... is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor. NPAS3 Zhou YD, Barnard M, Tian H, Li X, Ring HZ, Francke U, Shelton J, ... "Characterization of a subset of the basic helix-loop-helix-PAS superfamily that interacts with components of the dioxin ...
"Entrez Gene: HLF hepatic leukemia factor". LeBrun DP (May 2003). "E2A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors in human ... This gene encodes a member of the proline and acidic-rich (PAR) protein family, a subset of the bZIP transcription factors. The ... "Enhanced binding of HLF/DBP heterodimers represents one mechanism of PAR protein transactivation of the factor VIII and factor ... Hunger SP, Li S, Fall MZ, Naumovski L, Cleary ML (June 1996). "The proto-oncogene HLF and the related basic leucine zipper ...
Neurogenin 1 (Ngn1) is a Class-A basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor that acts as a regulator for neuronal ... Li HJ, Ray SK, Singh NK, Johnston B, Leiter AB (Oct 2011). "Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors and enteroendocrine ... The promotion of GFAP transcription induced glial differentiation. Neurogenin 2 (Ngn2) is a bHLH transcription factor involved ... Another transcription factor that may be a downstream target of Ngn3 is Nkx2.2 because it is often coexpressed with it. Studies ...
LeBrun DP (2004). "E2A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors in human leukemia". Front. Biosci. 8 (1-3): s206-22. doi: ... "Regulation of amyloid precursor protein expression and secretion via activation of ERK1/2 by hepatocyte growth factor in HEK293 ...
Myogenic factors are basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors. MYF6 is a gene that encodes a protein involved in the ... "A novel type of calmodulin interaction in the inhibition of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors". Biochemistry. 39 (15 ... "Differential interactions of Id proteins with basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factors". The Journal of Biological ... The portion of the protein integral to myogenesis regulation requires the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain that is ...
... belongs to a family of proteins known as myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs). These basic helix loop helix transcription ... "Differential interactions of Id proteins with basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factors". The Journal of Biological ... MRF family members include Myf5, MyoD (Myf3), myogenin, and MRF4 (Myf6). This transcription factor is the earliest of all MRFs ... As for its clinical significance, the aberration of this transcription factor provides part of the mechanism for how hypoxia ( ...
Ratineau C, Petry MW, Mutoh H, Leiter AB (March 2002). "Cyclin D1 represses the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, ... Zhang T, Liu WD, Saunee NA, Breslin MB, Lan MS (February 2009). "Zinc finger transcription factor INSM1 interrupts cyclin D1 ... Cyclin D1-CDK4 also associates with several transcription factors and transcriptional co-regulators. Independent of CDK, cyclin ... allowing E2F transcription factors to transcribe genes required for entry into the S phase. Inactive pRb allows cell cycle ...
Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor scleraxis is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SCXB gene. GRCh38: Ensembl ... "Entrez Gene: LOC642658 similar to Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor scleraxis". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter ( ...
It is a member of the NeuroD family of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors. The protein forms heterodimers with ... Ratineau C, Petry MW, Mutoh H, Leiter AB (March 2002). "Cyclin D1 represses the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, ... Ratineau C, Petry MW, Mutoh H, Leiter AB (March 2002). "Cyclin D1 represses the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, ... "A novel type of calmodulin interaction in the inhibition of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors". Biochemistry. 39 (15 ...
... basic helix loop helix) transcription factors act sequentially in myogenic differentiation. Vertebrate MRF family members ... "Differential interactions of Id proteins with basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factors". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (32): 19785-93 ... now referred to as basic helix loop helix) for dimerization and a basic site upstream of this bHLH region facilitated DNA ... Finkel T, Duc J, Fearon ER, Dang CV, Tomaselli GF (January 1993). "Detection and modulation in vivo of helix-loop-helix protein ...
The protein encoded by TAL1 is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor. TAL1 has been shown to interact with: CBFA2T3, ... Green AR, Begley CG (1993). "SCL and related hemopoietic helix-loop-helix transcription factors". Int. J. Cell Cloning. 10 (5 ... "The LIM protein RBTN2 and the basic helix-loop-helix protein TAL1 are present in a complex in erythroid cells". Proc. Natl. ... "The LIM protein RBTN2 and the basic helix-loop-helix protein TAL1 are present in a complex in erythroid cells". Proc. Natl. ...
Cross-talk between basic helix-loop-helix/per-Arnt-Sim homology transcription factors". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. ... Cross-talk between basic helix-loop-helix/per-Arnt-Sim homology transcription factors". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. ... Ooe N, Saito K, Mikami N, Nakatuka I, Kaneko H (Jan 2004). "Identification of a novel basic helix-loop-helix-PAS factor, NXF, ... Ooe N, Saito K, Mikami N, Nakatuka I, Kaneko H (Jan 2004). "Identification of a novel basic helix-loop-helix-PAS factor, NXF, ...
Cross-talk between basic helix-loop-helix/per-Arnt-Sim homology transcription factors". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (12): 10236-43. doi: ... Ooe N, Saito K, Mikami N, Nakatuka I, Kaneko H (January 2004). "Identification of a novel basic helix-loop-helix-PAS factor, ... Wang GL, Jiang BH, Rue EA, Semenza GL (1995). "Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 is a basic-helix-loop-helix-PAS heterodimer regulated ... "Characterization of a subset of the basic-helix-loop-helix-PAS superfamily that interacts with components of the dioxin ...
This gene encodes the basic helix-loop-helix structure and functions as a transcription factor. Embryos lacking Tal1 fail to ... In addition, basic fibroblast growth factor FGF-2 is also involved in promoting angioblasts from the mesoderm. After ... Prox-1is a homeobox transcription factor found in lymphatic ECs (LECs). For example, specific mRNAs such as VEGFR-3 and p57Kip2 ... "Lymphatic endothelial reprogramming of vascular endothelial cells by the Prox-1 homeobox transcription factor". EMBO Journal. ...
This protein belongs to the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family of transcription factors. It is a transcriptional repressor of ... Jögi A, Persson P, Grynfeld A, Påhlman S, Axelson H (2002). "Modulation of basic helix-loop-helix transcription complex ... a basic helix-loop-helix repressor of neuronal differentiation". Genes Dev. 11 (23): 3168-81. doi:10.1101/gad.11.23.3168. PMC ... and promoter analysis of the gene encoding the mouse helix-loop-helix factor HES-1. Negative autoregulation through the ...
... it may play a role in basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor activity. DTX1 has been shown to interact with EP300. GRCh38 ...
2007). "Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor profiling of lung tumors shows aberrant expression of the proneural gene ... This protein belongs to the basic helix-loop-helix (BHLH) family of transcription factors. It activates E-box dependent ... "The intestine-specific homeobox gene Cdx2 induces expression of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Math1". ... Leow CC, Polakis P, Gao WQ (November 2005). "A role for Hath1, a bHLH transcription factor, in colon adenocarcinoma". Annals of ...
SREBPs belong to the basic-helix-loop-helix leucine zipper class of transcription factors. Unactivated SREBPs are attached to ... Gasic GP (Apr 1994). "Basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factor and sterol sensor in a single membrane-bound molecule". Cell ... a basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper protein that controls transcription of the low density lipoprotein receptor gene". Cell ... SREBPs have a structure similar to E-box-binding helix-loop-helix (HLH) proteins. However, in contrast to E-box-binding HLH ...
... is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors. Tumor-specific alterations of the TAL2 gene ... Baer R (December 1993). "TAL1, TAL2 and LYL1: a family of basic helix-loop-helix proteins implicated in T cell acute leukaemia ... 1992). "TAL2, a helix-loop-helix gene activated by the (7;9)(q34;q32) translocation in human T-cell leukemia". Proc. Natl. Acad ... a helix-loop-helix gene activated by the (7;9)(q34;q32) translocation in human T-cell leukemia". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. ...
... a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, in Saethre-Chotzen syndrome". Nature Genetics. 15 (1): 36-41. doi:10.1038/ng0197 ... She discovered that similar mutations in the same gene, fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 or FGFR2, cause both Jackson-Weiss ... "Jackson-Weiss and Crouzon syndromes are allelic with mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptor 2". Nature Genetics. 8 (3 ...
... 1 is a bHLH (basic helix-loop-helix) transcription factor implicated in lung cancer. MYCL1 has been shown to interact with ... Blackwood EM, Eisenman RN (Mar 1991). "Max: a helix-loop-helix zipper protein that forms a sequence-specific DNA-binding ... Lüscher B (2001). "Function and regulation of the transcription factors of the Myc/Max/Mad network". Gene. 277 (1-2): 1-14. doi ... a useful prognostic factor of poor outcomes in colorectal cancer". Clin. Cancer Res. 10 (5): 1758-1763. doi:10.1158/1078-0432. ...
The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the basic helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors. This gene product is ... "The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors dHAND and eHAND exhibit dimerization characteristics that suggest complex ... Dai YS, Cserjesi P (April 2002). "The basic helix-loop-helix factor, HAND2, functions as a transcriptional activator by binding ... transcription factor binding. • activating transcription factor binding. • E-box binding. • protein binding. • protein ...
TCF21 encodes a transcription factor of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family, which manages cell-fate specification, ... Lu J, Chang P, Richardson JA, Gan L, Weiler H, Olson EN (August 2000). "The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor ... Funato N, Ohyama K, Kuroda T, Nakamura M (February 2003). "Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor epicardin/capsulin/Pod-1 ... basic helix-loop-helix) family of transcription factors. This protein is predicted to span 179 amino acid residues and contains ...
"Interaction of PKN with a neuron-specific basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, NDRF/NeuroD2". Brain Research. Molecular ... "Interaction of PKN with a neuron-specific basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, NDRF/NeuroD2". Brain Research. Molecular ... This gene encodes a member of the neuroD family of neurogenic basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins. Expression of this gene ... a NeuroD family basic helix-loop-helix protein". Brain Research. Molecular Brain Research. 60 (1): 107-14. doi:10.1016/S0169- ...
"Combinatorial control of muscle development by basic helix-loop-helix and MADS-box transcription factors". Proc Natl Acad Sci ... Mef2c upregulates the expression of the homeodomain transcription factors DLX5 and DLX6, two transcription factors that are ... MEF2, Myocyte Enhancer Factor 2, is a transcription factor with four specific numbers such as MEF2A, B, C, and D. Each MEF2 ... "Myocyte Enhancer Factor 2 Transcription Factors in Heart Development and Disease." Heart Development and Regeneration, 2010, pp ...
"Identification of a novel family of oligodendrocyte lineage-specific basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors". Neuron. 25 ... McLellan AS, Langlands K, Kealey T (Dec 2002). "Exhaustive identification of human class II basic helix-loop-helix proteins by ... McLellan AS, Langlands K, Kealey T (Dec 2002). "Exhaustive identification of human class II basic helix-loop-helix proteins by ... "Dynamic expression of basic helix-loop-helix Olig family members: implication of Olig2 in neuron and oligodendrocyte ...
"Interaction of PKN with a neuron-specific basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, NDRF/NeuroD2". Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res ... which is a potential transcription factor". Exp. Cell Res. 241 (2): 363-72. doi:10.1006/excr.1998.4060. PMID 9637778. Takahashi ...
The development pathway is regulated by three transcription factors: R2R3 MYB, basic helix-loop-helix, and WD40 repeat. The ... Both processes involve a core of related transcription factors that control the initiation and development of the epidermal ... Activation of genes that encode specific protein transcription factors (named GLABRA1 (GL1), GLABRA3 (GL3) and TRANSPARENT ... The most basic terms used are glabrous-lacking hairs- and pubescent-having hairs. Details are provided by: *glabrous, glabrate ...
... family of transcription factors contain a bHLH (basic helix-loop-helix) structural and LZ (leucine zipper) motives. Through ... repressing transcription factor binding. • RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • ... Blackwood EM, Eisenman RN (March 1991). "Max: a helix-loop-helix zipper protein that forms a sequence-specific DNA-binding ... Blackwood EM, Eisenman RN (March 1991). "Max: a helix-loop-helix zipper protein that forms a sequence-specific DNA-binding ...
This gene is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix (BHLH) family of transcription factors. It activates transcription by ... is a maternally expressed imprinted gene that codes is a part of the basic helix-loop-helix (BHLH) transcription factor family ... "A novel type of calmodulin interaction in the inhibition of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors". Biochemistry. 39 (15 ... possible role of placenta-specific basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, human achaete-scute homologue-2". Journal of ...
Basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factors are, as their name indicates, transcription factors containing both ... Basic+helix-loop-helix+leucine+zipper+transcription+factors at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings ( ... Basic helix-loop-helix and leucine zipper motifs. Examples include Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor and Sterol ...
... Karen A. Hudson1 and Matthew E. Hudson2 ... Karen A. Hudson and Matthew E. Hudson, "A Classification of Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors of Soybean," ...
Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors DEC1 and DEC2 regulate the paclitaxel-induced apoptotic pathway of MCF-7 human ... are basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors that are associated with the regulation of apoptosis, cell ...
FIGLA, a Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor, Balances Sexually Dimorphic Gene Expression in Postnatal Oocytes Wei Hu, ... Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4α Coordinates a Transcription Factor Network Regulating Hepatic Fatty Acid Metabolism Celia Pilar ... The TAL1/SCL Transcription Factor Regulates Cell Cycle Progression and Proliferation in Differentiating Murine Bone Marrow ... Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 2 Regulates Hepatic Lipid Metabolism Erinn B. Rankin, Jennifer Rha, Mary A. Selak, Travis L. Unger, ...
A key family of transcription factors used in mammary gland development is the helix-loop-helix/basic helix-loop-helix (HLH/ ... Identification of a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor expressed in mammary gland alveolar cells and required for ... Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors/deficiency. *Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors/genetics ... In this study, we identify Mist1 as a tissue-restricted Class II bHLH transcription factor expressed in lactating mammary ...
The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor neuroD is expressed in the rod lineage of the teleost retina.. Hitchcock P1, ... we sought to characterize the cellular expression of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor neuroD in the ... Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors. *Histamine Agonists. *Nerve Tissue Proteins. *Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen ...
The Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor NEUROG3 Is Required for Development of the Human Endocrine Pancreas. ... The Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor NEUROG3 Is Required for Development of the Human Endocrine Pancreas ... The Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor NEUROG3 Is Required for Development of the Human Endocrine Pancreas ... The Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor NEUROG3 Is Required for Development of the Human Endocrine Pancreas ...
The Arabidopsis Basic/Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor Family Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... The Arabidopsis Basic/Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor Family. Gabriela Toledo-Ortiz, Enamul Huq, Peter H. Quail ... The basic/helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins are a superfamily of transcription factors that bind as dimers to specific DNA ... The basic/helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins are a superfamily of transcription factors that have been well characterized in ...
Hypoxia inducible factor 1, alpha subunit (Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor)Imported. ,p>Information which has been ... tr,A0JND0,A0JND0_BOVIN Hypoxia inducible factor 1, alpha subunit (Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor) OS=Bos taurus GN ... Hypoxia inducible factor 1, alpha subunit (Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor). ... transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II transcription factor binding Source: Ensembl. *transcription factor binding ...
The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins represent an evolutionary conserved class of transcription factors that are known to ... New members of the Drosophila Myc transcription factor subfamily revealed by a genome-wide examination for basic helix-loop- ... These new genes belong to various subfamilies of bHLH transcription factors, such as the Daughterless, Hairy-Enhancer of split ... helix genes.. Peyrefitte S., Kahn D., Haenlin M.. ...
... including the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family, regulate numerous genes and play vital roles in controlling gene expression ... Consequently, transcription factor mutations can lead to phenotypic pleiotropy, and may be a candidate mechanism underlying the ... Transcription factors, including the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family, regulate numerous genes and play vital roles in ... Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor NEUROG1 and Schizophrenia: Effects on Illness Susceptibility, MRI Brain Morphometry ...
Myc Proto Oncogene Protein Transcription Factor p64 or Class E Basic Helix Loop Helix Protein 39 or MYC Pipeline Review, H1 ... Inducible Factor 1 Alpha ARNT Interacting Protein or Basic Helix Loop Helix PAS Protein MOP1 or Class E Basic Helix Loop Helix ... Inducible Factor 1 Alpha ARNT Interacting Protein or Basic Helix Loop Helix PAS Protein MOP1 or Class E Basic Helix Loop Helix ... Protein Transcription Factor p64 or Class E Basic Helix Loop Helix Protein 39 or MYC Pipeline Review, H1 2018. ...
Transcription Factor p64 or Class E Basic Helix Loop Helix Protein 39 or MYC) - Pip Review, H2 2018Myc Proto Oncogene Protein ( ... Myc Proto Oncogene Protein (Transcription Factor p64 or Class E Basic Helix Loop Helix Protein 39 or MYC) - Myc (c-Myc) protein ... It also reviews key players involved in Myc Proto Oncogene Protein (Transcription Factor p64 or Class E Basic Helix Loop Helix ... The report reviews Myc Proto Oncogene Protein (Transcription Factor p64 or Class E Basic Helix Loop Helix Protein 39 or MYC) ...
The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor SHARP1 is an oncogenic driver in MLL-AF6 acute myelogenous leukemia. ... The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor SHARP1 is an oncogenic driver in MLL-AF6 acute myelogenous leukemia. Nature ... Here, we identify the circadian clock transcription factor SHARP1 as a novel oncogenic target in MLL-AF6 AML, which has the ...
Transcription Factor p64 or Class E Basic Helix Loop Helix Protein 39 or MYC) - Pip Review, H2 2018 Size and Share Published in ... Myc Proto Oncogene Protein (Transcription Factor p64 or Class E Basic Helix Loop Helix Protein 39 or MYC) - Pip Review, H2 2018 ... Myc Proto Oncogene Protein (Transcription Factor p64 or Class E Basic Helix Loop Helix Protein 39 or MYC) - Myc (c-Myc) protein ... It also reviews key players involved in Myc Proto Oncogene Protein (Transcription Factor p64 or Class E Basic Helix Loop Helix ...
Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Tax Protein Inhibits the Expression of the Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor MyoD ... Tax was found to target the muscle-specific basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor MyoD. The Tax-induced increase in ... In these cells, which displayed unchanged levels of the ubiquitous basic helix-loop-helix E2A factors and Id proteins, ... A potential mechanism for Tax-mediated repression of the transcriptional activity of basic helix-loop-helix factors. J. Biol. ...
Myc Proto Oncogene Protein (Transcription Factor p64 or Class E... ... 38 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Myc Proto Oncogene Protein (Transcription Factor p64 or Class E Basic Helix Loop Helix ... Myc Proto Oncogene Protein (Transcription Factor p64 or Class E Basic Helix Loop Helix Protein 39 or MYC) - Myc (c-Myc) protein ... Myc Proto Oncogene Protein (Transcription Factor p64 or Class E Basic Helix Loop Helix Protein 39 or MYC) - Drug Profiles. BGA- ...
The mi gene encodes a basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor (Mi) with tissue-restricted expression. To ... Aksan I., Goding C. R. Targeting the microphthalmia basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper transcription factor to a subset of E ... Expression of the Microphthalmia-associated Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factor Miin Avian Neuroretina ... crucial dependence on the Mitf basic-helix-loop-helix-zipper transcription factor. Development (Camb.), 124: 2377-2386, 1997.. ...
Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors play critical roles in organism development and disease by regulating cell ... Challenges in Targeting a Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor with Hydrocarbon-Stapled Peptides. DSpace/Manakin ... These data highlight potential pitfalls in peptide-based targeting of bHLH transcription factors given the liabilities of their ... Thus, α-helical decoys have been proposed as potential targeted therapies for pathologic bHLH ... read more transcription. Here ...
basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors Agriculture & Biology * Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors Medicine & ... N2 - The basic/helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors and their homologs form a large family in plant and animal genomes ... AB - The basic/helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors and their homologs form a large family in plant and animal genomes ... The basic/helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors and their homologs form a large family in plant and animal genomes. ...
Transcription factors containing a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) motif regulate expression of tissue-specific genes in a number ... Product name : Transcription factors containing a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) motif regulate expression of tissue-specific ... 25-056 Transcription factors containing a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) motif regulate expression of tissue-specific genes in a ... Related products : Transcription factors containing a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) motif regulate expression of tissue- ...
The Arabidopsis basic/helix-loop-helix transcription factor family.. Toledo-Ortiz G, Huq E, Quail PH., Plant Cell 15(8), 2003 ... A classification of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors of soybean.. Hudson KA, Hudson ME., Int J Genomics 2015(), ... Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors and epidermal cell fate determination in Arabidopsis.. Zhao H, Li X, Ma L., Plant ... Update on the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor gene family in Arabidopsis thaliana.. Bailey PC, Martin C, Toledo- ...
The myogenic basic helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors, MyoD, Myf5, myogenin, and MRF4, can each activate the ... The myogenic basic helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors, MyoD, Myf5, myogenin, and MRF4, can each activate the ... The myogenic basic helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors shows similar requirements for SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling ... "The myogenic basic helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors shows similar requirements for SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling ...
Optical control of mammalian endogenous transcription and epigenetic states. August 22, 2013. /0 Comments/in Publications /by ... Optical control of mammalian endogenous transcription and epigenetic states. Nature. 500(7463):472-6. Google Scholar PubMed. ... 26Optical control of mammalian endogenous transcription and epigenetic states.. ...
Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors [D12.776.260.103]. *Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors [ ... Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors [D12.776.930.125]. *Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors [ ... Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors*Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors ... Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors [D12.776.260.108]. *Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors [ ...
Basic. Helix. -. Loop. -. Helix. Transcription. Factors. */genetics Basic. Helix. -. Loop. -. Helix. Transcription. Factors. */ ... Basic. Helix. -. Loop. -. Helix. Transcription. Factors. */blood Basic. Helix. -. Loop. -. Helix. Transcription. Factors. */ ... Basic. Helix. -. Loop. -. Helix. Transcription. Factors. /*chemistry Basic. Helix. -. Loop. -. Helix. Transcription. Factors. / ... Basic. Helix. -. Loop. -. Helix. Transcription. Factors. /agonists ; Basic. Helix. -. Loop. -. Helix. Transcription. Factors. / ...
Although a great deal is understood about how bHLH factors activate gene transcription via E-box DNA consensus sequences, ... transcription factors play diverse roles in controlling many developmental events. ... studies of bHLH factor function in higher eukaryotes often have b … ... Examination of mammalian basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors using a yeast one-hybrid system DNA Cell Biol. 1996 Jan; ...
Identification and expression analysis of the apple (Malus × domestica) basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor family * ... basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor family . Opens in a new window. ...
... a Arabidopsis basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * Transcription ... a Arabidopsis basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor",. abstract = "PIL5 is a member of the bHLH transcription ... Genome-wide DNA-binding specificity of PIL5, a Arabidopsis basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor. / Kang, Hyojin; ... Genome-wide DNA-binding specificity of PIL5, a Arabidopsis basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor. Proceedings - ...
... Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors 100% * Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases 72% ...
  • The basic/helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins are a superfamily of transcription factors that bind as dimers to specific DNA target sites and that have been well characterized in nonplant eukaryotes as important regulatory components in diverse biological processes. (plantcell.org)
  • Together with the established propensity of bHLH factors to engage in varying degrees of homodimerization and heterodimerization, these observations suggest that the Arabidopsis bHLH proteins have the potential to participate in an extensive set of combinatorial interactions, endowing them with the capacity to be involved in the regulation of a multiplicity of transcriptional programs. (plantcell.org)
  • The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins represent an evolutionary conserved class of transcription factors that are known to play important roles in cell determination and differentiation during animal embryonic development. (uniprot.org)
  • Members of the MyoD family of muscle-specific basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins function within a genetic pathway to control skeletal muscle development. (elsevier.com)
  • Members of the myocyte enhancer binding factor 2 (MEF2) family of MADS-box proteins are expressed at high levels in muscle and neural cells and at lower levels in several other cell types. (elsevier.com)
  • MEF2 factors are unable to activate muscle gene expression alone, but they potentiate the transcriptional activity of myogenic bHLH proteins. (elsevier.com)
  • Biochemical and genetic evidence suggests that MEF2 factors are the coregulators for myogenic bHLH proteins. (elsevier.com)
  • In myogenesis, E-proteins are proposed to function as obligate heterodimer partners for members of the MyoD family of muscle-specific bHLH transcription factors. (dissertations.se)
  • Transcription factors of the basic Helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family of proteins are important regulators of cellular processes such as proliferation and differentiation. (dissertations.se)
  • The transcription factors neuronal helix-loop-helix protein (NEX)/mammalian atonal homolog 2 (Math-2), BETA2/neuronal determination factor (NeuroD), and NeuroD-related factor (NDRF)/NeuroD2 comprise a family of Drosophila atonal-related basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins with highly overlapping expression in the developing forebrain. (jneurosci.org)
  • 5 6 These latter factors, encoded by the E2A gene, belong to the family of basic helix loop helix (bHLH) proteins. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 8 9 The helix-loop-helix domain, mainly consisting of hydrophobic residues, permits homodimerization or heterodimerization of these proteins. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Inhibitors of DNA binding (Id) proteins control transcriptional activity of bHLH factors. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 12 13 Id proteins can heterodimerize with bHLH factors, but lack a basic DNA binding domain, therefore blocking transcriptional activity of bHLH factors. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 2000). bHLH proteins form homo- or heterodimers with other bHLH family members and, as dimers, bind DNA through the bHLH domain at cis regulatory motifs, termed E-box (CANNTG), leading to either activation or inhibition of transcription (Murre et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Using a set of criteria derived from a previously defined consensus motif, we identified 147 bHLH protein-encoding genes, making this one of the largest transcription factor families in Arabidopsis. (plantcell.org)
  • New members of the Drosophila Myc transcription factor subfamily revealed by a genome-wide examination for basic helix-loop-helix genes. (uniprot.org)
  • These new genes belong to various subfamilies of bHLH transcription factors, such as the Daughterless, Hairy-Enhancer of split, bHLH-PAS or bHLHZip subfamilies. (uniprot.org)
  • Transcription factors, including the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family, regulate numerous genes and play vital roles in controlling gene expression. (nih.gov)
  • Myc protein is a transcription factor that activates expression of many genes through binding enhancer box sequences and recruiting histone acetyltransferases. (bioportfolio.com)
  • By binding Miz1 transcription factor and displacing the p300 coactivator, it inhibits expression of Miz1 target genes. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Gentaur Molecular :Prosci \ Transcription factors containing a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) motif regulate expression of tissue-specific genes in a number of mammalian and insect systems. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • The AtbHLH genes constitute one of the largest families of transcription factors in A. thaliana with significantly more members than are found in most animal species and about an equivalent number to those in vertebrates. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • In this study, we report that promoters of the genes encoding the enzymes involved in the specific terpenoid pathway of one of these species can be transactivated by the orthologous bHLH factor from the other species through recognition of the same cis-regulatory elements. (lu.se)
  • This protein is a transcription factor, which means that it attaches (binds) to specific regions of DNA and controls the activity of particular genes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The MESP2 gene provides instructions for making a transcription factor, which is a protein that attaches (binds) to specific regions of DNA and helps control the activity of particular genes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • We characterized orthologs of fruit-associated MADS-domain transcription factors and of the Arabidopsis dehiscence-related genes INDEHISCENT (IND)/HECATE 3 (HEC3), REPLUMLESS (RPL) and SPATULA (SPT)/ALCATRAZ (ALC) in E. pusilla , and found that the key players of the eudicot fruit regulatory network appear well-conserved in monocots. (frontiersin.org)
  • The multi-output incoherent feedforward loop constituted by the transcriptional regulators LasR and RsaL confers robustness to a subset of quorum sensing genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (bireme.br)
  • Moreover, a bioinformatics analysis predicts that many of the dysregulated genes are regulated by common transcription factors, one of which, Ascl1 , was confirmed to be directly controlled by Ca 2+ influx in β-cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • which includes neuronal helix-loop-helix protein (NEX)/mammalian atonal homolog-2 (Math-2), BETA2/neuronal determination factor (NeuroD), and NeuroD-related factor (NDRF)/NeuroD2, is less clear, however, because these genes are expressed throughout neuronal development and largely by committed cells outside the ventricular zone. (jneurosci.org)
  • A motif of basic residues mediates binding to a consensus E-box (CANNTG) sequence present in promoters or enhancers of target genes. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The genes up-regulated by this transcription factor during embryogenesis have not been identified. (medscape.com)
  • The data revealed that hundreds of upregulated and downregulated genes, including various transcription factors (TFs), are involved in flower senescence progress. (usda.gov)
  • In petunia flowers, expression profiles of the ethylene-responsive element-binding factor (ERF) family genes were studied in detail. (usda.gov)
  • We identified a cluster of genes upregulated during development and senescence of petunia flowers, including several transcription factors. (usda.gov)
  • 1988 ) Expression patterns of the homeobox-containing genes En-1 and En-2 and the proto-oncogene int-1 diverge during mouse development. (biologists.org)
  • Because of its function in the developing mammalian retina and persistently mitotic adult tissues, we sought to characterize the cellular expression of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor neuroD in the persistently neurogenic retina of adult teleosts. (nih.gov)
  • Optical control of mammalian endogenous transcription and epigenetic states. (mit.edu)
  • wp-content/uploads/2016/03/[email protected] 0 0 syn-admin /wp-content/uploads/2016/03/[email protected] syn-admin 2013-08-22 00:00:20 2016-02-08 15:24:26 Optical control of mammalian endogenous transcription and epigenetic states. (mit.edu)
  • Further, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (EIF4EBP1), a component of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway that inhibits protein translation through interaction with EIF4E, is regulated by ATF5 and likely is involved in apoptotic susceptibility through regulation of global translation. (pnas.org)
  • Mutation studies in human patients with disorders of sex development and mouse models have revealed factors that are involved in mammalian sex determination. (springer.com)
  • 1995 ) A mammalian helix-loop-helix factor structurally related to theproduct of the Drosophila proneural gene atonal is a positive transcriptional regulator expressed in the developing nervous system. (biologists.org)
  • Differentiated embryonic chondrocyte gene (DEC) 1 (BHLHE40/Stra13/Sharp2) and DEC2 (BHLHE41/Sharp1) are basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors that are associated with the regulation of apoptosis, cell proliferation and circadian rhythms, as well as malignancy in various cancers. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Neurog3 is required for development of all pancreatic endocrine cell types in mice ( 5 - 7 ) and does this through direct and indirect regulation of downstream targets, including the transcription factors NeuroD1 ( 8 ), Rfx6 ( 9 ), Pax4 ( 10 ), Nkx6.1 ( 11 , 12 ), Arx ( 13 ), and others. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • rs2344484-C-allele may affect NEUROG1's role in transcription regulation such that brain morphology and cognitive abilities are altered resulting in increased susceptibility to develop schizophrenia. (nih.gov)
  • Regulation of branched-chain amino acid metabolism by hypoxia-inducible factor in glioblastoma. (wroc.pl)
  • Thus, this in vivo yeast system provides a novel approach to facilitate functional studies of bHLH factor regulation. (nih.gov)
  • Consisting of about 110 amino acids , the domain in winged-helix transcription factors (see Regulation of gene expression ) has four helices and a two-strand beta-sheet . (wikipedia.org)
  • Many cancer diseases show a block in differentiation, and aberrant regulation of several bHLH factors have been implicated in the development of different malignancies. (dissertations.se)
  • The homeodomain transcription factor and human diabetes gene pancreas/duodenum homeobox protein 1 ( Pdx1 ) regulates β-cell survival and endoplasmic reticulum stress susceptibility, in part through direct regulation of activating transcription factor 4 ( Atf4 ). (pnas.org)
  • This protein is involved in the ubiquitination and degradation of hypoxia-inducible-factor (HIF), which is a transcription factor that plays a central role in the regulation of gene expression by oxygen. (cancerindex.org)
  • What are the basic methods of regulation of gene expression? (brainscape.com)
  • From the same microarray study, a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) TF was also found to be highly expressed in flower petals and upregulated during the flower senescence process, suggesting that it may also play a role in the regulation of flower senescence. (usda.gov)
  • Regulation of Carotenoid Biosynthesis by Shade Relies on Specific Subsets of Antagonistic Transcription Factors and Cofactors. (lancaster.ac.uk)
  • Direct regulation of phytoene synthase gene expression and carotenoid biosynthesis by phytochrome-interacting factors. (lancaster.ac.uk)
  • Calcium regulation of myogenesis by differential calmodulin inhibition of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors. (umu.se)
  • MyoD's role as a protein is to aid the regulation of muscle differentiation, the process where basic cell types become more specialised, in this case for muscle tissue. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factors are, as their name indicates, transcription factors containing both Basic helix-loop-helix and leucine zipper motifs. (wikipedia.org)
  • A family of transcription factors that contain regions rich in basic residues, LEUCINE ZIPPER domains, and HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIFS. (ucdenver.edu)
  • We ligated the gene encoding the dominant negative helix loop helix (HLH) factor Id3 that inhibits many enhancing basic HLH transcription factors into this vector. (bloodjournal.org)
  • and is constituted mainly of hydrophobic residues that form two amphipathic α-helices separated by a loop region of variable sequence and length ( Nair and Burley, 2000 ). (plantcell.org)
  • Transcriptional activity, whether by bHLH homo- or heterodimerization, is dependent on protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions mediated by α-helices. (uu.nl)
  • Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors (TFs) belong to a family of transcriptional regulators present in three eukaryotic kingdoms. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • These findings suggest that Hand factors may act via unique transcriptional mechanisms mediated by bHLH factor partner choice, supporting the notion that alterations of Hand factor stoichiometry may be as deleterious to normal heart morphogenesis as Hand factor loss of function. (elsevier.com)
  • Formation of this interface relies on coordinated interactions among transcriptional, epigenetic, and environmental factors. (jci.org)
  • PIL5 is a member of the bHLH transcription factor superfamily and plays crucial roles in phytochrome mediated seed germination process in Arabidopsis. (elsevier.com)
  • A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Myostatin (or GDF-8), a member of the Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily, was first identified in mice by McPherron et al. (biologists.org)
  • abstract = "Scleraxis is a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor shown previously to be expressed in developing chondrogenic cell lineages during embryogenesis. (elsevier.com)
  • The bHLH family of transcription factors helps regulate the development of many organs and tissues before birth. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The SOX10 gene encodes a member of the high-mobility group-domain Sox family of transcription factors that regulate neural crest development. (medscape.com)
  • Numerous studies of intestinal epithelial homeostasis have shown that Atonal homolog 1 (Atoh1), a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor, is essential for the intestinal goblet cell differentiation. (hindawi.com)
  • The basic region, located at the N-terminal end of the domain, is involved in DNA binding and consists of ∼15 amino acids with a high number of basic residues. (plantcell.org)
  • 5] This gene encodes the basic helix-loop-helix structure and functions as a transcription factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The PAX3 gene encodes a transcription factor with a paired box domain, an octapeptide domain, and a homeobox domain essential for survival of melanocytes during development. (medscape.com)
  • The MITF gene encodes a transcription factor containing a basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper. (medscape.com)
  • Additionally we also found that other attributes such as neighboring motif composition, distance from transcription start site, nucleosome density, DNA methylation and average gene expression were also contributing to PIL5 DNA-binding specificity. (elsevier.com)
  • Direct gene activation and RsaL-mediated gene repression, both exerted by LasR on the expression of the output gene lasI, generate a regulatory network motif known as the type 1 incoherent feedforward loop (IFFL-1) that governs 3OC -HSL production. (bireme.br)
  • Ubiquitously expressed basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF transcription factors. (curehunter.com)
  • Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Tax Protein Inhibits the Expression of the Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor MyoD in Muscle Cells: Maintenance of Proliferation and Repression of Differentiation -- Riou et al. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A key family of transcription factors used in mammary gland development is the helix-loop-helix/basic helix-loop-helix (HLH/bHLH) protein family. (nih.gov)
  • The basic/helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors and their homologs form a large family in plant and animal genomes. (elsevier.com)
  • The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor family in plants: a genome-wide study of protein structure and functional diversity", Molecular Biology and Evolution , vol. 20, 2003, pp. 735-747. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • The myogenic basic helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors sh" by Kanaklata Roy, Ivana L. de la Serna et al. (umassmed.edu)
  • The myogenic basic helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors, MyoD, Myf5, myogenin, and MRF4, can each activate the muscle differentiation program when ectopically expressed in non-muscle cells. (umassmed.edu)
  • Although a great deal is understood about how bHLH factors activate gene transcription via E-box DNA consensus sequences, studies of bHLH factor function in higher eukaryotes often have been hindered by the presence of multiple family members. (nih.gov)
  • The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors (TFs) bHLH iridoid synthesis 1 (BIS1) and Triterpene Saponin Activating Regulator (TSAR) 1 and 2, from Catharanthus roseus and Medicago truncatula, respectively, all belong to clade IVa of the bHLH protein family and activate distinct terpenoid pathways, thereby mediating monoterpenoid indole alkaloid (MIA) and triterpene saponin (TS) accumulation, respectively, in these two species. (lu.se)
  • Specifically, the TWIST1 protein is part of a large protein family called basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In the discovery cohort, we identified a single locus (rs17185536-T) on chromosome 6 near the single-minded family basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor 1 ( SIM1 ) gene that was significantly associated with the risk of erectile dysfunction (odds ratio = 1.26, P = 3.4 × 10 −25 ). (pnas.org)
  • Members of this Type 1 transmembrane protein family share structural characteristics including an extracellular domain consisting of multiple epidermal growth factor-like (EGF) repeats, and an intracellular domain consisting of multiple, different domain types. (cancerindex.org)
  • Transcription factors of the plant-specific apetala2/ethylene response factor (AP2/ERF) family co. (ugent.be)
  • This family of HLH factors comprises 4 members (Id1-4) that are highly homologous in their HLH domains. (bloodjournal.org)
  • TWIST2 is a transcription factor belonging to the bHLH (basic helix loop helix) family (Li et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Members of this family of transcription factors are involved in the development of specific subsets of neurons in the developing vertebrate nervous system. (biologists.org)
  • NPAS1 is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-PAS family of transcription factors. (fishersci.com)
  • On the other hand, SAM-pointed domain-containing Ets transcription factor (SPDEF), a member of the "Ets" transcription factor family, has been reported to trigger the mucous cell metaplasia of pulmonary infectious diseases or athsma. (hindawi.com)
  • Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors play diverse roles in controlling many developmental events. (nih.gov)
  • Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors control developmental decisions for a wide range of embryonic cell types. (elsevier.com)
  • Some of these factors control B-cell differentiation at a developmental stage before commitment to the B-cell lineage. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Our data establish YB-1 as a critical regulator of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) expression in sarcoma cells. (cancerindex.org)
  • We have cloned and characterized hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Recently, pharmacological modulation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2 (eIF2? (stanford.edu)
  • The eukaryotic transcription factor NF-Y (which consists of NF-YA, NF-YB and NF-YC subunits) is involved in many important plant development processes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As a first step in developing a simplified in vivo system to examine bHLH factor activities, we examined whether the bHLH muscle regulatory factors MRF4 and MyoD function appropriately in yeast. (nih.gov)
  • Expression of the Microphthalmia-associated Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factor Miin Avian Neuroretina Cells Induces aPigmented Phenotype -- Planque et al. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (ucdenver.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors" by people in this website by year, and whether "Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors" by people in Profiles. (ucdenver.edu)
  • These results indicate that BMAL1:CLOCK-induced transcription is negatively regulated by MAPK-mediated phosphorylation of BMAL1 at Thr-534 and suggest a molecular link between circadian-activated MAPK and the clock oscillator. (elsevier.com)
  • roles of Twist1 and Twist2 as molecular switches during gene transcription. (springer.com)
  • Here, we identify the circadian clock transcription factor SHARP1 as a novel oncogenic target in MLL-AF6 AML, which has the worst prognosis among all subtypes of MLL-rearranged AMLs. (eur.nl)
  • Their mechanism for controlling gene transcription often involves homodimerization or heterodimerization. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • The HY5-PIF regulatory module coordinates light and temperature control of photosynthetic gene transcription. (lancaster.ac.uk)
  • APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR and basic helix-loop-helix tobacco transcription factors cooperatively mediate. (ugent.be)
  • Twist is activated by a variety of signal transduction pathways, including Akt, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, mitogen-activated protein kinase, Ras, and Wnt signaling. (springer.com)
  • Mist1 null (Mist1(KO)) lactating mammary glands were defective in normal lobuloalveolar organization, exhibiting shedding of cells into the alveolus lumen and premature activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling pathway. (nih.gov)
  • One such factor is chronic elevation in the concentration of intracellular Ca 2+ ([Ca 2+ ] i ), sometimes called excitotoxicity ( 4 ), which may be triggered by sustained β-cell depolarization resulting from chronic stimulation. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) is a rapidly responding intracellular effector of neurotransmitter signaling and growth factor signaling in mature neurons ( Lonze and Ginty, 2002 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • However, myocardial CaMKII is excessively activated during disease conditions where it contributes to loss of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, membrane hyperexcitability, premature cell death, and hypertrophic and inflammatory transcription. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Here we show that MAPK associates with a basic helix-loop-helix-PAS transcription factor BMAL1, a positive regulator for the autoregulatory feedback loop of the circadian oscillator. (elsevier.com)
  • Sanada, K , Okano, T & Fukada, Y 2002, ' Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylates and negatively regulates basic helix-loop-helix-PAS transcription factor BMAL1 ', Journal of Biological Chemistry , vol. 277, no. 1, pp. 267-271. (elsevier.com)
  • Karen A. Hudson and Matthew E. Hudson, "A Classification of Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors of Soybean," International Journal of Genomics , vol. 2015, Article ID 603182, 10 pages, 2015. (hindawi.com)
  • Waterlogging (WL) is a key factor hindering soybean crop productivity worldwide. (biomedcentral.com)
  • GO annotations related to this gene include transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding and protein dimerization activity . (genecards.org)
  • The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor neuroD is expressed in the rod lineage of the teleost retina. (nih.gov)
  • Loss of CREB function in a cell-autonomous manner impairs dendritic development, decreases the expression of the neurogenic transcription factor NeuroD and of the neuronal microtubule-associated protein, doublecortin (DCX), and compromises the survival of newborn neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • Ngn1 or Neurod3), a bHLH transcription factor encoded on a known schizophrenia linkage region in 5q31.1, induces glutamatergic and suppresses GABAergic neuronal differentiation during embryonic neurodevelopment. (nih.gov)
  • bHLH transcription factors function in neuronal development in organisms as diverse as worms and vertebrates. (elsevier.com)
  • Portman, DS & Emmons, SW 2000, ' The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors LIN-32 and HLH-2 function together in multiple steps of a C. elegans neuronal sublineage ', Development , vol. 127, no. 24, pp. 5415-5426. (elsevier.com)
  • The members of the ubiquitously expressed E-protein subfamily of basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) transcription factors, E12/E47, SEF2-1 and HEB, have important roles as regulators of gene expression in various differentiation processes, including lymphocyte development and myogenesis. (dissertations.se)
  • Deletion of the MRF4 transcription activation domain (TAD) or point mutations that abolish MRF4 DNA interactions inhibit HIS3 expression. (nih.gov)
  • Within the developing heart, Hand1 expression becomes restricted predominantly to the left ventricle, whereas Hand2 becomes restricted predominantly to the left ventricle, for which findings have shown each Hand factor to be necessary for normal chamber formation. (elsevier.com)
  • 1. Activation of transcription factors and induction of gene expression. (brainscape.com)
  • Our research demonstrated that this transcription factor is specifically upregulated in ischemic tissue following brain injury, with particularly strong expression in the limbic system, thalamus, and cortex. (stanford.edu)
  • Expression of the transcription factors snail, slug, and twist and their clinical significance in human breast cancer. (springer.com)
  • found that LSD1 epigenetically suppressed the expression of the gene encoding NOTCH1, enabling the activity of the neuroendocrine cell lineage-associated transcription factor ASCL1. (sciencemag.org)
  • The specificity of the dimers depends on several factors: partner choice, phosphorylation, other protein-protein interactions and spatial-temporal expression (Murre et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Here, we developed a library of stabilized α-helices of OLIG2 (SAH-OLIG2) to test the capacity of hydrocarbon-stapled peptides to disrupt OLIG2 homodimerization, which drives the development and chemoresistance of glioblastoma multiforme, one of the deadliest forms of human brain cancer. (uu.nl)
  • We report that thapsigargin induces activating transcription factor-4 (ATF4) in primary cortical neurons (PCNs) derived from rat and APP(Swe) nontransgenic (nTg) and transgenic (Tg) mice. (stanford.edu)
  • Subsequently, we discuss the role of transcription factors nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), Myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2), and Forkhead box (FOXO) and their associated posttranslational modifications as it pertains to regulating each of these networks. (degruyter.com)
  • TWIST2 contains 2 nuclear localization signals, a basic helix loop helix (bHLH) domain and a TWIST box domain (Modified from Gong and Li, 2002). (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • TWIST2 structure includes 2 nuclear localization signals at the N-terminus (aa 31-34, aa 49-53), a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain (aa 66-117) and a C-terminal TWIST box region (aa 141-160) (Gong and Li, 2002). (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Several previously known partners of STAT1, as well as new partners, were identified by TIC-OATFA, including the upstream stimulatory factors 1 and 2 (USF1, USF2), nuclear factor of activated T cells, TATA box-binding protein, nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2, nuclear factor-kappa B, and nuclear factor 1. (curehunter.com)
  • Both USF1 and nuclear factor-kappa B are well known to interact with STAT1, but the other five TFs are previously unreported STAT1 interaction partners. (curehunter.com)
  • Neurogenin3 (NEUROG3) is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor required for development of the endocrine pancreas in mice. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In mice, pancreatic progenitor cells give rise to functional endocrine cells through an endocrine progenitor intermediate that expresses the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor Neurogenin3 (Neurog3) ( 1 - 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Two other factors, HEB and E2-2, are also involved in B-cell development, because mice deficient for these factors demonstrate perturbations of B-cell development as well. (bloodjournal.org)