Recurring supersecondary structures characterized by 20 amino acids folding into two alpha helices connected by a non-helical "loop" segment. They are found in many sequence-specific DNA-BINDING PROTEINS and in CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
DNA-binding motifs formed from two alpha-helixes which intertwine for about eight turns into a coiled coil and then bifurcate to form Y shaped structures. Leucines occurring in heptad repeats end up on the same sides of the helixes and are adjacent to each other in the stem of the Y (the "zipper" region). The DNA-binding residues are located in the bifurcated region of the Y.
A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.
Inhibitor of differentiation proteins are negative regulators of BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. They inhibit CELL DIFFERENTIATION and induce CELL PROLIFERATION by modulating different CELL CYCLE regulators.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A family of transcription factors that contain regions rich in basic residues, LEUCINE ZIPPER domains, and HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIFS.
Maf proto-oncogene protein is the major cellular homolog of the V-MAF ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It was the first of the mammalian MAF TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS identified, and it is induced in activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of INTERLEUKIN-4. c-maf is frequently translocated to an immunoglobulin locus in MULTIPLE MYELOMA.
A family of transcription factors found primarily in PLANTS that bind to the G-box DNA sequence CACGTG or to a consensus sequence CANNTG.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates the CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development of a variety of cell types including MELANOCYTES; OSTEOCLASTS; and RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. Mutations in MITF protein have been associated with OSTEOPETROSIS and WAARDENBURG SYNDROME.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that was originally described as a transcriptional regulator controlling expression of the BETA-GLOBIN gene. It may regulate the expression of a wide variety of genes that play a role in protecting cells from oxidative damage.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.
A CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein found in LIVER; INTESTINES; LUNG and ADIPOSE TISSUE. It is an important mediator of INTERLEUKIN-6 signaling.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Ubiquitously expressed basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF transcription factors. They bind CANNTG sequences in the promoters of a variety of GENES involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A family of high molecular weight Maf transcription factors that contain distinct activation domains.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A genus of chiefly Eurasian and African land snails including the principal edible snails as well as several pests of cultivated plants.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.
A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.
A CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein found in LIVER; ADIPOSE TISSUE; INTESTINES; LUNG; ADRENAL GLANDS; PLACENTA; OVARY and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (LEUKOCYTES, MONONUCLEAR). Experiments with knock-out mice have demonstrated that CCAAT-enhancer binding protein-alpha is essential for the functioning and differentiation of HEPATOCYTES and ADIPOCYTES.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
An activating transcription factor that plays a key role in cellular responses to GENOTOXIC STRESS and OXIDATIVE STRESS.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of GENES including C-JUN GENES; CYCLIN A; CYCLIN D1; and ACTIVATING TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR 3.
Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.
A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Activating transcription factors were originally identified as DNA-BINDING PROTEINS that interact with early promoters from ADENOVIRUSES. They are a family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors that bind to the consensus site TGACGTCA of the cyclic AMP response element, and are closely related to CYCLIC AMP-RESPONSIVE DNA-BINDING PROTEIN.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.
The so-called general transcription factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE II and that are required to initiate transcription. They include TFIIA; TFIIB; TFIID; TFIIE; TFIIF; TFIIH; TFII-I; and TFIIJ. In vivo they apparently bind in an ordered multi-step process and/or may form a large preinitiation complex called RNA polymerase II holoenzyme.
A family of zinc finger transcription factors that share homology with Kruppel protein, Drosophila. They contain a highly conserved seven amino acid spacer sequence in between their ZINC FINGER MOTIFS.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
An activating transcription factor that regulates the expression of a variety of GENES involved in amino acid metabolism and transport. It also interacts with HTLV-I transactivator protein.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A ubiquitously expressed zinc finger-containing protein that acts both as a repressor and activator of transcription. It interacts with key regulatory proteins such as TATA-BINDING PROTEIN; TFIIB; and ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
The major sequence-specific DNA-binding component involved in the activation of transcription of RNA POLYMERASE II. It was originally described as a complex of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN and TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS. It is now know that TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE PROTEINS may take the place of TATA-box binding protein in the complex.
A GATA transcription factor that is expressed in the MYOCARDIUM of developing heart and has been implicated in the differentiation of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. GATA4 is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION and regulates transcription of cardiac-specific genes.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.

Ski is a component of the histone deacetylase complex required for transcriptional repression by Mad and thyroid hormone receptor. (1/1060)

The N-CoR/SMRT complex containing mSin3 and histone deacetylase (HDAC) mediates transcriptional repression by nuclear hormone receptors and Mad. The proteins encoded by the ski proto-oncogene family directly bind to N-CoR/SMRT and mSin3A, and forms a complex with HDAC. c-Ski and its related gene product Sno are required for transcriptional repression by Mad and thyroid hormone receptor (TRbeta). The oncogenic form, v-Ski, which lacks the mSin3A-binding domain, acts in a dominant-negative fashion, and abrogates transcriptional repression by Mad and TRbeta. In ski-deficient mouse embryos, the ornithine decarboxylase gene, whose expression is normally repressed by Mad-Max, is expressed ectopically. These results show that Ski is a component of the HDAC complex and that Ski is required for the transcriptional repression mediated by this complex. The involvement of c-Ski in the HDAC complex indicates that the function of the HDAC complex is important for oncogenesis.  (+info)

Type 2 diabetes: evidence for linkage on chromosome 20 in 716 Finnish affected sib pairs. (2/1060)

We are conducting a genome scan at an average resolution of 10 centimorgans (cM) for type 2 diabetes susceptibility genes in 716 affected sib pairs from 477 Finnish families. To date, our best evidence for linkage is on chromosome 20 with potentially separable peaks located on both the long and short arms. The unweighted multipoint maximum logarithm of odds score (MLS) was 3.08 on 20p (location, chi = 19.5 cM) under an additive model, whereas the weighted MLS was 2.06 on 20q (chi = 57 cM, recurrence risk,lambda(s) = 1. 25, P = 0.009). Weighted logarithm of odds scores of 2.00 (chi = 69.5 cM, P = 0.010) and 1.92 (chi = 18.5 cM, P = 0.013) were also observed. Ordered subset analyses based on sibships with extreme mean values of diabetes-related quantitative traits yielded sets of families who contributed disproportionately to the peaks. Two-hour glucose levels in offspring of diabetic individuals gave a MLS of 2. 12 (P = 0.0018) at 9.5 cM. Evidence from this and other studies suggests at least two diabetes-susceptibility genes on chromosome 20. We have also screened the gene for maturity-onset diabetes of the young 1, hepatic nuclear factor 4-a (HNF-4alpha) in 64 affected sibships with evidence for high chromosomal sharing at its location on chromosome 20q. We found no evidence that sequence changes in this gene accounted for the linkage results we observed.  (+info)

Hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 regulates intestinal expression of the guanylin/heat-stable toxin receptor. (3/1060)

We have investigated the regulation of gene transcription in the intestine using the guanylyl cyclase C (GCC) gene as a model. GCC is expressed in crypts and villi in the small intestine and in crypts and surface epithelium of the colon. DNase I footprint, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), transient transfection assays, and mutagenesis experiments demonstrated that GCC transcription is regulated by a critical hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 (HNF-4) binding site between bp -46 and -29 and that bp -38 to -36 were essential for binding. Binding of HNF-4 to the GCC promoter was confirmed by competition EMSA and by supershift EMSA. In Caco-2 and T84 cells, which express both GCC and HNF-4, the activity of GCC promoter and/or luciferase reporter plasmids containing 128 or 1973 bp of 5'-flanking sequence was dependent on the HNF-4 binding site in the proximal promoter. In COLO-DM cells, which express neither GCC nor HNF-4, cotransfection of GCC promoter/luciferase reporter plasmids with an HNF-4 expression vector resulted in 23-fold stimulation of the GCC promoter. Mutation of the HNF-4 binding site abolished this transactivation. Transfection of COLO-DM cells with the HNF-4 expression vector stimulated transcription of the endogenous GCC gene as well. These results indicate that HNF-4 is a key regulator of GCC expression in the intestine.  (+info)

Silencing of the Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 1 gene by the Max-Mad1-mSin3A modulator of chromatin structure. (4/1060)

The tumor-associated latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) gene in the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome is activated by EBV-encoded proteins and cellular factors that are part of general signal transduction pathways. As previously demonstrated, the proximal region of the LMP1 promoter regulatory sequence (LRS) contains a negative cis element with a major role in EBNA2-mediated regulation of LMP1 gene expression in B cells. Here, we show that this silencing activity overlaps with a transcriptional enhancer in an LRS sequence that contains an E-box-homologous motif. Mutation of the putative repressor binding site relieved the repression both in a promoter-proximal context and in a complete LRS context, indicating a functional role of the repressor. Gel retardation assays showed that members of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor family, including Max, Mad1, USF, E12, and E47, and the corepressor mSin3A bound to the E-box-containing sequence. The enhancer activity correlated with the binding of USF. Moreover, the activity of the LMP1 promoter in reporter constructs was upregulated by overexpression of USF1 and USF2a, and the transactivation was inhibited by the concurrent expression of Max and Mad1. This suggests that Max-Mad1-mediated anchorage of a multiprotein complex including mSin3A and histone deacetylases to the E-box site constitutes the basis for the repression. Removal of acetyl moieties from histones H3 and H4 should result in a chromatin structure that is inaccessible to transcription factors. Accordingly, inhibition of deacetylase activity with trichostatin A induced expression of the endogenous LMP1 gene in EBV-transformed cells.  (+info)

Notch signaling imposes two distinct blocks in the differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts. (5/1060)

Notch signal transduction regulates expression of downstream genes through the activation of the DNA-binding protein Su(H)/CBF1. In Drosophila most of Notch signaling requires Su(H); however, some Notch-dependent processes occur in the absence of Su(H) suggesting that Notch signaling does not always involve activation of this factor. Using constitutively active forms of Notch lacking CBF1-interacting sequences we identified a Notch signaling pathway that inhibits myogenic differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts in the absence of CBF1 activation. Here we show that ligand-induced Notch signaling suppresses myogenesis in C2C12 myoblasts that express a dominant negative form of CBF1, providing additional evidence for CBF1-independent Notch signal transduction. Surprisingly mutant forms of Notch deficient in CBF1 activation are unable to antagonize MyoD activity, despite the fact that they inhibit myogenesis. Moreover, Notch-induced antagonism of MyoD requires CBF1 suggesting that the CBF1-dependent pathway mediates a cell-type-specific block in the myogenic program. However, Notch signaling in the absence of CBF1 activation blocks both myogenesis and osteogenesis, indicative of a general block in cellular differentiation. Taken together our data provide evidence for two distinct Notch signaling pathways that function to block differentiation at separate steps during the process of myogenesis in C2C12 myoblasts.  (+info)

Transcriptional activation by ETS and leucine zipper-containing basic helix-loop-helix proteins. (6/1060)

The immunoglobulin mu heavy-chain gene enhancer contains closely juxtaposed binding sites for ETS and leucine zipper-containing basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH-zip) proteins. To understand the mu enhancer function, we have investigated transcription activation by the combination of ETS and bHLH-zip proteins. The bHLH-zip protein TFE3, but not USF, cooperated with the ETS domain proteins PU.1 and Ets-1 to activate a tripartite domain of this enhancer. Deletion mutants were used to identify the domains of the proteins involved. Both TFE3 and USF enhanced Ets-1 DNA binding in vitro by relieving the influence of an autoinhibitory domain in Ets-1 by direct protein-protein associations. Several regions of Ets-1 were found to be necessary, whereas the bHLH-zip domain was sufficient for this effect. Our studies define novel interactions between ETS and bHLH-zip proteins that may regulate combinatorial transcription activation by these protein families.  (+info)

Barley BLZ2, a seed-specific bZIP protein that interacts with BLZ1 in vivo and activates transcription from the GCN4-like motif of B-hordein promoters in barley endosperm. (7/1060)

A barley endosperm cDNA, encoding a DNA-binding protein of the bZIP class of transcription factors, BLZ2, has been characterized. The Blz2 mRNA expression is restricted to the endosperm, where it precedes that of the hordein genes. BLZ2, expressed in bacteria, binds specifically to the GCN4-like motif (GLM; 5'-GTGAGTCAT-3') in a 43-base pair oligonucleotide derived from the promoter region of a Hor-2 gene (B1-hordein). This oligonucleotide also includes the prolamin box (PB; 5'-TGTAAAG-3'). Binding by BLZ2 is prevented when the GLM is mutated to 5'-GTGctTCtc-3' but not when mutations affect the PB. The BLZ2 protein is a potent transcriptional activator in a yeast two-hybrid system where it dimerizes with BLZ1, a barley bZIP protein encoded by the ubiquitously expressed Blz1 gene. Transient expression experiments in co-bombarded developing barley endosperms demonstrate that BLZ2 transactivates transcription from the GLM of the Hor-2 gene promoter and that this activation is also partially dependent on the presence of an intact PB. A drastic decrease in GUS activity is observed in co-bombarded barley endosperms when using as effectors equimolar mixtures of Blz2 and Blz1 in antisense constructs. These results strongly implicate the endosperm-specific BLZ2 protein from barley, either as a homodimer or as a heterodimer with BLZ1, as an important transcriptional activator of seed storage protein genes containing the GLM in their promoters.  (+info)

The tmp gene, encoding a membrane protein, is a c-Myc target with a tumorigenic activity. (8/1060)

The c-Myc oncoprotein induces cell proliferation and transformation through its activity as a transcription factor. Uncovering the genes regulated by c-Myc is an essential step for understanding these processes. We recently isolated the tumor-associated membrane protein gene, Tmp, from a c-myc-induced mouse brain tumor. Here we show that Tmp is specifically highly expressed in mammary tumors and T-cell lymphomas which develop in c-myc transgenic mice, suggesting that Tmp expression is a general characteristic of c-Myc-induced tumors. In addition, Tmp expression is induced upon serum stimulation of fibroblasts as shown in a time course closely correlated with c-myc expression. We have isolated the Tmp promoter region and identified a putative c-Myc binding element, CACGTG, located in the first intron of the gene. We show here that constructs containing the Tmp regulatory region fused to a reporter gene are activated by c-Myc through this CACGTG element and that the c-Myc-Max protein complex can bind to this element. Moreover, an inducible form of c-Myc, the MycER fusion protein, can activate the endogenous Tmp gene. We also show that Tmp-overexpressing fibroblasts induce rapidly growing tumors when injected into nude mice, suggesting that Tmp may possess a tumorigenic activity. Thus, TMP, a member of a novel family of membrane glycoproteins with a suggested role in cellular contact, is a c-Myc target and is possibly involved in c-Myc-induced transformation.  (+info)

Kobos R, Nagai M, Tsuda M, Merl MY, Saito T, Laé M, Mo Q, Olshen A, Lianoglou S, Leslie C, Ostrovnaya I, Antczak C, Djaballah H, Ladanyi M. Combining integrated genomics and functional genomics to dissect the biology of a cancer-associated, aberrant transcription factor, the ASPSCR1-TFE3 fusion oncoprotein. J Pathol. 2013 Apr; 229(5):743-754 ...
Transcription factor EB (TFEB) is a member of the MiTF/TFE (Microphthalmia/TFE) subfamily of basic/helix-loop-helix/leucine zipper transcription factors. This group of proteins is involved in the proliferation and development of specific cell types such as osteoclasts or melanocytes.
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As a prominent oncomir, miR-155 plays a role in many of the above oncogenic processes. It down-regulates BCL6 (B-cell lymphoma 6) protein [8], which is an evolutionarily conserved zinc finger transcription factor that contains an N-terminal POZ/BTB domain. As BCL6 has been shown to modulate the STAT-dependent Interleukin 4 (IL-4) responses of B cells, miR-155 acts to increase B cell functioning. Also, since BCL6 interacts with several co-repressor complexes to inhibit transcription, and its gene is frequently trans-located and hyper-mutated in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), miR-155 acts to enhance transcription and contribute to the pathogenesis of DLBCL. Reduction of BCL6 then leads to up-regulation of known BCL6 targets such as inhibitor of differentiation (Id2), Interleukin-6 (IL6), cMyc, Cyclin D1, and Mip1α/Ccl3, all of which promote cell survival and proliferation [8].. MiR-155 also upregulates Mxd1/Mad1, a network of basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factors ...
Background: Control of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) expression is critical for pancreatic beta cell survival. Results: FOXO1 binds to the TXNIP promoter; blocks ChREBP occupancy, and inhibits glucose-induced beta cell TXNIP transcription. Conclusion:FOXO1controls glucose-induced gene expression by competing with ChREBP at target promoters, e.g. TXNIP and L-PK. Significance: This represents a novel gene regulatory mechanism and is the first demonstration of FOXO1-ChREBP cross-talk. © 2013 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc ...
The ability of an organism to sense and store nutrients is vital to survival. The liver is the major organ responsible for converting excess dietary carbohydrate to lipid for storage. An elegant molecular pathway has evolved that allows increased glucose flux into hepatocytes to generate a signaling …
Background Mutations in αB-crystallin result in proteotoxic cardiomyopathy with desmin mislocalization to protein aggregates. Intermittent fasting ( IF ) is a novel approach to activate transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master regulator of the autophagy-lysosomal pathway, in the myocardium. We teste …
The Myc/Max/Mad network comprises a group of transcription factors that co-interact to regulate gene-specific transcriptional activation or repression. This gene encodes a protein member of the Myc/Max/Mad network. This protein has a basic-Helix-Loop-Helix-zipper domain (bHLHzip) with which it binds the canonical DNA sequence CANNTG, known as the E box, following heterodimerization with Max proteins. This protein is a transcriptional repressor and an antagonist of Myc-dependent transcriptional activation and cell growth. This protein represses transcription by binding to DNA and recruiting Sin3 corepressor proteins through its N-terminal Sin3-interaction domain [1][4] ...
A similar pattern was found in expression of and were upregulated by both caChREBP and dnChREBP. S2 Fig: The presence of ChoRE sequences within the ChIP-seq peaks. We explored the anti-ChREBP ChIP-seq data using the Integrated Genome Internet browser and demonstrated the presence of ChoRE sequence identified with this study in the summit of ChIP-seq SAR191801 peaks in mouse liver and white adipose cells. SAR191801 Gray vertical collection shows the position where previously recognized ChoRE is located.(TIF) pone.0147411.s002.tif (823K) GUID:?179A5947-3E1A-4EA2-A10E-B7DB51284AB8 Data Availability StatementAll relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files. Abstract Carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP) is an important transcription element that regulates a variety of glucose-responsive genes in hepatocytes. To day, only two natural isoforms, Chrebp and Chrebp, have been recognized. Although ChREBP is known to be indicated in pancreatic cells, most of the ...
Whats a transcription factor of the basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper family doing in the cytoplasm? Sans et al. explored why nearly all of the transcription factor MondoA and its binding partner protein called Mlx is found in the cytoplasm but the protein appears to function as a transcription factor in the nucleus. The authors found that in primary cultures of human muscle or erythroblast cells, MondoA and Mlx were associated with the mitochondria. Inhibition of nuclear shuttling of the proteins with an inhibitor of the CRM1 nuclear export factor caused MondoA (detected by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy) to accumulate in the nucleus. Thus, the authors suspected that MondoA could function to carry signals from the mitochondria to the nucleus. They obtained further circumstantial evidence for such a role from microarray experiments designed to detect genes transcribed in response to MondoA and Mlx. MondoA-Mlx regulated a broad range of targets, which included many genes associated ...
DALLAS - Oct. 18, 2004 - Researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas are one step closer to understanding how high carbohydrate diets lead to obesity and diabetes. Dr. Kosaku Uyeda, professor of biochemistry, has shown that a single protein called carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP), discovered by his research group, activates several genes that cause cells in the liver to turn sugar into fat. Their work appears in two studies in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The first study, published in an earlier issue, is available online, and the second, also online, will appear in an upcoming issue of PNAS. Purifying ChREBP from rat livers took two postdoctoral fellows two years of very hard work, said Dr. Uyeda, senior author of both studies and a research scientist at the Veterans Affairs North Texas Health Care System. With the discovery of this factor, the biochemical mechanism of how carbohydrates are converted to fat has become clearer. Eating ...
Mondo Media is an American company that produces animation targeted at teens and young adults. The company was founded in 1988 in San Francisco, California. The company produces ad-supported, internet-based animated segments called Mondo Mini Shows. Mondos most successful shows are Happy Tree Friends, which was later adapted for TV, home video, a video game, and merchandise, Dick Figures which is adapted into a theatrical film, has a line of merchandises and was nominated for an Annie Award for Best Directing in an Animated Television or other Broadcast Venue Production, and Deep Space 69. Other series distributed by Mondo Media feature notable writers and voice actors. Short running series Off The Curb stars voice actors Carlos Alazraqui, Cedric Yarbrough, John Di Maggio, Fred Tatasciore, and Gary Anthony Williams. Mr. Wong was created and voiced by South Park writers Pam Brady and Kyle McCulloch. According to AdAge Magazine in January 2013, Mondo Media was the top-ranked and all-time most ...
human MONDOA protein: basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper transcriptional activator that constitutes a positive branch of a max-like network; RefSeq NM_014938
Myc-DDK-tagged ORF clone of Homo sapiens MAX-like protein X (MLX), transcript variant 1 as transfection-ready DNA - 10 µg - OriGene - cdna clones
Ho individuato nel mondo Dalmata nella persona del Sig.Cesare Filippelli, con il semplice contatto telefonico ed il supporto SUPER PROFESSIONALE ricevuto, una organizzazione cinolfila al TOP che mi ha, (dopo anni di forte desiderio irrealizzato e rimandato..), stimolato a cedere ad uno degli affetti più intensi che madre natura ci ha riservato, il Cane ed in questo caso il Dalmata. Consiglio a tutti di fare questa esperienza, ho ceduto per arricchire la mia famiglia di un affetto incondizionato ed intenso, e di farla presso Mondo Dalmata credetemi! Giancarlo P. ...
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Raccomandata Ricevuta Ritorno - Per....Un Mondo Di Cristallo | Nulla,Su Una Rupe,Il Mondo Cade Su Di Me,Nel Mio Quartiere,LOmbra,Un Palco Di Marionette,Sogni Di Cristallo Nulla MP3 FLAC
Sin3 forms the scaffold for a multiprotein corepressor complex that silences transcription via the action of histone deacetylases. Sin3 is recruited to the DNA by several DNA binding repressors, such as the helix-loop-helix proteins of the Mad family. Here, we elaborate on the Mad-Sin3 interaction based on a binding study, solution structure, and dynamics of the PAH2 domain of mSin3 in complex to an extended Sin3 interacting domain (SID) of 24 residues of Mad1. We show that SID residues Met7 and Glu23, outside the previously defined minimal binding motif, mediate additional hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions with PAH2. On the basis of these results we propose an extended consensus sequence describing the PAH2-SID interaction specifically for the Mad family, showing that residues outside the hydrophobic core of the SID interact with PAH2 and modulate binding affinity to appropriate levels ...
We proposed above that one way to generate MAX-like cells is to modify the energy model (Adelson and Bergen, 1985) by combining inputs from simple cells with a range of preferred spatial frequencies. To test the effect of this scenario on MAX-like behavior in complex cells, we created two versions of the energy model. In the classical version, the complex cells received input from a single pair of simple cells with identical preferred spatial frequencies and receptive fields 90° out of spatial phase from one another. The sensitivity of each simple cell varied (in the direction perpendicular to the preferred orientation) as a Gabor function of distance: S1 = cos(1.5πx) × e−x2/0.23; S2 = sin(1.5πx) × e−x2/0.23.. In the MAX-like version of the model, the complex cell received input from an additional pair of simple cells with a preferred spatial frequency of a little less than half that of those in pair 1: S3 = cos(0.6πx) × e−x2/0.23; S4 = sin(0.6πx) × e−x2/0.23.. For each version ...
The production of an artificial turf surface follows a very rigorous path. After controlling the raw materials, we proceed with the dosage of the ingredients for the production of the fibre. For this purpose Mondo uses a gravimetric dosing system that guarantees the same dosages every time, eliminating any human error. The doser slowly mixes the ingredients (polymers, dyes, stabilizers, etc..). The mixture then passes into the hot extruder that transforms the compound into a fibre and places it in a cooling tank. The fibre is then dried and ironed, - explains Testa - but its structure is still unstable and so we are able to intervene on the molecular orientation to impart specific characteristics. If we were to produce a fishing line, therefore with a high tear-resistance, we need perfectly aligned molecules, like a kind of chain. That line would also be easily divisible in its length, because the bond between one chain of molecules and another is weak. However, the fibre for a football pitch ...
PASSATO E PRESENTE - Neo-autoritarismo e rivolte popolari nel mondo arabo ( Proposes a reflectionon the current dynamics of change in Arabian countries, starting with a structuralanalysis. The first part is devoted to a brief analysis of the transformations of theArab regimes in the past two to three decades that coincide with the period of the so-called neo-liberal globalization. The second part provides some food for thought andinterpretative keys on the dynamics and hence on the possible developments of theso-called
HARTING Technology Group è a vostra disposizione in tutto il mondo. La nostra presenza globale è illustrata in questa panoramica.
Etymologie, Etimolog a, tymologie, Etimologia, Etymology - @_ Welt, Mundo, Monde, Mondo, World - Wirtschaft, Econom a, conomie, Economia, Economy
Lolas Burrito & Burger Joint: Mondo Burritos - See 110 traveler reviews, 54 candid photos, and great deals for Jacksonville, FL, at TripAdvisor.
In recent years, sugars have been recognized as important signal molecules that affect a variety of physiological responses and in particular regulate genes involved in photosynthesis, sink metabolism, and defense response (Koch, 1996;Smeekens, 1998; Roitsch, 1999; Sheen et al., 1999). Whereas the effect of sugars on gene regulation is well established, the nature of the sugar signal, and the molecular mechanisms involved in sugar perception and intracellular signal transmission, are largely unknown. Suc is the major form of translocated carbon in higher plants and was shown to regulate a number of carbohydrate-responsive genes. Whereas in many cases the effects of Suc could be mimicked by hexoses, such as Glc and Fru, a few studies demonstrated the existence of Suc-specific regulatory pathways (Chiou and Bush, 1998; Rook et al., 1998). In principle, a sugar signal could be generated by extracellular recognition via a soluble or membrane-bound receptor molecule or by intracellular sensing at ...
This prezi provides students with information about the library and resources available to them to use throughout the school year.
In un giorno come tanti altri, Gerry Lane e la sua famiglia si trovano in auto bloccati nel traffico metropolitano. Lane, un ex-impiegato delle Nazioni Unite, ha la sensazione che non si tratti del classico ingorgo. Il cielo da lì a poco si riempie di elicotteri della polizia, e gli agenti in motocicletta sfrecciano allimpazzata da tutte le parti: la città è in preda al caos. Ovunque per le strade, orde di persone si avventano ferocemente tra di loro, contagiandosi con un morso di un virus letale che trasforma gli esseri umani in creature irriconoscibili e feroci. Le ipotesi che questa epidemia possa sopraffare gli eserciti di tutto il mondo ed arrivare a distruggere i governi e le popolazioni, fanno scendere in campo Lane che deve decidere se mettere in salvo la propria famiglia o combattere in prima persona, nel disperato tentativo di raccogliere informazioni in giro per il mondo su questa terribile epidemia che minaccia la sopravvivenza del genere umano, e fermarla ...
In un giorno come tanti altri, Gerry Lane e la sua famiglia si trovano in auto bloccati nel traffico metropolitano. Lane, un ex-impiegato delle Nazioni Unite, ha la sensazione che non si tratti del classico ingorgo. Il cielo da lì a poco si riempie di elicotteri della polizia, e gli agenti in motocicletta sfrecciano allimpazzata da tutte le parti: la città è in preda al caos. Ovunque per le strade, orde di persone si avventano ferocemente tra di loro, contagiandosi con un morso di un virus letale che trasforma gli esseri umani in creature irriconoscibili e feroci. Le ipotesi che questa epidemia possa sopraffare gli eserciti di tutto il mondo ed arrivare a distruggere i governi e le popolazioni, fanno scendere in campo Lane che deve decidere se mettere in salvo la propria famiglia o combattere in prima persona, nel disperato tentativo di raccogliere informazioni in giro per il mondo su questa terribile epidemia che minaccia la sopravvivenza del genere umano, e fermarla ...
Psychiatrists measuring the degree of similarity between dreams and psychotic ruminations report some strange features common to both.
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Risultati Friendly International 2018 su Risultati.it offre livescore, punteggi, classifiche Friendly International 2018 e dettagli sulle partite.
Un grande lavoro è stato fatto con le città di partenza, che saranno tutte dedicate a Giro-E. Con una tabella di marcia più rilassata, sarà possibile fare conoscere alla cittadinanza e agli ospiti non solo il clima Giro, ma anche le molteplici possibilità offerte dalle e-bike, che consentono di vivere il ciclismo e il cicloturismo in un modo nuovo. Giro-E si conferma così ambasciatore da un lato del mondo elettrico e dallaltro dellItalia come Paese più bello del mondo. Con i suoi percorsi lontani dalle rotte del turismo di massa, il Giro-E, che si svolge negli stessi giorni e sullo stesso percorso del Giro dItalia, esalta la bellezza dellItalia rurale e appenninica, delle grandi montagne e dellentroterra. Grazie alle bici dotate di motore elettrico, oggi tutti possono vivere esperienze prima riservate a ciclisti super allenati e godere di paesaggi mozzafiato. Una possibilità che ha ricadute economiche non indifferenti: ogni anno, per esempio, sono oltre 80 milioni i turisti del ...
Plasmid pFETCh_MLX from Dr. Eric Mendenhalls lab contains the insert MLX homology arms and is published in Genome Res. 2015 Sep 9. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
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GLHA2_ONCKE (P69063 ), GLHA2_ONCTS (P69062 ), GLHA_ACALA (P30970 ), GLHA_AILFU (Q8HZS0 ), GLHA_AILME (Q8WN20 ), GLHA_ANGAN (P27794 ), GLHA_AOTNA (Q3HRV5 ), GLHA_BALAC (P37036 ), GLHA_BOSMU (Q19PY8 ), GLHA_BOVIN (P01217 ), GLHA_BUBBU (Q9GL36 ), GLHA_CALJA (P51499 ), GLHA_CANLF (Q9XSW8 ), GLHA_CAPHI (Q8WMW8 ), GLHA_CAVPO (Q9JK68 ), GLHA_CERNI (Q8WMR3 ), GLHA_CLAGA (P53542 ), GLHA_COTJA (P68242 ), GLHA_CTEID (P30983 ), GLHA_EQUAS (Q28365 ), GLHA_EQUBU (O46642 ), GLHA_FELCA (Q52R91 ), GLHA_FUNHE (P47744 ), GLHA_HORSE (P01220 ), GLHA_HUMAN (P01215 ), GLHA_HYPMO (P37037 ), GLHA_ICTPU (Q9YGP3 ), GLHA_LITCT (P80051 ), GLHA_MACFA (Q9BEH3 ), GLHA_MACMU (P22762 ), GLHA_MACRU (P68267 ), GLHA_MASCO (Q9ERG4 ), GLHA_MELGA (P68241 ), GLHA_MERUN (Q9ERJ6 ), GLHA_MESAU (Q9ERG5 ), GLHA_MICMO (Q9ERG3 ), GLHA_MONDO (Q6YNX4 ), GLHA_MORSA (Q91119 ), GLHA_MOUSE (P01216 ), GLHA_MURCI (P12836 ), GLHA_NIPNI (Q8JIE9 ), GLHA_PANTA (Q9BDI8 ), GLHA_PHYCD (P25329 ), GLHA_PIG (P01219 ), GLHA_RABIT (P07474 ), GLHA_RAT (P11962 ), ...
To all the cunts who recently purchased those Mondo reissues and immediately flipped them on E-Bay for $140: I wish you all had one neck and I had my hands around it. Of course this frustrating tendency is endemic to the same miserable fucks who watched their SunnO))) stock plummet and before that their Japanese hardcore punk. I could go on and on about how easy it was to pluck great soundtracks (and lots of not-so-great soundtracks) out of the $1 bins back in the not-so-distant day but that would only raise my blood pressure and as a sympathetic friend reminded me the other day, its just not worth the effort. After all, the current soundtrack craze will soon join the hula hoop, the mickey mouse hat, the Beta video, the Myspace bulletin and the porno grind sample on that inevitable death march toward total obsolescence. Furthermore, there are occasionally unexpected surprises that come with such reappraisals that bring great joy to real fans. Thanks to the tireless efforts of laudable ...
To all the cunts who recently purchased those Mondo reissues and immediately flipped them on E-Bay for $140: I wish you all had one neck and I had my hands around it. Of course this frustrating tendency is endemic to the same miserable fucks who watched their SunnO))) stock plummet and before that their Japanese hardcore punk. I could go on and on about how easy it was to pluck great soundtracks (and lots of not-so-great soundtracks) out of the $1 bins back in the not-so-distant day but that would only raise my blood pressure and as a sympathetic friend reminded me the other day, its just not worth the effort. After all, the current soundtrack craze will soon join the hula hoop, the mickey mouse hat, the Beta video, the Myspace bulletin and the porno grind sample on that inevitable death march toward total obsolescence. Furthermore, there are occasionally unexpected surprises that come with such reappraisals that bring great joy to real fans. Thanks to the tireless efforts of laudable ...
Hi, purchased one of each, in exactly the same size (28.0 Mondo). Dane has done an article (http://coldthistle.blogspot.com/2013/12/reality-check-dynafit-tlt6-and-la.html) with his usual attention to detail but he fit in two different shell sizes. Here is a direct comparison of weights. Weights (as shown in pics) was done on a food scale. I tared it about 8 times first to make sure it returned to zero correctly after each boot. the TLT6 and Spectre are both brand new out of box, have all
Lampade e sospensioni di lusso . Spediamo in tutto il mondo. possiamo personalizzare ed elaborare qualunque progetto grazie ai nostri laboratori artigiani . Tutto quello che vendiamo é rigorosamente fatto a mano . Luxia.shop tradizione,innovazione,
Underground free tekno movement, musica elettronica agenda eventi party, informazione sul mondo e la cultura underground, musica tekno musica libera. FreeTekno!!!
La venticinquenne Guendalina è unaspirante cantautrice musicista musicista italiana, da 13 anni ha deciso di immergersi in questo mondo, iniziando con un gruppo di teatro-musica al liceo e continuando a cogliere tutte le opportunità possibili. Il suo obiettivo era quello di accumulare più esperienza come casting, stage, trasferimenti per concorsi, concerti e altre iniziative. I concerti sono ciò che Guendalina ama di più, avere un contatto diretto con il pubblico e sperare che possa diventare u
Delcampe riunisce gli acquirenti e i venditori di tutto il mondo di oggetti di collezionismo. Unisciti alla community e scopri oggetti eccezionali!
Una raccolta di migliaia di articoli informativi su importanti cristiani, protestanti, cattolici, e la Chiesa ortodossa parole e argomenti, e su altre religioni del mondo.
Delcampe riunisce gli acquirenti e i venditori di tutto il mondo di oggetti di collezionismo. Unisciti alla community e scopri oggetti eccezionali!
Una raccolta di migliaia di articoli informativi su importanti cristiani, protestanti, cattolici, e la Chiesa ortodossa parole e argomenti, e su altre religioni del mondo.
Dieci finalisti montrano gli avanzamenti innovatori che misurano attraverso tutte le aree di scienza del laboratorio Pittcon, la conferenza principale del mondo e lesposizione per scienza del
Gli infografici sono strumenti di reporting moderni ed estremamente completi. In questa sezione proponiamo e commentiamo le più interessanti statistiche relative al mondo del web con lausilio dellinfografica
Background: ChREBP (carbohydrate response element binding protein) is a glucose-responsive transcription factor that is known to be an important regulator of glycolytic and lipogenic genes in response to glucose. We hypothesized that activation of ChREBP could be relevant to anoxia survival by the anoxia-tolerant turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans. Methods: Expression of ChREBP in response to 5 and 20 h of anoxia was examined using RT-PCR and Western immunoblotting. In addition, subcellular localization and DNA-binding activity of ChREBP protein were assessed and transcript levels of liver pyruvate kinase (LPK), a downstream gene under ChREBP control were quantified using RT-PCR. Results: ChREBP was anoxia-responsive in kidney and liver, with transcript levels increasing by 1.2-1.8 fold in response to anoxia and protein levels increasing by 1.8-1.9 fold. Enhanced nuclear presence under anoxia was also observed in both tissues by 22-2.8 fold. A 4.2 fold increase in DNA binding activity of ChREBP was also
TY - JOUR. T1 - Brain metastasis of crystal-deficient, CD68-positive alveolar soft part sarcoma. T2 - Ultrastructural features and differential diagnosis. AU - Cykowski, Matthew D.. AU - Hicks, John. AU - Sandberg, David I.. AU - Olar, Adriana. AU - Bridge, Julia A.. AU - Greipp, Patricia T.. AU - Navarro, Patricia. AU - Kolodziej, Steven. AU - Bhattacharjee, Meenakshi B.. PY - 2015/2/1. Y1 - 2015/2/1. N2 - We report a case of alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) presenting as an isolated frontal lobe metastasis. The tumor demonstrated little or no immunoreactivity for a broad panel of antibodies yet strong, diffuse immunoreactivity with CD68. On electron microscopy, the characteristic rectangular to rhomboid crystalline inclusions of ASPS were not present. Electron-dense granules resembling peroxisomes were present, sometimes in association with elongated granular structures having a periodic, lattice-like arrangement. Metastatic ASPS was confirmed by demonstration of an ASPSCR1-TFE3 fusion and ...
Find people with Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma through the map. Connect with them and share experiences. Join the Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma community.
Among the landmarks for apicobasal cell polarity, microvilli are actin-based protrusions on the apical surfaces of epithelial and sensory cells. In epithelia of the small intestine and kidney proximal tubule, closely packed microvilli known as the brush border are observed on their apical plasma membranes. They participate in a variety of functions such as nutrient absorption, mechanosensory transduction, and phototransduction. The core structure of microvilli is comprised of parallel actin filaments, and numerous actin-binding proteins, including villin, espin, fimbrin, fascin, and myosins as well as ezrin/ radixin/moesin (ERM) proteins, have been identified as components of microvilli (for reviews see DeRosier and Tilney 2000; Bretscher et al., 2002; Frolenkov et al., 2004). Some transmembrane proteins such as Cad99C, the Drosophila melanogaster orthologue of the vertebrate procadherin 15 (DAlterio et al., 2005; Schlichting et al., 2006), are also known to be constituents of ...
Chinese version below) Man Yi Mandy YAU, 21 years old, is a junior student majoring in Cultural Studies at The Chinese University of Hong Kong. She is currently suffering from the Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma (ASPS). It first occurred in her right thigh in 2011, soon it spread to her lungs, and now it appears in her right brain. It is a very rare form of cancer. According to the Hong Kong Cancer Registry (HKCaR), there are only 191 new cases every year in average. The incident rate is 2 per 100,000 persons overall. Man Yi is tough, brave, and optimistic. The third time to encounter the cancer, she understands that she has limited time so she starts writing about her life and thoughts publicly on Facebook. Man Yi describes the recent episode of her life as the best days and the worst days. To be honest, she has already planned for the worst. However, at the same time, because of ASPS, she is receiving many blessings and love from friends, teachers, and even strangers. She is writing her last ...
Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) has often proven to be resistant to conventional doxorubicin-based chemotherapy, but tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and imm
Provides information to potential participants on the following clinical trial: Phase II Study of Cediranib (AZD2171) in Patients With Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma
Lysosomes degrade and recycle transported cellular components and internalized material by fusing with autophagosomes, phagosomes, and late endosomes. The resulting lysosomal breakdown products are used to generate new macromolecules and to provide energy in response to the nutritional needs of the cell. Recently, lysosome functions were expanded to include roles in nutrient sensing and energy metabolism (4). In this study, we report that the exposure of macrophages to LPS or heat-killed bacteria raises AGS3 levels. The increases in AGS3 reduced signaling through the mTOR pathway. However, in a nutrient-replete state this did not lead to a substantive increase in autophagy, but it did facilitate the nuclear translocation of TFEB, which transcriptionally activates many of the genes involved in lysosomal biogenesis and function. The subsequent increase in lysosomal biogenesis/function helped macrophages to resist intracellular infections by several strains of antibiotic-resistant ...
The role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α) in innate host defense is largely unknown. In this study, we show that PPAR-α is essential for antimycobacterial responses via activation of transcription factor EB (TFEB) transcription and inhibition of lipid body formation. PPAR-α deficiency resulted in an increased bacterial load and exaggerated inflammatory responses during mycobacterial infection. PPAR-α agonists promoted autophagy, lysosomal biogenesis, phagosomal maturation, and antimicrobial defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis or M. bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin. PPAR-α agonists regulated multiple genes involved in autophagy and lysosomal biogenesis, including Lamp2, Rab7, and Tfeb in bone marrow-derived macrophages. Silencing of TFEB reduced phagosomal maturation and antimicrobial responses, but increased macrophage inflammatory responses during mycobacterial infection. Moreover, PPAR-α activation promoted lipid catabolism and fatty acid β-oxidation in ...
Epidemiologic and animal studies implicate overconsumption of fructose in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, but the molecular mechanisms underlying fructose-induced chronic liver diseases remain largely unknown. Here, we have presented evidence supporting the essential function of the lipogenic transcription factor carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP) in mediating adaptive responses to fructose and protecting against fructose-induced hepatotoxicity. In WT mice, a high-fructose diet (HFrD) activated hepatic lipogenesis in a ChREBP-dependent manner; however, in Chrebp-KO mice, a HFrD induced steatohepatitis. In Chrebp-KO mouse livers, a HFrD reduced levels of molecular chaperones and activated the C/EBP homologous protein-dependent (CHOP-dependent) unfolded protein response, whereas administration of a chemical chaperone or Chop shRNA rescued liver injury. Elevated expression levels of cholesterol biosynthesis genes in HFrD-fed Chrebp-KO livers were paralleled ...
The microphthalmia family of transcription factors (MiT/TFEs) controls lysosomal biogenesis and is negatively regulated by the nutrient sensor mTORC1. However, the mechanisms by which cells with constitutive mTORC1 signaling maintain lysosomal catabolism remain to be elucidated. Using the murine epidermis as a model system, we found that epidermal Tsc1 deletion resulted in a phenotype characterized by wavy hair and curly whiskers, and was associated with increased EGFR and HER2 degradation. Unexpectedly, constitutive mTORC1 activation with Tsc1 loss increased lysosomal content via upregulated expression and activity of MiT/TFEs, whereas genetic deletion of Rheb or Rptor or prolonged pharmacologic mTORC1 inactivation had the reverse effect. This paradoxical increase in lysosomal biogenesis by mTORC1 was mediated by feedback inhibition of AKT, and a resulting suppression of AKT-induced MiT/TFE downregulation. Thus, inhibiting hyperactive AKT signaling in the context of mTORC1 loss-of-function ...
Settembre C., Zoncu R., Medina D.L., Vetrini F., Erdin S., Erdin S., Huynh T., Ferron M., Karsenty G., Vellard M.C., Facchinetti V., Sabatini D.M., Ballabio A.. The lysosome plays a key role in cellular homeostasis by controlling both cellular clearance and energy production to respond to environmental cues. However, the mechanisms mediating lysosomal adaptation are largely unknown. Here, we show that the Transcription Factor EB (TFEB), a master regulator of lysosomal biogenesis, colocalizes with master growth regulator mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) on the lysosomal membrane. When nutrients are present, phosphorylation of TFEB by mTORC1 inhibits TFEB activity. Conversely, pharmacological inhibition of mTORC1, as well as starvation and lysosomal disruption, activates TFEB by promoting its nuclear translocation. In addition, the transcriptional response of lysosomal and autophagic genes to either lysosomal dysfunction or pharmacological inhibition of mTORC1 is suppressed in TFEB-/-cells. Interestingly, ...
TFEB is a master gene for lysosomal biogenesis.[7] It encodes a transcription factor that coordinates expression of lysosomal hydrolases, membrane proteins and genes involved in autophagy.[7][8] Upon nutrient depletion and under aberrant lysosomal storage conditions such as in lysosomal storage diseases, TFEB translocates from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, resulting in the activation of its target genes.[7][8] TFEB overexpression in cultured cells induces lysosomal biogenesis, exocytosis and autophagy. [7][8][9] Viral-mediated TFEB overexpression in cellular and mouse models of lysosomal storage disorders and in common neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington, Parkinson and Alzheimer diseases, resulted in intracellular clearance of accumulating molecules and rescue of disease phenotypes.[7][9][10][11][12] TFEB is activated by PGC1-alpha and promotes reduction of htt aggregation and neurotoxicity in a mouse model of Huntington disease.[13] TFEB overexpression has been found in patients with ...
The lysosomal-autophagic pathway is activated by starvation and plays an important role in both cellular clearance and lipid catabolism. However, the transcriptional regulation of this pathway in response to metabolic cues is uncharacterized. Here we show that the transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master regulator of lysosomal biogenesis and autophagy, is induced by starvation through an autoregulatory feedback loop and exerts a global transcriptional control on lipid catabolism via Ppargc1α and Ppar1α. Thus, during starvation a transcriptional mechanism links the autophagic pathway to cellular energy metabolism. The conservation of this mechanism in Caenorhabditis elegans suggests a fundamental role for TFEB in the evolution of the adaptive response to food deprivation. Viral delivery of TFEB to the liver prevented weight gain and metabolic syndrome in both diet-induced and genetic mouse models of obesity, suggesting a new therapeutic strategy for disorders of lipid metabolism. Ballabio and
Ultimate Experience: mondo Solitaire is the ultimate Solitaire experience for your iPhone or iPod touch. With over 100 games and over 200 different combinations of gameplay, youre sure to find your favorites, such as Klondike and FreeCell, plus many new games to discover, like Angkor Wat and Xerces.. The look of pure Win mondo Solitaires beautiful, crisp graphics let you easily identify your cards and assess your current move. Clever tools like the magnifying glass and the paper clip help you intuitively manage your game. Find your Game: A familiar library search lets you sort and select all of your games -- by name, style, favorites, and even popularity. The categorized interface makes it really easy to find the exact game you want to play. Casual Gameplay: mondo Solitaire is a true casual game you can play whenever and wherever, yet dismiss quickly to take phone calls or send messages. When finished, simply tap on the game applications icon and head right back into the action!. ...
Sure we love the Mac OSX, but hasnt it always felt like it was missing just a little something? After much deliberation, our staff deduced that void was surely a fun and incredible-to-look-at Solitaire game! Here at Ambrosia, our developers have really outdone themselves in creating Mondo Solitaire for Mac, providing a scintillating solution for your gaming needs. With over 300 games, vivid graphics, and a smooth, intuitive interface, Mondo is not just another solitaire game-- it is THE Solitaire game for the Mac!. To keep the smiles going, we are happy to celebrate the release of Faces by our good friends at Tap Tap Tap. Faces is a fun app that lets you transform plain photos of your friends into hilarious portraits using your choice of around 200 zany props! The best part is that you dont even need to purchase to get Mondo for Mac-- simply visit the site to learn more!. ...
The CLEAR consensus sequence overlaps that of the E-box (CANNTG), a known target site for basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors (4). In particular, members of the microphthalmia-transcription factor E (MiT/TFE) subfamily of bHLH factors were found to bind sequences similar to the CLEAR consensus (5). The MiT/TFE subfamily is composed of four members in humans: MITF, TFE3, TFEB, and TFEC (6). To determine whether any of these proteins are able to modulate the expression of lysosomal genes, we transfected HeLa cells with plasmids carrying MITF, TFE3, TFEB, or TFEC cDNAs. We observed an increase in the mRNA levels of lysosomal genes (22 out of 23 genes tested) only after TFEB overexpression (Fig. 1C). Accordingly, we detected a significant increase in the activities of lysosomal enzymes β-glucosidase, Cathepsin D, and β-glucuronidase (fig. S5). Induction of lysosomal genes after TFEB overexpression was also observed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells (fig. S6). We predicted ...
Cellular clearance is a fundamental process required by the cells of every species. In eukaryotes, most of the cellular clearing processes occur in a specialized organelle, the lysosome. Given that the requirements of the degradative machinery in a cell may vary depending on tissue type, age and environmental conditions, we postulated that a system coordinates lysosomal activity and that lysosomal function is subject to transcriptional regulation. Using a systems biology-based approach, we discovered a gene regulatory network (CLEAR: Coordinated Lysosomal Enhancement And Regulation) that controls lysosomal biogenesis and function (Sardiello et al, Science 2009) and a master gene, the bHLH-leucine zipper transcription factor TFEB, which binds to CLEAR target sites in the promoter of lysosomal genes and positively regulates their expression (Sardiello et al, Science 2009). TFEB overexpression induces lysosomal biogenesis and increases the cells ability to degrade complex molecules such as mutated ...
Cellular organelles allow the localized regulation of specialized processes. Under certain conditions, such as increased growth, organelles may be required to alter their function. Coordinated regulation of the gene networks required for mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum function has been observed. Now, Sardiello et al. (p. 473; published online 25 June) have discovered a gene network regulating the lysosome, the major organelle involved in the degradation of internalized macromolecules. Many lysosomal genes were regulated by a single transcription factor, TFEB. TFEB itself can be activated when the lysosome malfunctions and can regulate both the abundance of lysosomes found in the cell, as well as the ability to degrade complex molecules, including a mutant protein that accumulates in patients with Huntingtons disease. These results may have implications for the treatment of human lysosomal storage disorders, which are characterized by the aberrant accumulation of macromolecules causing ...
CP1 is a yeast protein which binds to the highly conserved DNA element I (CDEI) of yeast centromeres. We have purified CP1 to near homogeneity; it is comprised of a single polypeptide of molecular weight 58,400. When bound to yeast CEN3 DNA, CP1 protects a 12-15-base pair region centered over CDEI. Methylation interference experiments show that methylations of residues located outside of the 8-base pair CDEI sequence have no detectable effect on CP1 binding, suggesting that the DNA sequences important for CP1 recognition are confined to the CDEI octanucleotide. The equilibrium constant for CP1 binding to CEN3 DNA is relatively low, 3 x 10(8) M-1. Using a novel method to determine relative DNA binding constants, we analyzed the effect of CDEI mutations on CP1 binding. A C to T point mutation at position 5 (CO1) reduces the equilibrium constant about 35-fold, while the insertion of an additional T at this position (CAT) reduces the equilibrium constant 1,400-fold. The effect of these mutations on mitotic
Listen to music from Mondo Generator like Autopilot, So High, So Low & more. Find the latest tracks, albums, and images from Mondo Generator.
The exact mechanism by which the atherogenic lipids oxLDL and CC perturb lysosomal function is not known. Oxidized LDL is taken up by macrophage scavenger receptors and is trafficked to the endolysosomal compartment. Oxidized LDL can then bind and inactivate cathepsins with high affinity,30 inactivate other proteases including the Naβ Gases,31 and produce a form of apolipoproteinB that is highly resistant to hydrolysis.32,33 OxLDL has also been demonstrated in endothelial and smooth muscle cells to inhibit activity and expression of the enzyme crucial to cholesterol ester hydrolysis, LIPA.34 Most recently, the formation of cholesterol microcrystals and ensuing disruption of lysosomal integrity has directly been linked to the buildup of oxLDL in the lysosomal compartment.14 Such a mechanism would favor the notion that the mechanism of lysosomal dysfunction mediated by oxLDL and larger CC lies in a continuum (with the oxLDL pool eventually precipitating as insoluble crystals). Our data support ...
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Member of the 27 Club. Shagy Kennedy was a St. Louis, Missouri guitarist who, most recently played in local hardcore band, Everything Went Black. Prior to joining the group in 2009, Kennedy played in A Thousand Nations and She Notes The Chariots. In October of 2008, he was diagnosed with Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma and ultimately died from the rare form of cancer on March 8, 2011. He was just 27.. ...
PILLAY, Y; FERREIRA, N; MARAIS, LC y MOTALA, A. Alveolar soft part sarcoma in pregnancy: A case report and review of the literature. SA orthop. j. [online]. 2014, vol.13, n.3, pp.45-49. ISSN 2309-8309.. ...
Myc, Mad and Max proteins belong to the essential helix-loop-helix leucine zipper category of transcription elements. ~5-fold and ~2-fold higher level continuous than MaxMax and MadMax, respectively. The protein dimerization prices and also the dimer-DNA prices were discovered to be focus independent suggesting conformational adjustments were price limiting. The Arrhenius activation energies for the dimerization of Myc, Mad and Max conversation with Max had been 20.4 0.8, 29 0.6 and 40 0.2 kJ/mol, respectively. Further, price constants for MaxMax homodimer DNA binding are considerably greater than for MycMax and MadMax heterodimers binding to DNA. Monomer-DNA binding demonstrated a faster price than dimer-DNA binding. These studies also show the rate-limiting stage for the dimer pathway may be the development of proteins dimers which reaction is certainly slower than development of proteins dimers on the DNA user interface, kinetically favoring the monomer pathway. Myc, Max and Mad are people of ...
Transcription regulator. Forms a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein complex with MAD1, MAD4, MNT, WBSCR14 and MLXIP which recognizes the core sequence 5-CACGTG-3. The TCFL4-MAD1, TCFL4-MAD4, TCFL4-WBSCR14 complexes are transcriptional repressors. Plays a role in transcriptional activation of glycolytic target genes. Involved in glucose-responsive gene regulation.
Discontinued; however, we still carry Bel Mondo Beauty Moisture Renewal Mask Bel Mondos all-natural bio-cellulose treatment masks are intensely hydrating and soothing. They excel as super-moisturizing components in standard facial services and as recovery aids that diminish inflammation and redness after a variety of
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Old Mondo poster image outlining the horrors of cocaine Image is distressed and will appear more gray than white Black shirt- 100% cotton, Gildan brand Professionally screen printed
Michael Mike Samuel Brendli[3] (Gordon Heights, 26 de março de 1983)[2] é um lutador americano de luta livre profissional. Ele atualmente trabalha para a WWE no programa SmackDown. Ele é melhor conhecido por seu nome no ringue Mike Mondo e sua passagem como Mikey no grupo Spirit Squad.[2][4] Ele também trabalhou na Ring of Honor e Ohio Valley Wrestling.. ...
Lagunitas Lucky 13 Mondo Large Red Ale is a American Amber / Red Ale style beer brewed by Lagunitas Brewing Company in Petaluma, CA. 4.11 average with 2721 ratings, reviews and opinions.
Make little birthday cakes and treats with this Mondo Non-Stick Mini Springform Tin! Measuring 10 cm wide, this cute cake tin is made from a durable carbon s...
Etymologie, Etimolog a, tymologie, Etimologia, Etymology - @_ Welt, Mundo, Monde, Mondo, World - Medizin, Medicina, M decine, Medicina, Medicine
One Piece755.5: Il mondo di un uomo (Digital Colored) pagina 1 (Carica immagini: 6), One Piece Manga italiano, read One Piece891 on-line
European Gallery In The Yellows blog.Mondo Bizarro has always put on impressive contemporary art shows, right in the heart of the epicenter os renaissance art history. Their upcoming show with Gabriels, an amazing bronze sculptor, looks fantastic! His mutated brine trilobites are beautiful. Heres a few more images from him to peep at.. ...
Maintain strength and energy, increase muscle mass, contribute to normal bone maintenance, and reduce tiredness and fatigue with Ensure Max Protein Shake. This
From the back of the book: La Piaga del Mondo ridusse in pezzi la realtà mortale all’alba dell’Era dei Presagi Perduti, annientando la nazione del Sarkoris e scatenando una bellicosa e famelica orda demoniaca sul mondo. Solo il repentino intervento di alcune nazioni di cavalieri, barbari ed eroi riuscì a bloccare larmata dei demoni contenendola negli aspri territori del perduto Sarkoris e, nel corso del secolo successivo, crociata dopo crociata ha cercato di sconfiggere e cacciare definitivamente quelle malevole creature, senza però mai riuscirci. La linea di artefatti magici conosciuti come pietre di guardia, che si erge a protezione lungo i confini della Piaga del Mondo, è quanto di più vicino ad una vittoria le crociate siano riuscite a raggiungere. Ma queste pietre riescono a malapena a contenere i demoni e a offrire una qualche protezione, e così quando una di essa viene sabotata, i demoni allinterno della Piaga sciamano in un massiccio
Negli ultimi 6 anni ha dato vita ad un processo di acquisizione e distribuzione sul territorio che ha permesso di garantire allutente finale competenza assistenza e vendita dei più noti marchi esclusivi, di alta qualità, appartenenti al mondo delle batterie in generale.. Lorganizzazione distributiva capillare e la pronta consegna in loco sono le maggiori priorità e traguardi della VIGANO SRL.. La società fornisce sul territorio, in esclusiva, accumulatori di corrente di marca:. Tudor - Sia - Maxima - Banner. per autoveicoli privati e commerciali,. Exide - Marathhon- Sprinter - Sonnenschein. per applicazione stazionaria e trazione, . Exide Solar e Trojan. per applicazioni fotovoltaiche,. Trojan e Zenith. per gruppi di continuità (UPS) - Nautica - Mondo del Golf - carrelli elevatori e piattaforme Aeree.. Exide BIKE e SKYRICH. per motoveicoli in tecnologia Litio - acido e AGM.. La vendita e assistenza non si ferma al solo mondo degli accumulatori, ma si completa con:. carica-batterie - ...
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This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. Out of these cookies, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. But opting out of some of these cookies may have an effect on your browsing experience ...
This column is sponsored by Granted, Americas top job search engine. Everybody says exercising is Order good for health; ever wondered exactly what good It does to your body? Right from boosting your mood to reducing your stress levels, from improving your sex life to enhancing your appearance, exercising can be an effective tool in improving your life. Find out more with us! Following Purchase are seven benefits you can achieve while exercising to overall improve your life. Exercising ai??i?? A Mood Booster: After a stressful day at work if you can work out in the gym or briskly walk for 30mins; you will notice how it instantly leaves you happier and helps you unwind. Plasma T 1/2 after one ingestion motilium without prescription is 7-9 hours for adults. Regular exercise makes you feel better about your appearance which in turn […]. May 2, 2013 Read More. ...
Cgbwhd ehzccx Wrist and varicella of the mechanically ventilated; unswerving station and living with as a replacement for both the synergistic network and the online cialis known; survival to aid the definitive of all patients to acquire circa and to increase with a effective of aspiration from another unsusceptible; and, independently, of for pituitary the pleural sclerosis of lifetime considerations who are not needed to facility is. getting a provigil prescription Coryss xllucz. ...
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SREBPs belong to the basic-helix-loop-helix leucine zipper class of transcription factors. Unactivated SREBPs are attached to ... a basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper protein that controls transcription of the low density lipoprotein receptor gene". Cell ... Gasic GP (Apr 1994). "Basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factor and sterol sensor in a single membrane-bound molecule". Cell ... SREBPs have a structure similar to E-box-binding helix-loop-helix (HLH) proteins. However, in contrast to E-box-binding HLH ...
"Transcription enhancer factor 1 interacts with a basic helix-loop-helix zipper protein, Max, for positive regulation of cardiac ... The protein product of MAX contains the basic helix-loop-helix and leucine zipper motifs. It is therefore included in the bHLHZ ... "Transcription enhancer factor 1 interacts with a basic helix-loop-helix zipper protein, Max, for positive regulation of cardiac ... Blackwood EM, Eisenman RN (Mar 1991). "Max: a helix-loop-helix zipper protein that forms a sequence-specific DNA-binding ...
The product of this gene belongs to the family of basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper (bHLH-Zip) transcription factors. These ... a gene at 17q21.1 encoding a putative basic helix-loop-helix leucine-zipper transcription factor". Gene. 181 (1-2): 7-11. doi: ... Billin AN, Eilers AL, Coulter KL, Logan JS, Ayer DE (December 2000). "MondoA, a novel basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper ... Song Z, Yang H, Zhou L, Yang F (2019). "Glucose-Sensing Transcription Factor MondoA/ChREBP as Targets for Type 2 Diabetes: ...
... a basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper (bHLH-Zip)-containing transcription factor, occurs through the direct interaction of ... a second basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper protein that stimulates transcription by binding to a sterol regulatory element ... a basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper protein that controls transcription of the low density lipoprotein receptor gene". Cell ... The encoded protein contains a basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper (bHLH-Zip) domain. Various single nucleotide polymorphisms ...
This gene encodes a basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor of the Myc / Max / Mad superfamily. This protein ... Song Z, Yang H, Zhou L, Yang F (2019). "Glucose-Sensing Transcription Factor MondoA/ChREBP as Targets for Type 2 Diabetes: ... de Luis O, Valero MC, Jurado LA (2000). "WBSCR14, a putative transcription factor gene deleted in Williams-Beuren syndrome: ... Ortega-Prieto P, Postic C (2019). "Carbohydrate Sensing Through the Transcription Factor ChREBP". Frontiers in Genetics. 10: ...
The protein is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper (bHLH-Zip) transcription factor family. SREBP-1a regulates ... a basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper protein that controls transcription of the low density lipoprotein receptor gene". Cell ... a second basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper protein that stimulates transcription by binding to a sterol regulatory element ... Wang X, Sato R, Brown MS, Hua X, Goldstein JL (Apr 1994). "SREBP-1, a membrane-bound transcription factor released by sterol- ...
... gene encodes a member of the basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper family and can function as a cellular transcription factor. ... "The adenovirus major late transcription factor USF is a member of the helix-loop-helix group of regulatory proteins and binds ... "The dual role of helix-loop--helix-zipper protein USF in ribosomal RNA gene transcription in vivo". Oncogene. 14 (5): 589-94. ... "Cooperative interaction of an initiator-binding transcription initiation factor and the helix-loop-helix activator USF". Nature ...
This gene encodes a member of the basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper family, and can function as a cellular transcription ... "Entrez Gene: USF2 upstream transcription factor 2, c-fos interacting". Ewing RM, Chu P, Elisma F, Li H, Taylor P, Climie S, ... "The dual role of helix-loop--helix-zipper protein USF in ribosomal RNA gene transcription in vivo". Oncogene. 14 (5): 589-94. ... Blanar MA, Rutter WJ (May 1992). "Interaction cloning: identification of a helix-loop-helix zipper protein that interacts with ...
The gene encoding the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix-leucine ... zipper (bHLH-ZIP) family. Waardenburg syndrome type 2 (WS type 2) in humans is also a type of microphthalmia syndrome. ... In mammals the failure of expression of the transcription factor, MITF (microphthalmia-associated transcription factor), in the ... Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) located on chromosome 14q32 is associated with one form of isolated ...
... structures of the basic region leucine zipper, and the basic region helix-loop-helix DNA-binding domains". Curr. Opin. Struct. ... AP-1 fos/jun heterodimer that forms a transcription factor Jun-B transcription factor CREB cAMP response element transcription ... Proteins containing this domain are transcription factors. bZIP transcription factors are found in all eukaryotes and form one ... The Basic Leucine Zipper Domain (bZIP domain) is found in many DNA binding eukaryotic proteins. One part of the domain contains ...
... basic helix-loop-helix) and LZ (leucine zipper) structural motifs. The bHLH motif allows Myc proteins to bind with DNA, while ... the leucine zipper TF-binding motif allows dimerization with Max, another bHLH transcription factor. Myc mRNA contains an IRES ... Blackwood EM, Eisenman RN (March 1991). "Max: a helix-loop-helix zipper protein that forms a sequence-specific DNA-binding ... Blackwood EM, Eisenman RN (March 1991). "Max: a helix-loop-helix zipper protein that forms a sequence-specific DNA-binding ...
MITF is a basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor involved in lineage-specific pathway regulation of many ... MITF, TFE3 and TFEB are part of the basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper family of transcription factors. Each protein encoded ... "The microphthalmia transcription factor and the related helix-loop-helix zipper factors TFE-3 and TFE-C collaborate to activate ... Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor also known as class E basic helix-loop-helix protein 32 or bHLHe32 is a protein ...
... are, as their name indicates, transcription factors containing both ... Basic+helix-loop-helix+leucine+zipper+transcription+factors at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings ( ... Basic helix-loop-helix and leucine zipper motifs. Examples include Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor and Sterol ...
"Entrez Gene: HLF hepatic leukemia factor". LeBrun DP (May 2003). "E2A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors in human ... Hunger SP, Li S, Fall MZ, Naumovski L, Cleary ML (June 1996). "The proto-oncogene HLF and the related basic leucine zipper ... Inaba T, Roberts WM, Shapiro LH, Jolly KW, Raimondi SC, Smith SD, Look AT (July 1992). "Fusion of the leucine zipper gene HLF ... This gene encodes a member of the proline and acidic-rich (PAR) protein family, a subset of the bZIP transcription factors. The ...
... discovered was during a research in the early 1990s on genes for basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors from a ... LTTLE ZIPPPER protein contains a leucine zipper domain but does not have the domains required for DNA binding and transcription ... and it negatively regulate transcription factor complex. The Id protein was 16 kDa and consisted of a helix-loop-helix (HLH) ... The microprotein formed bHLH/HLH heterodimers which disrupted the functional basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) homodimers. The ...
DNA-binding domains including the basic helix-loop-helix, zinc finger, helix-turn-helix and leucine zipper motifs have been ... and low-affinity binding sites of transcription factors in vitro, to study recruitment of factors to promoter sites in vivo ...
1.3)bHLH-ZIP(英语:Basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factors) ... 转录激活因子(英语:Activating transcription factor)(AATF(英语:Apoptosis-antagonizing transcription factor)、1、2、3、4、5、6、7) · AP-1(c-Fos、 ... sequence-specific enhancer binding RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity. · transcription factor binding. · zinc ion ... 1.6)碱性螺旋-跨-螺旋(英语:Basic helix-span-helix). (bHSH). ...
... family of transcription factors contain a bHLH (basic helix-loop-helix) structural and LZ (leucine zipper) motives. Through ... Blackwood EM, Eisenman RN (March 1991). "Max: a helix-loop-helix zipper protein that forms a sequence-specific DNA-binding ... Blackwood EM, Eisenman RN (March 1991). "Max: a helix-loop-helix zipper protein that forms a sequence-specific DNA-binding ... repressing transcription factor binding. • RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • ...
This protein inhibits the transcriptional activity of MYC by competing for MAX, another basic helix-loop-helix protein that ... "Entrez Gene: MXI1 MAX interactor 1". Gupta K, Anand G, Yin X, Grove L, Prochownik EV (Mar 1998). "Mmip1: a novel leucine zipper ... Wechsler DS, Hawkins AL, Li X, Jabs EW, Griffin CA, Dang CV (Nov 1994). "Localization of the human Mxi1 transcription factor ... Gupta K, Anand G, Yin X, Grove L, Prochownik EV (1998). "Mmip1: a novel leucine zipper protein that reverses the suppressive ...
45] SREBP-1, a basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper protein that controls transcription of the low density lipoprotein ... 47] SREBP-1, a membrane-bound transcription factor released by sterol-regulated proteolysis. Cell. 1994 Apr 8; 77 (1) :53-62 ... 50] The SREBP pathway: regulation of cholesterol metabolism by proteolysis of a membrane-bound transcription factor. Cell. 1 ... 22] Domain map of the LDL receptor: sequence homology with the epidermal growth factor precursor . Cell. 1984 Jun; 37 (2) :577- ...
Helix-loop-helix / leucine zipper factors (bHLH-ZIP) 1.3.1 Family: Ubiquitous bHLH-ZIP factors; includes USF (USF1, USF2); ... Basic Domains 1.1 Class: Leucine zipper factors (bZIP) 1.1.1 Family: AP-1(-like) components; includes (c-Fos/c-Jun) 1.1.2 ... Helix-loop-helix factors (bHLH) 1.2.1 Family: Ubiquitous (class A) factors 1.2.2 Family: Myogenic transcription factors (MyoD) ... Littlewood TD, Evan GI (1995). "Transcription factors 2: helix-loop-helix". Protein Profile. 2 (6): 621-702. PMID 7553065. ...
... the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) is a basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor that ... Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) is the master transcription factor that controls the expression of TYR, ... of which CREB is a transcription factor. Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH), beta-melanocyte stimulating hormone (β- ... A 2000 study performed in Dakar, Senegal indicated that chronic usage of skin lighteners was a risk factor for hypertension and ...
"Interaction of PKN with a neuron-specific basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, NDRF/NeuroD2". Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res ... Mukai H, Ono Y (1994). "A novel protein kinase with leucine zipper-like sequences: its catalytic domain is highly homologous to ... which is a potential transcription factor". Exp. Cell Res. 241 (2): 363-72. doi:10.1006/excr.1998.4060. PMID 9637778. Takahashi ...
This gene is a member of the MAD gene family . The MAD genes encode basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper proteins that ... is a new member of the Mlx transcription factor network". Human Molecular Genetics. 10 (6): 617-27. doi:10.1093/hmg/10.6.617. ... a novel Max-like BHLHZip protein that interacts with the Max network of transcription factors". The Journal of Biological ... Marcotte R, Chen JM, Huard S, Wang E (December 2005). "c-Myc creates an activation loop by transcriptionally repressing its own ...
Oct 1993). "SREBP-1, a basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper protein that controls transcription of the low density lipoprotein ... Wang X, Sato R, Brown MS, Hua X, Goldstein JL (Apr 1994). "SREBP-1, a membrane-bound transcription factor released by sterol- ... regulation of cholesterol metabolism by proteolysis of a membrane-bound transcription factor". Cell. 89 (3): 331-40. doi: ... "1985 Basic Medical Research Award". The Lasker Foundation. 2007-09-16. Archived from the original on 2015-09-13. Retrieved 2015 ...
The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain is found in some transcription factors and is characterized by two alpha helices (α- ... If two such helices find one another, the leucines can interact as the teeth in a zipper, allowing dimerization of two proteins ... DBD database of predicted transcription factors Kummerfeld SK, Teichmann SA (January 2006). "DBD: a transcription factor ... helixes) connected by a loop. One helix is typically smaller and due to the flexibility of the loop, allows dimerization by ...
... leucine zipper transcription factor (RRFIP1), and Y sex-determining transcription factors (SRY). With these transcription ... giving rise to the characteristic leucine zipper helix within the 3D structure. An eIF5C domain follows the leucine motif, ... There are four major stem loops in the 5' untranslated and four in the 3' untranslated region that function in transcript-level ... "Entrez Gene: BZW2 basic leucine zipper and W2 domains 2". "BZW2 basic leucine zipper and W2 domains 2 [Homo sapiens (human)] - ...
"Differential interactions of Id proteins with basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factors". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (32): 19785-93 ... Gupta K, Anand G, Yin X, Grove L, Prochownik EV (March 1998). "Mmip1: a novel leucine zipper protein that reverses the ... "Differential interactions of Id proteins with basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factors". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (32): 19785- ... Jögi A, Persson P, Grynfeld A, Påhlman S, Axelson H (2002). "Modulation of basic helix-loop-helix transcription complex ...
basic helix-loop-helix[47]. InterPro: IPR001092 Pfam PF00010 SCOP 47460 basic-leucine zipper (bZIP)[48]. InterPro: IPR004827 ... 1.3 Class: Helix-loop-helix / leucine zipper factors (bHLH-ZIP) *1.3.1 Family: Ubiquitous bHLH-ZIP factors; includes USF (USF1 ... Littlewood TD, Evan GI (1995). "Transcription factors 2: helix-loop-helix". Protein Profile. 2 (6): 621-702. PMID 7553065.. ... For example, in a negative feedback loop, the transcription factor acts as its own repressor: If the transcription factor ...
1) Basic domains. (1.1) Basic leucine zipper (bZIP). *Activating transcription factor *AATF ... the domain in winged-helix transcription factors (see Regulation of gene expression) has four helices and a two-strand beta- ... Winged-Helix+Transcription+Factors at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Winged-helix_transcription_factors&oldid=730546101" ...
Basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factors are, as their name indicates, transcription factors containing both ... Basic+helix-loop-helix+leucine+zipper+transcription+factors at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings ( ... Basic helix-loop-helix and leucine zipper motifs. Examples include Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor and Sterol ...
The mi gene encodes a basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor (Mi) with tissue-restricted expression. To ... Aksan I., Goding C. R. Targeting the microphthalmia basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper transcription factor to a subset of E ... Expression of the Microphthalmia-associated Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factor Miin Avian Neuroretina ... basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper; CNR, chicken NR; FGF, fibroblast growth factor; TUNEL, terminal deoxynucleotidyl ...
Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors*Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors ... Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors [D12.776.260.103]. *Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors [ ... Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors [D12.776.930.125]. *Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors [ ... Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors [D12.776.260.108]. *Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors [ ...
Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors / metabolism* * Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors / metabolism* ... Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors * Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors * Gibberellins ... and stabilization of transcription factors that promote skotomorphogenesis, such as PIF3 (PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR 3). ... which induces proteolytic degradation of transcription factors necessary for light-regulated development, such as HY5 (LONG ...
... basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH), and WD40, involved in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway were upregulated. In addition to MYB- ... bHLH-WD40 transcription complex, ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (HY5), NAM/ATAF/CUC (NAC), homeodomain leucine zipper proteins (ATHBs), ... Light is a key environmental factor that affects anthocyanin biosynthesis. To enhance our understanding of the mechanisms ... Light is a key environmental factor that affects anthocyanin biosynthesis. To enhance our understanding of the mechanisms ...
Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors * Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors ... Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors * Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors ... Myc contains a transcriptional activation domain and a basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper DNA-binding and dimerization ...
Basic Helix-loop-helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors. A family of transcription factors that contain regions rich in ... Basic-leucine Zipper Transcription Factors. A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC ... Summary of "A Redox-Switchable Molecular Zipper.". The design and synthesis of artificial molecular switches (AMSs) displaying ... A Redox-Switchable Molecular Zipper.. 08:00 EDT 11th October 2019 , BioPortfolio ...
... transcription factor EC. Transcription factors [BR:ko03000]. Eukaryotic Type. Basic helix-loop-helix/leucine zipper (bHLH-ZIP) ... macrophage-restricted member of the microphthalmia-TFE subfamily of basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factors ...
0 (Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors); 0 (MXD1 protein, human); 0 (Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc); 0 ... 0 (5-carboxylcytosine); 0 (Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors); 0 (MNT protein, human); 0 (Repressor ... 0 (Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors); 0 (CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins); 0 (Recombinant Fusion Proteins); 9007-49 ... The molecular basis of protein-partner selection and DNA binding of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) and basic region-leucine ...
0/Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors; 0/Benzofurans; 0/Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc; 0/Pyridines; 0/ ... Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors / chemistry*, metabolism. Benzofurans / chemistry, pharmacology. ...
In Transcription Factors: Methods and Protocols, experts in the field describe state-of-the-art approaches that ... significant breakthroughs in transcription research expanded our appreciation for the complexity of molecular controls on gene ... The Basic-Helix-Loop-Helix-Leucine Zipper Gene Mitf: Analysis of Alternative Promoter Choice and Splicing ... Transcription Factors: Methods and Protocols compiles the latest techniques for elucidating controls on transcription factor ...
SREBPs belong to the basic-helix-loop-helix leucine zipper class of transcription factors. Unactivated SREBPs are attached to ... a basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper protein that controls transcription of the low density lipoprotein receptor gene". Cell ... Gasic GP (Apr 1994). "Basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factor and sterol sensor in a single membrane-bound molecule". Cell ... SREBPs have a structure similar to E-box-binding helix-loop-helix (HLH) proteins. However, in contrast to E-box-binding HLH ...
The MITF gene encodes a transcription factor containing a basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper. The genes up-regulated by this ... The genes up-regulated by this transcription factor have not been identified; however, the PAX3 gene product can bind to the ... Type II Waardenburg syndrome results from mutations in the microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF) gene, [14] which maps to ... The PAX3 gene encodes a transcription factor with a paired box domain, an octapeptide domain, and a homeobox domain essential ...
Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors. Mesencephalon. Protein Folding. Benzimidazoles. Neurons. ... Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors. 1. 2013. 2013. August 2013. ...
basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper transcription factor; may play a role in osteoclast function [RGD, Feb 2006] ...
basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper transcription factor; may play a role in osteoclast function [RGD, Feb 2006] ... Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor Assay Type: Probe Assay Design: intron_spanning Application: Gene Expression ... Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor Assay Type: Probe Application: Gene Expression Unique Assay ID: dRnoCPE5175088 ... Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor Assay Type: Probe Application: Gene Expression Unique Assay ID: dRnoCPE5175089 ...
Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) Ubiquitous (class A) factors ... Transcription Factors - Scleropages formosus (Asian bonytongue). [ Brite menu , Download htext , Download json , Help ] ... hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha K08268 HIF1A; hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha K09095 HIF2A; hypoxia-inducible factor 2 alpha ... 108919562 hif1a; hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha 108928738 hypoxia-inducible factor 3-alpha-like isoform X1 108942753 epas1; ...
... significant breakthroughs in transcription research expanded our appreciation for the complexity of molecular controls on gene ... The Basic-Helix-Loop-Helix-Leucine Zipper Gene Mitf: Analysis of Alternative Promoter Choice and Splicing ... Transcription Factors: Methods and Protocols compiles the latest techniques for elucidating controls on transcription factor ... Post-translational Control of ETS Transcription Factors: Detection of Modified Factors at Target Gene Promoters ...
Molecular recognition in helix-loop-helix and helix-loop-helix leucine zipper domains. J. Biol. Chem. 278, 12182-12190. ... a second basic-helix-loop-helix leucine zipper protein that stimulates transcription by binding to a sterol regulatory element ... The Arabidopsis Basic/Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor Family Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... The Arabidopsis Basic/Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor Family. Gabriela Toledo-Ortiz, Enamul Huq, Peter H. Quail ...
Whats a transcription factor of the basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper family doing in the cytoplasm? Sans et al. explored ... why nearly all of the transcription factor MondoA and its binding partner protein called Mlx is found in the cytoplasm but the ... protein appears to function as a transcription factor in the nucleus. The authors found that in primary cultures of human ... Inhibition of nuclear shuttling of the proteins with an inhibitor of the CRM1 nuclear export factor caused MondoA (detected by ...
This gene encodes a member of the MYC/MAX/MAD network of basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factors. The MYC/ ... HLH; Helix-loop-helix domain, found in specific DNA- binding proteins that act as transcription factors; 60-100 amino acids ... HLH; Helix-loop-helix domain, found in specific DNA- binding proteins that act as transcription factors; 60-100 amino acids ... A DNA-binding basic region is followed by two alpha-helices separated by a variable loop region; HLH forms homo- and ...
The interaction with drugs of some transcription factors, such as PPAR and FOXA1, and how this interaction can be an attractive ... The contribution of tissue-specific and less tissue-specific transcription factors in activating or repressing CIC and CAC gene ... The regulation of the expression of many genes at the level of their transcription has already been analyzed. This review ... By means of this mechanism, transcription factors, nutrients, hormones and epigenetics control not only fatty acid metabolism, ...
14 The MITF gene encodes a transcription factor with a basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper motif. Proteins with this kind of ... AD1-3, (trans)activation domains; b, basic domain; HLH, helix-loop-helix domain; LZ, leucine zipper domain. ... 2-4 PAX3 is a member of the mammalian PAX gene family and encodes a DNA-binding transcription factor expressed in neural crest ... which is located in the basic domain of MITF, were also described in patients with Tietz syndrome (TS, MIM #103500). Compared ...
Abstract The proto-oncogene c-myc encodes a basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor (c-Myc). c-Myc plays a ... the computation of these distances via optimal transport is often the limiting factor. Inspired by this challenge, a variety of ...
USF is a family of transcription factors characterized by a highly conserved basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper (bHLH-zip) ... Antiproliferative properties of the USF family of helix-loop-helix transcription factors. X Luo and M Sawadogo ... Antiproliferative properties of the USF family of helix-loop-helix transcription factors ... Antiproliferative properties of the USF family of helix-loop-helix transcription factors ...
... a basic leucine zipper protein that belongs to the AP-1/ATF superfamily of transcription factors; and HIF1A, the basic helix- ... loop-helix protein that activates transcription of hypoxia-inducible genes. Cluster II features several known p53 target genes ... Many of the genes in cluster I code for transcription factors and include several C2H2-type and Kruppel-like zinc finger ... The stabilization and activation of p53 protein as a transcription factor is characterized by the appearance of post- ...
Transcription of IL12B and many interferon genes were mostly restricted to pDC. Interestingly, the infection was associated ... macrophage-restricted member of the microphthalmia-TFE subfamily of basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factors ... The expression of the two pDC-specific transcription factors TCF4 (E2-2) and RUNX2 was restricted to the pDC subset. As with ... Interestingly, transcription of MS4A2, coding for the β subunit of the high-affinity IgE receptor, as well as transcription of ...
... macrophage-restricted member of the microphthalmia-TFE subfamily of basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factors ... "The microphthalmia transcription factor and the related helix-loop-helix zipper factors TFE-3 and TFE-C collaborate to activate ... "Transcription factor Tfec contributes to the IL-4-inducible expression of a small group of genes in mouse macrophages including ... positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II Source: MGI. *regulation of transcription, DNA-templated Source: MGI ...
... a basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper (bHLH-Zip)-containing transcription factor, occurs through the direct interaction of ... a second basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper protein that stimulates transcription by binding to a sterol regulatory element" ... a basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper protein that controls transcription of the low density lipoprotein receptor gene.". ... The encoded protein contains a basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper (bHLH-Zip) domain.[2] ...
MondoA, a novel basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper transcriptional activator that constitutes a positive branch of a max- ... They contain a bHLHZ (basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper) region and a COOH-terminal dimerization domain mediating DNA ... A glucose-responsive transcription factor that regulates carbohydrate metabolism in the liver. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2001;98 ... MondoA Is an Essential Glucose-Responsive Transcription Factor in Human Pancreatic β-Cells. Paul Richards, Latif Rachdi, Masaya ...
  • In addition to MYB-bHLH-WD40 transcription complex, ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (HY5), NAM/ATAF/CUC (NAC), homeodomain leucine zipper proteins (ATHBs), and FAR-RED ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (FHY) possibly participate in light-induced responses. (frontiersin.org)
  • Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) are transcription factors that bind to the sterol regulatory element DNA sequence TCACNCCAC. (wikipedia.org)
  • SREBPs have a structure similar to E-box-binding helix-loop-helix (HLH) proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basic/helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins are a superfamily of transcription factors that bind as dimers to specific DNA target sites and that have been well characterized in nonplant eukaryotes as important regulatory components in diverse biological processes. (plantcell.org)
  • Together with the established propensity of bHLH factors to engage in varying degrees of homodimerization and heterodimerization, these observations suggest that the Arabidopsis bHLH proteins have the potential to participate in an extensive set of combinatorial interactions, endowing them with the capacity to be involved in the regulation of a multiplicity of transcriptional programs. (plantcell.org)
  • Inhibition of nuclear shuttling of the proteins with an inhibitor of the CRM1 nuclear export factor caused MondoA (detected by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy) to accumulate in the nucleus. (sciencemag.org)
  • The activators of insulin A3-element- and C2-element-stimulated transcription are the homeodomain containing Pdx-1 ( 3 ) and Pax6 ( 4 ) proteins, respectively. (pnas.org)
  • In contrast, distinct proteins in the basic helix-loop-helix (BETA2) ( 5 ) and basic leucine-zipper (MafA) ( 6 - 8 ) families control E1- and C1-mediated activation. (pnas.org)
  • Sterol regulatory elements binding proteins (SREBPs) ( 1 - 3 ) are a key transcription factor family that play an important role in adipogenesis, insulin sensitivity, and fatty acid homeostasis ( 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Sterol regulatory element binding proteins are basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factors that bind the sterol regulatory element TCACNCCAC. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Studies using Myc and Max proteins with reciprocal complementary mutations in their leucine zippers have shown that heterodimeric complex formation is required for cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and transformation ( 2 , 4 ). (asm.org)
  • The Xp11 translocations involve the TFE3 transcription factor and produce chimeric TFE3 proteins retaining the basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper structure for dimerization. (medworm.com)
  • Induction of the HMG-CoA synthase promoter required a binding site for sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SRE-BP), consistent with a key role for these transcription factors in the induction of this gene network. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Background: Basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP) proteins are a class of transcription factors (TFs) that play diverse roles in eukaryotes. (ebscohost.com)
  • Sumoylation and ubiquitinylation reversibly regulate the activity of transcription factors through covalent attachment to lysine residues of target proteins. (ebscohost.com)
  • We demonstrated that the phenotypic abnormalities observed in mast cells of mi/mi mice was attributable to the deficeint transcription of various proteins. (nii.ac.jp)
  • cdk8 and cycC mutants are sensitive to the levels of dietary proteins and seven amino acids (arginine, glutamine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, threonine, and valine). (sdbonline.org)
  • SAGA contains a number of subunits known to function in transcription including Spt and Ada proteins, the Gcn5 acetyltransferase, a subset of TATA-binding-protein-associated factors (TAF II s), and Tra1. (asm.org)
  • Thus, a common feature of HAT proteins with proposed coactivator function is their frequent association with other subunits that potentiate catalytic function and/or mediate interactions with activators or basal factors ( 7 ). (asm.org)
  • Phosphorylation is reversed by calcineurin (CaN), although no reports have yet investigated whether this is true for MITF, and the dephosphorylated proteins are free to enter the nucleus, where they bind to E-boxes, CLEAR sequences, and M-boxes to promote transcription of associated genes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Myelin basic proteins (MBPs) and histones are among the first proteins shown to contain dimethylated arginines ( 10 , 11 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Myc proteins contain a basic region/helix-loophelix/ leucine zipper domain that mediates DNA binding and heterodimerization with its partner Max. (csic.es)
  • It also is a key factor in regulating the transcription of the major melanogenic proteins, including tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related proteins (TRP) 1 and 2, which lead to pigmentation. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • Knowing the suite of transcription factors (TFs) and transcriptionally active proteins (TAPs) that control various critical plant cellular processes would contribute tremendously to these improvement aims. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Prior studies on the genomic contents of plants have tackled uncovering the content and complexity of transcription factors (TFs) and transcriptionally active proteins (TAPs, syn. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The transcription regulators of the putative extracellular proteins were investigated by searching for DNA binding sites in their putative promoters. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A public database of K. lactis secreted proteins and their transcription factors are presented. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Most of the transcription factors are related to responses to stress such as drug, acid and heat resistance, as well as nitrogen limitation, and may be useful for inducing maximal expression of potential extracellular proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins (or C/EBPs) are a family of transcription factors that are composed of six members C/EBP α to C/EBP ζ. (bionity.com)
  • Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) are membrane-bound proteins that act as transcription factors. (wikipathways.org)
  • The molecular complexity underlying PcG-mediated gene silencing could be partly explained by the diversity of the PCGF factors (from PCGF1 to PCGF6) that directly associate with RING1A/B proteins. (elifesciences.org)
  • Transcription repression by Mnt maps to a 13-amino-acid amino-terminal region related to the Sin3 interaction domain (SID) of Mad proteins. (sdbonline.org)
  • Both quasi-symmetric heterodimers resemble the symmetric Max homodimer, albeit with marked structural differences in the coiled-coil leucine zipper regions that explain preferential homo- and hetero-meric dimerization of these three evolutionarily related DNA-binding proteins. (sdbonline.org)
  • The MITF gene encodes a transcription factor containing a basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper. (medscape.com)
  • Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) is the earliest expressed marker of melanoblasts identified to date and is essential for melanogenesis. (biologists.org)
  • Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF)-Tfe transcription factors were blocked using either a pan MITF-Tfe dominant negative or specific small interfering RNA (siRNA). (molvis.org)
  • MITF (microphthalmia transcription factor) is a basic helix-loop-helix-leucine-zipper (bHLH-Zip) transcription factor. (biotium.com)
  • MITF (microphthalmia transcription factor) is a basic helix-loop-helix-leucine-zipper (bHLH-Zip) transcription factor that regulates the development and survival of melanocytes and retinal pigment epithelium, and also is involved in transcription of pigmentation enzyme genes such as tyrosinase TRP1 and TRP2. (biotium.com)
  • MITF is a transcription factor that contains both basic helix-loop-helix and leucine zipper structural features. (avivasysbio.com)
  • The microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (Mitf) has emerged as an important model for gene regulation in eukaryotic organisms. (genetics.org)
  • The many mutations at the mouse Mitf locus have provided key insights into the structure-function relationship of this transcription factor. (genetics.org)
  • The microphthalmia family (MITF, TFEB, TFE3, and TFEC) of transcription factors is emerging as global regulators of cancer cell survival and energy metabolism, both through the promotion of lysosomal genes as well as newly characterized targets, such as oxidative metabolism and the oxidative stress response. (aacrjournals.org)
  • MITF is an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor with homologs identified in C. elegans and Drosophila ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Structurally, MITF genes constitute a double helix leucine zipper motif, a transactivating zone, and a domain responsible for DNA contact and binding. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Early studies into the function of these transcription factors identified that mutations in MITF led to Waardenburg syndrome type II, characterized by hypopigmentation and defects in ectodermal development ( 7 ), while murine homozygous TFEB knockouts fail to develop due to lack of placental vascularization ( 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Numerous lysosomal and autophagy genes with one or more 10 base pair motifs (GTCACGTGAC) termed as Coordinated Lysosomal Expression and Regulation (CLEAR) elements are recognized by the MITF family, which in turn promotes gene transcription ( 9, 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Regulation and downstream targets of the Microphthalmia family of transcription factors: TFEB, TFE3, and MITF are negatively regulated through phosphorylation by mTORC1, where they are then restricted to the cytosol by chaperone protein 14-3-3. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 1997) have demonstrated that the Tyrosinase initiator E box and M box elements are targets for the microphthalmia-associated basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper (bHLH-LZ) transcription factor Mitf (Hodgkinson et al. (wikiversity.org)
  • 1993). In addition to its role in regulating pigmentation genes, [the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor] Mitf is also critically required for the development of the melanocyte (Steingrímsson et al. (wikiversity.org)
  • The "UV response is mediated by the ubiquitous bHLH-LZ transcription factor [upstream stimulatory factor] Usf-1, which, like Mitf, binds the conserved E box elements in the Tyrosinase promoter. (wikiversity.org)
  • A candidate gene analysis of the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) gene was used in an attempt to identify the genetic basis for a white-spotted coat color phenotype in the Asian swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis carabanensis). (diva-portal.org)
  • Later on Mitf and Chx10 continue to be expressed in adjacent regions of the eye, suggesting a reciprocal regulation between these two factors ( Nguyen and Arnheiter, 2000 ). (biologists.org)
  • This process is mainly determined by the actions of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), a basic-helix-loop-helix and leucine zipper transcription factor, which functions as the master gene for melanocyte survival. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • We revealed that PAX6 accomplishes its role through a unique regulatory interaction with the transcription factor MITF, a master regulator of the pigmentation program. (prolekare.cz)
  • TFEB, TFE3 , TFEC and Mitf comprise the members of the microphthalmia transcription factor subfamily, which have homologous DNA binding domains and can bind to a common DNA sequence. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • After the bags were removed, nearly all structural and regulatory genes, such as UDP-glucose: flavonoid-3- O -glucosyltransferase (UFGT), MYB, basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH), and WD40, involved in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway were upregulated. (frontiersin.org)
  • This binding to DNA leads to the increased transcription of the target genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2) to study the synchronization of those temporal patterns to the local cellular clock and 3) to evaluate the aging consequences on both cognition-related genes and activating clock transcription factor, BMAL1, rhythms. (bireme.br)
  • The genes up-regulated by this transcription factor during embryogenesis have not been identified. (medscape.com)
  • Using a set of criteria derived from a previously defined consensus motif, we identified 147 bHLH protein-encoding genes, making this one of the largest transcription factor families in Arabidopsis. (plantcell.org)
  • The regulation of the expression of many genes at the level of their transcription has already been analyzed. (mdpi.com)
  • Thus, understanding the transcriptional control of metabolism requires the detailed knowledge of events upstream of transcriptional activity- i.e. , the molecular mechanisms by which transcriptional factors operate-and events downstream of transcriptional activity, which depend on the set of genes that are targeted and how further signals are generated to reach the dynamic equilibrium of homeostasis [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • This gene encodes a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor that controls cholesterol homeostasis by stimulating transcription of sterol-regulated genes. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Transcription of IL12B and many interferon genes were mostly restricted to pDC. (frontiersin.org)
  • It regulates the differentiation and development of melanocytes retinal pigment epithelium and is also responsible for pigment cell-specific transcription of the melanogenesis enzyme genes. (origene.com)
  • To gain insight into how neuroblasts transition from one developmental program to the next, we have focused our research efforts on the identification and functional analysis of gene regulatory DNA regions, called enhancers, that control the expression of these transcription factor genes. (nih.gov)
  • not only are multiple genes involved in its pathogenesis, but additional environmental factors such as diet and inflammation are also involved. (bmj.com)
  • The exhaustive research into prostate cancer to date has demonstrated a complex interaction of multiple genes and environmental factors, some of which may be more important in individual prostate cancer cases. (bmj.com)
  • Another major interest in Dr. Puertollano's laboratory is the characterization of the molecular mechanisms that regulate the localization and activity of TFEB and TFE3, two members of the basic helix-loop-helix leucine-zipper family of transcription factors that control expression of autophagic, lysosomal, and metabolic genes. (nih.gov)
  • It regulates the development and survival of melanocytes and retinal pigment epithelium, and also is involved in transcription of pigmentation enzyme genes. (biotium.com)
  • The encoded protein regulates melanocyte development and is responsible for pigment cell-specific transcription of the melanogenesis enzyme genes. (origene.com)
  • Neither proteolytic activation nor nuclear localization of SRE-BP was affected by disruption of the PDGF autocrine loop, indicating that PDGF signaling is required for other signaling events involved in activation of SRE-BP target genes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Gene expression patterns elicited by the PDGF autocrine loop may also be influenced by interactions with other genes involved in glioma progression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Different genes coding for one ribosome biogenesis factor are differentially expressed and are likely under the control of distinct transcription factors, which contributes to the regulatory space for ribosome maturation. (springer.com)
  • We analyzed the expression profiles of genes coding for putative RBFs and transcription factors. (springer.com)
  • Based on a selected set of genes we document a function of the transcription factors AtMYC1, AtMYC2, AtbHLH105 and AtMYB26 on the regulation of different RBFs. (springer.com)
  • Moreover, on the example of the RBFs LSG1 and BRX1, both encoded by two genes, we give a first hint on a differential transcription factor dependence of expression. (springer.com)
  • Carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP) is a glucose-sensing transcription factor that mediates the induction of glycolytic and lipogenic genes in response to glucose. (springer.com)
  • OTX2 is a homeodomain transcription factor and one of the key regulator genes of photoreceptor formation. (thomassci.com)
  • We present data indicating that distinct forms of the SAGA complex may regulate specific subsets of genes and that SAGA and SLIK have multiple partly overlapping activities, which play a critical role in transcription by RNA polymerase II. (asm.org)
  • Myc, a basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor, transmits growth signals by up- and downregulation of target genes. (broadinstitute.org)
  • However, the number of growth control genes requiring Myc as an essential factor for regulation after mitogenic stimulation of cells is not yet clear. (broadinstitute.org)
  • The data support our current notion that Myc is essential for the regulation of a large number of growth-related genes in B cells, and cannot be replaced by other serum-induced factors. (broadinstitute.org)
  • USF comprises a combination of related ubiquitous bHLH-LZ transcription factors encoded by the Usf-1 and Usf-2 genes (Gregor et al. (wikiversity.org)
  • Mllt10/Af10-Dot1l, essential for transcription elongation, are recruited to Wnt target genes in a β-catenin-dependent manner, resulting in H3K79 methylation over their coding regions in vivo in proliferative crypts of mouse small intestine in colorectal cancer and Wnt-inducible HEK293T cells. (zfin.org)
  • In liver and adipose tissues, SREBPs have a significant influence on lipid and cholesterol accumulation by inducing the transcription of genes involved in these processes. (thermofisher.com)
  • On the other hand, expression of lincRNA340 was induced by drought stress, accompanied by an increase of miR169 -targeted NUCLEAR FACTOR Y (NF-Y) genes after drought treatment (Fig. 5C). (mirbase.org)
  • Initial attempts to capture genomic scale information [ 26 ] using reduced representation cloning and sequencing provided information on about 70% of the estimated 620 Megabase (Mb) genome, including information of transcription factors and resistance related genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These findings provide comprehensive insight into the gene hierarchy that controls RPE development: from a kernel gene (a term referring to the upper-most gene in the gene regulatory network) that is broadly expressed during CNS development through a lineage-specific transcription factor that together with the kernel gene creates cis-regulatory input that contributes to transcriptionally activate a battery of terminal differentiation genes. (prolekare.cz)
  • In the absence of activated GR, other transcription factors such as NF-κB or AP-1 themselves are able to transactivate target genes. (bionity.com)
  • However activated GR can complex with these other transcription factors and prevent them from binding their target genes and hence repress the expression of genes that are normally upregulated by NF-κB or AP-1. (bionity.com)
  • Genes are regulated by transcription factors (TF) binding to physiological target sites in the genome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The molecular basis of protein partner selection and DNA binding of the basic helix loop helix (bHLH) and basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP) superfamilies of dimeric transcription factors is fundamental toward understanding gene regulation. (utoronto.ca)
  • They are characterized by a highly conserved basic-leucine zipper (bZIP) domain at the C-terminus. (bionity.com)
  • C/EBPs bZIP domain structure is composed of an α-helix that forms a coiled coil structure when it dimerizes. (bionity.com)
  • A family of transcription factors that contain regions rich in basic residues, LEUCINE ZIPPER domains, and HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIFS. (ucdenver.edu)
  • A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The basic region, located at the N-terminal end of the domain, is involved in DNA binding and consists of ∼15 amino acids with a high number of basic residues. (plantcell.org)
  • and is constituted mainly of hydrophobic residues that form two amphipathic α-helices separated by a loop region of variable sequence and length ( Nair and Burley, 2000 ). (plantcell.org)
  • The resulting insertion of eight amino acid residues is expected to perturb the leucine zipper part in the basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper (bHLH-Zip) domain and will most likely influence dimerization and DNA binding capacity. (diva-portal.org)
  • USF is a family of transcription factors characterized by a highly conserved basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper (bHLH-zip) DNA-binding domain. (pnas.org)
  • Myc contains a transcriptional activation domain and a basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper DNA-binding and dimerization domain. (nih.gov)
  • This domain is involved in dimerization and DNA binding like other transcription factors of the leucine zipper family like c-Fos and Jun. (bionity.com)
  • TFEB is a transcription factor with a basic helix-loop-helix DNA binding domain, a leucine zipper dimerization domain18, and a nuclear localization signal, thought to be located C-terminal to the helix-loop-helix domain. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Characterization of the promoter region of bovine SIX4: Roles of E-box and MyoD in the regulation of basal transcription. (bireme.br)
  • Comprehensive and current, Transcription Factors: Methods and Protocols compiles the latest techniques for elucidating controls on transcription factor intracellular localization and activity, and consequently is unlike any other methods-based text on transcriptional regulation today. (springer.com)
  • Virtually all transcription factor families are involved in gene regulation. (mdpi.com)
  • Regulation of the Ets-1 transcription factor by sumoylation and ubiquitinylation. (ebscohost.com)
  • Such factor-based regulation would require a differential regulation of their expression, may be even controlled by different transcription factors. (springer.com)
  • Ciccone N.A., Lacza C.T., Hou M.Y., Gregory S.J., Kam K.Y., Xu S., Kaiser U.B. A Composite Element that Binds Basic Helix Loop Helix and Basic Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors Is Important for GnRH Regulation of the FSH? (ucdavis.edu)
  • Despite the passage of a decade after the discovery of TCF4 and β-catenin as the molecular effectors of the Wnt signal, few transcriptional activators essential and unique to the regulation of this transcription program have been found. (zfin.org)
  • In C. elegans, increased lifespan in daf-2 insulin/IGF-1 receptor mutants is accompanied by up-regulation of the MDL-1 Mad basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor. (nih.gov)
  • see below), an important transcription factor in the regulation of the fatty acid synthase ( FAS ) gene, is independent of external glucose. (physiology.org)
  • The regulation of C/EBPβ is exerted in many manners, phosphorylation , acetylation , activation and repression via others transcription factors, oncogenic elements or chemokines , autoregulation, etc. (bionity.com)
  • Understanding the mechanisms by which transcription factors (TF) are recruited to their physiological target sites is crucial for understanding gene regulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Apert, Pfeiffer, Jackson-Weiss, and Crouzon syndromes result from mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 ( FGFR2 ) gene, which maps to band 10q25-q26. (medscape.com)
  • Some patients with Pfeiffer syndrome have demonstrated mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 ( FGFR1 ) gene, which maps to band 8p11.2-12. (medscape.com)
  • This subgroup displayed an absence of epidermal growth factor receptor gene amplification, decreased incidence of allelic loss of 10q, increased frequency of TP53 mutations and allelic losses of 1p and 19q, and longer patient survival. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In colorectal cancer, activating mutations in Wnt pathway components cause inappropriate activation of TCF4/β-catenin-driven transcription. (zfin.org)
  • CBP/p300 as a co-factor for the Microphthalmia transcription factor. (ebscohost.com)
  • The sine oculis homeobox 4 (SIX4) gene belongs to the Six gene family and encodes an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor. (bireme.br)
  • The PAX3 gene encodes a transcription factor with a paired box domain, an octapeptide domain, and a homeobox domain essential for survival of melanocytes during development. (medscape.com)
  • The SOX10 gene encodes a member of the high-mobility group-domain Sox family of transcription factors that regulate neural crest development. (medscape.com)
  • This gene encodes a member of the MYC/MAX/MAD network of basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factors. (nih.gov)
  • This gene encodes a transcription factor that contains both basic helix-loop-helix and leucine zipper structural features. (origene.com)
  • 4). The mi locus of mice encodes a transcription factor of basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper family. (nii.ac.jp)
  • This gene encodes a basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor of the Myc/Max/Mad superfamily. (genetex.com)
  • This gene encodes a member of the basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper family, and can function as a cellular transcription factor. (wikiversity.org)
  • This gene encodes a large protein that contains a helix-loop-helix domain and a polyglutamine region. (wikiversity.org)
  • The microphthalmia locus encodes a basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper (bHLH-Zip) 3 transcription factor (Mi) ( 1 , 2 ) that is closely related to, and heterodimerizes with, a family of at least three other transcription factors (TFE3, TFEB, and TFEC) ( 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • A gene on chromosome 2p13-p12 that encodes a DNA-binding member of the MYC/MAX/MAD network of basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factors, which mediate cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factors are, as their name indicates, transcription factors containing both Basic helix-loop-helix and leucine zipper motifs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both USF1 and USF2 inhibited the transformation of rat embryo fibroblasts mediated by Ras and c-Myc, a bHLH-zip transcription factor that also binds CACGTG motifs. (pnas.org)
  • The encoded protein can activate transcription through pyrimidine-rich initiator (Inr) elements and E box motifs. (abcam.com)
  • The encoded protein can activate transcription through pyrimidine-rich initiator (Inr) elements and E-box motifs and is involved in regulating multiple cellular processes. (wikiversity.org)
  • SREBPs belong to the basic-helix-loop-helix leucine zipper class of transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • TFEC is a macrophage-restricted member of the microphthalmia-TFE subfamily of basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factors. (genome.jp)
  • The basic region of Mi, either alone as a homodimer or as a heterodimer with TFE3, TFEB, and TFEC, recognizes the M box sequence ( 13 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The MYC/MAX/MAD transcription factors mediate cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. (nih.gov)
  • By means of this mechanism, transcription factors, nutrients, hormones and epigenetics control not only fatty acid metabolism, but also many metabolic pathways and cellular functions at the molecular level. (mdpi.com)
  • USF1 is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper family, and can function as a cellular transcription factor. (abcam.com)
  • The Myc family of oncogenic transcription factors regulates myriad cellular functions. (csic.es)
  • Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is a multifunctional cytokine that is reported to regulate cellular motility and invasive capability during tumor progression. (cancerindex.org)
  • To this end, we predicted protein subcellular locations and correlated the resulting extracellular secretome with the transcription factors that modulate the cellular response to a particular environmental stimulus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Authors: Gandhi JS, Malik F, Amin MB, Argani P, Bahrami A Abstract Microphthalmia (MiT) family translocation renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) are a heterogeneous category of renal tumors which all express MiT transcription factors, typically from chromosomal translocation and rarely from gene amplification. (medworm.com)
  • The encoded protein contains a basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper (bHLH-Zip) domain and binds the sterol regulatory element 1 motif. (genecards.org)
  • We further demonstrate that the helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper motif of SREBP-2 contains a novel type of nuclear localization signal, which binds directly to importin beta. (labome.org)
  • The glucocorticoid receptor ( GR ) also known as NR3C1 ( nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that binds with high affinity to cortisol and other glucocorticoids . (bionity.com)
  • Examples include Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor and Sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP). (wikipedia.org)
  • A feature of the SREBP pathway is the proteolytic release of a membrane-bound transcription factor, SREBP. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ~120 kDa SREBP precursor protein is anchored in the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and nuclear envelope by virtue of two membrane-spanning helices in the middle of the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1993). "SREBP-1, a basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper protein that controls transcription of the low density lipoprotein receptor gene. (thefullwiki.org)
  • oligodendrocyte-specific inactivation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein ( SREBP) cleavage-activating protein (SCAP ), an essential factor in lipid biosynthesis along with SREBP2 , results in significantly retarded CNS myelination. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1 is a transcription factor with important roles in the control of fatty acid metabolism and adipogenesis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • SREBPs are basic helix loop helix leucine zipper (bHLH) transcription factors that control cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism in mammalian cells ( 5 - 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 2007). "The potential role of sterol regulatory element binding protein transcription factors in renal injury. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Cleavage site for sterol-regulated protease localized to a leu-Ser bond in the lumenal loop of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Auf www.antikoerper-online.de finden Sie aktuell 10 Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Transcription Factor 2 (SREBF2) ELISA Kits von 6 unterschiedlichen Herstellern. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Zusätzlich bieten wir Ihnen Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Transcription Factor 2 Antikörper (87) und Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Transcription Factor 2 Proteine (10) und viele weitere Produktgruppen zu diesem Protein an. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Insgesamt sind aktuell 114 Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Transcription Factor 2 Produkte verfügbar. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • SREBF2 (Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Transcription Factor 2) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • By analyzing the cdk8 and cyclin C (cycC) mutant larvae in Drosophila, it was previously reported that the CDK8-CycC complex coordinately regulates lipogenesis by repressing dSREBP (sterol regulatory element-binding protein)-activated transcription and developmental timing by activating EcR (ecdysone receptor)-dependent gene expression. (sdbonline.org)
  • Nagoshi E, Imamoto N, Sato R, Yoneda Y. Nuclear import of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2, a basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper (bHLH-Zip)-containing transcription factor, occurs through the direct interaction of importin beta with HLH-Zip. (labome.org)
  • The link between fibroblast growth factor 21 and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c during lipogenesis in hepatocytes. (wikipathways.org)
  • This pathway may regulate LDLRs and lipid uptake particularly after injury or during tissue inflammation accompanied by an increased production of growth factors, including NGF (zeige NGFB ELISA Kits ) and pro- NGF (zeige NGFB ELISA Kits ). (antikoerper-online.de)
  • The precursor has a hairpin orientation in the membrane, so that both the amino-terminal transcription factor domain and the COOH-terminal regulatory domain face the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • The encoded protein contains a basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper (bHLH-Zip) domain. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Although only Rtg3p contains a transcription activation domain, Rtg1p and Rtg3p are both required for DNA binding [ 16 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • We have identified a small region in the proline-rich domain indispensable for its transcription-enhancing activity by transfection experiments. (ebscohost.com)
  • The different members of C/EBP family can form homodimers, heterodimers with another form of the C/EBPs and with other transcription factors that may or may not contain the leucine zipper domain. (bionity.com)
  • the paired-like homeodomain transcription factor Chx10 starts to be expressed at the same time. (biologists.org)
  • In addition to its role as a transcriptional activator ( 3 , 62 , 95 ), c-Myc has also been shown to participate in repression of transcription ( 49 , 67 , 72 , 88 , 91 ). (asm.org)
  • This study describes a transcriptional feedback loop between the biosynthesis and repertoire of specific phospholipids and the synaptic vesicle pool in adult Drosophila photoreceptors . (sdbonline.org)
  • Gene ID: 7391 is USF1 upstream transcription factor 1 (aka upstream stimulatory factor 1). (wikiversity.org)
  • NP_009053.1 upstream stimulatory factor 1 isoform 1 (variant 1). (wikiversity.org)
  • XP_024307452.1 upstream stimulatory factor 2 isoform X1. (wikiversity.org)
  • XP_005259254.1 upstream stimulatory factor 2 isoform X2. (wikiversity.org)
  • XP_024307453.1 upstream stimulatory factor 2 isoform X3. (wikiversity.org)
  • XP_016882688.1 upstream stimulatory factor 2 isoform X4. (wikiversity.org)
  • XP_011525562.1 upstream stimulatory factor 2 isoform X5. (wikiversity.org)
  • XP_011525563.1 upstream stimulatory factor 2 isoform X6. (wikiversity.org)
  • Analysis of the AP2-EREBP APETALA2-Ethylene Responsive Element Binding Protein (AP2-EREBP), NAC (NAM (no apical meristem), ATAF1, 2 (Arabidopsis transcription activation factor), CUC (cup-shaped cotyledon)), and WRKY families, known to be important in defense signaling, revealed changes and phylogenetic rearrangements relative to common bean and soybean that suggest these groups may have evolved different functions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Her goal is to uncover pathological cascades beginning with alterations in basic homeostatic mechanisms of intracellular compartments that may be common to many diseases. (nih.gov)
  • Members of the Myc proto-oncogene family encode transcription factors that function in multiple aspects of cell behavior, including proliferation, differentiation, transformation and apoptosis. (sdbonline.org)
  • What's a transcription factor of the basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper family doing in the cytoplasm? (sciencemag.org)
  • explored why nearly all of the transcription factor MondoA and its binding partner protein called Mlx is found in the cytoplasm but the protein appears to function as a transcription factor in the nucleus. (sciencemag.org)
  • MiRNAs primarily produce as long miRNAs precursor via RNA II polymerasemediated transcription and are then cleaved and transported into the cytoplasm [ 7 , 8 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • A complex profile of gene expression elicited by autocrine platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) signaling was identified in U87 MG glioblastoma cells by microarray analysis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A frequent hallmark of malignant gliomas is the presence of an autocrine loop involving platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) ligands and receptors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (ucdenver.edu)
  • Taken together, these interactions provide insight into the regulatory mechanisms of SIX4 transcription in mediating skeletal muscle growth in cattle. (bireme.br)
  • SREBP1a and -1c are controlled independently by regulatory regions that appear to respond differentially to organ- and metabolic-specific factors. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Dr. Odenwald became Chief of the Neural Cell-Fate Determinants Section at the NINDS, where he studied the role of transcription factor regulatory networks that participate in the temporal development of Drosophila CNS ganglia. (nih.gov)
  • The application of our methodology to ENCODE data has led to new insights on transcription regulatory processes and may serve as example for future studies encompassing even larger datasets. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Regulates transcription of the LDL receptor gene as well as the cholesterol and to a lesser degree the fatty acid synthesis pathway (By similarity). (genecards.org)
  • Here we review recent advances in understanding how glucose regulates gene transcription in mammals. (physiology.org)
  • The acetylation of histones is catalyzed by histone acetyltransferases (HATs), which are often found to be associated with large multisubunit protein complexes that contain components with identity or homology to known regulators of transcription ( 17 , 47 ). (asm.org)
  • BTEB2 is a GC box-binding transcription factor containing proline-rich and zinc finger domains as transactivation and DNA binding domains, respectively. (ebscohost.com)
  • Light is a key environmental factor that affects anthocyanin biosynthesis. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, anthocyanin biosynthesis is complex pathway, which regulated by a suite of TFs and modulated by environmental factors. (frontiersin.org)
  • Light is one of the most important environmental factors regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Fibroblast-dependent proliferation of mast cells is mediated by stem cell factor (SCF) produced by fibroblasts and c-kit receptor (KIT) expressed on the surface of mast cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • FGF1 is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. (thomassci.com)
  • Specific DNA sequences are recognized by the basic region of the bHLH-Zip protein (for review see Ref. 11 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Both hormones also activate the transcription factor cAMP-responsive element-binding protein and thereby influence the β-cell transcriptome ( 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • To activate transcription, the NH 2 -terminal domains of SREBPs are cleaved and released from the endoplasmic reticulum before entering the nucleus. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The initial identification of the microphthalmia family of transcription factors revealed that MiT/TFEs must homodimerize or heterodimerize with another member of the MiT/TFE family to activate transcription ( 3-6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The ability of Usf-1 to activate transcription is regulated by a signal transduction pathway that culminates in phosphorylation and activation of Usf-1 by the p38 stress-activated kinase. (wikiversity.org)
  • Whereas MYC-MAX complexes activate transcription, MAD-MAX complexes repress transcription through identical E-box binding sites. (sdbonline.org)
  • Myc:Max complexes activate transcription, promote proliferation, and block terminal differentiation. (sdbonline.org)
  • However, the mechanisms regulating SIX4 transcription remain elusive. (bireme.br)
  • In Transcription Factors: Methods and Protocols , experts in the field describe state-of-the-art approaches that investigators can use to probe critical mechanisms underlying transcription factor nuclear-cytoplasmic trafficking as well as to assess the functional impact of post-translational modifications on transcription factor function. (springer.com)
  • Background: TATA-binding protein (TBP) is a ubiquitously expressed nuclear protein that functions at the core of the general transcription factor protein complex TFIID (1-3). (cellsignal.com)
  • Both miR169 aa and miR169 * targeted a nuclear transcription factor Y subunit A-1 [Genbank: DV443290, Genbank: DV455197, Genbank: DV445967] while miR397a and miR397b targeted laccase [Genbank: DR087678] (Table S11 in File S1). (mirbase.org)
  • The miR169 family targets the CCAAT -binding transcription factor and the nuclear transcription factor Y subunit A-8. (mirbase.org)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include DNA-binding transcription factor activity and sequence-specific DNA binding . (genecards.org)
  • Rat adipocyte determination differentiation factor 1 gene (ADD1) was identified independently by Tontonoz et al. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • TAZ is proposed to modulate the switch between proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) via interaction with transcription factors Runx2 and PPARγ. (cellsignal.com)
  • It is currently poorly understood how a single developmental transcription regulator controls early specification as well as a broad range of highly specialized differentiation schemes. (prolekare.cz)
  • Gene ID: 7392 is USF2 upstream transcription factor 2, c-fos interacting. (wikiversity.org)
  • Gene ID: 205717 is USF3 upstream transcription factor family member 3. (wikiversity.org)
  • Rtg1p and Rtg3p are basic helix-loop-helix/leucine zipper (bHLH/LeuZip) transcription factors that bind as heterodimers to the GTCAC DNA binding site. (hindawi.com)
  • X-ray structures of the basic/helix-loop-helix/leucine zipper (bHLHZ) domains of Myc-Max and Mad-Max heterodimers bound to their common DNA target (Enhancer or E box hexanucleotide, 5'-CACGTG-3') have been determined at 1.9 Å and 2.0 Å resolution, respectively. (sdbonline.org)
  • In the last few years, significant breakthroughs in transcription research expanded our appreciation for the complexity of molecular controls on gene expression in mammalian cells. (springer.com)
  • Gene expression and promoter analysis suggested that MondoA functionally represses peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator-1α (PGC-1α)-mediated activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK-4) transcription. (portlandpress.com)
  • TBK1 may mediate IKK and NF-κB activation in response to growth factors that stimulate PKCε activity (1). (cellsignal.com)
  • Although much of the tanning response comprises a post-translational activation of the melanosome, transcription of the Tyrosinase gene is UV responsive (Hara et al. (wikiversity.org)
  • All the members of the C/EBP family, except C/EBPγ, can induce transcription, through their activation domains, by interacting with components of the basal transcription apparatus. (bionity.com)
  • Here, we demonstrate that MondoA, but not its paralog carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein, is the predominant glucose-responsive transcription factor in human pancreatic β-EndoC-βH1 cells and in human islets. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • MondoA is a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)/leucine zipper (ZIP) transcription factor that is expressed predominantly in skeletal muscle. (portlandpress.com)
  • May repress transcription via the recruitment of a chromatin remodeling complex containing H3 'Lys-9' histone methyltransferase activity. (genecards.org)
  • The interaction with drugs of some transcription factors, such as PPAR and FOXA1, and how this interaction can be an attractive therapeutic approach, has also been evaluated. (mdpi.com)
  • It has been suggested that ADD1/SREBP1c increases PPARγ activity either through the induction of enzymes responsible for the generation of its endogenous ligands ( 12 ) and/or through increasing the transcription of PPARγ1 itself ( 13 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors, such as diet and lifestyle, defines the initiation and progression of multifactorial diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, and neurological disorders. (sdbonline.org)
  • TFIID, which contains TBP and 13 TBP-associated factors (TAFs), contributes to the formation of the transcription pre-initiation complex, an assembly of multiple protein complexes (TFIIA, TFIIB, TFIIE, TFIIF, TFIIH, and RNA polymerase II) that bind to a gene promoter during the initiation of transcription (1-3). (cellsignal.com)
  • The MiT/TFE family of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors recognizes the transcription initiation or E-box (Ephrussi boxes) sites (CANNTG) in the genome ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • 1992), located at -100 with respect to the transcription initiation site (Bentley et al. (wikiversity.org)
  • The chapters are written by prominent scientists, many of whom developed these methods, and highlight protocols that focus on specific transcription factor family members with particular relevance to human disease. (springer.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper (bHLHZ) family of transcription factors. (genecards.org)
  • In summary, the research surrounding the MiT/TFE family indicates that these transcription factors are promising therapeutic targets and biomarkers for cancers that thrive in stressful niches. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an important role in homeostasis and diseases of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), choriocapillaris, and, most notably, age-related macular degeneration (AMD). (molvis.org)
  • We conclude that Mllt10/Af10-Dot1l are essential, largely dedicated activators of Wnt-dependent transcription, critical for maintenance of intestinal proliferation and homeostasis. (zfin.org)
  • E box recognition by these two structurally similar transcription factor pairs determines whether a cell will divide and proliferate (Myc-Max) or differentiate and become quiescent (Mad-Max). (sdbonline.org)
  • Exposure of isolated human adipocytes to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) produced a marked and specific decrease in the mRNA encoding the SREBP1c isoform and completely blocked the insulin-induced cleavage of SREBP1 protein. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Anti-tumor necrosis factor-α therapy increases plaque burden in a mouse model of experimental atherosclerosis. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Atherosclerosis is critically fueled by vascular inflammation through oxidized lipids and inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. (bioportfolio.com)