Recurring supersecondary structures characterized by 20 amino acids folding into two alpha helices connected by a non-helical "loop" segment. They are found in many sequence-specific DNA-BINDING PROTEINS and in CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
DNA-binding motifs formed from two alpha-helixes which intertwine for about eight turns into a coiled coil and then bifurcate to form Y shaped structures. Leucines occurring in heptad repeats end up on the same sides of the helixes and are adjacent to each other in the stem of the Y (the "zipper" region). The DNA-binding residues are located in the bifurcated region of the Y.
A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.
Inhibitor of differentiation proteins are negative regulators of BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. They inhibit CELL DIFFERENTIATION and induce CELL PROLIFERATION by modulating different CELL CYCLE regulators.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A family of transcription factors that contain regions rich in basic residues, LEUCINE ZIPPER domains, and HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIFS.
Maf proto-oncogene protein is the major cellular homolog of the V-MAF ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It was the first of the mammalian MAF TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS identified, and it is induced in activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of INTERLEUKIN-4. c-maf is frequently translocated to an immunoglobulin locus in MULTIPLE MYELOMA.
A family of transcription factors found primarily in PLANTS that bind to the G-box DNA sequence CACGTG or to a consensus sequence CANNTG.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates the CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development of a variety of cell types including MELANOCYTES; OSTEOCLASTS; and RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. Mutations in MITF protein have been associated with OSTEOPETROSIS and WAARDENBURG SYNDROME.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that was originally described as a transcriptional regulator controlling expression of the BETA-GLOBIN gene. It may regulate the expression of a wide variety of genes that play a role in protecting cells from oxidative damage.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.
A CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein found in LIVER; INTESTINES; LUNG and ADIPOSE TISSUE. It is an important mediator of INTERLEUKIN-6 signaling.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Ubiquitously expressed basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF transcription factors. They bind CANNTG sequences in the promoters of a variety of GENES involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A family of high molecular weight Maf transcription factors that contain distinct activation domains.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A genus of chiefly Eurasian and African land snails including the principal edible snails as well as several pests of cultivated plants.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.
A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.
A CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein found in LIVER; ADIPOSE TISSUE; INTESTINES; LUNG; ADRENAL GLANDS; PLACENTA; OVARY and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (LEUKOCYTES, MONONUCLEAR). Experiments with knock-out mice have demonstrated that CCAAT-enhancer binding protein-alpha is essential for the functioning and differentiation of HEPATOCYTES and ADIPOCYTES.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
An activating transcription factor that plays a key role in cellular responses to GENOTOXIC STRESS and OXIDATIVE STRESS.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of GENES including C-JUN GENES; CYCLIN A; CYCLIN D1; and ACTIVATING TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR 3.
Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.
A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Activating transcription factors were originally identified as DNA-BINDING PROTEINS that interact with early promoters from ADENOVIRUSES. They are a family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors that bind to the consensus site TGACGTCA of the cyclic AMP response element, and are closely related to CYCLIC AMP-RESPONSIVE DNA-BINDING PROTEIN.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.
The so-called general transcription factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE II and that are required to initiate transcription. They include TFIIA; TFIIB; TFIID; TFIIE; TFIIF; TFIIH; TFII-I; and TFIIJ. In vivo they apparently bind in an ordered multi-step process and/or may form a large preinitiation complex called RNA polymerase II holoenzyme.
A family of zinc finger transcription factors that share homology with Kruppel protein, Drosophila. They contain a highly conserved seven amino acid spacer sequence in between their ZINC FINGER MOTIFS.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
An activating transcription factor that regulates the expression of a variety of GENES involved in amino acid metabolism and transport. It also interacts with HTLV-I transactivator protein.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A ubiquitously expressed zinc finger-containing protein that acts both as a repressor and activator of transcription. It interacts with key regulatory proteins such as TATA-BINDING PROTEIN; TFIIB; and ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
The major sequence-specific DNA-binding component involved in the activation of transcription of RNA POLYMERASE II. It was originally described as a complex of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN and TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS. It is now know that TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE PROTEINS may take the place of TATA-box binding protein in the complex.
A GATA transcription factor that is expressed in the MYOCARDIUM of developing heart and has been implicated in the differentiation of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. GATA4 is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION and regulates transcription of cardiac-specific genes.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.

Ski is a component of the histone deacetylase complex required for transcriptional repression by Mad and thyroid hormone receptor. (1/1060)

The N-CoR/SMRT complex containing mSin3 and histone deacetylase (HDAC) mediates transcriptional repression by nuclear hormone receptors and Mad. The proteins encoded by the ski proto-oncogene family directly bind to N-CoR/SMRT and mSin3A, and forms a complex with HDAC. c-Ski and its related gene product Sno are required for transcriptional repression by Mad and thyroid hormone receptor (TRbeta). The oncogenic form, v-Ski, which lacks the mSin3A-binding domain, acts in a dominant-negative fashion, and abrogates transcriptional repression by Mad and TRbeta. In ski-deficient mouse embryos, the ornithine decarboxylase gene, whose expression is normally repressed by Mad-Max, is expressed ectopically. These results show that Ski is a component of the HDAC complex and that Ski is required for the transcriptional repression mediated by this complex. The involvement of c-Ski in the HDAC complex indicates that the function of the HDAC complex is important for oncogenesis.  (+info)

Type 2 diabetes: evidence for linkage on chromosome 20 in 716 Finnish affected sib pairs. (2/1060)

We are conducting a genome scan at an average resolution of 10 centimorgans (cM) for type 2 diabetes susceptibility genes in 716 affected sib pairs from 477 Finnish families. To date, our best evidence for linkage is on chromosome 20 with potentially separable peaks located on both the long and short arms. The unweighted multipoint maximum logarithm of odds score (MLS) was 3.08 on 20p (location, chi = 19.5 cM) under an additive model, whereas the weighted MLS was 2.06 on 20q (chi = 57 cM, recurrence risk,lambda(s) = 1. 25, P = 0.009). Weighted logarithm of odds scores of 2.00 (chi = 69.5 cM, P = 0.010) and 1.92 (chi = 18.5 cM, P = 0.013) were also observed. Ordered subset analyses based on sibships with extreme mean values of diabetes-related quantitative traits yielded sets of families who contributed disproportionately to the peaks. Two-hour glucose levels in offspring of diabetic individuals gave a MLS of 2. 12 (P = 0.0018) at 9.5 cM. Evidence from this and other studies suggests at least two diabetes-susceptibility genes on chromosome 20. We have also screened the gene for maturity-onset diabetes of the young 1, hepatic nuclear factor 4-a (HNF-4alpha) in 64 affected sibships with evidence for high chromosomal sharing at its location on chromosome 20q. We found no evidence that sequence changes in this gene accounted for the linkage results we observed.  (+info)

Hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 regulates intestinal expression of the guanylin/heat-stable toxin receptor. (3/1060)

We have investigated the regulation of gene transcription in the intestine using the guanylyl cyclase C (GCC) gene as a model. GCC is expressed in crypts and villi in the small intestine and in crypts and surface epithelium of the colon. DNase I footprint, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), transient transfection assays, and mutagenesis experiments demonstrated that GCC transcription is regulated by a critical hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 (HNF-4) binding site between bp -46 and -29 and that bp -38 to -36 were essential for binding. Binding of HNF-4 to the GCC promoter was confirmed by competition EMSA and by supershift EMSA. In Caco-2 and T84 cells, which express both GCC and HNF-4, the activity of GCC promoter and/or luciferase reporter plasmids containing 128 or 1973 bp of 5'-flanking sequence was dependent on the HNF-4 binding site in the proximal promoter. In COLO-DM cells, which express neither GCC nor HNF-4, cotransfection of GCC promoter/luciferase reporter plasmids with an HNF-4 expression vector resulted in 23-fold stimulation of the GCC promoter. Mutation of the HNF-4 binding site abolished this transactivation. Transfection of COLO-DM cells with the HNF-4 expression vector stimulated transcription of the endogenous GCC gene as well. These results indicate that HNF-4 is a key regulator of GCC expression in the intestine.  (+info)

Silencing of the Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 1 gene by the Max-Mad1-mSin3A modulator of chromatin structure. (4/1060)

The tumor-associated latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) gene in the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome is activated by EBV-encoded proteins and cellular factors that are part of general signal transduction pathways. As previously demonstrated, the proximal region of the LMP1 promoter regulatory sequence (LRS) contains a negative cis element with a major role in EBNA2-mediated regulation of LMP1 gene expression in B cells. Here, we show that this silencing activity overlaps with a transcriptional enhancer in an LRS sequence that contains an E-box-homologous motif. Mutation of the putative repressor binding site relieved the repression both in a promoter-proximal context and in a complete LRS context, indicating a functional role of the repressor. Gel retardation assays showed that members of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor family, including Max, Mad1, USF, E12, and E47, and the corepressor mSin3A bound to the E-box-containing sequence. The enhancer activity correlated with the binding of USF. Moreover, the activity of the LMP1 promoter in reporter constructs was upregulated by overexpression of USF1 and USF2a, and the transactivation was inhibited by the concurrent expression of Max and Mad1. This suggests that Max-Mad1-mediated anchorage of a multiprotein complex including mSin3A and histone deacetylases to the E-box site constitutes the basis for the repression. Removal of acetyl moieties from histones H3 and H4 should result in a chromatin structure that is inaccessible to transcription factors. Accordingly, inhibition of deacetylase activity with trichostatin A induced expression of the endogenous LMP1 gene in EBV-transformed cells.  (+info)

Notch signaling imposes two distinct blocks in the differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts. (5/1060)

Notch signal transduction regulates expression of downstream genes through the activation of the DNA-binding protein Su(H)/CBF1. In Drosophila most of Notch signaling requires Su(H); however, some Notch-dependent processes occur in the absence of Su(H) suggesting that Notch signaling does not always involve activation of this factor. Using constitutively active forms of Notch lacking CBF1-interacting sequences we identified a Notch signaling pathway that inhibits myogenic differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts in the absence of CBF1 activation. Here we show that ligand-induced Notch signaling suppresses myogenesis in C2C12 myoblasts that express a dominant negative form of CBF1, providing additional evidence for CBF1-independent Notch signal transduction. Surprisingly mutant forms of Notch deficient in CBF1 activation are unable to antagonize MyoD activity, despite the fact that they inhibit myogenesis. Moreover, Notch-induced antagonism of MyoD requires CBF1 suggesting that the CBF1-dependent pathway mediates a cell-type-specific block in the myogenic program. However, Notch signaling in the absence of CBF1 activation blocks both myogenesis and osteogenesis, indicative of a general block in cellular differentiation. Taken together our data provide evidence for two distinct Notch signaling pathways that function to block differentiation at separate steps during the process of myogenesis in C2C12 myoblasts.  (+info)

Transcriptional activation by ETS and leucine zipper-containing basic helix-loop-helix proteins. (6/1060)

The immunoglobulin mu heavy-chain gene enhancer contains closely juxtaposed binding sites for ETS and leucine zipper-containing basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH-zip) proteins. To understand the mu enhancer function, we have investigated transcription activation by the combination of ETS and bHLH-zip proteins. The bHLH-zip protein TFE3, but not USF, cooperated with the ETS domain proteins PU.1 and Ets-1 to activate a tripartite domain of this enhancer. Deletion mutants were used to identify the domains of the proteins involved. Both TFE3 and USF enhanced Ets-1 DNA binding in vitro by relieving the influence of an autoinhibitory domain in Ets-1 by direct protein-protein associations. Several regions of Ets-1 were found to be necessary, whereas the bHLH-zip domain was sufficient for this effect. Our studies define novel interactions between ETS and bHLH-zip proteins that may regulate combinatorial transcription activation by these protein families.  (+info)

Barley BLZ2, a seed-specific bZIP protein that interacts with BLZ1 in vivo and activates transcription from the GCN4-like motif of B-hordein promoters in barley endosperm. (7/1060)

A barley endosperm cDNA, encoding a DNA-binding protein of the bZIP class of transcription factors, BLZ2, has been characterized. The Blz2 mRNA expression is restricted to the endosperm, where it precedes that of the hordein genes. BLZ2, expressed in bacteria, binds specifically to the GCN4-like motif (GLM; 5'-GTGAGTCAT-3') in a 43-base pair oligonucleotide derived from the promoter region of a Hor-2 gene (B1-hordein). This oligonucleotide also includes the prolamin box (PB; 5'-TGTAAAG-3'). Binding by BLZ2 is prevented when the GLM is mutated to 5'-GTGctTCtc-3' but not when mutations affect the PB. The BLZ2 protein is a potent transcriptional activator in a yeast two-hybrid system where it dimerizes with BLZ1, a barley bZIP protein encoded by the ubiquitously expressed Blz1 gene. Transient expression experiments in co-bombarded developing barley endosperms demonstrate that BLZ2 transactivates transcription from the GLM of the Hor-2 gene promoter and that this activation is also partially dependent on the presence of an intact PB. A drastic decrease in GUS activity is observed in co-bombarded barley endosperms when using as effectors equimolar mixtures of Blz2 and Blz1 in antisense constructs. These results strongly implicate the endosperm-specific BLZ2 protein from barley, either as a homodimer or as a heterodimer with BLZ1, as an important transcriptional activator of seed storage protein genes containing the GLM in their promoters.  (+info)

The tmp gene, encoding a membrane protein, is a c-Myc target with a tumorigenic activity. (8/1060)

The c-Myc oncoprotein induces cell proliferation and transformation through its activity as a transcription factor. Uncovering the genes regulated by c-Myc is an essential step for understanding these processes. We recently isolated the tumor-associated membrane protein gene, Tmp, from a c-myc-induced mouse brain tumor. Here we show that Tmp is specifically highly expressed in mammary tumors and T-cell lymphomas which develop in c-myc transgenic mice, suggesting that Tmp expression is a general characteristic of c-Myc-induced tumors. In addition, Tmp expression is induced upon serum stimulation of fibroblasts as shown in a time course closely correlated with c-myc expression. We have isolated the Tmp promoter region and identified a putative c-Myc binding element, CACGTG, located in the first intron of the gene. We show here that constructs containing the Tmp regulatory region fused to a reporter gene are activated by c-Myc through this CACGTG element and that the c-Myc-Max protein complex can bind to this element. Moreover, an inducible form of c-Myc, the MycER fusion protein, can activate the endogenous Tmp gene. We also show that Tmp-overexpressing fibroblasts induce rapidly growing tumors when injected into nude mice, suggesting that Tmp may possess a tumorigenic activity. Thus, TMP, a member of a novel family of membrane glycoproteins with a suggested role in cellular contact, is a c-Myc target and is possibly involved in c-Myc-induced transformation.  (+info)

Helix-loop-helix (HLH) motifs are structural domains found in certain proteins, particularly transcription factors, that play a crucial role in DNA binding and protein-protein interactions. These motifs consist of two amphipathic α-helices connected by a loop region. The first helix is known as the "helix-1" or "recognition helix," while the second one is called the "helix-2" or "dimerization helix."

In many HLH proteins, the helices come together to form a dimer through interactions between their hydrophobic residues located in the core of the helix-2. This dimerization enables DNA binding by positioning the recognition helices in close proximity to each other and allowing them to interact with specific DNA sequences, often referred to as E-box motifs (CANNTG).

HLH motifs can be further classified into basic HLH (bHLH) proteins and HLH-only proteins. bHLH proteins contain a basic region adjacent to the N-terminal end of the first helix, which facilitates DNA binding. In contrast, HLH-only proteins lack this basic region and primarily function as dimerization partners for bHLH proteins or participate in other protein-protein interactions.

These motifs are involved in various cellular processes, including cell fate determination, differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. Dysregulation of HLH proteins has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer and neurodevelopmental disorders.

Basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) transcription factors are a type of proteins that regulate gene expression through binding to specific DNA sequences. They play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. The bHLH domain is composed of two amphipathic α-helices separated by a loop region. This structure allows the formation of homodimers or heterodimers, which then bind to the E-box DNA motif (5'-CANNTG-3') to regulate transcription.

The bHLH family can be further divided into several subfamilies based on their sequence similarities and functional characteristics. Some members of this family are involved in the development and function of the nervous system, while others play critical roles in the development of muscle and bone. Dysregulation of bHLH transcription factors has been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer and neurodevelopmental disorders.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Leucine Zippers" is not a medical term or concept. It is a term used in molecular biology to describe a specific structural motif found in some proteins. Leucine zippers are amino acid sequences that contain regularly spaced leucine residues and form coiled-coil structures, which play a role in protein-protein interactions, particularly in DNA binding transcription factors.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help!

Basic-leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors are a family of transcriptional regulatory proteins characterized by the presence of a basic region and a leucine zipper motif. The basic region, which is rich in basic amino acids such as lysine and arginine, is responsible for DNA binding, while the leucine zipper motif mediates protein-protein interactions and dimerization.

BZIP transcription factors play important roles in various cellular processes, including gene expression regulation, cell growth, differentiation, and stress response. They bind to specific DNA sequences called AP-1 sites, which are often found in the promoter regions of target genes. BZIP transcription factors can form homodimers or heterodimers with other bZIP proteins, allowing for combinatorial control of gene expression.

Examples of bZIP transcription factors include c-Jun, c-Fos, ATF (activating transcription factor), and CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein). Dysregulation of bZIP transcription factors has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, inflammation, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Inhibitors of Differentiation (ID) proteins are a family of transcriptional regulators that play crucial roles in controlling cell growth, differentiation, and survival. They belong to the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein family and function as negative regulators of differentiation in various cell types.

ID proteins lack the DNA-binding domain required for specific interactions with DNA, but they contain a highly conserved HLH region that enables them to form heterodimers with other bHLH transcription factors. By doing so, ID proteins prevent these partner bHLH factors from binding to their target DNA sequences and thus inhibit the differentiation programs driven by those factors.

There are four members in the ID protein family: ID1, ID2, ID3, and ID4. These proteins exhibit distinct expression patterns during embryonic development and in adult tissues, reflecting their diverse roles in regulating cell fate decisions and homeostasis. Dysregulation of ID protein function has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including cancer and neurodevelopmental disorders.

Transcription factors are proteins that play a crucial role in regulating gene expression by controlling the transcription of DNA to messenger RNA (mRNA). They function by binding to specific DNA sequences, known as response elements, located in the promoter region or enhancer regions of target genes. This binding can either activate or repress the initiation of transcription, depending on the properties and interactions of the particular transcription factor. Transcription factors often act as part of a complex network of regulatory proteins that determine the precise spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression during development, differentiation, and homeostasis in an organism.

Basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors are a type of transcription factors that share a common structural feature consisting of two amphipathic α-helices connected by a loop. The bHLH domain is involved in DNA binding and dimerization, while the leucine zipper motif mediates further stabilization of the dimer. These transcription factors play crucial roles in various biological processes such as cell fate determination, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. They bind to specific DNA sequences called E-box motifs, which are CANNTG nucleotide sequences, often found in the promoter or enhancer regions of their target genes.

Proto-oncogene proteins, such as c-MAF, are normal cellular proteins that play crucial roles in various biological processes including cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). When these genes undergo mutations or become overexpressed, they can transform into oncogenes, which contribute to the development of cancer.

The c-MAF protein is a transcription factor that regulates gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences. It belongs to the basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP) family of transcription factors and plays essential roles in immune system function, cell cycle regulation, and tumorigenesis.

In cancer, c-MAF can contribute to tumor development and progression by promoting cell proliferation, survival, and angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels). Dysregulation of c-MAF has been implicated in various types of cancer, such as multiple myeloma, lung cancer, and breast cancer.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "G-Box Binding Factors" is not a widely recognized or established term in medical or molecular biology literature. The "G-box" is a specific sequence of DNA that can be found in the promoter regions of many genes and serves as a binding site for various transcription factors. Transcription factors are proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences and either promoting or inhibiting the initiation of transcription.

However, "G-Box Binding Factors" is too broad since multiple transcription factors can bind to the G-box sequence. Some examples of transcription factors known to bind to the G-box include proteins like GBF (G-box binding factor), HSF (heat shock transcription factor), and bZIP (basic region/leucine zipper) proteins, among others.

If you have a more specific context or reference related to "G-Box Binding Factors," I would be happy to help provide further information based on that context.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Genetic transcription is the process by which the information in a strand of DNA is used to create a complementary RNA molecule. This process is the first step in gene expression, where the genetic code in DNA is converted into a form that can be used to produce proteins or functional RNAs.

During transcription, an enzyme called RNA polymerase binds to the DNA template strand and reads the sequence of nucleotide bases. As it moves along the template, it adds complementary RNA nucleotides to the growing RNA chain, creating a single-stranded RNA molecule that is complementary to the DNA template strand. Once transcription is complete, the RNA molecule may undergo further processing before it can be translated into protein or perform its functional role in the cell.

Transcription can be either "constitutive" or "regulated." Constitutive transcription occurs at a relatively constant rate and produces essential proteins that are required for basic cellular functions. Regulated transcription, on the other hand, is subject to control by various intracellular and extracellular signals, allowing cells to respond to changing environmental conditions or developmental cues.

DNA-binding proteins are a type of protein that have the ability to bind to DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), the genetic material of organisms. These proteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as regulation of gene expression, DNA replication, repair and recombination.

The binding of DNA-binding proteins to specific DNA sequences is mediated by non-covalent interactions, including electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, and van der Waals forces. The specificity of binding is determined by the recognition of particular nucleotide sequences or structural features of the DNA molecule.

DNA-binding proteins can be classified into several categories based on their structure and function, such as transcription factors, histones, and restriction enzymes. Transcription factors are a major class of DNA-binding proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences in the promoter region of genes and recruiting other proteins to modulate transcription. Histones are DNA-binding proteins that package DNA into nucleosomes, the basic unit of chromatin structure. Restriction enzymes are DNA-binding proteins that recognize and cleave specific DNA sequences, and are widely used in molecular biology research and biotechnology applications.

The Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor (MITF) is a protein that functions as a transcription factor, which means it regulates the expression of specific genes. It belongs to the basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper (bHLH-Zip) family of transcription factors and plays crucial roles in various biological processes such as cell growth, differentiation, and survival.

MITF is particularly well-known for its role in the development and function of melanocytes, the pigment-producing cells found in the skin, eyes, and inner ear. It regulates the expression of genes involved in melanin synthesis and thus influences hair and skin color. Mutations in the MITF gene have been associated with certain eye disorders, including microphthalmia (small or underdeveloped eyes), iris coloboma (a gap or hole in the iris), and Waardenburg syndrome type 2A (an inherited disorder characterized by hearing loss and pigmentation abnormalities).

In addition to its role in melanocytes, MITF also plays a part in the development and function of other cell types, including osteoclasts (cells involved in bone resorption), mast cells (immune cells involved in allergic reactions), and retinal pigment epithelial cells (a type of cell found in the eye).

Promoter regions in genetics refer to specific DNA sequences located near the transcription start site of a gene. They serve as binding sites for RNA polymerase and various transcription factors that regulate the initiation of gene transcription. These regulatory elements help control the rate of transcription and, therefore, the level of gene expression. Promoter regions can be composed of different types of sequences, such as the TATA box and CAAT box, and their organization and composition can vary between different genes and species.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (NFE2L2), also known as NF-E2-related factor 2 (NRF2), is a protein that plays a crucial role in the regulation of cellular responses to oxidative stress and electrophilic substances. It is a transcription factor that binds to the antioxidant response element (ARE) in the promoter region of various genes, inducing their expression and promoting cellular defense against harmful stimuli.

Under normal conditions, NRF2 is bound to its inhibitor, Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1), in the cytoplasm, where it is targeted for degradation by the proteasome. However, upon exposure to oxidative stress or electrophilic substances, KEAP1 undergoes conformational changes, leading to the release and stabilization of NRF2. Subsequently, NRF2 translocates to the nucleus, forms a complex with small Maf proteins, and binds to AREs, inducing the expression of genes involved in antioxidant response, detoxification, and cellular protection.

Genetic variations or dysregulation of the NFE2L2/KEAP1 pathway have been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and pulmonary fibrosis, highlighting its importance in maintaining cellular homeostasis and preventing disease progression.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone that plays a crucial role in the regulation of various physiological processes, including seed dormancy, bud dormancy, leaf senescence, and response to abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity, and cold temperatures. It is a sesquiterpene compound that is synthesized in plants primarily in response to environmental stimuli that trigger the onset of stress responses.

ABA functions by regulating gene expression, cell growth and development, and stomatal closure, which helps prevent water loss from plants under drought conditions. It also plays a role in the regulation of plant metabolism and the activation of defense mechanisms against pathogens and other environmental stressors. Overall, abscisic acid is an essential hormone that enables plants to adapt to changing environmental conditions and optimize their growth and development.

CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-beta (CEBPB) is a transcription factor that plays a crucial role in the regulation of gene expression. It binds to the CCAAT box, a specific DNA sequence found in the promoter or enhancer regions of many genes. CEBPB is involved in various biological processes such as cell growth, development, and immune response. Dysregulation of CEBPB has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer and inflammatory disorders.

Trans-activators are proteins that increase the transcriptional activity of a gene or a set of genes. They do this by binding to specific DNA sequences and interacting with the transcription machinery, thereby enhancing the recruitment and assembly of the complexes needed for transcription. In some cases, trans-activators can also modulate the chromatin structure to make the template more accessible to the transcription machinery.

In the context of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection, the term "trans-activator" is often used specifically to refer to the Tat protein. The Tat protein is a viral regulatory protein that plays a critical role in the replication of HIV by activating the transcription of the viral genome. It does this by binding to a specific RNA structure called the Trans-Activation Response Element (TAR) located at the 5' end of all nascent HIV transcripts, and recruiting cellular cofactors that enhance the processivity and efficiency of RNA polymerase II, leading to increased viral gene expression.

Arabidopsis proteins refer to the proteins that are encoded by the genes in the Arabidopsis thaliana plant, which is a model organism commonly used in plant biology research. This small flowering plant has a compact genome and a short life cycle, making it an ideal subject for studying various biological processes in plants.

Arabidopsis proteins play crucial roles in many cellular functions, such as metabolism, signaling, regulation of gene expression, response to environmental stresses, and developmental processes. Research on Arabidopsis proteins has contributed significantly to our understanding of plant biology and has provided valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying various agronomic traits.

Some examples of Arabidopsis proteins include transcription factors, kinases, phosphatases, receptors, enzymes, and structural proteins. These proteins can be studied using a variety of techniques, such as biochemical assays, protein-protein interaction studies, and genetic approaches, to understand their functions and regulatory mechanisms in plants.

In the context of medical and biological sciences, a "binding site" refers to a specific location on a protein, molecule, or cell where another molecule can attach or bind. This binding interaction can lead to various functional changes in the original protein or molecule. The other molecule that binds to the binding site is often referred to as a ligand, which can be a small molecule, ion, or even another protein.

The binding between a ligand and its target binding site can be specific and selective, meaning that only certain ligands can bind to particular binding sites with high affinity. This specificity plays a crucial role in various biological processes, such as signal transduction, enzyme catalysis, or drug action.

In the case of drug development, understanding the location and properties of binding sites on target proteins is essential for designing drugs that can selectively bind to these sites and modulate protein function. This knowledge can help create more effective and safer therapeutic options for various diseases.

Protein binding, in the context of medical and biological sciences, refers to the interaction between a protein and another molecule (known as the ligand) that results in a stable complex. This process is often reversible and can be influenced by various factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration of the involved molecules.

In clinical chemistry, protein binding is particularly important when it comes to drugs, as many of them bind to proteins (especially albumin) in the bloodstream. The degree of protein binding can affect a drug's distribution, metabolism, and excretion, which in turn influence its therapeutic effectiveness and potential side effects.

Protein-bound drugs may be less available for interaction with their target tissues, as only the unbound or "free" fraction of the drug is active. Therefore, understanding protein binding can help optimize dosing regimens and minimize adverse reactions.

'Gene expression regulation' refers to the processes that control whether, when, and where a particular gene is expressed, meaning the production of a specific protein or functional RNA encoded by that gene. This complex mechanism can be influenced by various factors such as transcription factors, chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, non-coding RNAs, and post-transcriptional modifications, among others. Proper regulation of gene expression is crucial for normal cellular function, development, and maintaining homeostasis in living organisms. Dysregulation of gene expression can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

Gene expression regulation in plants refers to the processes that control the production of proteins and RNA from the genes present in the plant's DNA. This regulation is crucial for normal growth, development, and response to environmental stimuli in plants. It can occur at various levels, including transcription (the first step in gene expression, where the DNA sequence is copied into RNA), RNA processing (such as alternative splicing, which generates different mRNA molecules from a single gene), translation (where the information in the mRNA is used to produce a protein), and post-translational modification (where proteins are chemically modified after they have been synthesized).

In plants, gene expression regulation can be influenced by various factors such as hormones, light, temperature, and stress. Plants use complex networks of transcription factors, chromatin remodeling complexes, and small RNAs to regulate gene expression in response to these signals. Understanding the mechanisms of gene expression regulation in plants is important for basic research, as well as for developing crops with improved traits such as increased yield, stress tolerance, and disease resistance.

'Arabidopsis' is a genus of small flowering plants that are part of the mustard family (Brassicaceae). The most commonly studied species within this genus is 'Arabidopsis thaliana', which is often used as a model organism in plant biology and genetics research. This plant is native to Eurasia and Africa, and it has a small genome that has been fully sequenced. It is known for its short life cycle, self-fertilization, and ease of growth, making it an ideal subject for studying various aspects of plant biology, including development, metabolism, and response to environmental stresses.

Sequence homology, amino acid, refers to the similarity in the order of amino acids in a protein or a portion of a protein between two or more species. This similarity can be used to infer evolutionary relationships and functional similarities between proteins. The higher the degree of sequence homology, the more likely it is that the proteins are related and have similar functions. Sequence homology can be determined through various methods such as pairwise alignment or multiple sequence alignment, which compare the sequences and calculate a score based on the number and type of matching amino acids.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Genetically modified plants (GMPs) are plants that have had their DNA altered through genetic engineering techniques to exhibit desired traits. These modifications can be made to enhance certain characteristics such as increased resistance to pests, improved tolerance to environmental stresses like drought or salinity, or enhanced nutritional content. The process often involves introducing genes from other organisms, such as bacteria or viruses, into the plant's genome. Examples of GMPs include Bt cotton, which has a gene from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis that makes it resistant to certain pests, and golden rice, which is engineered to contain higher levels of beta-carotene, a precursor to vitamin A. It's important to note that genetically modified plants are subject to rigorous testing and regulation to ensure their safety for human consumption and environmental impact before they are approved for commercial use.

"Plant proteins" refer to the proteins that are derived from plant sources. These can include proteins from legumes such as beans, lentils, and peas, as well as proteins from grains like wheat, rice, and corn. Other sources of plant proteins include nuts, seeds, and vegetables.

Plant proteins are made up of individual amino acids, which are the building blocks of protein. While animal-based proteins typically contain all of the essential amino acids that the body needs to function properly, many plant-based proteins may be lacking in one or more of these essential amino acids. However, by consuming a variety of plant-based foods throughout the day, it is possible to get all of the essential amino acids that the body needs from plant sources alone.

Plant proteins are often lower in calories and saturated fat than animal proteins, making them a popular choice for those following a vegetarian or vegan diet, as well as those looking to maintain a healthy weight or reduce their risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease and cancer. Additionally, plant proteins have been shown to have a number of health benefits, including improving gut health, reducing inflammation, and supporting muscle growth and repair.

"Response elements" is a term used in molecular biology, particularly in the study of gene regulation. Response elements are specific DNA sequences that can bind to transcription factors, which are proteins that regulate gene expression. When a transcription factor binds to a response element, it can either activate or repress the transcription of the nearby gene.

Response elements are often found in the promoter region of genes and are typically short, conserved sequences that can be recognized by specific transcription factors. The binding of a transcription factor to a response element can lead to changes in chromatin structure, recruitment of co-activators or co-repressors, and ultimately, the regulation of gene expression.

Response elements are important for many biological processes, including development, differentiation, and response to environmental stimuli such as hormones, growth factors, and stress. The specificity of transcription factor binding to response elements allows for precise control of gene expression in response to changing conditions within the cell or organism.

In medical terms, "seeds" are often referred to as a small amount of a substance, such as a radioactive material or drug, that is inserted into a tissue or placed inside a capsule for the purpose of treating a medical condition. This can include procedures like brachytherapy, where seeds containing radioactive materials are used in the treatment of cancer to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Similarly, in some forms of drug delivery, seeds containing medication can be used to gradually release the drug into the body over an extended period of time.

It's important to note that "seeds" have different meanings and applications depending on the medical context. In other cases, "seeds" may simply refer to small particles or structures found in the body, such as those present in the eye's retina.

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Transcriptional activation is the process by which a cell increases the rate of transcription of specific genes from DNA to RNA. This process is tightly regulated and plays a crucial role in various biological processes, including development, differentiation, and response to environmental stimuli.

Transcriptional activation occurs when transcription factors (proteins that bind to specific DNA sequences) interact with the promoter region of a gene and recruit co-activator proteins. These co-activators help to remodel the chromatin structure around the gene, making it more accessible for the transcription machinery to bind and initiate transcription.

Transcriptional activation can be regulated at multiple levels, including the availability and activity of transcription factors, the modification of histone proteins, and the recruitment of co-activators or co-repressors. Dysregulation of transcriptional activation has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

A "knockout" mouse is a genetically engineered mouse in which one or more genes have been deleted or "knocked out" using molecular biology techniques. This allows researchers to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes, as well as potential associations with human diseases. The mice are generated by introducing targeted DNA modifications into embryonic stem cells, which are then used to create a live animal. Knockout mice have been widely used in biomedical research to investigate gene function, disease mechanisms, and potential therapeutic targets.

Nuclear proteins are a category of proteins that are primarily found in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell. They play crucial roles in various nuclear functions, such as DNA replication, transcription, repair, and RNA processing. This group includes structural proteins like lamins, which form the nuclear lamina, and regulatory proteins, such as histones and transcription factors, that are involved in gene expression. Nuclear localization signals (NLS) often help target these proteins to the nucleus by interacting with importin proteins during active transport across the nuclear membrane.

Upstream stimulatory factors (USF) are a group of transcription factors that bind to the promoter or enhancer regions of genes and regulate their expression. They are called "upstream" because they bind to the DNA upstream of the gene's transcription start site. USFs are widely expressed in many tissues and play important roles in various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and metabolism.

There are two main members of the USF family, USF-1 and USF-2, which are encoded by separate genes but share a high degree of sequence similarity. Both USF proteins contain a conserved basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain that mediates DNA binding and a conserved adjacent leucine zipper motif that facilitates protein dimerization. USFs can form homodimers or heterodimers with each other, as well as with other bHLH proteins, to regulate gene expression.

USFs have been shown to bind to and activate the transcription of a wide range of genes involved in various cellular processes, such as glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, lipid metabolism, and DNA repair. Dysregulation of USF activity has been implicated in several human diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of USF-mediated gene regulation may provide insights into the pathophysiology of these diseases and lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Tertiary protein structure refers to the three-dimensional arrangement of all the elements (polypeptide chains) of a single protein molecule. It is the highest level of structural organization and results from interactions between various side chains (R groups) of the amino acids that make up the protein. These interactions, which include hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, van der Waals forces, and disulfide bridges, give the protein its unique shape and stability, which in turn determines its function. The tertiary structure of a protein can be stabilized by various factors such as temperature, pH, and the presence of certain ions. Any changes in these factors can lead to denaturation, where the protein loses its tertiary structure and thus its function.

MAF transcription factors are a family of proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences. "Large" MAF transcription factors, also known as MLTF or MAFA, are one subgroup within this family and include the proteins MAFA, MAFB, and NRL. These proteins contain a basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain, which is responsible for their DNA-binding activity. They play critical roles in the development and function of various tissues, including the eye, pancreas, and immune system. Dysregulation of MAF transcription factors has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer and diabetes.

Cell differentiation is the process by which a less specialized cell, or stem cell, becomes a more specialized cell type with specific functions and structures. This process involves changes in gene expression, which are regulated by various intracellular signaling pathways and transcription factors. Differentiation results in the development of distinct cell types that make up tissues and organs in multicellular organisms. It is a crucial aspect of embryonic development, tissue repair, and maintenance of homeostasis in the body.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Developmental gene expression regulation refers to the processes that control the activation or repression of specific genes during embryonic and fetal development. These regulatory mechanisms ensure that genes are expressed at the right time, in the right cells, and at appropriate levels to guide proper growth, differentiation, and morphogenesis of an organism.

Developmental gene expression regulation is a complex and dynamic process involving various molecular players, such as transcription factors, chromatin modifiers, non-coding RNAs, and signaling molecules. These regulators can interact with cis-regulatory elements, like enhancers and promoters, to fine-tune the spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression during development.

Dysregulation of developmental gene expression can lead to various congenital disorders and developmental abnormalities. Therefore, understanding the principles and mechanisms governing developmental gene expression regulation is crucial for uncovering the etiology of developmental diseases and devising potential therapeutic strategies.

Repressor proteins are a type of regulatory protein in molecular biology that suppress the transcription of specific genes into messenger RNA (mRNA) by binding to DNA. They function as part of gene regulation processes, often working in conjunction with an operator region and a promoter region within the DNA molecule. Repressor proteins can be activated or deactivated by various signals, allowing for precise control over gene expression in response to changing cellular conditions.

There are two main types of repressor proteins:

1. DNA-binding repressors: These directly bind to specific DNA sequences (operator regions) near the target gene and prevent RNA polymerase from transcribing the gene into mRNA.
2. Allosteric repressors: These bind to effector molecules, which then cause a conformational change in the repressor protein, enabling it to bind to DNA and inhibit transcription.

Repressor proteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as development, metabolism, and stress response, by controlling gene expression patterns in cells.

Sp1 (Specificity Protein 1) transcription factor is a protein that binds to specific DNA sequences, known as GC boxes, in the promoter regions of many genes. It plays a crucial role in the regulation of gene expression by controlling the initiation of transcription. Sp1 recognizes and binds to the consensus sequence of GGGCGG upstream of the transcription start site, thereby recruiting other co-activators or co-repressors to modulate the rate of transcription. Sp1 is involved in various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis, and its dysregulation has been implicated in several human diseases, such as cancer.

CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins (C/EBPs) are a family of transcription factors that play crucial roles in the regulation of various biological processes, including cell growth, development, and differentiation. They bind to specific DNA sequences called CCAAT boxes, which are found in the promoter or enhancer regions of many genes.

The C/EBP family consists of several members, including C/EBPα, C/EBPβ, C/EBPγ, C/EBPδ, and C/EBPε. These proteins share a highly conserved basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP) domain, which is responsible for their DNA-binding and dimerization activities.

C/EBPs can form homodimers or heterodimers with other bZIP proteins, allowing them to regulate gene expression in a combinatorial manner. They are involved in the regulation of various physiological processes, such as inflammation, immune response, metabolism, and cell cycle control. Dysregulation of C/EBP function has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and inflammatory disorders.

CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-alpha (CEBPA) is a transcription factor that plays a crucial role in the regulation of genes involved in the differentiation and proliferation of hematopoietic cells, which are the precursor cells to all blood cells. The protein binds to the CCAAT box, a specific DNA sequence found in the promoter regions of many genes, and activates or represses their transcription.

Mutations in the CEBPA gene have been associated with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a type of cancer that affects the blood and bone marrow. These mutations can lead to an increased risk of developing AML, as well as resistance to chemotherapy treatments. Therefore, understanding the function of CEBPA and its role in hematopoiesis is essential for the development of new therapies for AML and other hematological disorders.

Transfection is a term used in molecular biology that refers to the process of deliberately introducing foreign genetic material (DNA, RNA or artificial gene constructs) into cells. This is typically done using chemical or physical methods, such as lipofection or electroporation. Transfection is widely used in research and medical settings for various purposes, including studying gene function, producing proteins, developing gene therapies, and creating genetically modified organisms. It's important to note that transfection is different from transduction, which is the process of introducing genetic material into cells using viruses as vectors.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the genetic material present in the cells of organisms where it is responsible for the storage and transmission of hereditary information. DNA is a long molecule that consists of two strands coiled together to form a double helix. Each strand is made up of a series of four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - that are linked together by phosphate and sugar groups. The sequence of these bases along the length of the molecule encodes genetic information, with A always pairing with T and C always pairing with G. This base-pairing allows for the replication and transcription of DNA, which are essential processes in the functioning and reproduction of all living organisms.

Secondary protein structure refers to the local spatial arrangement of amino acid chains in a protein, typically described as regular repeating patterns held together by hydrogen bonds. The two most common types of secondary structures are the alpha-helix (α-helix) and the beta-pleated sheet (β-sheet). In an α-helix, the polypeptide chain twists around itself in a helical shape, with each backbone atom forming a hydrogen bond with the fourth amino acid residue along the chain. This forms a rigid rod-like structure that is resistant to bending or twisting forces. In β-sheets, adjacent segments of the polypeptide chain run parallel or antiparallel to each other and are connected by hydrogen bonds, forming a pleated sheet-like arrangement. These secondary structures provide the foundation for the formation of tertiary and quaternary protein structures, which determine the overall three-dimensional shape and function of the protein.

Molecular models are three-dimensional representations of molecular structures that are used in the field of molecular biology and chemistry to visualize and understand the spatial arrangement of atoms and bonds within a molecule. These models can be physical or computer-generated and allow researchers to study the shape, size, and behavior of molecules, which is crucial for understanding their function and interactions with other molecules.

Physical molecular models are often made up of balls (representing atoms) connected by rods or sticks (representing bonds). These models can be constructed manually using materials such as plastic or wooden balls and rods, or they can be created using 3D printing technology.

Computer-generated molecular models, on the other hand, are created using specialized software that allows researchers to visualize and manipulate molecular structures in three dimensions. These models can be used to simulate molecular interactions, predict molecular behavior, and design new drugs or chemicals with specific properties. Overall, molecular models play a critical role in advancing our understanding of molecular structures and their functions.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

Transcription Factor AP-1 (Activator Protein 1) is a heterodimeric transcription factor that belongs to the bZIP (basic region-leucine zipper) family. It is formed by the dimerization of Jun (c-Jun, JunB, JunD) and Fos (c-Fos, FosB, Fra1, Fra2) protein families, or alternatively by homodimers of Jun proteins. AP-1 plays a crucial role in regulating gene expression in various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Its activity is tightly controlled through various signaling pathways, including the MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) cascades, which lead to phosphorylation and activation of its components. Once activated, AP-1 binds to specific DNA sequences called TPA response elements (TREs) or AP-1 sites, thereby modulating the transcription of target genes involved in various cellular responses, such as inflammation, immune response, stress response, and oncogenic transformation.

Dimerization is a process in which two molecules, usually proteins or similar structures, bind together to form a larger complex. This can occur through various mechanisms, such as the formation of disulfide bonds, hydrogen bonding, or other non-covalent interactions. Dimerization can play important roles in cell signaling, enzyme function, and the regulation of gene expression.

In the context of medical research and therapy, dimerization is often studied in relation to specific proteins that are involved in diseases such as cancer. For example, some drugs have been developed to target and inhibit the dimerization of certain proteins, with the goal of disrupting their function and slowing or stopping the progression of the disease.

Recombinant fusion proteins are artificially created biomolecules that combine the functional domains or properties of two or more different proteins into a single protein entity. They are generated through recombinant DNA technology, where the genes encoding the desired protein domains are linked together and expressed as a single, chimeric gene in a host organism, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells.

The resulting fusion protein retains the functional properties of its individual constituent proteins, allowing for novel applications in research, diagnostics, and therapeutics. For instance, recombinant fusion proteins can be designed to enhance protein stability, solubility, or immunogenicity, making them valuable tools for studying protein-protein interactions, developing targeted therapies, or generating vaccines against infectious diseases or cancer.

Examples of recombinant fusion proteins include:

1. Etaglunatide (ABT-523): A soluble Fc fusion protein that combines the heavy chain fragment crystallizable region (Fc) of an immunoglobulin with the extracellular domain of the human interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R). This fusion protein functions as a decoy receptor, neutralizing IL-6 and its downstream signaling pathways in rheumatoid arthritis.
2. Etanercept (Enbrel): A soluble TNF receptor p75 Fc fusion protein that binds to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and inhibits its proinflammatory activity, making it a valuable therapeutic option for treating autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and psoriasis.
3. Abatacept (Orencia): A fusion protein consisting of the extracellular domain of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) linked to the Fc region of an immunoglobulin, which downregulates T-cell activation and proliferation in autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis.
4. Belimumab (Benlysta): A monoclonal antibody that targets B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) protein, preventing its interaction with the B-cell surface receptor and inhibiting B-cell activation in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
5. Romiplostim (Nplate): A fusion protein consisting of a thrombopoietin receptor agonist peptide linked to an immunoglobulin Fc region, which stimulates platelet production in patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP).
6. Darbepoetin alfa (Aranesp): A hyperglycosylated erythropoiesis-stimulating protein that functions as a longer-acting form of recombinant human erythropoietin, used to treat anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease or cancer.
7. Palivizumab (Synagis): A monoclonal antibody directed against the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which prevents RSV infection and is administered prophylactically to high-risk infants during the RSV season.
8. Ranibizumab (Lucentis): A recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody fragment that binds and inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), used in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and other ocular disorders.
9. Cetuximab (Erbitux): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), used in the treatment of colorectal cancer and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
10. Adalimumab (Humira): A fully humanized monoclonal antibody that targets tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and Crohn's disease.
11. Bevacizumab (Avastin): A recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to VEGF-A, used in the treatment of various cancers, including colorectal, lung, breast, and kidney cancer.
12. Trastuzumab (Herceptin): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets HER2/neu receptor, used in the treatment of breast cancer.
13. Rituximab (Rituxan): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds to CD20 antigen on B cells, used in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and rheumatoid arthritis.
14. Palivizumab (Synagis): A humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus, used in the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infection in high-risk infants.
15. Infliximab (Remicade): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
16. Natalizumab (Tysabri): A humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to α4β1 integrin, used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis and Crohn's disease.
17. Adalimumab (Humira): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis.
18. Golimumab (Simponi): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and ulcerative colitis.
19. Certolizumab pegol (Cimzia): A PEGylated Fab' fragment of a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and Crohn's disease.
20. Ustekinumab (Stelara): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-12 and IL-23, used in the treatment of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and Crohn's disease.
21. Secukinumab (Cosentyx): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17A, used in the treatment of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
22. Ixekizumab (Taltz): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17A, used in the treatment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis.
23. Brodalumab (Siliq): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17 receptor A, used in the treatment of psoriasis.
24. Sarilumab (Kevzara): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets the IL-6 receptor, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
25. Tocilizumab (Actemra): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets the IL-6 receptor, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, giant cell arteritis, and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell-induced cytokine release syndrome.
26. Siltuximab (Sylvant): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6, used in the treatment of multicentric Castleman disease.
27. Satralizumab (Enspryng): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6 receptor alpha, used in the treatment of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.
28. Sirukumab (Plivensia): A human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6, used in the treatment

Homeodomain proteins are a group of transcription factors that play crucial roles in the development and differentiation of cells in animals and plants. They are characterized by the presence of a highly conserved DNA-binding domain called the homeodomain, which is typically about 60 amino acids long. The homeodomain consists of three helices, with the third helix responsible for recognizing and binding to specific DNA sequences.

Homeodomain proteins are involved in regulating gene expression during embryonic development, tissue maintenance, and organismal growth. They can act as activators or repressors of transcription, depending on the context and the presence of cofactors. Mutations in homeodomain proteins have been associated with various human diseases, including cancer, congenital abnormalities, and neurological disorders.

Some examples of homeodomain proteins include PAX6, which is essential for eye development, HOX genes, which are involved in body patterning, and NANOG, which plays a role in maintaining pluripotency in stem cells.

The cell nucleus is a membrane-bound organelle found in the eukaryotic cells (cells with a true nucleus). It contains most of the cell's genetic material, organized as DNA molecules in complex with proteins, RNA molecules, and histones to form chromosomes.

The primary function of the cell nucleus is to regulate and control the activities of the cell, including growth, metabolism, protein synthesis, and reproduction. It also plays a crucial role in the process of mitosis (cell division) by separating and protecting the genetic material during this process. The nuclear membrane, or nuclear envelope, surrounding the nucleus is composed of two lipid bilayers with numerous pores that allow for the selective transport of molecules between the nucleoplasm (nucleus interior) and the cytoplasm (cell exterior).

The cell nucleus is a vital structure in eukaryotic cells, and its dysfunction can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

Forkhead transcription factors (FOX) are a family of proteins that play crucial roles in the regulation of gene expression through the process of binding to specific DNA sequences, thereby controlling various biological processes such as cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. These proteins are characterized by a conserved DNA-binding domain, known as the forkhead box or FOX domain, which adopts a winged helix structure that recognizes and binds to the consensus sequence 5'-(G/A)(T/C)AA(C/A)A-3'.

The FOX family is further divided into subfamilies based on the structure of their DNA-binding domains, with each subfamily having distinct functions. For example, FOXP proteins are involved in brain development and function, while FOXO proteins play a key role in regulating cellular responses to stress and metabolism. Dysregulation of forkhead transcription factors has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders.

In genetics, sequence alignment is the process of arranging two or more DNA, RNA, or protein sequences to identify regions of similarity or homology between them. This is often done using computational methods to compare the nucleotide or amino acid sequences and identify matching patterns, which can provide insight into evolutionary relationships, functional domains, or potential genetic disorders. The alignment process typically involves adjusting gaps and mismatches in the sequences to maximize the similarity between them, resulting in an aligned sequence that can be visually represented and analyzed.

Proto-oncogene proteins, such as c-Jun, are normal cellular proteins that play crucial roles in various cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). When proto-oncogenes undergo mutations or are overexpressed, they can become oncogenes, promoting uncontrolled cell growth and leading to cancer.

The c-Jun protein is a component of the AP-1 transcription factor complex, which regulates gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences. It is involved in various cellular responses such as proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Dysregulation of c-Jun has been implicated in several types of cancer, including lung, breast, and colon cancers.

Site-directed mutagenesis is a molecular biology technique used to introduce specific and targeted changes to a specific DNA sequence. This process involves creating a new variant of a gene or a specific region of interest within a DNA molecule by introducing a planned, deliberate change, or mutation, at a predetermined site within the DNA sequence.

The methodology typically involves the use of molecular tools such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, and/or ligases to introduce the desired mutation(s) into a plasmid or other vector containing the target DNA sequence. The resulting modified DNA molecule can then be used to transform host cells, allowing for the production of large quantities of the mutated gene or protein for further study.

Site-directed mutagenesis is a valuable tool in basic research, drug discovery, and biotechnology applications where specific changes to a DNA sequence are required to understand gene function, investigate protein structure/function relationships, or engineer novel biological properties into existing genes or proteins.

HeLa cells are a type of immortalized cell line used in scientific research. They are derived from a cancer that developed in the cervical tissue of Henrietta Lacks, an African-American woman, in 1951. After her death, cells taken from her tumor were found to be capable of continuous division and growth in a laboratory setting, making them an invaluable resource for medical research.

HeLa cells have been used in a wide range of scientific studies, including research on cancer, viruses, genetics, and drug development. They were the first human cell line to be successfully cloned and are able to grow rapidly in culture, doubling their population every 20-24 hours. This has made them an essential tool for many areas of biomedical research.

It is important to note that while HeLa cells have been instrumental in numerous scientific breakthroughs, the story of their origin raises ethical questions about informed consent and the use of human tissue in research.

A plasmid is a small, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that is separate from the chromosomal DNA of a bacterium or other organism. Plasmids are typically not essential for the survival of the organism, but they can confer beneficial traits such as antibiotic resistance or the ability to degrade certain types of pollutants.

Plasmids are capable of replicating independently of the chromosomal DNA and can be transferred between bacteria through a process called conjugation. They often contain genes that provide resistance to antibiotics, heavy metals, and other environmental stressors. Plasmids have also been engineered for use in molecular biology as cloning vectors, allowing scientists to replicate and manipulate specific DNA sequences.

Plasmids are important tools in genetic engineering and biotechnology because they can be easily manipulated and transferred between organisms. They have been used to produce vaccines, diagnostic tests, and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for various applications, including agriculture, medicine, and industry.

Activating Transcription Factor 3 (ATF3) is a protein involved in the regulation of gene expression. It belongs to the ATF/CREB family of basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors, which bind to specific DNA sequences and regulate the transcription of target genes.

ATF3 is known to be rapidly induced in response to various cellular stresses, such as oxidative stress, DNA damage, and inflammation. It can act as a transcriptional activator or repressor, depending on the context and the presence of other co-factors. ATF3 has been implicated in a variety of biological processes, including cell survival, differentiation, and apoptosis.

In the medical field, abnormal regulation of ATF3 has been linked to several diseases, such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and autoimmune diseases. For example, ATF3 has been shown to play a role in tumorigenesis by regulating the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and metastasis. Additionally, ATF3 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, where it may contribute to neuronal death and inflammation.

Overall, Activating Transcription Factor 3 is an important protein involved in the regulation of gene expression in response to cellular stress, and its dysregulation has been linked to several diseases.

A "reporter gene" is a type of gene that is linked to a gene of interest in order to make the expression or activity of that gene detectable. The reporter gene encodes for a protein that can be easily measured and serves as an indicator of the presence and activity of the gene of interest. Commonly used reporter genes include those that encode for fluorescent proteins, enzymes that catalyze colorimetric reactions, or proteins that bind to specific molecules.

In the context of genetics and genomics research, a reporter gene is often used in studies involving gene expression, regulation, and function. By introducing the reporter gene into an organism or cell, researchers can monitor the activity of the gene of interest in real-time or after various experimental treatments. The information obtained from these studies can help elucidate the role of specific genes in biological processes and diseases, providing valuable insights for basic research and therapeutic development.

Protein conformation refers to the specific three-dimensional shape that a protein molecule assumes due to the spatial arrangement of its constituent amino acid residues and their associated chemical groups. This complex structure is determined by several factors, including covalent bonds (disulfide bridges), hydrogen bonds, van der Waals forces, and ionic bonds, which help stabilize the protein's unique conformation.

Protein conformations can be broadly classified into two categories: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures. The primary structure represents the linear sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain. The secondary structure arises from local interactions between adjacent amino acid residues, leading to the formation of recurring motifs such as α-helices and β-sheets. Tertiary structure refers to the overall three-dimensional folding pattern of a single polypeptide chain, while quaternary structure describes the spatial arrangement of multiple folded polypeptide chains (subunits) that interact to form a functional protein complex.

Understanding protein conformation is crucial for elucidating protein function, as the specific three-dimensional shape of a protein directly influences its ability to interact with other molecules, such as ligands, nucleic acids, or other proteins. Any alterations in protein conformation due to genetic mutations, environmental factors, or chemical modifications can lead to loss of function, misfolding, aggregation, and disease states like neurodegenerative disorders and cancer.

Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins are the proteins that are produced by the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This organism is a single-celled eukaryote that has been widely used as a model organism in scientific research for many years due to its relatively simple genetic makeup and its similarity to higher eukaryotic cells.

The genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been fully sequenced, and it is estimated to contain approximately 6,000 genes that encode proteins. These proteins play a wide variety of roles in the cell, including catalyzing metabolic reactions, regulating gene expression, maintaining the structure of the cell, and responding to environmental stimuli.

Many Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins have human homologs and are involved in similar biological processes, making this organism a valuable tool for studying human disease. For example, many of the proteins involved in DNA replication, repair, and recombination in yeast have human counterparts that are associated with cancer and other diseases. By studying these proteins in yeast, researchers can gain insights into their function and regulation in humans, which may lead to new treatments for disease.

Activating Transcription Factor 2 (ATF-2) is a protein that belongs to the family of leucine zipper transcription factors. It plays a crucial role in regulating gene expression in response to various cellular stress signals, such as inflammation, DNA damage, and oxidative stress. ATF-2 can bind to specific DNA sequences called cis-acting elements, located within the promoter regions of target genes, and activate their transcription.

ATF-2 forms homodimers or heterodimers with other proteins, such as c-Jun, to regulate gene expression. The activity of ATF-2 is tightly controlled through various post-translational modifications, including phosphorylation, which can modulate its DNA binding and transactivation properties.

ATF-2 has been implicated in several biological processes, such as cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis, and its dysregulation has been associated with various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and cardiovascular diseases.

Zinc fingers are a type of protein structural motif involved in specific DNA binding and, by extension, in the regulation of gene expression. They are so named because of their characteristic "finger-like" shape that is formed when a zinc ion binds to the amino acids within the protein. This structure allows the protein to interact with and recognize specific DNA sequences, thereby playing a crucial role in various biological processes such as transcription, repair, and recombination of genetic material.

Transcription Factor AP-2 is a specific protein involved in the process of gene transcription. It belongs to a family of transcription factors known as Activating Enhancer-Binding Proteins (AP-2). These proteins regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences called enhancers, which are located near the genes they control.

AP-2 is composed of four subunits that form a homo- or heterodimer, which then binds to the consensus sequence 5'-GCCNNNGGC-3'. This sequence is typically found in the promoter regions of target genes. Once bound, AP-2 can either activate or repress gene transcription, depending on the context and the presence of cofactors.

AP-2 plays crucial roles during embryonic development, particularly in the formation of the nervous system, limbs, and face. It is also involved in cell cycle regulation, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). Dysregulation of AP-2 has been implicated in several diseases, including various types of cancer.

Nucleic acid conformation refers to the three-dimensional structure that nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) adopt as a result of the bonding patterns between the atoms within the molecule. The primary structure of nucleic acids is determined by the sequence of nucleotides, while the conformation is influenced by factors such as the sugar-phosphate backbone, base stacking, and hydrogen bonding.

Two common conformations of DNA are the B-form and the A-form. The B-form is a right-handed helix with a diameter of about 20 Å and a pitch of 34 Å, while the A-form has a smaller diameter (about 18 Å) and a shorter pitch (about 25 Å). RNA typically adopts an A-form conformation.

The conformation of nucleic acids can have significant implications for their function, as it can affect their ability to interact with other molecules such as proteins or drugs. Understanding the conformational properties of nucleic acids is therefore an important area of research in molecular biology and medicine.

Activating transcription factors (ATFs) are a family of proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences and promoting the initiation of transcription. They play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including development, differentiation, and stress response. ATFs can form homodimers or heterodimers with other transcription factors, such as cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and bind to the consensus sequence called the cyclic AMP response element (CRE) in the promoter region of target genes. The activation of ATFs can be regulated through various post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, which can alter their DNA-binding ability and transcriptional activity.

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a molecular biology technique used to analyze the interaction between proteins and DNA in the cell. It is a powerful tool for studying protein-DNA binding, such as transcription factor binding to specific DNA sequences, histone modification, and chromatin structure.

In ChIP assays, cells are first crosslinked with formaldehyde to preserve protein-DNA interactions. The chromatin is then fragmented into small pieces using sonication or other methods. Specific antibodies against the protein of interest are added to precipitate the protein-DNA complexes. After reversing the crosslinking, the DNA associated with the protein is purified and analyzed using PCR, sequencing, or microarray technologies.

ChIP assays can provide valuable information about the regulation of gene expression, epigenetic modifications, and chromatin structure in various biological processes and diseases, including cancer, development, and differentiation.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

An Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) is a laboratory technique used to detect and analyze protein-DNA interactions. In this assay, a mixture of proteins and fluorescently or radioactively labeled DNA probes are loaded onto a native polyacrylamide gel matrix and subjected to an electric field. The negatively charged DNA probe migrates towards the positive electrode, and the rate of migration (mobility) is dependent on the size and charge of the molecule. When a protein binds to the DNA probe, it forms a complex that has a different size and/or charge than the unbound probe, resulting in a shift in its mobility on the gel.

The EMSA can be used to identify specific protein-DNA interactions, determine the binding affinity of proteins for specific DNA sequences, and investigate the effects of mutations or post-translational modifications on protein-DNA interactions. The technique is widely used in molecular biology research, including studies of gene regulation, DNA damage repair, and epigenetic modifications.

In summary, Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) is a laboratory technique that detects and analyzes protein-DNA interactions by subjecting a mixture of proteins and labeled DNA probes to an electric field in a native polyacrylamide gel matrix. The binding of proteins to the DNA probe results in a shift in its mobility on the gel, allowing for the detection and analysis of specific protein-DNA interactions.

Transcription factors (TFs) are proteins that regulate the transcription of genetic information from DNA to RNA by binding to specific DNA sequences. They play a crucial role in controlling gene expression, which is the process by which information in genes is converted into a functional product, such as a protein.

TFII, on the other hand, refers to a general class of transcription factors that are involved in the initiation of RNA polymerase II-dependent transcription. These proteins are often referred to as "general transcription factors" because they are required for the transcription of most protein-coding genes in eukaryotic cells.

TFII factors help to assemble the preinitiation complex (PIC) at the promoter region of a gene, which is a group of proteins that includes RNA polymerase II and other cofactors necessary for transcription. Once the PIC is assembled, TFII factors help to recruit RNA polymerase II to the promoter and initiate transcription.

Some examples of TFII factors include TFIIA, TFIIB, TFIID, TFIIE, TFIIF, and TFIIH. Each of these factors plays a specific role in the initiation of transcription, such as recognizing and binding to specific DNA sequences or modifying the chromatin structure around the promoter to make it more accessible to RNA polymerase II.

Kruppel-like transcription factors (KLFs) are a family of transcription factors that are characterized by their highly conserved DNA-binding domain, known as the Kruppel-like zinc finger domain. This domain consists of approximately 30 amino acids and is responsible for binding to specific DNA sequences, thereby regulating gene expression.

KLFs play important roles in various biological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and inflammation. They are involved in the development and function of many tissues and organs, such as the hematopoietic system, cardiovascular system, nervous system, and gastrointestinal tract.

There are 17 known members of the KLF family in humans, each with distinct functions and expression patterns. Some KLFs act as transcriptional activators, while others function as repressors. Dysregulation of KLFs has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes.

Overall, Kruppel-like transcription factors are crucial regulators of gene expression that play important roles in normal development and physiology, as well as in the pathogenesis of various diseases.

Complementary DNA (cDNA) is a type of DNA that is synthesized from a single-stranded RNA molecule through the process of reverse transcription. In this process, the enzyme reverse transcriptase uses an RNA molecule as a template to synthesize a complementary DNA strand. The resulting cDNA is therefore complementary to the original RNA molecule and is a copy of its coding sequence, but it does not contain non-coding regions such as introns that are present in genomic DNA.

Complementary DNA is often used in molecular biology research to study gene expression, protein function, and other genetic phenomena. For example, cDNA can be used to create cDNA libraries, which are collections of cloned cDNA fragments that represent the expressed genes in a particular cell type or tissue. These libraries can then be screened for specific genes or gene products of interest. Additionally, cDNA can be used to produce recombinant proteins in heterologous expression systems, allowing researchers to study the structure and function of proteins that may be difficult to express or purify from their native sources.

Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to amplify and detect specific DNA sequences. This technique is particularly useful for the detection and quantification of RNA viruses, as well as for the analysis of gene expression.

The process involves two main steps: reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In the first step, reverse transcriptase enzyme is used to convert RNA into complementary DNA (cDNA) by reading the template provided by the RNA molecule. This cDNA then serves as a template for the PCR amplification step.

In the second step, the PCR reaction uses two primers that flank the target DNA sequence and a thermostable polymerase enzyme to repeatedly copy the targeted cDNA sequence. The reaction mixture is heated and cooled in cycles, allowing the primers to anneal to the template, and the polymerase to extend the new strand. This results in exponential amplification of the target DNA sequence, making it possible to detect even small amounts of RNA or cDNA.

RT-PCR is a sensitive and specific technique that has many applications in medical research and diagnostics, including the detection of viruses such as HIV, hepatitis C virus, and SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). It can also be used to study gene expression, identify genetic mutations, and diagnose genetic disorders.

Gene expression is the process by which the information encoded in a gene is used to synthesize a functional gene product, such as a protein or RNA molecule. This process involves several steps: transcription, RNA processing, and translation. During transcription, the genetic information in DNA is copied into a complementary RNA molecule, known as messenger RNA (mRNA). The mRNA then undergoes RNA processing, which includes adding a cap and tail to the mRNA and splicing out non-coding regions called introns. The resulting mature mRNA is then translated into a protein on ribosomes in the cytoplasm through the process of translation.

The regulation of gene expression is a complex and highly controlled process that allows cells to respond to changes in their environment, such as growth factors, hormones, and stress signals. This regulation can occur at various stages of gene expression, including transcriptional activation or repression, RNA processing, mRNA stability, and translation. Dysregulation of gene expression has been implicated in many diseases, including cancer, genetic disorders, and neurological conditions.

CREB (Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein) is a transcription factor that plays a crucial role in regulating gene expression in response to various cellular signals. CREB binds to the cAMP response element (CRE) sequence in the promoter region of target genes and regulates their transcription.

When activated, CREB undergoes phosphorylation at a specific serine residue (Ser-133), which leads to its binding to the coactivator protein CBP/p300 and recruitment of additional transcriptional machinery to the promoter region. This results in the activation of target gene transcription.

CREB is involved in various cellular processes, including metabolism, differentiation, survival, and memory formation. Dysregulation of CREB has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and mood disorders.

"Saccharomyces cerevisiae" is not typically considered a medical term, but it is a scientific name used in the field of microbiology. It refers to a species of yeast that is commonly used in various industrial processes, such as baking and brewing. It's also widely used in scientific research due to its genetic tractability and eukaryotic cellular organization.

However, it does have some relevance to medical fields like medicine and nutrition. For example, certain strains of S. cerevisiae are used as probiotics, which can provide health benefits when consumed. They may help support gut health, enhance the immune system, and even assist in the digestion of certain nutrients.

In summary, "Saccharomyces cerevisiae" is a species of yeast with various industrial and potential medical applications.

Activating Transcription Factor 4 (ATF4) is a protein that plays a crucial role in the regulation of gene expression, particularly during times of cellular stress. It belongs to the family of basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors and is involved in various biological processes such as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, amino acid metabolism, and protein synthesis.

ATF4 is encoded by the ATF4 gene, located on human chromosome 22q13.1. The protein contains several functional domains, including a bZIP domain that facilitates its dimerization with other bZIP proteins and binding to specific DNA sequences called ER stress response elements (ERSE) or amino acid response elements (AARE).

Under normal conditions, ATF4 levels are relatively low in cells. However, during periods of cellular stress, such as nutrient deprivation, hypoxia, or ER stress, the translation of ATF4 mRNA is selectively enhanced, leading to increased ATF4 protein levels. This upregulation of ATF4 triggers the expression of various target genes involved in adapting to stress conditions, promoting cell survival, or initiating programmed cell death (apoptosis) if the stress cannot be resolved.

In summary, Activating Transcription Factor 4 is a crucial protein that helps regulate gene expression during cellular stress, playing essential roles in maintaining cellular homeostasis and responding to various environmental challenges.

Fungal proteins are a type of protein that is specifically produced and present in fungi, which are a group of eukaryotic organisms that include microorganisms such as yeasts and molds. These proteins play various roles in the growth, development, and survival of fungi. They can be involved in the structure and function of fungal cells, metabolism, pathogenesis, and other cellular processes. Some fungal proteins can also have important implications for human health, both in terms of their potential use as therapeutic targets and as allergens or toxins that can cause disease.

Fungal proteins can be classified into different categories based on their functions, such as enzymes, structural proteins, signaling proteins, and toxins. Enzymes are proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in fungal cells, while structural proteins provide support and protection for the cell. Signaling proteins are involved in communication between cells and regulation of various cellular processes, and toxins are proteins that can cause harm to other organisms, including humans.

Understanding the structure and function of fungal proteins is important for developing new treatments for fungal infections, as well as for understanding the basic biology of fungi. Research on fungal proteins has led to the development of several antifungal drugs that target specific fungal enzymes or other proteins, providing effective treatment options for a range of fungal diseases. Additionally, further study of fungal proteins may reveal new targets for drug development and help improve our ability to diagnose and treat fungal infections.

Amino acid motifs are recurring patterns or sequences of amino acids in a protein molecule. These motifs can be identified through various sequence analysis techniques and often have functional or structural significance. They can be as short as two amino acids in length, but typically contain at least three to five residues.

Some common examples of amino acid motifs include:

1. Active site motifs: These are specific sequences of amino acids that form the active site of an enzyme and participate in catalyzing chemical reactions. For example, the catalytic triad in serine proteases consists of three residues (serine, histidine, and aspartate) that work together to hydrolyze peptide bonds.
2. Signal peptide motifs: These are sequences of amino acids that target proteins for secretion or localization to specific organelles within the cell. For example, a typical signal peptide consists of a positively charged n-region, a hydrophobic h-region, and a polar c-region that directs the protein to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane for translocation.
3. Zinc finger motifs: These are structural domains that contain conserved sequences of amino acids that bind zinc ions and play important roles in DNA recognition and regulation of gene expression.
4. Transmembrane motifs: These are sequences of hydrophobic amino acids that span the lipid bilayer of cell membranes and anchor transmembrane proteins in place.
5. Phosphorylation sites: These are specific serine, threonine, or tyrosine residues that can be phosphorylated by protein kinases to regulate protein function.

Understanding amino acid motifs is important for predicting protein structure and function, as well as for identifying potential drug targets in disease-associated proteins.

Phosphorylation is the process of adding a phosphate group (a molecule consisting of one phosphorus atom and four oxygen atoms) to a protein or other organic molecule, which is usually done by enzymes called kinases. This post-translational modification can change the function, localization, or activity of the target molecule, playing a crucial role in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, metabolism, and regulation of gene expression. Phosphorylation is reversible, and the removal of the phosphate group is facilitated by enzymes called phosphatases.

Regulatory sequences in nucleic acid refer to specific DNA or RNA segments that control the spatial and temporal expression of genes without encoding proteins. They are crucial for the proper functioning of cells as they regulate various cellular processes such as transcription, translation, mRNA stability, and localization. Regulatory sequences can be found in both coding and non-coding regions of DNA or RNA.

Some common types of regulatory sequences in nucleic acid include:

1. Promoters: DNA sequences typically located upstream of the gene that provide a binding site for RNA polymerase and transcription factors to initiate transcription.
2. Enhancers: DNA sequences, often located at a distance from the gene, that enhance transcription by binding to specific transcription factors and increasing the recruitment of RNA polymerase.
3. Silencers: DNA sequences that repress transcription by binding to specific proteins that inhibit the recruitment of RNA polymerase or promote chromatin compaction.
4. Intron splice sites: Specific nucleotide sequences within introns (non-coding regions) that mark the boundaries between exons (coding regions) and are essential for correct splicing of pre-mRNA.
5. 5' untranslated regions (UTRs): Regions located at the 5' end of an mRNA molecule that contain regulatory elements affecting translation efficiency, stability, and localization.
6. 3' untranslated regions (UTRs): Regions located at the 3' end of an mRNA molecule that contain regulatory elements influencing translation termination, stability, and localization.
7. miRNA target sites: Specific sequences in mRNAs that bind to microRNAs (miRNAs) leading to translational repression or degradation of the target mRNA.

A conserved sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to a pattern of nucleotides (in DNA or RNA) or amino acids (in proteins) that has remained relatively unchanged over evolutionary time. These sequences are often functionally important and are highly conserved across different species, indicating strong selection pressure against changes in these regions.

In the case of protein-coding genes, the corresponding amino acid sequence is deduced from the DNA sequence through the genetic code. Conserved sequences in proteins may indicate structurally or functionally important regions, such as active sites or binding sites, that are critical for the protein's activity. Similarly, conserved non-coding sequences in DNA may represent regulatory elements that control gene expression.

Identifying conserved sequences can be useful for inferring evolutionary relationships between species and for predicting the function of unknown genes or proteins.

Genetic enhancer elements are DNA sequences that increase the transcription of specific genes. They work by binding to regulatory proteins called transcription factors, which in turn recruit RNA polymerase II, the enzyme responsible for transcribing DNA into messenger RNA (mRNA). This results in the activation of gene transcription and increased production of the protein encoded by that gene.

Enhancer elements can be located upstream, downstream, or even within introns of the genes they regulate, and they can act over long distances along the DNA molecule. They are an important mechanism for controlling gene expression in a tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific manner, allowing for the precise regulation of gene activity during embryonic development and throughout adult life.

It's worth noting that genetic enhancer elements are often referred to simply as "enhancers," and they are distinct from other types of regulatory DNA sequences such as promoters, silencers, and insulators.

Biological models, also known as physiological models or organismal models, are simplified representations of biological systems, processes, or mechanisms that are used to understand and explain the underlying principles and relationships. These models can be theoretical (conceptual or mathematical) or physical (such as anatomical models, cell cultures, or animal models). They are widely used in biomedical research to study various phenomena, including disease pathophysiology, drug action, and therapeutic interventions.

Examples of biological models include:

1. Mathematical models: These use mathematical equations and formulas to describe complex biological systems or processes, such as population dynamics, metabolic pathways, or gene regulation networks. They can help predict the behavior of these systems under different conditions and test hypotheses about their underlying mechanisms.
2. Cell cultures: These are collections of cells grown in a controlled environment, typically in a laboratory dish or flask. They can be used to study cellular processes, such as signal transduction, gene expression, or metabolism, and to test the effects of drugs or other treatments on these processes.
3. Animal models: These are living organisms, usually vertebrates like mice, rats, or non-human primates, that are used to study various aspects of human biology and disease. They can provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of diseases, the mechanisms of drug action, and the safety and efficacy of new therapies.
4. Anatomical models: These are physical representations of biological structures or systems, such as plastic models of organs or tissues, that can be used for educational purposes or to plan surgical procedures. They can also serve as a basis for developing more sophisticated models, such as computer simulations or 3D-printed replicas.

Overall, biological models play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of biology and medicine, helping to identify new targets for therapeutic intervention, develop novel drugs and treatments, and improve human health.

The YY1 transcription factor, also known as Yin Yang 1, is a protein that plays a crucial role in the regulation of gene expression. It functions as a transcriptional repressor or activator, depending on the context and target gene. YY1 can bind to DNA at specific sites, known as YY1-binding sites, and it interacts with various other proteins to form complexes that modulate the activity of RNA polymerase II, which is responsible for transcribing protein-coding genes.

YY1 has been implicated in a wide range of biological processes, including embryonic development, cell growth, differentiation, and DNA damage response. Mutations or dysregulation of YY1 have been associated with various human diseases, such as cancer, neurodevelopmental disorders, and heart disease.

STAT3 (Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3) is a transcription factor protein that plays a crucial role in signal transduction and gene regulation. It is activated through phosphorylation by various cytokines and growth factors, which leads to its dimerization, nuclear translocation, and binding to specific DNA sequences. Once bound to the DNA, STAT3 regulates the expression of target genes involved in various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, survival, and angiogenesis. Dysregulation of STAT3 has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and inflammatory conditions.

NF-κB (Nuclear Factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) is a protein complex that plays a crucial role in regulating the immune response to infection and inflammation, as well as in cell survival, differentiation, and proliferation. It is composed of several subunits, including p50, p52, p65 (RelA), c-Rel, and RelB, which can form homodimers or heterodimers that bind to specific DNA sequences called κB sites in the promoter regions of target genes.

Under normal conditions, NF-κB is sequestered in the cytoplasm by inhibitory proteins known as IκBs (inhibitors of κB). However, upon stimulation by various signals such as cytokines, bacterial or viral products, and stress, IκBs are phosphorylated, ubiquitinated, and degraded, leading to the release and activation of NF-κB. Activated NF-κB then translocates to the nucleus, where it binds to κB sites and regulates the expression of target genes involved in inflammation, immunity, cell survival, and proliferation.

Dysregulation of NF-κB signaling has been implicated in various pathological conditions such as cancer, chronic inflammation, autoimmune diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, targeting NF-κB signaling has emerged as a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of these diseases.

Transcription Factor TFIID is a multi-subunit protein complex that plays a crucial role in the process of transcription, which is the first step in gene expression. In eukaryotic cells, TFIID is responsible for recognizing and binding to the promoter region of genes, specifically to the TATA box, a sequence found in many promoters that acts as a binding site for the general transcription factors.

TFIID is composed of the TATA-box binding protein (TBP) and several TBP-associated factors (TAFs). The TBP subunit initially recognizes and binds to the TATA box, followed by the recruitment of other general transcription factors and RNA polymerase II to form a preinitiation complex. This complex then initiates the transcription of DNA into messenger RNA (mRNA), allowing for the production of proteins and the regulation of gene expression.

Transcription Factor TFIID is essential for accurate and efficient transcription, and its dysfunction can lead to various developmental and physiological abnormalities, including diseases such as cancer.

GATA4 is a transcription factor that belongs to the GATA family of zinc finger proteins, which are characterized by their ability to bind to DNA sequences containing the core motif (A/T)GATA(A/G). GATA4 specifically recognizes and binds to GATA motifs in the promoter and enhancer regions of target genes, where it can modulate their transcription.

GATA4 is widely expressed in various tissues, including the heart, gut, lungs, and gonads. In the heart, GATA4 plays critical roles during cardiac development, such as promoting cardiomyocyte differentiation and regulating heart tube formation. It also continues to be expressed in adult hearts, where it helps maintain cardiac function and can contribute to heart repair after injury.

Mutations in the GATA4 gene have been associated with congenital heart defects, suggesting its essential role in heart development. Additionally, GATA4 has been implicated in cancer progression, particularly in gastrointestinal and lung cancers, where it can act as an oncogene by promoting cell proliferation and survival.

A Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) in the context of medicinal chemistry and pharmacology refers to the relationship between the chemical structure of a drug or molecule and its biological activity or effect on a target protein, cell, or organism. SAR studies aim to identify patterns and correlations between structural features of a compound and its ability to interact with a specific biological target, leading to a desired therapeutic response or undesired side effects.

By analyzing the SAR, researchers can optimize the chemical structure of lead compounds to enhance their potency, selectivity, safety, and pharmacokinetic properties, ultimately guiding the design and development of novel drugs with improved efficacy and reduced toxicity.

... are, as their name indicates, transcription factors containing both ... Basic+helix-loop-helix+leucine+zipper+transcription+factors at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings ( ... Basic helix-loop-helix and leucine zipper motifs. Examples include Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor and Sterol ... Transcription factors, All stub articles, Genetics stubs). ...
... leucine zipper transcription factors PDB: 1x0o​; Card PB, Erbel PJ, Gardner KH (October 2005). " ... PDOC00038 in PROSITE Basic+Helix-Loop-Helix+Transcription+Factors at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ... "Crystal structure of transcription factor E47: E-box recognition by a basic region helix-loop-helix dimer". Genes Dev. 8 (8): ... Wang GL, Jiang BH, Rue EA, Semenza GL (June 1995). "Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 is a basic helix-loop-helix-PAS heterodimer ...
SREBPs belong to the basic-helix-loop-helix leucine zipper class of transcription factors. Unactivated SREBPs are attached to ... a basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper protein that controls transcription of the low density lipoprotein receptor gene". Cell ... Gasic GP (Apr 1994). "Basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factor and sterol sensor in a single membrane-bound molecule". Cell ... SREBPs have a structure similar to E-box-binding helix-loop-helix (HLH) proteins. However, in contrast to E-box-binding HLH ...
"Transcription enhancer factor 1 interacts with a basic helix-loop-helix zipper protein, Max, for positive regulation of cardiac ... The protein product of MAX contains the basic helix-loop-helix and leucine zipper motifs. It is therefore included in the bHLHZ ... "Transcription enhancer factor 1 interacts with a basic helix-loop-helix zipper protein, Max, for positive regulation of cardiac ... Blackwood EM, Eisenman RN (Mar 1991). "Max: a helix-loop-helix zipper protein that forms a sequence-specific DNA-binding ...
The product of this gene belongs to the family of basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper (bHLH-Zip) transcription factors. These ... a gene at 17q21.1 encoding a putative basic helix-loop-helix leucine-zipper transcription factor". Gene. 181 (1-2): 7-11. doi: ... Billin AN, Eilers AL, Coulter KL, Logan JS, Ayer DE (December 2000). "MondoA, a novel basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper ... Song Z, Yang H, Zhou L, Yang F (2019). "Glucose-Sensing Transcription Factor MondoA/ChREBP as Targets for Type 2 Diabetes: ...
... a basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper (bHLH-Zip)-containing transcription factor, occurs through the direct interaction of ... a second basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper protein that stimulates transcription by binding to a sterol regulatory element ... a basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper protein that controls transcription of the low density lipoprotein receptor gene". Cell ... The encoded protein contains a basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper (bHLH-Zip) domain. Various single nucleotide polymorphisms ...
This gene encodes a basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor of the Myc / Max / Mad superfamily. This protein ... Song Z, Yang H, Zhou L, Yang F (October 2019). "Glucose-Sensing Transcription Factor MondoA/ChREBP as Targets for Type 2 ... de Luis O, Valero MC, Jurado LA (March 2000). "WBSCR14, a putative transcription factor gene deleted in Williams-Beuren ... is a new member of the Mlx transcription factor network". Human Molecular Genetics. 10 (6): 617-627. doi:10.1093/hmg/10.6.617. ...
The protein is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper (bHLH-Zip) transcription factor family. SREBP-1a regulates ... a basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper protein that controls transcription of the low density lipoprotein receptor gene". Cell ... a second basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper protein that stimulates transcription by binding to a sterol regulatory element ... Wang X, Sato R, Brown MS, Hua X, Goldstein JL (Apr 1994). "SREBP-1, a membrane-bound transcription factor released by sterol- ...
... gene encodes a member of the basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper family and can function as a cellular transcription factor. ... "The adenovirus major late transcription factor USF is a member of the helix-loop-helix group of regulatory proteins and binds ... "The dual role of helix-loop--helix-zipper protein USF in ribosomal RNA gene transcription in vivo". Oncogene. 14 (5): 589-94. ... "Cooperative interaction of an initiator-binding transcription initiation factor and the helix-loop-helix activator USF". Nature ...
This gene encodes a member of the basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper family, and can function as a cellular transcription ... "Entrez Gene: USF2 upstream transcription factor 2, c-fos interacting". Ewing RM, Chu P, Elisma F, Li H, Taylor P, Climie S, ... "The dual role of helix-loop--helix-zipper protein USF in ribosomal RNA gene transcription in vivo". Oncogene. 14 (5): 589-94. ... Blanar MA, Rutter WJ (May 1992). "Interaction cloning: identification of a helix-loop-helix zipper protein that interacts with ...
MITF is a basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor involved in lineage-specific pathway regulation of many ... MITF, TFE3 and TFEB are part of the basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper family of transcription factors. Each protein encoded ... "The microphthalmia transcription factor and the related helix-loop-helix zipper factors TFE-3 and TFE-C collaborate to activate ... Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor also known as class E basic helix-loop-helix protein 32 or bHLHe32 is a protein ...
... basic helix-loop-helix) and LZ (leucine zipper) structural motifs. The bHLH motif allows Myc proteins to bind with DNA, while ... the leucine zipper TF-binding motif allows dimerization with Max, another bHLH transcription factor. Myc mRNA contains an IRES ... Blackwood EM, Eisenman RN (March 1991). "Max: a helix-loop-helix zipper protein that forms a sequence-specific DNA-binding ... Blackwood EM, Eisenman RN (March 1991). "Max: a helix-loop-helix zipper protein that forms a sequence-specific DNA-binding ...
... structures of the basic region leucine zipper, and the basic region helix-loop-helix DNA-binding domains". Curr. Opin. Struct. ... AP-1 fos/jun heterodimer that forms a transcription factor Jun-B transcription factor CREB cAMP response element transcription ... Proteins containing this domain are transcription factors. bZIP transcription factors are found in all eukaryotes and form one ... Plant Transcription Factor Database Plant bZIP transcription factors Archived 2012-03-20 at the Wayback Machine (Articles with ...
"Entrez Gene: HLF hepatic leukemia factor". LeBrun DP (May 2003). "E2A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors in human ... Hunger SP, Li S, Fall MZ, Naumovski L, Cleary ML (June 1996). "The proto-oncogene HLF and the related basic leucine zipper ... Inaba T, Roberts WM, Shapiro LH, Jolly KW, Raimondi SC, Smith SD, Look AT (July 1992). "Fusion of the leucine zipper gene HLF ... This gene encodes a member of the proline and acidic-rich (PAR) protein family, a subset of the bZIP transcription factors. The ...
... discovered was during a research in the early 1990s on genes for basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors from a ... The LITTLE ZIPPER protein contains a leucine zipper domain but does not have the domains required for DNA binding and ... and it negatively regulated the transcription factor complex. The ID protein was 16 kDa and consisted of a helix-loop-helix ( ... The microprotein formed bHLH/HLH heterodimers which disrupted the functional basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) homodimers. The ...
DNA-binding domains including the basic helix-loop-helix, zinc finger, helix-turn-helix and leucine zipper motifs have been ... and low-affinity binding sites of transcription factors in vitro, to study recruitment of factors to promoter sites in vivo ...
This protein inhibits the transcriptional activity of MYC by competing for MAX, another basic helix-loop-helix protein that ... "Entrez Gene: MXI1 MAX interactor 1". Gupta K, Anand G, Yin X, Grove L, Prochownik EV (Mar 1998). "Mmip1: a novel leucine zipper ... Wechsler DS, Hawkins AL, Li X, Jabs EW, Griffin CA, Dang CV (Nov 1994). "Localization of the human Mxi1 transcription factor ... Gupta K, Anand G, Yin X, Grove L, Prochownik EV (1998). "Mmip1: a novel leucine zipper protein that reverses the suppressive ...
Helix-loop-helix / leucine zipper factors (bHLH-ZIP) 1.3.1 Family: Ubiquitous bHLH-ZIP factors; includes USF (USF1, USF2); ... Basic Domains 1.1 Class: Leucine zipper factors (bZIP) 1.1.1 Family: AP-1(-like) components; includes (c-Fos/c-Jun) 1.1.2 ... Helix-loop-helix factors (bHLH) 1.2.1 Family: Ubiquitous (class A) factors 1.2.2 Family: Myogenic transcription factors (MyoD) ... Plant transcription factor database TcoF-DB: Database of transcription co-factors and transcription factor interactions ...
... the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) is a basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor that ... Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) is the master transcription factor that controls the expression of TYR, ... of which CREB is a transcription factor. Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH), beta-melanocyte stimulating hormone (β- ... A 2000 study performed in Dakar, Senegal, indicated that chronic usage of skin lighteners was a risk factor for hypertension ...
"Interaction of PKN with a neuron-specific basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, NDRF/NeuroD2". Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res ... Mukai H, Ono Y (1994). "A novel protein kinase with leucine zipper-like sequences: its catalytic domain is highly homologous to ... which is a potential transcription factor". Exp. Cell Res. 241 (2): 363-72. doi:10.1006/excr.1998.4060. PMID 9637778. Takahashi ...
This gene is a member of the MAD gene family . The MAD genes encode basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper proteins that ... is a new member of the Mlx transcription factor network". Human Molecular Genetics. 10 (6): 617-27. doi:10.1093/hmg/10.6.617. ... a novel Max-like BHLHZip protein that interacts with the Max network of transcription factors". The Journal of Biological ... Transcription factors, All stub articles, Human chromosome 4 gene stubs). ...
The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain is found in some transcription factors and is characterized by two alpha helices (α- ... If two such helices find one another, the leucines can interact as the teeth in a zipper, allowing dimerization of two proteins ... DBD database of predicted transcription factors Kummerfeld SK, Teichmann SA (January 2006). "DBD: a transcription factor ... helixes) connected by a loop. One helix is typically smaller and due to the flexibility of the loop, allows dimerization by ...
... leucine zipper transcription factor (RRFIP1), and Y sex-determining transcription factors (SRY). With these transcription ... giving rise to the characteristic leucine zipper helix within the 3D structure. An eIF5C domain follows the leucine motif, ... There are four major stem loops in the 5' untranslated and four in the 3' untranslated region that function in transcript-level ... "Entrez Gene: BZW2 basic leucine zipper and W2 domains 2". "BZW2 basic leucine zipper and W2 domains 2 [Homo sapiens (human)] - ...
Oct 1993). "SREBP-1, a basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper protein that controls transcription of the low density lipoprotein ... Wang X, Sato R, Brown MS, Hua X, Goldstein JL (Apr 1994). "SREBP-1, a membrane-bound transcription factor released by sterol- ... regulation of cholesterol metabolism by proteolysis of a membrane-bound transcription factor". Cell. 89 (3): 331-40. doi: ... "1985 Basic Medical Research Award". The Lasker Foundation. 2007-09-16. Archived from the original on 2015-09-13. Retrieved 2015 ...
"Differential interactions of Id proteins with basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factors". The Journal of Biological ... Gupta K, Anand G, Yin X, Grove L, Prochownik EV (March 1998). "Mmip1: a novel leucine zipper protein that reverses the ... "Differential interactions of Id proteins with basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factors". The Journal of Biological ... Jögi A, Persson P, Grynfeld A, Påhlman S, Axelson H (March 2002). "Modulation of basic helix-loop-helix transcription complex ...
HY5 is a basic leucine zipper (bZIP) factor that promotes photomorphogenesis by binding to light-responsive genes. CRY ... The structure of CRY1 is almost entirely made up of alpha helices, with several loops and few beta sheets. In plants, ... The interaction inhibits COP1 activity and allows transcription factors such as ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5) to accumulate. ... The transcription of the Cry gene also cycles with a similar trend. CRY protein levels, however, cycle in a different manner ...
... basic helix loop helix) transcription factors act sequentially in myogenic differentiation. Vertebrate MRF family members ... Gupta K, Anand G, Yin X, Grove L, Prochownik EV (March 1998). "Mmip1: a novel leucine zipper protein that reverses the ... "Differential interactions of Id proteins with basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factors". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (32): 19785-93 ... now referred to as basic helix loop helix) for dimerization and a basic site upstream of this bHLH region facilitated DNA ...
... a second basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper protein that stimulates transcription by binding to a sterol regulatory element ... transcription factors that are a part of the Signal Transducer And Activator Of Transcription (STAT) family. There is also ... It is hypothesized that this effect occurs through the transcription factor SREBP-1, where the association of insulin and SREBP ... "Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 as a key transcription factor for nutritional induction of lipogenic enzyme genes ...
Comparison of nucleic acid simulation software DNA-binding domain Helix-loop-helix Helix-turn-helix HMG-box Leucine zipper ... DBD database of predicted transcription factors Uses a curated set of DNA-binding domains to predict transcription factors in ... "The Arabidopsis GAGA-Binding Factor BASIC PENTACYSTEINE6 Recruits the POLYCOMB-REPRESSIVE COMPLEX1 Component LIKE ... DNA-binding proteins can incorporate such domains as the zinc finger, the helix-turn-helix, and the leucine zipper (among many ...
Basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factors are, as their name indicates, transcription factors containing both ... Basic+helix-loop-helix+leucine+zipper+transcription+factors at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings ( ... Basic helix-loop-helix and leucine zipper motifs. Examples include Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor and Sterol ... Transcription factors, All stub articles, Genetics stubs). ...
Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors*Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors ... Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors [D12.776.260.103]. *Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors [ ... Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors [D12.776.930.125]. *Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors [ ... Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors [D12.776.260.108]. *Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors [ ...
Here, TcMYC2a was identified to contain a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-leucine zipper domain, a bHLH-MYC_N domain, and a BIF/ ... leucine zipper domain, a bHLH-MYC_N domain, and a BIF/ACT-like domain. TcMYC2a was also found to bind with TcJAZ3 in yeast, ... Here, TcMYC2a was identified to contain a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)- ... 2011). APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR and basic helix-loop-helix tobacco transcription factors cooperatively mediate ...
Basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor. ENSSARP00000002284. Pfam. PF00010. IPR011598. 312. 365. 2.40e-16. ... Basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcrition factor MiT/TFE. ENSSARP00000002284. ProSiteProfiles. PS50888. IPR011598. 311 ... basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain. ENSSARP00000002284. SMART. SM00353. IPR011598. 317. 370. 1.80e-19. Myc-type, basic helix- ... loop-helix (bHLH) domain. ENSSARP00000002284. SUPERFAMILY. SSF47459. IPR011598. 307. 374. 0.00e-00. Myc-type, basic helix-loop- ...
1993). SREBP-1, a basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper protein that controls transcription of the low density lipoprotein ... Tontonoz, P., Kim, J. B., Graves, R. A., & Spiegelman, B. M. (1993). ADD1: a novel helix-loop-helix transcription factor ... Comba, A., Lin, YH., Eynard, A.R. et al. Basic aspects of tumor cell fatty acid-regulated signaling and transcription factors. ... Basic aspects of tumor cell fatty acid-regulated signaling and transcription factors. *Andrea Comba1, ...
MLX belongs to the family of basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper (bHLH-Zip) transcription factors. These factors form ... Mad1 and Mad4.The product of this gene belongs to the family of basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper (bHLH-Zip) transcription ... These cookies ensure basic functionalities and security features of the website, anonymously. Cookie. Duration. Description. ... These factors form heterodimers with Mad proteins and play a role in proliferation, determination and differentiation. This ...
SREBP1 (sterol-regulatory-element-binding protein 2) is a basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper (bHLH-ZIP) transcription factor ... Along with another transcription factor LXR, SREBP... Read full blog post.. ABCA1 Expression is Down-Regulated by SREBP ... Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBP) are important transcription factors regulating the synthesis and uptake of ... Sterol-regulatory-element-binding protein 2 (SREBP2) is a transcription factor that regulates cholesterol homeostasis by ...
Upstream Transcription Factor 1 (USF1)). This gene encodes a member of the basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper family, and ... upstream transcription factor 1 (usf1) ELISA Kits. upstream transcription factor 1 (USF1) ELISA Kits. upstream transcription ... upstream transcription factor 1 (Usf1) ELISA Kits. bhlhb11 ELISA Kits. bHLHb11 ELISA Kits. DKFZp469G215 ELISA Kits. fchl ELISA ... upstream transcription factor 1, usf1, putative (Smp_170530) ELISA Kits. ...
... is a member of the MXD family of basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine-zipper (bHLHZ) transcription factors that plays pivotal roles ... Combination of recurrent oral aphthae and dry eye syndrome may constitute an independent risk factor for oral cavity cancer in ... Recurrent aphthous stomatitis may be a precursor or risk factor for specific cancers: A case-control frequency-matched study ... Age comorbidity scores as risk factors for 90‐day mortality in patients with a pancreatic head adenocarcinoma receiving a ...
1 is a transcription factor with important roles in the control of fatty acid metabolism and adipogenesis. Lit ... SREBPs are basic helix loop helix leucine zipper (bHLH) transcription factors that control cholesterol and fatty acid ... ADD1, adipocyte determination differentiation factor 1; AH, Addenbrookes Hospital; bHLH, basic helix loop helix leucine zipper ... Tontonoz P, Kim JB, Graves RA, Spiegelman BM: ADD1: a novel helix-loop-helix transcription factor associated with adipocyte ...
The encoded protein contains a basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper (bHLH-Zip) domain and binds the sterol regulatory element ... releasing the transcription factor form that translocates into the nucleus and activates transcription of genes involved in ... Sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 2. Gene namei Official gene symbol, which is typically a short form of ... This gene encodes a member of the a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor that controls cholesterol homeostasis by ...
... is a gene that encodes a protein belongs to the basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper (bHLHZ) transcription factor family. The ...
1 Basic domains*. 1.1 Basic leucine zipper factors (bZIP). *. 1.2 Basic helix-loop-helix factors (bHLH)*. 1.2.1 E2A ... Classification of Transcription Factors in Mammalia. About TFClass. Search in TFClass: ?. Searches in the label, ID and ...
MeSH headings : Animals; Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors; Cell Division / drug effects; DNA / ... Tumor Necrosis Factor / metabolism; Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction; Signal Transduction; Transcription Factors ... Transcription Factors; bcl-2-Associated X Protein; bcl-X Protein ...
... study based on four fully sequenced eukaryotic genomes has revealed profound differences in the sets of transcription factors ... basic helix-loop-helix, basic leucine zipper, C2H2 zinc finger and homeodomain transcription factors. Except for the conserved ... leucine zippers can be found in the plant-specific WRKY factors as well as in basic leucine zippers, which are present in all ... Exon shuffling has led to transcription factors unique to plants that contain both homeodomains and leucine zippers. In ...
Aksan, I. and Goding, C.R. (1998). Targeting the Microphthalmia basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper transcription factor to a ... 10.Babal YK, Kandemir B, Aksan Kurnaz I. (2021) Gene regulatory network of ETS domain transcription factors in different stages ... "Evaluating the interactions between neurofilament promoters and the ETS transcription factor Pea3 by using different cell lines ... amp;amp;#160;"The role of ETS family transcription factor Elk-1 in cancer stem cells" ...
Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors. *Behavior, Animal. *Benzamides. *Benzimidazoles ...
... transcription factor and is a direct target gene of the oncogenic transcription factor c-MYC. Here, we set out to determine the ... In summary, AP4, miR-22-3p and MDC1 form a conserved and coherent, regulatory feed-forward loop to promote DNA repair, ... encodes a basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper (bHLH-LZ) ... AP4 (TFAP4) encodes a basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper ( ... AP4 (TFAP4) is a basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper (bHLH-LZ) transcription factor that exclusively forms homodimers, which ...
Among â ¼550 identified screen hits is MLX, a basic helix-loop-helix leucine-zipper transcription factor that regulates ... Our findings uncover a paradigm for a lipid storage response in which binding of MLX transcription factors to LD surfaces ... As an example, we show that palmitate interferes with insulin signaling to FoxO1, a key transcription factor regulating ... When LDs accumulate in cells, these transcription factors bind to LDs, reducing their availability for transcriptional activity ...
Gyoja F. Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors in evolution: Roles in development of mesoderm and neural tissues. ... 2.2.5. Leucine zipper proteins (bZIP). The bZIP family includes CREB/ATF, BACH1/2, and FOS/JUN. The FOS/JUN has been originally ... 2.2.1. Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins. The bHLH proteins contain a basic region and HLH motif, which is comprised of ... 2. Transcription factors (TFs) in mammalian cells. Transcription factors are divided into two groups. First, the general TFs ( ...
Finally, our data show that endogenous spermidine maintains autophagy via the translation factor eIF5A and transcription factor ... Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors, CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes, Cell Line, Tumor, Humans, Immunologic ... Finally, our data show that endogenous spermidine maintains autophagy via the translation factor eIF5A and transcription factor ... Memory, Interferon-gamma, Jurkat Cells, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Knockout, Middle Aged, Peptide Initiation Factors, RNA- ...
The gene encoding the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (Mitf) is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix-leucine ... zipper (bHLH-ZIP) family. Waardenburg syndrome type 2 (WS type 2) in humans is also a type of microphthalmia syndrome. ... In mammals the failure of expression of a transcription factor, MITF (microphthalmia-associated transcription factor), in the ...
Mycs N-terminal transactivation domain has merged with the basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper domain, which binds to the ... Phosphorylation of STAT1 can boost transcription activation by downstream apoptotic factors in the early stages of TB infection ... Myc forms a dimer with Max, a DNA-binding helix-loop-helix leucine zipper protein, to alter gene expression [36]. M. pneumoniae ... EGF, fibroblast growth factor and transforming growth factor are cytokines and growth factors. In areas of caseation necrosis ...
A composite element that binds basic helix loop helix and basic leucine zipper transcription factors is important for ...
... its gene by the Nrf2 basic-region leucine zipper and the arylhydrocarbon receptor basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors ... NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a member of the CapnCollar/basic leucine zipper (CNC-bZIP) transcription factor family. ... Compared with mono-factor Nrf2 or NQO1, the co-factor Nrf2 and NQO1 was more useful in predicting overall survival (P = 0.020) ... Nrf2 is a predictive factor for overall survival (OS) (P = 0.011), and NQO1 is a predictive factor for disease free survival ( ...
Eight loci, including six novel loci, met GW significance (log10Bayes factor (BF),5.64) with per-allele effect sizes of 0.03- ... Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors, Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor, Coffea, Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2 ... Eight loci, including six novel loci, met GW significance (log10Bayes factor (BF),5.64) with per-allele effect sizes of 0.03- ...
MITF (microphthalmia transcription factor) is a basic helix-loop-helix-leucine-zipper (bHLH-Zip) transcription factor that ... regulates the development and survival of melanocytes and retinal pigment epithelium, and also is involved in transcription of ...
... microphthalmia transcription factor). Verified for IHC (FFPE) applications. ... MITF (microphthalmia transcription factor) is a basic helix-loop-helix-leucine-zipper (bHLH-Zip) transcription factor that ... Class E basic helix-loop-helix protein 32 (bHLHe32); CMM8; Mi; Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor; MITF; WS2; WS2A ... regulates the development and survival of melanocytes and retinal pigment epithelium, and also is involved in transcription of ...
  • These factors form heterodimers with Mad proteins and play a role in proliferation, determination and differentiation. (prosci-inc.com)
  • Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) compose a family of transcriptional factors that regulate the expression of various genes required for the synthesis of phospholipids, fatty acids, and cholesterol. (novusbio.com)
  • In addition to these HD-ZIP proteins, leucine zippers can be found in the plant-specific WRKY factors as well as in basic leucine zippers, which are present in all three eukaryotic kingdoms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The number of proteins that constitute functional transcription factors may therefore be higher than that reported in this paper. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Xp11 translocations involve the TFE3 transcription factor and produce chimeric TFE3 proteins retaining the basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper structure for dimerization and DNA binding suggesting that chimeric TFE3 proteins function as oncogenic transcription factors. (endourology.ph)
  • The microphthalmia-associated transcription factor family (MiT family) proteins are evolutionarily conserved transcription factors that perform many essential biological functions. (molcells.org)
  • These motifs allow molecules of melanocyte inducing transcription factor to interact with each other or with other proteins that have a similar structure, creating a two-protein unit (dimer) that functions as a transcription factor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Furthermore, gene-gene and gene-metabolite network analyses discovered that the light-responsive expression of genes encoding bHLH, MYB, WRKY, NAC, and MADS-box transcription factors, and proteins involved in genetic information processing and epigenetic regulation such as nucleosome assembly and histone acetylation, showed a high positive correlation with grape berry phenolic accumulation in response to different light regimes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the CYTOPLASM, I-kappa B proteins bind to the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B. Cell stimulation causes its dissociation and translocation of active NF-kappa B to the nucleus. (bvsalud.org)
  • These helix-turn-helix structure found in many proteins(transcription factors). (vigyansarovar.com)
  • Large number of prokaryotic repressors belong to the helix-turn-helix family of proteins. (vigyansarovar.com)
  • Unlike HTH proteins, the actual DNA-binding motif of the HLH proteins is a stretch of about 13 "basic" amino acids adjacent to the HLH whose main role is in protein dimerization. (vigyansarovar.com)
  • Nuclear Factor 90 Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (ouhsc.edu)
  • A family of double-stranded RNA-binding proteins that are related to NFATC TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. (ouhsc.edu)
  • In addition to binding to RNA, nuclear factor 90 proteins form heterodimeric complexes that regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and may play a role in T-CELL activation. (ouhsc.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Nuclear Factor 90 Proteins" by people in Profiles. (ouhsc.edu)
  • Basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factors are, as their name indicates, transcription factors containing both Basic helix-loop-helix and leucine zipper motifs. (wikipedia.org)
  • A family of transcription factors that contain regions rich in basic residues, LEUCINE ZIPPER domains, and HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIFS. (uams.edu)
  • The encoded protein can activate transcription through pyrimidine-rich initiator (Inr) elements and E-box motifs. (antibodies-online.com)
  • These transcriptional factors belong to the basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper (bHLH-LZ) transcription factor family and bind the E-box DNA motifs in the promoter regions of target genes to enhance transcription. (molcells.org)
  • Leucine zipper motifs are usually found as part of a DNA-binding domain in many transcription factors , and are therefore these motifs are involved in regulating gene expression . (vigyansarovar.com)
  • Examples include Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor and Sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Their regulation may be carried out either through direct binding to DNA as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors or via modulation in an indirect manner of signaling pathway molecules (e.g., protein kinase C) and other transcription factors (nuclear factor kappa B and sterol regulatory element binding protein). (springer.com)
  • MAX dimerization (MXD) protein 3 (MXD3) is a member of the MXD family of basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine-zipper (bHLHZ) transcription factors that plays pivotal roles in cell cycle progression and cell proliferation. (researchgate.net)
  • Sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1 is a transcription factor with important roles in the control of fatty acid metabolism and adipogenesis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Exposure of isolated human adipocytes to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) produced a marked and specific decrease in the mRNA encoding the SREBP1c isoform and completely blocked the insulin-induced cleavage of SREBP1 protein. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Guanine nucleotide exchange factor GEF115 specifically mediates activation of Rho and serum response factor by the G protein alpha subunit Galpha13. (umassmed.edu)
  • MYC associated factor X (MAX) is a gene that encodes a protein belongs to the basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper (bHLHZ) transcription factor family. (mycancergenome.org)
  • 12. Kandemir B, Davis S, Yigit EN, Ozturk G, Yilmaz B, Laroche S, Aksan Kurnaz I. (2020) Expression of Pea3 protein subfamily in hippocampus and potential role in LTP. (gtu.edu.tr)
  • Macrophage colony-stimulating factor promotes cell survival through Akt/protein kinase B. (musc.edu)
  • The multifunctional protein fused in sarcoma (FUS) is a coactivator of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). (musc.edu)
  • First, the general TFs (GTFs), including preinitiation complex components TFIIA, TFIIB, TFIID, TFIIE, TFIIF, and THIIH, are the primary protein factors that are required for the initiation of transcription from the TATA box (or TATA element), then elongation is executed by RNA polymerase II (RNA pol II) [ 1 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • The MITF gene provides instructions for making a protein called melanocyte inducing transcription factor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • On the basis of this action, the protein is called a transcription factor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Two of the regions, called the helix-loop-helix motif and the leucine-zipper motif, are critical for protein interactions. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The MITF gene variants that cause Tietz syndrome either delete or change a single protein building block (amino acid) in the basic motif region of the melanocyte inducing transcription factor structure. (medlineplus.gov)
  • An essential E box in the promoter of the gene encoding the mRNA cap-binding protein (eukaryotic initiation factor 4E) is a target for activation by c-myc. (idrblab.net)
  • A LEUCINE and DNA-binding protein that is found primarily in BACTERIA and ARCHAEA. (rush.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Leucine-Responsive Regulatory Protein" by people in Profiles. (rush.edu)
  • A basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper (bHLHZ) transcription factor and proto-oncogene protein that functions in cell growth and proliferation. (bvsalud.org)
  • VPS26 endosomal protein sorting factor C. (gsea-msigdb.org)
  • Its major function is in DNA recognition, as α 3 helix is involved in the recognition and is known as " recognization helix " while another one stabilizes the interaction between DNA and Protein. (vigyansarovar.com)
  • Helix-turn-helix motif are involved in many processes that includes DNA repair, RNA metabolism, and protein-protein interaction . (vigyansarovar.com)
  • In mammals the failure of expression of a transcription factor, MITF ( microphthalmia-associated transcription factor ), in the pigmented retina prevents this structure from fully differentiating. (wikidoc.org)
  • The gene encoding the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (Mitf) is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix -leucine zipper (bHLH-ZIP) family. (wikidoc.org)
  • MITF (microphthalmia transcription factor) is a basic helix-loop-helix-leucine-zipper (bHLH-Zip) transcription factor that regulates the development and survival of melanocytes and retinal pigment epithelium, and also is involved in transcription of pigmentation enzyme genes such as tyrosinase TRP1 and TRP2. (nsjbio.com)
  • In mammals, the MiT family consists of MITF (microphthalmia-associated transcription factor or melanocyte-inducing transcription factor), TFEB (transcription factor EB), TFE3 (transcription factor E3), and TFEC (transcription factor EC). (molcells.org)
  • Some MITF gene variants change the amino acids used to make melanocyte inducing transcription factor, which alters the helix-loop-helix or leucine-zipper motif. (medlineplus.gov)
  • NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a member of the Cap'n'Collar/basic leucine zipper (CNC-bZIP) transcription factor family. (oncotarget.com)
  • The transactivation potential of a c-Myc N-terminal region (residues 92-143) is regulated by growth factor/Ras signaling. (musc.edu)
  • In general, transcription factors including this domain are dimeric, each with one helix that contains basic amino acid residues facilitate DNA binding. (vigyansarovar.com)
  • The motif comprises two α helices, E and F that flank a loop of 12 contiguous residues. (vigyansarovar.com)
  • Five of the loop residues should contain an oxygen atom and preferably be aspartate or glutamate, as they act as calcium ligands (Figure below). (vigyansarovar.com)
  • AP4 (TFAP4) is a basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper (bHLH-LZ) transcription factor that exclusively forms homodimers, which bind to the E-box motif CAGCTG [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The other region, known as the basic motif, binds to specific areas of DNA, allowing the dimer to control gene activity. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Encodes a MYC-related transcriptional activator with a typical DNA binding domain of a basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper motif. (riken.jp)
  • Helix loop helix are eukaryotic homolog of the HTH motif and are characterized by two ampipathic α -helices (60-90 amino acids) connected by a loop (10-25 amino acids). (vigyansarovar.com)
  • Therefore, entire motif comprising the DNA-binding basic region and the HLH is termed bHLH . (vigyansarovar.com)
  • Residue 6 of the loop must be a glycine because the side chain of any other residue would disturb the structure of the motif. (vigyansarovar.com)
  • AP4 (TFAP4) encodes a basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper (bHLH-LZ) transcription factor and is a direct target gene of the oncogenic transcription factor c-MYC. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The ETS family of oncogenic transcription factors in solid tumours. (musc.edu)
  • Melanocyte inducing transcription factor helps control the development and function of pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Additionally, melanocyte inducing transcription factor regulates the development of specialized cells in the eye called retinal pigment epithelial cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some research indicates that melanocyte inducing transcription factor also regulates the development of cells that break down and remove bone (osteoclasts) and cells that play a role in allergic reactions (mast cells). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The structure of melanocyte inducing transcription factor includes three critically important regions. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Dimers incorporating the abnormal melanocyte inducing transcription factor cannot be transported into the cell nucleus to bind with DNA. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Hepatocyte nuclear factors are a family of evolutionarily conserved transcription factors that are preferentially expressed in HEPATOCYTES. (umassmed.edu)
  • Within the Arabidopsis genome, 1,533 genes were found to encode members of known transcription factor families, 45% of which are from families specific for plants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The fraction of transcription factor genes among all genes is slightly higher in Arabidopsis (5.9%) compared with Drosophila , C. elegans and yeast (4.5, 3.5 and 3.5%, respectively). (biomedcentral.com)
  • 9.Savasan Sogut M, Venugopal C, Kandemir B, Gulfidan G, Yilmaz B, Arga KY, Singh S, Aksan Kurnaz I. (2021) ETS domain transcription factor Elk-1 regulates stemness genes in brain tumors and CD133+ brain tumor initiating cells (BTIC). (gtu.edu.tr)
  • Opposing actions of c-ets/PU.1 and c-myb protooncogene products in regulating the macrophage-specific promoters of the human and mouse colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (c-fms) genes. (musc.edu)
  • In addition, a basic leucine zipper transcription factor, OsTGAP1, was identified as a key regulator of the coordinated expression of the clustered genes and the methylerythritol phosphate pathway genes. (go.jp)
  • Transcription of the genes involved in fatty acid utilization and peroxisome biogenesis is controlled by Ctf1-family Zn 2 Cys 6 type transcription factor Por1p in response to fatty acids in Y. lipolytica . (go.jp)
  • Knowledge of the mechanisms by which fatty acids control specific gene expression may identify important risk factors for cancer and provide insight into the development of new therapeutic strategies for a better management of whole body lipid metabolism. (springer.com)
  • They play important roles in liver-specific transcription and are critical for CELL DIFFERENTIATION and METABOLISM. (umassmed.edu)
  • It regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION involved in METABOLISM of AMINO ACIDS in response to the increased concentration of LEUCINE. (rush.edu)
  • In particular, the existence of a great variety of transcription factors that are unique to distinct kingdoms, such as the large plant-specific AP2/EREBP and WRKY families and the animal-specific nuclear hormone receptors, reflects the need for specific solutions that meet the regulatory challenges connected with entirely different developmental programs and life styles. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An enhancer element responsive to ras and fms signaling pathways is composed of two distinct nuclear factor binding sites. (musc.edu)
  • Transcriptional activation of a conserved sequence element by ras requires a nuclear factor distinct from c-fos or c-jun. (musc.edu)
  • Molecular mechanisms of the initiation of transcription from TATA box have been well known as the most essential nuclear events in mammalian cells. (intechopen.com)
  • Hepatocyte Nuclear Factors" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (umassmed.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Hepatocyte Nuclear Factors" by people in this website by year, and whether "Hepatocyte Nuclear Factors" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (umassmed.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Hepatocyte Nuclear Factors" by people in Profiles. (umassmed.edu)
  • MLX belongs to the family of basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper (bHLH-Zip) transcription factors. (prosci-inc.com)
  • MLX may act to diversify Mad family function by its restricted association with a subset of the Mad family of transcriptional repressors, namely, Mad1 and Mad4.The product of this gene belongs to the family of basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper (bHLH-Zip) transcription factors. (prosci-inc.com)
  • A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that was originally described as a transcriptional regulator controlling expression of the BETA-GLOBIN gene. (nih.gov)
  • Coordinated transcriptional changes in the light signaling components CRY2 and HY5/HYHs, transcription regulator MYBA1, and enzymes LAR, ANR, UFGT and FLS4, coincided well with light-responsive biosynthesis of the corresponding flavonoids. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Except for the conserved DNA-binding domains, however, there are no significant similarities between members of the same transcription factor family from different kingdoms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • and domain shuffling, leading to new combinations of common transcription factor domains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Arabidopsis transcription factors: genome-wide comparative analysis among eukaryotes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The transcription of ALK1 , encoding a predominant cytochrome P450ALK, is regulated in response to n -alkanes by two basic helix-loop-helix transcription activators, Yas1p and Yas2p, and Opi1-family transcription repressor Yas3p. (go.jp)
  • As well as several small families, the large families of AP2/EREBP, NAC and WRKY transcription factors, consisting of 144, 109 and 72 members, respectively, are found exclusively in plants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Helix-turn-helix (HTH) consists of two α-helices that constitutes of a right-handed three helical bundle with helices α 2 and α 3 arranged perpendicular to one another joined by a short strand of amino acids (figure below). (vigyansarovar.com)
  • The two amphipathic helices, particularly the highly conserved hydrophobic amino acids, are thought to mediate dimerization, which is a prerequisite to DNA binding. (vigyansarovar.com)
  • Amphipathic α-helix - consists of hydrophobic region due to leucine and hydrophilic amino acids outside. (vigyansarovar.com)
  • A comparative study based on four fully sequenced eukaryotic genomes has revealed profound differences in the sets of transcription factors used by plants, fungi and animals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Both similarities and profound differences were revealed between the sets of transcription factors utilized by representatives of each eukaryotic kingdom. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These regulators, which constitute the largest class of plant transcription factors, are only weakly represented in the other eukaryotic kingdoms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Finally, our data show that endogenous spermidine maintains autophagy via the translation factor eIF5A and transcription factor TFEB. (ox.ac.uk)
  • α 3 is recognition helix that binds to DNA major groove through a series of hydrogen bonds and various Vander wall forces with exposed bases. (vigyansarovar.com)
  • This gene encodes a member of the basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper family, and can function as a cellular transcription factor. (antibodies-online.com)
  • More significantly, we developed a method to predict transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) and their cognate transcription factors (TFs) using genomic sequence and transcriptomic data. (tmu.edu.tw)
  • Among all JA downstream transcription factors, MYC2 is considered as the fatal point of the entire JA signaling pathway ( Kazan and Manners, 2013 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, TcMYC2a was identified to contain a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-leucine zipper domain, a bHLH-MYC_N domain, and a BIF/ACT-like domain. (frontiersin.org)
  • Discovery of a new class of reversible TEA domain transcription factor inhibitors with a novel binding mode. (umassmed.edu)
  • 10.Babal YK, Kandemir B, Aksan Kurnaz I. (2021) Gene regulatory network of ETS domain transcription factors in different stages of glioma. (gtu.edu.tr)
  • Mitogenic signaling by colony-stimulating factor 1 and ras is suppressed by the ets-2 DNA-binding domain and restored by myc overexpression. (musc.edu)
  • We then found that VGLUT3-persistent neurons express the runt domain transcription factor Runx1. (jneurosci.org)
  • In summary, AP4, miR-22-3p and MDC1 form a conserved and coherent, regulatory feed-forward loop to promote DNA repair, which suppresses DNA damage, senescence and CIN, and contributes to 5-FU resistance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Functional studies in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients revealed that hyperactivation of the NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway facilitates tumor growth. (oncotarget.com)
  • In the absence of ADR1 and CAT8 , AA-PCD evasion is acquired through activation of an alternative factor/pathway repressed by RTG2, suggesting that RTG2 may play a function in promoting necrotic cell death in repressing conditions when RTG pathway is inactive. (microbialcell.com)
  • They function as transcriptional coactivators by bridging between DNA-binding TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and the basal transcription machinery. (childrensmercy.org)
  • Sp1 cooperates with c-Myc to activate transcription of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene (hTERT). (idrblab.net)
  • Recent global analyses of gene transcripts revealed that specific transcription factors (TFs) and their networking systems physiologically correspond to the onset of human diseases, including cancer. (intechopen.com)
  • Changes in dietary fatty acids, specifically the polyunsaturated fatty acids of the ω-3 and ω-6 families and some derived eicosanoids from lipoxygenases, cyclooxygenases, and cytochrome P-450, seem to control the activity of transcription factor families involved in cancer cell proliferation or cell death. (springer.com)
  • A potent ability to assimilate hydrophobic compounds, including n -alkanes and fatty acids as carbon sources, is one of important characteristics of the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica , and has been studied for both basic microbiological interest and biotechnological applications. (go.jp)
  • Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (uams.edu)
  • p300-CBP Transcription Factors" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (childrensmercy.org)
  • Given that OKSM (Yamanaka) factors convert somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, alterations in transcriptional state could affect destiny of the cells. (intechopen.com)
  • Given that transcription factors act as central regulators of a diversity of developmental and physiological processes, such differences may partly account for the evolutionary distance between these entirely different life forms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • ADR1 and CAT8 were identified as positive regulators of RTG -dependent gene transcription. (microbialcell.com)
  • Furthermore, the hydrophobic leucine region is absolutely required for DNA binding. (vigyansarovar.com)
  • Yeast single and double mutants lacking RTG2 and/or certain factors regulating carbon source utilization, including MIG1 , HXK2 , ADR1 , CAT8 , and HAP4 , have been analyzed for their survival and CIT2 expression after acetic acid treatment. (microbialcell.com)