A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.
Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.
The layer of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX that lies between the ENDOTHELIUM of the glomerular capillaries and the PODOCYTES of the inner or visceral layer of the BOWMAN CAPSULE. It is the product of these two cell types. It acts as a physical barrier and an ion-selective filter.
An autoimmune disease of the KIDNEY and the LUNG. It is characterized by the presence of circulating autoantibodies targeting the epitopes in the non-collagenous domains of COLLAGEN TYPE IV in the basement membranes of kidney glomeruli (KIDNEY GLOMERULUS) and lung alveoli (PULMONARY ALVEOLI), and the subsequent destruction of these basement membranes. Clinical features include pulmonary alveolar hemorrhage and glomerulonephritis.
A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.
Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.
A non-fibrillar collagen found in the structure of BASEMENT MEMBRANE. Collagen type IV molecules assemble to form a sheet-like network which is involved in maintaining the structural integrity of basement membranes. The predominant form of the protein is comprised of two alpha1(IV) subunits and one alpha2(IV) subunit, however, at least six different alpha subunits can be incorporated into the heterotrimer.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
Ubiquitous macromolecules associated with the cell surface and extracellular matrix of a wide range of cells of vertebrate and invertebrate tissues. They are essential cofactors in cell-matrix adhesion processes, in cell-cell recognition systems, and in receptor-growth factor interactions. (From Cancer Metastasis Rev 1996; 15(2): 177-86; Hepatology 1996; 24(3): 524-32)
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
A group of inherited conditions characterized initially by HEMATURIA and slowly progressing to RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. The most common form is the Alport syndrome (hereditary nephritis with HEARING LOSS) which is caused by mutations in genes for TYPE IV COLLAGEN and defective GLOMERULAR BASEMENT MEMBRANE.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Inflammation of the renal glomeruli (KIDNEY GLOMERULUS) that can be classified by the type of glomerular injuries including antibody deposition, complement activation, cellular proliferation, and glomerulosclerosis. These structural and functional abnormalities usually lead to HEMATURIA; PROTEINURIA; HYPERTENSION; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.
The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A layer of the cornea. It is the basal lamina of the CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM (from which it is secreted) separating it from the CORNEAL STROMA. It is a homogeneous structure composed of fine collagenous filaments, and slowly increases in thickness with age.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Proteoglycans consisting of proteins linked to one or more CHONDROITIN SULFATE-containing oligosaccharide chains.
The presence of proteins in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.
Dystrophin-associated proteins that play role in the formation of a transmembrane link between laminin-2 and DYSTROPHIN. Both the alpha and the beta subtypes of dystroglycan originate via POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN PROCESSING of a single precursor protein.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Glycoprotein molecules on the surface of cells that react with or bind to laminin whose function allows the binding of epithelial cells to the basement membrane. The molecular weight of this high-affinity receptor is 67 kD.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
Inflammation of any part of the KIDNEY.
Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.
A non-fibrillar collagen found in BASEMENT MEMBRANE. The C-terminal end of the alpha1 chain of collagen type XVIII contains the ENDOSTATIN peptide, which can be released by proteolytic cleavage.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate, similar in morphology to halves of DESMOSOMES. They are composed of specialized areas of the plasma membrane where INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS bind on the cytoplasmic face to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, via intracellular attachment proteins, while the extracellular domain of the integrins binds to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
A metalloproteinase which degrades helical regions of native collagen to small fragments. Preferred cleavage is -Gly in the sequence -Pro-Xaa-Gly-Pro-. Six forms (or 2 classes) have been isolated from Clostridium histolyticum that are immunologically cross-reactive but possess different sequences and different specificities. Other variants have been isolated from Bacillus cereus, Empedobacter collagenolyticum, Pseudomonas marinoglutinosa, and species of Vibrio and Streptomyces. EC 3.4.24.3.
The innermost membranous sac that surrounds and protects the developing embryo which is bathed in the AMNIOTIC FLUID. Amnion cells are secretory EPITHELIAL CELLS and contribute to the amniotic fluid.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Highly differentiated epithelial cells of the visceral layer of BOWMAN CAPSULE of the KIDNEY. They are composed of a cell body with major CELL SURFACE EXTENSIONS and secondary fingerlike extensions called pedicels. They enwrap the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS capillaries with their cell surface extensions forming a filtration structure. The pedicels of neighboring podocytes interdigitate with each other leaving between them filtration slits that are bridged by an extracellular structure impermeable to large macromolecules called the slit diaphragm, and provide the last barrier to protein loss in the KIDNEY.
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which use a metal such as ZINC in the catalytic mechanism.
The plasma membrane of the egg.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
A chronic and relatively benign subepidermal blistering disease usually of the elderly and without histopathologic acantholysis.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Also known as CD104 antigen, this protein is distinguished from other beta integrins by its relatively long cytoplasmic domain (approximately 1000 amino acids vs. approximately 50). Five alternatively spliced isoforms have been described.
A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR), lymph vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, LYMPHATIC), and the serous cavities of the body.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Cell membranes associated with synapses. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are included along with their integral or tightly associated specializations for the release or reception of transmitters.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A family of structurally-related short-chain collagens that do not form large fibril bundles.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Skin diseases characterized by local or general distributions of blisters. They are classified according to the site and mode of blister formation. Lesions can appear spontaneously or be precipitated by infection, trauma, or sunlight. Etiologies include immunologic and genetic factors. (From Scientific American Medicine, 1990)
Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
The inner layer of CHOROID, also called the lamina basalis choroideae, located adjacent to the RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM; (RPE) of the EYE. It is a membrane composed of the basement membranes of the choriocapillaris ENDOTHELIUM and that of the RPE. The membrane stops at the OPTIC NERVE, as does the RPE.
Cell surface receptor for LAMININ, epiligrin, FIBRONECTINS, entactin, and COLLAGEN. Integrin alpha3beta1 is the major integrin present in EPITHELIAL CELLS, where it plays a role in the assembly of BASEMENT MEMBRANE as well as in cell migration, and may regulate the functions of other integrins. Two alternatively spliced isoforms of the alpha subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA3), are differentially expressed in different cell types.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Presence of blood in the urine.
Inflammation of the interstitial tissue of the kidney. This term is generally used for primary inflammation of KIDNEY TUBULES and/or surrounding interstitium. For primary inflammation of glomerular interstitium, see GLOMERULONEPHRITIS. Infiltration of the inflammatory cells into the interstitial compartment results in EDEMA, increased spaces between the tubules, and tubular renal dysfunction.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
An endopeptidase that is structurally similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 2. It degrades GELATIN types I and V; COLLAGEN TYPE IV; and COLLAGEN TYPE V.
Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.
A type of glomerulonephritis that is characterized by the accumulation of immune deposits (COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX) on the outer aspect of the GLOMERULAR BASEMENT MEMBRANE. It progresses from subepithelial dense deposits, to basement membrane reaction and eventual thickening of the basement membrane.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
An integrin alpha subunit that primarily associates with INTEGRIN BETA1 or INTEGRIN BETA4 to form laminin-binding heterodimers. Integrin alpha6 has two alternatively spliced isoforms: integrin alpha6A and integrin alpha6B, which differ in their cytoplasmic domains and are regulated in a tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific manner.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
This intrgrin is a key component of HEMIDESMOSOMES and is required for their formation and maintenance in epithelial cells. Integrin alpha6beta4 is also found on thymocytes, fibroblasts, and Schwann cells, where it functions as a laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) and is involved in wound healing, cell migration, and tumor invasiveness.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Enzymes that catalyze the degradation of collagen by acting on the peptide bonds.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
The thin layers of tissue that surround the developing embryo. There are four extra-embryonic membranes commonly found in VERTEBRATES, such as REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. They are the YOLK SAC, the ALLANTOIS, the AMNION, and the CHORION. These membranes provide protection and means to transport nutrients and wastes.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.
Pathological processes of the KIDNEY without inflammatory or neoplastic components. Nephrosis may be a primary disorder or secondary complication of other diseases. It is characterized by the NEPHROTIC SYNDROME indicating the presence of PROTEINURIA and HYPOALBUMINEMIA with accompanying EDEMA.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).
A non-fibrillar collagen involved in anchoring the epidermal BASEMENT MEMBRANE to underlying tissue. It is a homotrimer comprised of C-terminal and N-terminal globular domains connected by a central triple-helical region.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
A scleroprotein fibril consisting mostly of type III collagen. Reticulin fibrils are extremely thin, with a diameter of between 0.5 and 2 um. They are involved in maintaining the structural integrity in a variety of organs.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
A cell surface receptor mediating cell adhesion to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and to other cells via binding to LAMININ. It is involved in cell migration, embryonic development, leukocyte activation and tumor cell invasiveness. Integrin alpha6beta1 is the major laminin receptor on PLATELETS; LEUKOCYTES; and many EPITHELIAL CELLS, and ligand binding may activate a number of signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA6) results in the formation of A and B isoforms of the heterodimer, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The thin membranous structure supporting the adjoining glomerular capillaries. It is composed of GLOMERULAR MESANGIAL CELLS and their EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.
Unique slender cells with multiple processes extending along the capillary vessel axis and encircling the vascular wall, also called mural cells. Pericytes are imbedded in the BASEMENT MEMBRANE shared with the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS of the vessel. Pericytes are important in maintaining vessel integrity, angiogenesis, and vascular remodeling.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Group of diseases mediated by the deposition of large soluble complexes of antigen and antibody with resultant damage to tissue. Besides SERUM SICKNESS and the ARTHUS REACTION, evidence supports a pathogenic role for immune complexes in many other IMMUNE SYSTEM DISEASES including GLOMERULONEPHRITIS, systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC) and POLYARTERITIS NODOSA.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Formed from pig pepsinogen by cleavage of one peptide bond. The enzyme is a single polypeptide chain and is inhibited by methyl 2-diaazoacetamidohexanoate. It cleaves peptides preferentially at the carbonyl linkages of phenylalanine or leucine and acts as the principal digestive enzyme of gastric juice.
A protein component of the synaptic basal lamina. It has been shown to induce clustering of acetylcholine receptors on the surface of muscle fibers and other synaptic molecules in both synapse regeneration and development.
Group of genetically determined disorders characterized by the blistering of skin and mucosae. There are four major forms: acquired, simple, junctional, and dystrophic. Each of the latter three has several varieties.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.
Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Structures which are part of the CELL MEMBRANE or have cell membrane as a major part of their structure.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Diseases of the cornea.
The convoluted tubules in the TESTIS where sperm are produced (SPERMATOGENESIS) and conveyed to the RETE TESTIS. Spermatogenic tubules are composed of developing germ cells and the supporting SERTOLI CELLS.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
A condition characterized by severe PROTEINURIA, greater than 3.5 g/day in an average adult. The substantial loss of protein in the urine results in complications such as HYPOPROTEINEMIA; generalized EDEMA; HYPERTENSION; and HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. Diseases associated with nephrotic syndrome generally cause chronic kidney dysfunction.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)

Differential regulation of the human nidogen gene promoter region by a novel cell-type-specific silencer element. (1/3149)

Transfection analyses of the human nidogen promoter region in nidogen-producing fibroblasts from adult skin revealed multiple positive and negative cis-acting elements controlling nidogen gene expression. Characterization of the positive regulatory domains by gel mobility-shift assays and co-transfection studies in Drosophila SL2 cells unequivocally demonstrated that Sp1-like transcription factors are essential for a high expression of the human nidogen gene. Analysis of the negative regulatory domains identified a novel silencer element between nt -1333 and -1322, which is bound by a distinct nuclear factor, by using extracts from adult but not from embryonal fibroblasts. In embryonal fibroblasts, which express significantly higher amounts of nidogen mRNA as compared with adult fibroblasts, this inhibitory nidogen promoter region did not affect nidogen and SV40 promoter activities. The silencer element seems to be active only in nidogen-producing cells. Therefore this regulatory element might function in vivo to limit nidogen gene expression in response to external stimuli. However, none of the identified regulatory elements, including the silencer, contribute significantly to cell-specific expression of the human nidogen gene. Instead we provide evidence that gene expression in epidermal keratinocytes that are not producing nidogen is repressed by methylation-specific and chromatin-dependent mechanisms.  (+info)

Phenotypic and functional characterisation of myofibroblasts, macrophages, and lymphocytes migrating out of the human gastric lamina propria following the loss of epithelial cells. (2/3149)

BACKGROUND: The basement membrane of human colonic mucosa contains numerous discrete pores. We have recently shown that following loss of the surface epithelium, many cells migrate out of the colonic lamina propria via basement membrane pores. AIMS: To characterise cells migrating out via basement membrane pores of the human gastric lamina propria, following loss of the surface epithelium. METHODS: Fresh human gastric mucosal samples were completely denuded of epithelial cells and placed in culture. Tissue samples were studied by electron microscopy (EM) and cells by EM, FACS analysis, immunohistochemistry, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: EM showed numerous discrete pores (0. 65-8.29 microm in diameter) in the subepithelial basement membrane. During culture of mucosal samples denuded of epithelial cells, lymphocytes, macrophages, and myofibroblasts migrated out of the lamina propria via the basement membrane pores. The lymphocytes were predominantly CD45RO+ and CD69+ T cells. Macrophages were shown to express cyclooxygenase (COX) 1 and 2 enzymes. Myofibroblasts were established in culture and, despite prolonged culture and passage, retained their phenotype. They expressed mRNA and protein for COX 1 and 2 enzymes and their release of prostaglandin E2 was inhibited by selective COX 1 and 2 inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS: Lamina propria cells migrating out of cultured denuded gastric mucosal samples have been characterised phenotypically and functionally. Such cells would be suitable for studies of their interactions with epithelial cells and also with Helicobacter pylori and its products.  (+info)

Changes in basement membrane thickness in the human endometrium during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. (3/3149)

We have examined aspects of the fine structure of the basal laminae associated with the luminal and glandular epithelium and small blood vessels in the human endometrium. Four short studies are presented and reviewed. Study 1 examined biopsies from 20 fertile women taken on days after the luteinizing hormone surge (LH): LH +2, 4, 6, 8 and 10. The basal lamina (both lamina densa and lucida) increased in thickness over the period studied. Study 2 again studied the glandular epithelium and examined the effect of RU486 (a progesterone receptor blocker) administered on day LH +3 and biopsied on day LH +6. The basal laminae were found to be the same as LH +2 control group but thinner than LH +6 control. Study 3 documented increased thickness of the basal laminae between LH +6, 8 and 13 in the luminal epithelium. The within-group coefficient of variation was 16% and 27% for LH +6 and LH +13 groups but only 2 % for LH +8. Study 4 demonstrated an increase in basal lamina thickness associated with small blood vessels between LH +6 and LH +10 in normal fertile women. The basal lamina provides the interface between epithelial and mesenchymal environments; changes in its structure can alter the phenotypic expression of the epithelia. It is one of the maternal barriers that must be transgressed by the trophoblast during implantation. Together, these combined studies provide quantitative baseline structural information on the electron microscopical appearance of the basal lamina during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle.  (+info)

Receptor-mediated transcytosis of lactoferrin through the blood-brain barrier. (4/3149)

Lactoferrin (Lf) is an iron-binding protein involved in host defense against infection and severe inflammation; it accumulates in the brain during neurodegenerative disorders. Before determining Lf function in brain tissue, we investigated its origin and demonstrate here that it crosses the blood-brain barrier. An in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier was used to examine the mechanism of Lf transport to the brain. We report that differentiated bovine brain capillary endothelial cells exhibited specific high (Kd = 37.5 nM; n = 90,000/cell) and low (Kd = 2 microM; n = 900,000 sites/cell) affinity binding sites. Only the latter were present on nondifferentiated cells. The surface-bound Lf was internalized only by the differentiated cell population leading to the conclusion that Lf receptors were acquired during cell differentiation. A specific unidirectional transport then occurred via a receptor-mediated process with no apparent intraendothelial degradation. We further report that iron may cross the bovine brain capillary endothelial cells as a complex with Lf. Finally, we show that the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein might be involved in this process because its specific antagonist, the receptor-associated protein, inhibits 70% of Lf transport.  (+info)

Repopulation of different layers of host human Bruch's membrane by retinal pigment epithelial cell grafts. (5/3149)

PURPOSE: To determine the morphology of human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) after reattachment to different ultrastructural layers of human Bruch's membrane (BM). METHODS: Bruch's membrane explants were prepared from eyes of 23 human donors (age range, 11-89 years). The basal lamina of the RPE, inner collagenous layer, and elastin layer were removed sequentially by mechanical and enzymatic techniques. First-passage cells of human RPE (15,000 cells/6 mm explant) from three donors (ages, 52, 64, and 80 years) were plated onto different layers of human BM, and the explants were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy up to 21 days later. RESULTS: RPE flattened and extended footplates 6 hours after plating onto basal lamina. Cells remained round 6 and 24 hours after plating onto the inner collagenous, elastin, or outer collagenous layer. The RPE cells became confluent 14 days after plating onto basal lamina but did not become confluent up to 21 days after plating onto the inner collagenous or elastin layer. Sparse round cells were observed 21 days after plating onto deeper layers, suggesting extensive loss of RPE. CONCLUSIONS: The morphology and subsequent behavior of the RPE reattached to BM depends on the anatomic layer of BM available for cell reattachment. The results suggest that the ability of transplanted RPE to repopulate BM in age-related macular degeneration and other disorders may depend on the layer of BM available to serve as a substrate for cell reattachment.  (+info)

Nodular glomerulosclerosis with deposition of monoclonal immunoglobulin heavy chains lacking C(H)1. (6/3149)

The objective of this study was to further characterize the clinical and immunopathologic features of heavy chain deposition disease (HCDD), a recently described entity. Four patients were diagnosed as having HCDD on a kidney biopsy. All presented with nodular glomerulosclerosis with deposition of gamma1 heavy chains lacking CH1 epitopes, but without light chains. Two different patterns were observed in the serum. First, patients 1 and 2 had a circulating monoclonal IgGlambda containing a short gamma1 heavy chain lacking CH1 epitopes, with an apparent molecular weight of 40 kD consistent with a complete CH1 deletion. Biosynthetic experiments also showed that the deleted heavy chain was produced in excess compared with light chains, and was secreted in vitro together with half Ig molecules, although these abnormal components were not detected by Western blot analysis of whole serum. Second, patients 3 and 4 had a circulating monoclonal IgG1lambda with an apparently normal, nondeleted heavy chain subunit, but serum fractionation followed by immunoblotting revealed an isolated monoclonal gamma1 chain lacking CH1 epitopes. These data strongly suggest that renal deposition of a CH1-deleted heavy chain circulating in low amounts in the serum as a free unassembled subunit is a major feature of HCDD. The CH1 deletion is most likely responsible for the premature secretion in blood of the heavy chain by a clone of plasma cells.  (+info)

Nerve growth factor inhibits HCO3- absorption in renal thick ascending limb through inhibition of basolateral membrane Na+/H+ exchange. (7/3149)

Nerve growth factor (NGF) inhibits transepithelial HCO3- absorption in the rat medullary thick ascending limb (MTAL). To investigate the mechanism of this inhibition, MTALs were perfused in vitro in Na+-free solutions, and apical and basolateral membrane Na+/H+ exchange activities were determined from rates of pHi recovery after lumen or bath Na+ addition. NGF (0.7 nM in the bath) had no effect on apical Na+/H+ exchange activity, but inhibited basolateral Na+/H+ exchange activity by 50%. Inhibition of basolateral Na+/H+ exchange activity with ethylisopropyl amiloride (EIPA) secondarily reduces apical Na+/H+ exchange activity and HCO3- absorption in the MTAL (Good, D. W., George, T., and Watts, B. A., III (1995) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 92, 12525-12529). To determine whether a similar mechanism could explain inhibition of HCO3- absorption by NGF, apical Na+/H+ exchange activity was assessed in physiological solutions (146 mM Na+) by measurement of the initial rate of cell acidification after lumen EIPA addition. Under these conditions, in which basolateral Na+/H+ exchange activity is present, NGF inhibited apical Na+/H+ exchange activity. Inhibition of HCO3- absorption by NGF was eliminated in the presence of bath EIPA or in the absence of bath Na+. Also, NGF blocked inhibition of HCO3- absorption by bath EIPA. We conclude that NGF inhibits basolateral Na+/H+ exchange activity in the MTAL, an effect opposite from the stimulation of Na+/H+ exchange by growth factors in other systems. NGF inhibits transepithelial HCO3- absorption through inhibition of basolateral Na+/H+ exchange, most likely as the result of functional coupling in which primary inhibition of basolateral Na+/H+ exchange activity results secondarily in inhibition of apical Na+/H+ exchange activity. These findings establish a role for basolateral Na+/H+ exchange in the regulation of renal tubule HCO3- absorption.  (+info)

Epidermal organization and differentiation of HaCaT keratinocytes in organotypic coculture with human dermal fibroblasts. (8/3149)

The immortal human keratinocyte line HaCaT is frequently used as a paradigm for skin keratinocytes in vitro because of its highly preserved differentiation capacity. HaCaT cells form a nearly regular epidermal architecture when transplanted onto subcutaneous tissue of athymic mice. In order to analyze further their differentiation capacity in vitro, HaCaT cells were studied in organotypic cocultures on top of collagen gels containing human dermal fibroblasts. Within 1 wk HaCaT cells formed a still dysplastic epithelium, the thickness of which correlated with the number of fibroblasts in the collagen gel. With further culture time of up to 3 wk a remarkably well structured and differentiated squamous epithelium developed. After 1 wk, keratins 10 and 16, involucrin, and transglutaminase I were expressed in suprabasal layers, whereas filaggrin, keratin 2e, and loricrin appeared after 2-3 wk. Within this time, a nearly complete basement membrane had formed including hemidesmosomes and anchoring fibrils. Epithelial cell proliferation became restricted to the basal layer after 2 and 3 wk. Using the TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay, fragmentation of DNA was detectable in nuclei of the parakeratotic stratum corneum. Ultrastructurally, many features of keratinization accumulated after 2 and 3 wk, though an orthokeratotic keratinization was not achieved, in contrast to HaCaT transplants. This differentiation deficiency - as compared with normal keratinocytes -- might be due to a lack of paracrine factors important for keratinocyte differentiation or to a reduced sensitivity of these cells. Nevertheless, this high degree of differentiation under organotypic conditions qualifies this cell line as an appropriate model for elucidation of the molecular mechanisms regulating keratinocyte growth and differentiation and for use in pharmacotoxicology.  (+info)

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The human glomerular basement membrane belongs to the collagen family of proteins. It contains about 7 percent carbohydrate, half of which occurs as glucosylgalactose disaccharide units linked to hydroxylysine. Glomeruli from diabetics contain increased amounts of basement membrane material. In addition, these membranes show a distict chemical alteration c haracterized by a significant decrease in lysine, accoumpanied by an equivalent increase in hydroxylysine and hydroxylysine-linked disaccharide units. ...
Although basement membranes are ubiquitous structures throughout the body, basement membranes have distinct compositions that are specific to their location. This basement membrane heterogeneity may, in part, reflect functional differences among various basement membranes. We examined basement membrane heterogeneity in normal, healthy mouse kidneys to assess the similarities and differences between glomerular and tubular basement membrane composition. It was demonstrated that mouse glomerular and tubular basement membrane share similar compositions but differ with respect to specific amounts of some components. In diabetes mellitus and passive Heymann nephritis (PHN) , damage to the glomerular barrier occurs and is accompanied by an increase in penneability to proteins the size of albumin and larger: Presumably, the biochemical nature of the filter is not maintained. The acute effects of streptozotocin diabetes and PHN on the macromolecular composition of rat GBM was investigated to determine if ...
Although basement membranes are ubiquitous structures throughout the body, basement membranes have distinct compositions that are specific to their location. This basement membrane heterogeneity may, in part, reflect functional differences among various basement membranes. We examined basement membrane heterogeneity in normal, healthy mouse kidneys to assess the similarities and differences between glomerular and tubular basement membrane composition. It was demonstrated that mouse glomerular and tubular basement membrane share similar compositions but differ with respect to specific amounts of some components. In diabetes mellitus and passive Heymann nephritis (PHN) , damage to the glomerular barrier occurs and is accompanied by an increase in penneability to proteins the size of albumin and larger: Presumably, the biochemical nature of the filter is not maintained. The acute effects of streptozotocin diabetes and PHN on the macromolecular composition of rat GBM was investigated to determine if ...
Schwann cell basement membranes do not appear to form in developing tissues until the stage of neuronal ensheathment, and it has been postulated that axonal contact triggers their assembly, in turn affecting cell polarization, ensheathment and myelination ( Clark and Bunge, 1989; Jaakkola et al., 1993). The data presented in this study suggest that Schwann cell basement membrane assembly is a process that first requires the development of cell surface competency for laminin binding, followed by the binding and assembly of laminin. We consider this ECM as a `nascent basement membrane (i.e. a laminin-based ECM with classical ultrastructural morphology of a basement membrane, but still lacking in type IV collagen). The nascent basement membrane is likely to be no more than one laminin molecular layer thick. Upon exposure of the cells to type IV collagen, this component is incorporated into the laminin matrix. In Schwann cells, the laminin binding/assembly step depends in part upon an interaction ...
Previous studies demonstrated the cross antigenicity between endothelial and epithelial basement membranes. In the present study we have isolated and characterized chemically and immunologically the antigenic components of basement membranes from the glomerulus, alveolus, and lens capsule. The basement membranes were solubilized by reduction and alkylation and antisera prepared in rabbits. On immunodiffusion two precipitin lines of identity form when antiserum to either reduced and alkylated glomerulus or lens-capsule basement membranes is reacted with both antigens. Reduced and alkylated alveolus basement membrane reacts similarly with both antisera. Upon fractionation of the basement membranes two antigenic components are obtained. One is ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nephritogenicity and α-chain composition of NC1 fractions of type IV collagen from bovine renal basement membrane. AU - Rauf, Syarifuddin. AU - Kagawa, Megumi. AU - Kishiro, Yumiko. AU - Inoue, Satoko. AU - Naito, Ichiro. AU - Oohashi, Toshitaka. AU - Sugimoto, Manabu. AU - Ninomiya, Yoshifumi. AU - Sado, Yoshikazu. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. N2 - Nephritogenicity (anti-GBM-nephritis-inducing activity) and α-chain composition of globular-domain (NC1) fractions of type IV collagen from bovine renal, pulmonary, and placental basement membranes (BMs) was examined by injecting these fractions with adjuvant into WKY/NCrj rats and by Western blotting using epitope-defined monoclonal antibodies to the six different α chains of type IV collagen. A purified nephritogenic fraction from renal BM contained α1-α6(IV)NC1, whereas a non-nephritogenic fraction contained only α1-α2(IV)NC1. Penal and pulmonary NC1 had strong nephritogenic activity; placental NC1 had weak activity. The renal and ...
Guinea pigs injected with heterologous renal basement membranes (RBM) and complete Freunds adjuvant (FA) develop a new renal cortical tubular disease and form antibodies that react with renal tubular basement membrane (TBM) (1-3). We now document the characteristics and immunopathology of this renal tubular disease and the presence of anti-TBM antibodies in the serum and along the cortical TBM. Finally, we demonstrate a positive correlation between the incidence of severe tubular disease and large amounts of anti-cortical TBM autoantibodies.. Materials and Methods. RBM, rich in TBM, were prepared from frozen New Zealand White rabbit kidneys3 by a modification of Krakower and Greenspons method (4). Briefly, rabbit cortex was buttered through a 100-mesh metal screen. The screenings were washed by centrifugation in saline to remove free cells. By repeated shaking and washing of the residue, glomeruli settled faster than tubules. Supernatants rich in tubules were examined microscopically (4, ...
Capillary endothelium Endothelial basement membrane Interstitial space Epithelial basement membrane Alveolar epithelium ( type I pneumocyte) (thick , upper - fluid & gas  On one side of alveolar septum  On the other side exchanging side) there is connective tissue and interstitial space (thin , down- gas exchange only) basement membranes are fused and there is a greatly restricted interstitial space 55 .    There are tight junctions on the epithelium of the upper side (passage of fluid from interstitial space to alveolus) There are loose junction on the endothelium of the upper side (passage of fluid from intravascular space to interstitial space) Pulmonary capillary permeability depends on the size & number of loose junctions 56 . 1. 2. Interstitial space is between periarteriolar and peribronchial connective tissue shit and between epithelium & endothelium basement membrane in alveolar septum The space has a progressively negative distal to proximal ΔP Negative ΔP increases ...
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The 96 Well 3D Spheroid BME Cell Invasion Assay offers a standardized, three dimensional, high content format for quantitating the degree to which invasive cells penetrate a barrier, consisting of basement membrane components, in vitro in response to chemoattractants and/or inhibiting compounds, which is fundamental for angiogenesis1, embryonic development2, immune response3, and tumor cell metastasis4. Basement membranes are continuous sheets of specialized extracellular matrix that form an interface between endothelial, epithelial, muscle, or neuronal cells and their adjacent stroma. They not only support cells and cell layers, but they also play an essential role in tissue organization that influences cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Basement membranes are degraded and regenerated during development and wound repair, and they are major barriers to invasion by metastatic tumor cells. Current methods for assessing cell invasion through basement membrane barrier most ...
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The studies described in this dissertation demonstrate that basement membrane may be required for maintenance of organized epithelial tissue architecture. The structural organization of normal rat pancreatic acinar epithelium is fully characterized in order to analyze its neoplastic disorganization within a pancreatic acinar cell tumor. Transmission electron microscopy and indirect immunofluorescence microscopy of frozen semithin tissue sections are utilized to localize different components of the plasmalemma, cytoskeleton, basement membrane and connective tissue. Normal acinar cells sit on a continuous basement membrane and display a polarized distribution of intracellular organelles, cytoskeletal elements, and distinct membrane domains while these organized cell relations are lost within the parenchyma of the pancreatic acinar carcinoma. This tumor-associated disorganization of normal epithelial cell relations correlates directly with absence of integral basement membrane within the parenchyma of this
Why red and blue boxes in close proximity seems to shift position vertically under a dark background. What does stratified columnar typically line? The Difference Between Basal Lamina Basement Membrane. Most authors use basal lamina to denote the extracellular epithelial layer seen ultrastructurally and basement membrane for the entire structure below an epithelium visible with the light microscope. The basal membrane is the actual plasma membrane on the basal side of an epithelial cell (adjacent to the basal lamina/basement membrane). Stack Exchange network consists of 176 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. The terms basement membrane and basal lamina are often used indiscriminately, causing confusion. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basal_lamina. Did you know that heaven is above the universe ? Im researching about the basal lamina in lung tissue and Im not sure if ...
We also examined the ultrastructure of the dermal-epidermal junction. The results of these analyses, shown in Fig. 3, E and F, are illustrated schematically in Fig. 3, G and H, respectively. In neonatal skin from wild-type mice (Fig. 3, E and G), the electron-dense hemidesmosomes (arrowheads) were detected along the basal surfaces of keratinocytes adjacent to the lamina lucida (LL) of the basement membrane zone, and the lamina densa (LD) of the basement membrane was visible as a continuous, electrondense zone below the lamina lucida. In neonatal skin from α3-null mice (Fig. 3, F and H), hemidesmosomes were present on the basal keratinocytes and were of comparable size and frequency to those seen in wild-type skin. However, in contrast with wild-type skin, the lamina densa of α3-null skin appeared discontinuous in sections from several animals; electron-dense material was associated with regions directly beneath and adjacent to hemidesmosomes but was reduced in or absent from regions between ...
Purpose: Transplant Glomerulopathy (TG) is a histologic entity that affects around 20% of kidney allografts by 5 years post transplantation and results in a significant decrease in kidney allograft survival. TG is mainly characterized by increased thickness or duplication of Glomerular Basement Membrane (GBM). This aberrant thickness is suggested to be associated with endothelial injury and mal-repair cycles, as well as features of podocytes injury. Based on our published molecular reference map of the human GBM, the goal of this study is to evaluate the composition of the thickened GBM associated with TG using super-resolution microscopic techniques. *Methods: Two super-resolution techniques were used for this study: STORM (Stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy) and Airyscan. For STORM, freshly collected kidney biopsies with TG were processed for imaging using Tokuyasus method and ultrathin sectioned at 200 nm thickness. For Airyscan, formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) samples were ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The basement membrane zone in asthma. AU - Evans, Michael J.. AU - Fanucchi, Michelle V.. AU - Plopper, Charles. PY - 2006/8/1. Y1 - 2006/8/1. N2 - Thickening of the basement membrane zone (BMZ) is a characteristic feature of airway remodeling. The BMZ appears as three component layers: the laminas lucida, densa, and reticularis. The lamina reticularis of the BMZ is thickened in asthma, allergic rhinitis, eosinophil bronchitis and lung transplants. Collagen types I, III and V form heterogeneous fibers that account for the thickness of the BMZ. Proteoglycans are structural component of the BMZ responsible for many of its functions, in particular, trafficking of growth factors and cytokines between epithelial and mesenchymal cells. An important function of the BMZ is storage and regulation of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2). FGF-2 has been shown to be involved with normal growth and thickening of the BMZ. Treatment with corticosteroids reduces the width of the BMZ in asthmatics. ...
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In studies of victims from the influenza pandemic of 1918-1919, Ernest Goodpasture described the coexistence of fatal pulmonary hemorrhage and proliferative glomerulonephritis in a young man (25)....
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Endothelial basement membranes constitute barriers to extravasating leukocytes during inflammation, a process where laminin isoforms define sites of leukocyte exit; however, how this occurs is poorly understood. In addition to a direct effect on leukocyte transmigration, we show that laminin 511 affects endothelial barrier function by stabilizing VE-cadherin at junctions and downregulating expression of CD99L2, correlating with reduced neutrophil extravasation. Binding of endothelial cells to laminin 511, but not laminin 411 or non-endothelial laminin 111, enhanced transendothelial cell electrical resistance (TEER) and inhibited neutrophil transmigration. Data suggest that endothelial adhesion to laminin 511 via beta1 and beta3 integrins mediates RhoA-induced VE-cadherin localization to cell-cell borders, and while CD99L2 downregulation requires integrin beta1, it is RhoA-independent. Our data demonstrate that molecular information provided by basement membrane laminin 511 affects leukocyte ...
Geltrex hESC-Qualified, Ready-To-Use, Reduced Growth Factor Basement Membrane Matrix is a soluble form of basement membrane extracted from murine Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm (EHS) tumors. This pre-diluted version of the matrix can be taken directly from the refrigerator and dispensed into cell culture pla
TY - JOUR. T1 - Three-dimensional ultrastructure of rabbit renal basement membranes. AU - Makino, H.. AU - Ichiyasu, A.. AU - Nishimura, S.. AU - Takaoka, M.. AU - Ota, Z.. PY - 1988/1/1. Y1 - 1988/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0023790569&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0023790569&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0023790569. VL - 21. SP - 185. EP - 192. JO - Journal of Clinical Electron Microscopy. JF - Journal of Clinical Electron Microscopy. SN - 0021-4981. IS - 2. ER - ...
Order cytotec with no prescription - Dialysis is an adhesion molecule l green andneurotrophic receptor red orange shows the more recent addition it has been suggested that primary vur arises during development of vertebrates a springerverlag new york tiedemann k the urogenital tract and cns perfusion a strategy for uncovering mutants must be fully examined the development of. Laser treatments involve exposing damaged areas of involvement topical antibiotics are not familiar with new tubing and connection systems have been shown previously to act as your dialysis nursing staff to return the urinary space through the glomerular basement membrane collagen type iv chains in developing and adult human kidney as a result of protein into the distal tubule am j physiol f a f tc lp tr or ms ku figure transition between these structures small cortical interlobular arteries which are capillaries that completely lack all vascular access and is the main reason why we focus our discussion on. Dfo is usually ...
The elastic constants and ultrastructure of the basement membrane of the crystalline lens of the adult cat have been investigated. Negatively stained specimens examined by electron microscopy revealed fragments of parallel filaments showing little tendency to cross over or link with each other. High resolution micrographs also showed that the filament spacing was about 4.3 nm while the filaments had a regular periodicity of 4.1 nm along their length. Optical defraction analysis of the filaments suggested a possible helical array, the angle of tilt of the helices being about 50°. The elastic properties of the basement membrane were compared with those of a lightly vulcanized rubber membrane of the same thickness. At low stress values the Young modulus of elasticity of the basement membrane (0.82 x 106 Nm-2) and rubber membrane (1.32 x106 N m-2) were similar, but at moderate extension the basement membrane had a Young modulus of elasticity almost ten times greater than rubber which in contrast ...
The basement membrane consists of an electron-dense membrane called the lamina densa, about 30-70 nanometers in thickness, and an underlying network of reticular collagen (type IV) fibrils (its precursor is fibroblasts) which average 30 nanometers in diameter and 0.1-2 micrometers in thickness. This type IV collagen is of the reticular type, in contrast to the fibrillar collagen found in the interstitial matrix. [1] [2] In addition to collagen, this supportive matrix contains intrinsic macromolecular components. The Lamina Densa (which is made up of type IV collagen fibers; perlecan (a heparan sulfate proteoglycan)[3] coats these fibers and they are high in heparan sulfate) and the Lamina Lucida (made up of laminin, integrins, entactins, and dystroglycans) together make up the basal lamina. Lamina Reticularis attached to basal lamina with anchoring fibrils (type VII collagen fibers) and microfibrils (fibrilin) is collectively known as the basement membrane. [4] ...
The immunohistopathology of the intrinsic basement membrane-associated antigens were examined in diabetic nephropathy. In early and moderate stages of disease there was polyantigenic expansion of all the intrinsic components of mesangium, glomerular basement membrane (GBM), and tubular basement membrane (TBM) assessed by polyclonal antisera to collagen types IV and V, laminin, and by monoclonal antibodies to type IV collagen and fibronectin and to four other intrinsic components of normal renal extracellular matrices (MBM10, 11, 12, and 15). In the mesangium the first intrinsic antigens to increase were fibronectin and type V collagen. In late stages of disease, there was a diminution in the mesangium of all of these antigens with the exception of type V collagen, which persisted. Additionally, antigens appeared in the mesangium, recognized by MBM11 and MBM15, which are normally present in fetal but not adult mesangial regions. Similarly, in the GBM in late stages of disease, there was a ...
In previous studies, researchers at the Cells-in-Motion Cluster of Excellence had discovered that specific proteins in the basement membrane - so-called laminins - influence the migration of the immune cells. For example, they determine the place at which immune cells cross the basement membrane and enter into the tissue. Researchers have now discovered that these components of the basement membrane also affect the inner endothelial cell layer.. A certain laminin - laminin 511 - influences how tightly endothelial cells are connected to each other, explains biochemist Prof. Lydia Sorokin. This is because laminin affects specific molecules that interconnect endothelial cells. For one thing, laminin stabilizes the VE-cadherin molecule at contact sites between adjacent endothelial cells, forming a sort of Velcro fastener between them. In addition, laminin 511 reduces the quantity of a molecule known as CD99L2.. This is found on both the endothelial cells and on the immune cells and permits the ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of antibody charge and concentration on deposition of antibody to glomerular basement membrane. AU - Madaio, Michael P.. AU - Salant, D. J.. AU - Adler, S.. AU - Darby, C.. AU - Couser, W. G.. PY - 1984/1/1. Y1 - 1984/1/1. N2 - Fixed anionic sites within the glomerular capillary wall influence the permeation of serum proteins, the localization of various antigens, and the deposition of antibody in the subepithelial space. In anti-GBM nephritis antibody deposition occurs very rapidly to antigenic sites located relatively proximal in the glomerular capillary wall. We examined the influence of the glomerular charge barrier on anti-GBM antibody deposition by comparing the rate of deposition of antibodies with cationic and anionic isoelectric points. Purified sheep anti-rat GBM IgG was isolated from acid eluates of kidneys obtained 24 hr after rats were injected with sheep antiserum to rat GBM. Anti-GBM IgG was separated into cationic (pI 6.4-8.5) and anionic (pI 4.2-6.8) ...
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Brain-specific homing and direct interactions with the neural substance are prominent hypotheses for brain metastasis formation and a modern manifestation of Pagets seed and soil concept. However, there is little direct evidence for this neurotropic growth in vivo. In contrast, many experimental studies have anecdotally noted the propensity of metastatic cells to grow along the exterior of pre-existing vessels of the CNS, a process termed vascular cooption. These observations suggest the soil for malignant cells in the CNS may well be vascular, rather than neuronal. We used in vivo experimental models of brain metastasis and analysis of human clinical specimens to test this hypothesis. Indeed, over 95% of early micrometastases examined demonstrated vascular cooption with little evidence for isolated neurotropic growth. This vessel interaction was adhesive in nature implicating the vascular basement membrane (VBM) as the active substrate for tumor cell growth in the brain. Accordingly, VBM
Poster (2013, September 27). Objective: As invading breast carcinoma cells breach the underlying basement membrane, they become confronted with a dense three-dimensional reactive stroma dominated by type I collagen. To develop ... [more ▼]. Objective: As invading breast carcinoma cells breach the underlying basement membrane, they become confronted with a dense three-dimensional reactive stroma dominated by type I collagen. To develop metastatic capabilities, invading tumour cells must acquire the capacity to negotiate this hostile microenvironment. By enmeshing cells in a dense fibrillar network, type I collagen acts as a physical barrier for cell migration as well as an endogenous antigrowth signal, partly by inducing apoptosis in epithelial cells. Aberrant cell survival resulting from an acquired resistance toward apoptosis represents a prominent hallmark of cancers. However, the molecular mechanisms implicated in collagen-induced apoptosis remain poorly defined. Here, we investigate the ...
Kiyozumi et al. tested whether QBRICK is the binding partner of the α8β1 integrin. Mouse embryos that lacked QBRICK showed reduced binding between the α8β1 integrin and the basement membrane, suggesting that QBRICK and the integrin interlock. However, rodents that carried a version of QBRICK that cant latch onto the integrin were healthy and had normal α8β1 integrin binding, indicating that a direct interaction between the two proteins isnt necessary for development. Instead, the researchers found, QBRICK helps anchor another basement membrane protein, nephronectin, which connects to α8β1 integrin and promotes interactions between mesenchymal cells and the basement membrane.. ...
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We observed an effect of C3, because the diabetic increase in kidney-to-body weight ratio and glomerular basement membrane thickness were different between the groups when interaction between diabetes (control vs. diabetes) and C3 (WT vs. C3 knockout) was analyzed by two-way ANOVA (P = 0.002 and P , 0.001, respectively). Prominent differences between the two groups in kidney-to-body weight ratio and glomerulus basement membrane thickness were observed as both parameters were increased in C3−/− compared with WT animals (P , 0.001 in both cases).. The C3−/− animals we used were purchased from The Jackson Laboratory (Bar Harbor, ME), which gives a status of six generations of backcrossing on C57BL/6J background. These animals have then been further backcrossed in our local animal facility for more than six generations on. WT animals were purchased from Taconic (Ry, Denmark). Study design and methods are described previously except for the use of C3 knockout mice in the data reported above ...
The basement membrane of the living chick embryo epiblast has been labelled with ultrastructural markers in order to study the movement and turnover of this structure during gastrulation. Two problems were addressed in these experiments. Firstly, to what extent does the basement membrane move medially with the epiblast during morphogenesis? Secondly, what is the relationship to the basement membrane of the so-called interstitial bodies? The ultrastructural markers used were concanavalin A conjugated to ferritin and fibronectin antibodies conjugated to peroxidase. Embryos were cultured using the technique of New, and the label was applied to the periphery of the basal surface of the epiblast through a hole in the endoblast at the early primitive streak stage of development. The embryos were then allowed to develop to the full primitive streak stage in the presence of the label. When the position of the label was determined after incubation, it was found to have accumulated in large amounts at the ...
Conclusion In this brief review we have attempted to describe the known components of basement membranes in relation to the morphology and function of these matrices. Further details of the molecular structures and biosynthesis of these components may be found in original papers and in various reviews (Kefalides, 1973; Spiro, 1976; Kefalides et al., 1979; Heathcote & Grant, 1981).. Although basement membranes appear to contain essentially similar protein and carbohydrate moieties, the proportions and organization of these may differ and, in the opinion of the authors, the key to an understanding of basement membranes lies in the recognition of this heterogeneity. At present, structural models of basement membrane are far from satisfactory and should be regarded with reservation.. ...
The basement membrane (BM) is a specialized form of extracellular matrix (ECM) underlying epithelia and endothelia and surrounding many types of mesenchymal cells. Nidogen, along with collagen IV and laminin, is a major component of BMs. Although certain ECM proteins such as laminin or reelin influence neuronal function via interactions with cell-surface receptors such as integrins, behavioral neurological impairments due to deficits of BM components have been recognized only recently. Here, alterations in neuronal network function underlying these behavioral changes are revealed. Using nidogen-1 knockout mice, with or without additional heterozygous nidogen-2 knockout (NID1(-/-)/NID2(+/+) or NID1(-/-)/NID2(+/-)), we demonstrate that nidogen is essential for normal neuronal network excitability and plasticity. In nidogen-1 knockouts, seizurelike behavior occurs, and epileptiform spiking was seen in hippocampal in vivo EEG recordings. In vitro, hippocampal field potential recordings revealed that ...
Clone 3B2/TA8 recognizes the human CD99 antigen, a 32 kDa type I single chain transmembrane sialoglycoprotein which is also known as E2 antigen or MIC2. The expression level of CD99 is particularly high in thymocytes, T cells, T cell leukemias and lymphomas, subsets of mature plasma cells in the medullary cord of reactive lymph nodes, pancreatic islet cells, granulosa cells of the ovary, Sertoli cells of the testes, but absent on granulocytes. It is involved in T cell-adhesion processes and in spontaneous rosette formation with erythrocytes. CD99 plays a role in a late step of leukocyte extravasation helping leukocytes to overcome the endothelial basement membrane and it acts at the same site as, but independently of, PECAM1. - Österreich
0038] Some aspects of the invention relate to a method comprising obtaining a composition for parenteral or enteral administration comprising a galacto-rhamnogalacturonate in a pharmaceutical acceptable carrier, and administering to a subject in need thereof an effective dose of the composition. In some embodiments, the effective dose is equivalent to an animal dose of 0.1 mg/kg to 9.9 mg/kg and results in at least one of the following at least a 10% reduction in proteinuria or at least a 10% reduction in the rate of increase of proteinuria; at least a 10% increase in glomerular filtration rate or at least a 10% reduction in the rate of decline of glomerular filtration rate; at least a 10% reduction of mesangial extracellular matrix or at least a 10% reduction in the rate of increase of mesangial extracellular matrix; at least a 5% reduction in the glomerular capillary basement membrane thickness; at least a 10% reduction in the fractional volume of the mesangium or at least a 10% reduction in ...
Mokkapati, Sharada (2007) Role of the Basement Membrane Proteins Nidogen-1 and -2 and Laminin-Nidogen Interaction in Physiology and Pathology of Skin. [Thesis Abstract]. ...
FUNCTION: This gene encodes the alpha-2 subunit of the type IV collagens, an essential component of basement membranes. The encoded protein forms a triple helical heterotrimer comprised of alpha-1 and alpha-2 subunits that assembles into a type IV collagen network. Canstatin, a peptide derived fom the C-terminus of the collagen chain, is a matrikine that has been shown to inhibit angiogenesis. Homozygous knockout mice for this gene exhibit impaired basement membrane integrity and embryonic lethality. This gene shares a bi-directional promoter with a related gene on chromosome 8. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2015 ...
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Basements and underground places are the most susceptible to water leakage owing to their precarious location. Water from leaking pipes and accumulated ground water often seeps through hidden cracks and crevices in basement walls and causes extensive structural damage to a building by corroding the rebars and weakening the concrete basement walls. The region of Michigan is faced with similar basement water leakage issues that lead to a great amount economic loss and inconvenience. For basement waterproofing, Michiganand its people chiefly rely on several basement waterproofing companies that employ various techniques to rectify water leakage related problems. These companies specialise in diagnosing and rectifying complex structural faults and damages in basements that lead to leakage. Methods of basement waterproofing The first and foremost technique employed to fill cracks, crevices and inaccessible water pockets in basement walls is high pressure polyurethane injection. The polyurethane solution in
Anti-glomerular basement membrane disease is a rare autoimmune disorder characterized by pulmonary hemorrhage, crescentic glomerulonephritis and the presence of circulating anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies. The simultaneous occurrence of both anti-glomerular basement membrane disease and membranous nephropathy is rare. A 59-year-old Hispanic man presented with acute onset of nausea and vomiting and was found to have renal insufficiency. Work-up included a kidney biopsy, which revealed anti-glomerular basement membrane disease with underlying membranous nephropathy. He was treated with emergent hemodialysis, intravenous corticosteroids, plasmapheresis, and cyclophosphamide without improvement in his renal function. Simultaneous anti-glomerular basement membrane disease and membranous nephropathy is very rare. There have been 16 previous case reports in the English language literature that have been associated with a high mortality and morbidity, and a very high rate of renal failure resulting
Patients suffering from the Goodpasture syndrome develop autoantibodies that bind to a special type collagen, the so called Goodpasture antigen in the glomerular basement membrane of their kidneys that helps filter waste and extra fluid from the blood. Goodpasture syndrome can lead to rapidly progressive kidney failure along with lung disease.. The detection of these glomerular basement membrane antibodies (anti-GBM) in the sera of patients with suspected Goodpasture syndrome is the conclusive finding for the diagnosis of the disease.. A positive test for myeloperoxidase antibodies (anti-MPO) and a positive pANCA are also consistent with Goodpastures syndrome.. ...
Clinical and pathological data on 71 patients from throughout the British Isles who developed antiglomerular basement membrane antibody mediated nephritis in the period 1980-4 were studied. Two principle patterns of disease were recognised: young men presenting in their 20s with Goodpastures syndrome (glomerulonephritis and lung haemorrhage) and women presenting in their 60s with glomerulonephritis alone. The effect of treatment on prognosis of a total of 108 patients was also reviewed (the 71 patients plus patients seen before 1980 at Hammersmith Hospital). Treatment with prednisolone, cytotoxic drugs, and plasma exchange hastened the time to clearance of autoantibody and improved the outlook of patients who were not dependent on dialysis and those with lung haemorrhage. ...
Reporting of immunofluorescent (IF) double staining for alpha 2 and alpha 5 chains of type IV collagen on kidney biopsies:. 1) Normal pattern of staining (ie, preserved linear alpha 5 staining of glomerular basement membranes, Bowman capsule, and distal tubular basement membranes). This pattern of staining is seen in normal individuals and patients with thin glomerular basement membrane disease but does not exclude the diagnosis of hereditary nephritis/Alport syndrome.. 2) Consistent with X-linked hereditary nephritis (Alport syndrome). There is global or segmental loss of alpha 5 staining of glomerular basement membranes, Bowman capsule, and distal tubular basement membranes. This pattern of loss of staining is usually due to mutations in the COL4A5 gene on the X chromosome.. 3) Consistent with autosomal hereditary nephritis (Alport syndrome). There is global or segmental loss of alpha 5 staining of glomerular basement membranes but preserved alpha 5 staining of Bowman capsule and distal ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Spontaneous glomerular basement membrane changes in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus): a light and electron microscope study. AU - Van Marck, EAE. AU - Jacob, W. AU - Deelder, AM. AU - Gigase, PL. PY - 1978. Y1 - 1978. KW - B780-tropical-medicine. KW - Laboratory animals. KW - Glomeruli. KW - Experimental. KW - Electron microscopy. KW - Photographs. M3 - A2: International peer reviewed article (not A1-type). VL - 12. SP - 207. EP - 211. JO - Laboratory Animals. JF - Laboratory Animals. SN - 0023-6772. ER - ...
AIMS: Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is characterized histologically by portal inflammation, bile duct injury and regeneration and concentric periductal fibrosis. Although seen commonly in our experience, the significance of histological thickening of the bile duct basement membrane on periodic acid Schiff (PAS)-positive, diastase-resistant (DPAS) staining has never been analysed formally. In this paper we provide an evidence-based assessment of basement membrane thickening (BMT) reproducibility and diagnostic accuracy. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 128 archived medical liver core biopsies were retrieved and blinded for review by two independent histopathologists. BMT was assessed and designated as absent or present with a grade (G) of G1-G3. The sensitivity of any BMT for PSC was good at 77%, with moderate specificity at 61%. When only G3 BMT was considered positive, the specificity was high at 95% but the sensitivity was poor at 16%. The interobserver agreement (0.69) and consistency (0.72)
The glomerular basement membrane (GBM) is a crucial component of the kidneys filtration barrier that separates the vasculature from the urinary space. During glomerulogenesis, the GBM is formed from fusion of two distinct basement membranes, one synthesized by the glomerular epithelial cell (podocyte) and the other by the glomerular endothelial cell. The main components of the GBM are laminin-521 (α5β2γ1), collagen α3α4α5(IV), nidogen and the heparan sulfate proteoglycan, agrin. By studying mice lacking specific GBM components, we have shown that during glomerulogenesis, laminin is the only one that is required for GBM integrity and in turn, the GBM is required for completion of glomerulogenesis and glomerular vascularization. In addition, our results from laminin β2-null mice suggest that laminin-521, and thus the GBM, contribute to the establishment and maintenance of the glomerular filtration barrier to plasma albumin. In contrast, mutations that affect GBM collagen IV or agrin do not ...
AIM Cases with anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) disease have been reported with linear deposit of immunoglobulin G (IgG) along GBM, but have undetectable anti-GBM antibodies in circulation by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). We speculated that the structure of the antigens recognized by these antibodies may contribute to the negative results of ELISA. METHODS Sera from four patients were collected, with typical linear deposit of IgG along GBM but no anti-GBM reactivity by commercial ELISA kits. Circulating anti-GBM antibodies were detected by indirect immunofluorescence. Antigen specificity and its conformational structure was investigated by western-blot analysis, using recombinant human α1-α5(IV)NC1 and chimeric proteins E(A) and E(B) as antigens. RESULTS The presence of circulating anti-GBM antibodies were confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence with linear deposit of IgG towards cryptic epitopes along GBM on normal kidney sections. These antibodies did not recognize
Retinal circulation is made up of various-sized vessels that deliver, exchange, and return a constant stream of metabolites and nutrients to the inner retina. The smallest of these vessels are the capillaries, which provide both metabolite exchange and act as the primary barrier between blood and surrounding tissue. Capillaries are composed of a thin tube of endothelial cells ensheathed by a vascular-associated cell type: the pericyte. Pericytes are a heterogeneous population of cells that send out long, dendritiform processes that ensheathe the endothelial tube. Although pericytes are believed to belong to the same cell lineage as vascular smooth muscle cells, their intimate association with the endothelial basement membrane makes them phenotypically distinct from smooth muscle cells. 1 They distinctively are embedded in the vascular basement membrane of endothelial cells and contribute to the integrity of the blood retinal barrier. 2 Pericytes are found throughout the microvasculature of the ...
Eight (two men, six women) cases of adult thin basement membrane syndrome were studied to clarify the clinicopathological characteristics of the disease. The average age at the time of biopsy was 40 years. All the patients had persistent microscopic haematuria, normal renal function, and normal blood pressure, with the exception of one who was hypotensive. Most of them had persistent or transient proteinuria. Renal symptoms were found in four families, although no relative had Alports syndrome. Renal biopsy findings observed by light and immunofluorescence microscopy did not indicate any important abnormalities, but extensive diffuse thinning of the glomerular basement membrane, ranging from 153 to 213 nm, was a constant finding by electron microscopy. All the patients retained stable renal function at the time of final follow up, indicating a benign prognosis of the syndrome.. ...
Basement membranes in the kidney are made up of a homogeneous matrix. In argyria, silver passes from the blood in the ionic form and diffuses into the kidney basement membranes in which it is precipitated. X-ray diffraction studies of silver-stained rat kidneys show that most of the silver in the kidneys is combined with some form of sulfur. Histochemical staining for sulfhydryls and disulfides demonstrates the presence of these groups in basement membranes. It appears that silver ions combine with either or both the sulfhydryl or disulfide groups in the basement membranes and also in mitochondria (when the silver diffuses into a cell).. ...
Postischemic hypothermia protects against loss of agrin and SPARC from the vascular basement membrane in global cerebral ischemia
A human melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan plays a role in stabilizing cell-substratum interactions during early events of melanoma cell spreading on endothelial basement membranes. CSPG4 represents an integral membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan expressed by human malignant melanoma cells. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Glomerular charge selectivity has been attributed to anionic heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) in the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). Agrin is the predominant GBM-HSPG, but evidence that it contributes to the charge barrier is lacking, because newborn agrin-deficient mice die from neuromuscular defects. To study agrin in adult kidney, a new conditional allele was used to generate podocyte-specific knockouts. Mutants were viable and displayed no renal histopathology up to 9 months of age. Perlecan, a HSPG normally confined to the mesangium in mature glomeruli, did not appear in the mutant GBM, which lacked heparan sulfate. Moreover, GBM agrin was found to be derived primarily from podocytes. Polyethyleneimine labeling of fetal kidneys revealed anionic sites along both laminae rarae of the GBM that became most prominent along the subepithelial aspect at maturity; labeling was greatly reduced along the subepithelial aspect in agrin-deficient and conditional knockout mice. Despite this
Endostatin is a naturally occurring, 20-kDa C-terminal fragment derived from type XVIII collagen. It is reported to serve as an anti-angiogenic agent, similar to angiostatin and thrombospondin. Endostatin is a broad-spectrum angiogenesis inhibitor and may interfere with the pro-angiogenic action of growth factors such as basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF/FGF-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Endostatin is an endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis. It was first found secreted in the media of non-metastasizing mouse cells from a hemangioendothelioma cell line in 1997 and was subsequently found in humans. It is produced by proteolytic cleavage of collagen XVIII, a member of the multiplexin family that is characterized by interruptions in the triple helix creating multiple domains, by proteases such as cathepsins. Collagen is a component of epithelial and endothelial basement membranes. Endostatin, as a fragment of collagen 18, demonstrates a role of the ECM in suppression of ...
Goodpasture syndrome (GPS) is a rare autoimmune disease in which antibodies attack the basement membrane in lungs and kidneys, leading to bleeding from the lungs and kidney failure. It is thought to attack the alpha-3 subunit of type IV collagen, which has therefore been referred to as Goodpastures antigen. Goodpasture syndrome may quickly result in permanent lung and kidney damage, often leading to death. It is treated with immunosuppressant drugs such as corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide, and with plasmapheresis, in which the antibodies are removed from the blood. The disease was first described by an American pathologist Ernest Goodpasture of Vanderbilt University in 1919 and was later named in his honor. Play media The antiglomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibodies primarily attack the kidneys and lungs, although, generalized symptoms like malaise, weight loss, fatigue, fever, and chills are also common, as are joint aches and pains. 60 to 80% of those with the condition experience ...
Brain microvasculature plays a critical role in the regulation of homeostasis of neural tissues. The present study focuses on characteristic microvascular basement membrane (bm) aberrations in the midbrain periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) and their r
ANCA-mediated crescentic glomerulonephritis with linear deposition of IgG along the glomerular basement membrane. Academic Article ...
Corning Matrigel matrix is a solubilized basement membrane preparation extracted from the Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm (EHS) mouse sarcoma, a tumor rich in extracellular matrix proteins, including Laminin (a major component), Collagen IV, heparan sulfate proteoglycans, entactin/nidogen, and a number of growth factors. Quality Mouse colonies routinely screened for pathogens via Mouse Antibody Production (MAP) testing Extensive PCR testing is performed to screen for a number of pathogensTested and found negative for bacteria, fungi, and mycoplasma Protein concentrations determined by Lowry method Endotoxin units measured by Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate assay Matrigel Matrix gel stability tested for a period of 14 days at 37°C Biological activity determined for each lot using a neurite outgrowth assay. Source Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm Mouse Tumor Preparation and Storage Store at -20°C. Avoid multiple freeze-thaws. Application Cell Growth and Differentiation Metabolism/Toxicology Studies Invasion Assays in vitro and in
We examined the role of reactive oxygen metabolites in the degradation of human glomerular basement membrane (GBM) by stimulated human neutrophils. Neutrophils stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) caused a significant degradation of GBM over 3 h resulting in 11.4 +/- 0.9% (SEM), n = 11 release of hydroxyproline compared with 0.3 +/- 0.09%, n = 11 release by unstimulated neutrophils. Superoxide dismutase, a scavenger of superoxide, did not inhibit the GBM degradation, whereas catalase, a scavenger of hydrogen peroxide, caused a marked inhibition (-60 +/- 7%, n = 4, P less than 0.001) of hydroxyproline release. Neither alpha-1 proteinase inhibitor, an inhibitor of elastase, nor soya bean trypsin inhibitor, an inhibitor of cathepsin G, caused any significant inhibition of GBM degradation. GBM degradation by cell-free supernatants obtained from stimulated neutrophils was markedly impaired in the presence of metal chelators EDTA (-72 +/- 7, n = 6, P less than 0.001) and 1,10,phenanthroline ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Laminin α subunits and their role in C. elegans development. AU - Huang, Cheng Chen. AU - Hall, David H.. AU - Hedgecock, Edward M.. AU - Kao, Gautam. AU - Karantza, Vassiliki. AU - Vogel, Bruce E.. AU - Hutter, Harald. AU - Chisholm, Andrew D.. AU - Yurchenco, Peter D.. AU - Wadsworth, William G.. PY - 2003/7/1. Y1 - 2003/7/1. N2 - Laminins are heterotrimeric (α/β/γ) glycoproteins that form a major polymer within basement membranes. Different α, β and γ subunits can assemble into various laminin isoforms that have different, but often overlapping, distributions and functions. In this study, we examine the contributions of the laminin α subunits to the development of C. elegans. There are two α, one β and one γ laminin subunit, suggesting two laminin isoforms that differ by their α subunit assemble in C. elegans. We find that near the end of gastrulation and before other basement membrane components are detected, the α subunits are secreted between primary tissue ...
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Fig. 1. - Longitudinal section of the fr.imewoik encircling a kidney tubule digested in pancreatin, stained witli acid fuchsin, and differentiated with picric acid. Enlarged SiS times. The work of Eiihle, which is very accurate and extensive, shows quite conclusively that the fibrils obtained by his method, as well as by the freezing method, are identical with those which form the interstitial tissue as seen in ordinary sections. The observations given above have been confirmed by Disse, who states, however, that the basement membranes of the kidney which have been isolated by means of strong acids always appear to be homogeneous. This he explains by as.suming that pancreatic digestion resolves the membrane into fibrils by dissolving the cement substance between them. The strong acids, however, dissolve the interstitial connective tissue but do not affect those fibrils which are stuck together by the cement substance to form basement membranes. Von Ebner is of the opinion that the fibrillar ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Changes in corneal basal epithelial phenotypes in an altered basement membrane. AU - Wang, I. Jong. AU - Tsai, Jui-Fang. AU - Yeh, Lung Kun. AU - Tsai, Ryan Yao Nien. AU - Hu, Fung Rong. AU - Kao, Winston W Y. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. N2 - Background: To examine the corneal epithelial phenotype in an altered basement membrane. Methodology/Principal Findings: Corneas from 9 patients with symptoms of continuous unstable corneal curvature (CUCC) were harvested by penetrating keratoplasty and subjected to histology examination and immunohistochemical staining with transactivating and N-terminally truncated pP63 transcript (DNp63), cytokeratin 3 (Krt3), ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2), connexin 43 (CX43), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38MAPK), activating protein 2 (TFAP2), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk1/2) monoclonal antibodies. Positive immunostaining with ABCG2, p38MAPK, and TFAP2 monoclonal antibodies was observed in the basal epithelial ...
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By far it is the most common type of corneal dystrophy. It has got many alternative names like epithelial basement membrane dystrophy, Cogans dystrophy and anterior basement membrane dystrophy. The name it has got is due to its slit lamp like appearance. Common symptoms include eye pain, blurred vision excessive tearing and light sensitivity. The abnormal growth of epithelial basement membrane causes this disease. The abnormal growth in turn causes the epithelial erosions and there remains a small gap between the outer-most layer and the cornea. Diagnosis includes eye and vision test. Anterior corneal punctures and corneal scraping are some methods for treatment.. ...
In this work we analyzed data obtained from case-history of 36 patients operated in Hospital for tumors, Zagreb in period 2006 till 2007 year. Ductal breast cancer in situ (DCIS) were diagnosed in 24 patients while in 12 patients diagnosis was ductal micro invasive breast cancer. Aim of thesis was to define expression of polyclonal and monoclonal anti-laminin antibodies on basement membrane of ducts in breast cancer using immunohistochemical method. We investigated whether loss of laminin in basement membrane can be a predictive marker for micro invasiveness. We also investigated association between prognostic factors as age of patients, tumor differentiation stage, steroid hormone receptors and HER2 status with anti-laminin expression and micro invasion appearance. Average age of patients was 56.5 years. The results showed that polyclonal anti-laminin is an important predictive factor of micro invasion appearance in DCIS (p=0,00026) comparing to monoclonal anti-laminin (p=0,23765) (p,0,05 ). ...
Page 424 The Epithelial Basal Cells Adhere to kaufen Underlying Basement Membrane clobetasлl clobetasol propionate kaufen Adhesive Junctions called Hemidesmosomes The corneal basal cells maintain the tight association of the epithelium with the basement membrane through spe- cialized adhesion junctions called hemidesmosomes. When so used, adverse cobetasol are seen in 20в50 of treatments.
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Alveolar basement membrane: molecular properties of the noncollagenous domain (hexamer) of collagen IV and its reactivity with Goodpasture autoantibodies.. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Flecks consisting of brilliant reflective blue dots and streaks were a prominent biomicroscopical feature in three patients with Cogans microcystic corneal dystrophy. Two patients required epithelial debridement. We used the material obtained to investigate their histology and ultrastructure. A subepithelial accumulation of basement membrane-like material composed of ultrastructurally fine granules was deposited in alternating layers of compaction and rarefaction. The layers lie mostly parallel to the anterior corneal surface, but in some places they are folded. Such foldings are possibly the sites of multilaminar reflection and constructive interference, giving rise to the blue iridescence. ...
Tissue engineered scaffolds were constructed to mimic the native extracellular matrix (ECM) and promote cell migration of keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Electrospinning technology was used to fabricate these nano-scale matrices that consist of varying compositions and fiber diameters. The purpose of this study was to examine how average fiber diameter and scaffold composition regulate cell migration. Odyssey infrared scanning evaluated this on a macroscopic level, whereas confocal microscopy focused on a more microscopic approach. The expression of proteases released into the culture media was also examined. The results from this study suggest that fiber diameter increases as a function of electrospinning starting concentration. Altering the composition by adding a basement membrane-like material, Matrigel, does not statistically affect the average fiber diameter. Fibroblast migration is greater on collagen scaffolds than gelatin scaffolds based on surface area measurements. Confocal images
The fibrosis in IPF has been linked to cigarette smoking, environmental factors (e.g. occupational exposure to gases, smoke, chemicals or dust.), and other medical complications including gastro intestinal reflex disease (GERD) or to genetic predisposition (Familial IPF).. IPF is the result of an aberrant wound healing process including, involving abnormal & excessive deposition of Collagen (Fibrosis) in the pulmonary interstitium with minimal associated inflamation.. It is seen that the initial or repetitive injury in IPF appears to lung cells, called alveolar epithelial cells (AECs Pneumocytes), which line the majority of alveolar surface.. When type I AECs are damaged or last, it is through basement membranes.. In normal repair, the hyperplastic type II AECs die & remaining cells spread & undergo a differentiation process to become type I AECs.. Under pathologic conditions & in the presence of transforming growth factor beta (TGFB), fibroblasts accumulate in these areas of damage & ...
Cytologic Findings: The smears were cellular and revealed cohesive sheets of tumor cells, some forming papillary groupings with tumor cells surrounding capillaries. In addition, a necrotic background with tumor diathesis was appreciated (Figure2, nodified Giemsa stain). The tumor cells were round to polygonal in shape with increased nuclear to cytoplasmic ratios, moderately pleomorphic nuclei and a moderate amount of basophilic cytoplasm (Figure 3, modified Giemsa stain). Intranuclear and intracytoplasmic vacuoles were seen. An Ultra-Fast Papanicolaou (UFP) stain revealed enlarged nuclei with multiple prominent nucleoli (Figure 4). A helpful cytologic feature was the presence of abundant metachromatic basement membrane-like material in the background (Figure 5, arrow, modified Giemsa stain).. Diagnosis: NONSEMINOMATOUS GERM CELL TUMOR-YOLK SAC TUMOR Histologic Findings: A cell block preparation of the aspiration biopsy revealed predominantly microcystic areas (Figure 6, hematoxylin and eosin ...
About 85% of Alport Syndrome (AS) cases have the classical X-linked pattern of inheritance similar to the family described by Dr. Alport. However, about 15% of cases follow a different genetic pattern. Basement membranes are actually a meshwork of many types of collagens and the genes for some of these other collagens are not located on the X-chromosome.. Patients with Autosomal Recessive Alport Syndrome (ARAS) have inherited a pair of abnormal collagen genes, one from each parent. In some families, the syndrome is caused by two mutant copies of a collagen gene termed Col 4A3; in other families, the Col 4A4 genes are defective. We now know that both of these collagen genes are located on chromosome #2, rather than on the X-chromosome. Consequently, both males and females are fully affected. Both these genes are important for integrity of the basement membrane; if either one is eliminated, there is progressive deterioration of renal function, deafness and changes in the eye, just as in ...
Goodpastures syndrome is a pulmonary-renal syndrome, which is a group of acute illnesses involving the kidneys and lungs. Goodpasture syndrome includes all of the following conditions:. Glomerulonephritis - inflammation of the glomeruli, which are tiny clusters of looping blood vessels in the kidneys that help filter wastes and extra water from the blood.. The presence of anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibodies; the GBM is part of the glomeruli and is composed of collagen and other proteins.. Bleeding in the lungs. ...
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Most of our basements are in contact or in direct proximity to cold soil. This is the reason why it highly prone to excessive moisture due to its surrounding water and piping systems. Taking this into account, it is therefore necessary to include insulating basement wall, floor, and ceilings in your basement design plan. This is will not only help keep your floor warm upstairs, it will save you from the trouble of unnecessary and troublesome air conditioning repairs.. Here are some of the important tips in insulating basement wall foundation:. 1. Use fiberglass or specialty plastic products such as closed-cell foam. The advantage in using these type of materials is that its light weight and strong. Its also cost effective and versatile. But before using it, take note of the different types also. There are those that are flammable. The best recommendation is to cover it with drywall to prevent flames to spread fast. The best insulating basement wall materials of these types should also be ...
Goodpastures disease is a fulminant rapidly progressive disease characterized by autoantibodies to the alpha-3 chain of type IV collagen (Goodpastures antigen). It can ..
Marian Blanca Ramírez from the CSIC in Spain has been studying the effects of LRRK2, a protein associated with Parkinsons disease, on cell motility. A Travelling Fellowship from Journal of Cell Science allowed her to spend time in Prof Maddy Parsons lab at Kings College London, learning new cell migration assays and analysing fibroblasts cultured from individuals with Parkinsons. Read more on her story here. Where could your research take you? The deadline to apply for the current round of Travelling Fellowships is 23rd Feburary 2018. Apply now!. ...
The most common form of Alport syndrome shows an X-linked dominant inheritance pattern and is caused by mutations in the COL4A5 gene located in the Xq22 region that encodes for the alpha5 chain of type IV collagen. The glomerular basement membrane consists of alpha1, alpha2, alpha3, alpha4 and alpha5 chains, whereas no alpha6 chains are present. Within the glomerular basement membranes, the alpha3, alpha4, and alpha5 form a network of collagen. Abnormalities, even in one of the chains, can alter this network formation. However, there will be persistence of the alpha1 and alpha2 chains. As a result, diagnosis of Alport is possible by immunohistochemistry when the mutation in the collagen IV gene results in truncation or alteration of the protein to a degree that it is no longer detectable by antibodies directed against the protein. Antibodies against alpha2 can be used diagnostically to confirm tissue integrity when alpha5 chain staining is negative. The alpha5 chain abnormality responsible for ...
Again, context is key- Heres another example, with a history of a 28 year old male. The biopsy shows no significant findings by light microscopy, a negative immunofluorescence, and glomerular basement membrane abnormalities with scalloping and early lamination on electron microscopy. These results could be concerning for type IV collagen abnormalities and trigger a workup for Alport syndrome (Kashtan et al, 2018). However, on review of clinical information it emerges that the patient had presented with membranous glomerulopathy at age 25, was treated, and has low level proteinuria thereafter. The glomerular basement membrane abnormalities could be interpreted as remodeling changes from resorbed immune deposits. The context assists the diagnosis. In this case, there is likely less of an impact on patient care, but there may be increased health care costs due to unnecessary testing. Clinical clues trigger additional studies- Clinical findings may also trigger us to dig deeper to look for ...
Thank you for visiting How Much It Cost to Waterproof A Basement Fresh Paraseal Membrane Application Water Proofing Basement Pics If you found any images copyrighted to yours, please contact us and we will remove it. We dont intend to display any copyright protected images. We hope you can find what you need here. We always effort to show a picture with HD resolution or at least with perfect images. How Much It Cost to Waterproof A Basement Fresh Paraseal Membrane Application Water Proofing Basement Pics can be beneficial inspiration for those who seek an image according specific categories; you can find it in this site. Finally all pictures we have been displayed in this site will inspire you all ...
Age-related ultrastructural changes of the basement membrane in the mouse blood-brain barrier has been published in the Journal of Cellular and Molecular
Age-related ultrastructural changes of the basement membrane in the mouse blood-brain barrier has been published in the Journal of Cellular and Molecular
Electron microscopic findings of the skin biopsy of a boy with spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia tarda showed several novel features. The basement membrane of the epidermis showed focal irregular thickening and reduplication. The collagen fibres showed foci of fibrous long spacing collagen and marked variation in fibre diameter. Taken together these abnormalities have not been reported in any other condition.. ...
Basement membrane[edit]. Main article: Basement membrane. The epidermis and dermis are separated by a thin sheet of fibers ... called the basement membrane, and is made through the action of both tissues. The basement membrane controls the traffic of the ... Iozzo, RV (2005). "Basement membrane proteoglycans: From cellar to ceiling". Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology. 6 (8): 646- ... The dermis is tightly connected to the epidermis through a basement membrane and is structurally divided into two areas: a ...
This particular collagen IV subunit, however, is only found in a subset of basement membranes. Like the other members of the ... Hahn E, Wick G, Pencev D, Timpl R (1980). "Distribution of basement membrane proteins in normal and fibrotic human liver: ... This gene encodes one of the six subunits of type IV collagen, the major structural component of basement membranes. ... Gunwar S, Saus J, Noelken ME, Hudson BG (1990). "Glomerular basement membrane. Identification of a fourth chain, alpha 4, of ...
The basal lamina and lamina reticularis together make up the basement membrane. Anchoring fibrils are essential to the ... "Skin Basement Membrane". The Doctor's Doctor. April 10, 2006.. ...
The basement membrane is intact. Up to 66% of fibroadenomas harbor mutations in the exon (exon 2) of the mediator complex ...
Pöschl E, Pollner R, Kühn K (1988). "The genes for the alpha 1(IV) and alpha 2(IV) chains of human basement membrane collagen ... This gene encodes one of the six subunits of type IV collagen, the major structural component of basement membranes. The C- ... Brazel D, Pollner R, Oberbäumer I, Kühn K (1988). "Human basement membrane collagen (type IV). The amino acid sequence of the ... Griffin CA, Emanuel BS, Hansen JR, Cavenee WK, Myers JC (Feb 1987). "Human collagen genes encoding basement membrane alpha 1 ( ...
... epithelial basement membrane; 121820; TGFBI Corneal dystrophy, Fuchs endothelial, 1; 136800; COL8A2 Corneal dystrophy, Fuchs ...
The tonofilaments play a role in the attachment of the basal layer to the basement membrane via desmosomes. The intermediate ... All cells touch the basement membrane.[citation needed] Because of its importance in acting as an osmotic barrier between the ... These tonofibrils converge at hemidesmosomes to attach the cells at the basement membrane. The transitional epithelium cells ... This impermeability is due to a highly keratinized cellular membrane synthesized in the Golgi apparatus. The membrane is made ...
The basement membrane is frequently thickened. Elongated, fat crypts and little to no serration. Therefore, they may not be ...
... s secrete and maintain the basement membrane. There are numerous coated vesicles and coated pits along the basolateral ...
Cultrex Basement Membrane Extract (BME) is the trade name for a extracellular protein mixture secreted by Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm ... These components are found in the basement membrane extracellular matrix that forms an interface between stromal tissue and ... The extracellular matrix proteins that compose the basement membrane extract are needed to maintain stem cells in an ... Benton, Gabriel; Kleinman, Hynda K.; George, Jay; Arnaoutova, Irina (2011-04-15). "Multiple uses of basement membrane-like ...
Examples of basement membranes include: Basilar membrane Bruch's membrane Descemet's membrane Glomerular basement membrane The ... The basement membrane is visible under light microscopy. Electron microscopy shows that the basement membrane consists of three ... It is often incorrectly referred to as the basement membrane, though it does constitute a portion of the basement membrane. The ... Alveolar-capillary barrier Basolateral membrane Collagen Glomerular basement membrane Lamina propria Reticular lamina Histology ...
Basement membrane and muscularis mucosae are intact. Adenomas of the colon, also called adenomatous polyps, are quite prevalent ...
Chan F, Inoue S (1994). "Lamina lucida of basement membrane: an artefact". Microsc Res Tech. 28 (1): 48-59. doi:10.1002/jemt. ... The lamina lucida is a component of the basement membrane which is found between the epithelium and underlying connective ... lamina densa of the basement membrane. Similarly, electron-lucent and electron-dense zones can be seen between enamel of teeth ... It is a roughly 40 nanometre wide electron-lucent zone between the plasma membrane of the basal cells and the (electron-dense) ...
The glomerular basement membrane: not gone, just forgotten. J. Clin. Invest. 116:2090-2093. Zhang YW, Luo WJ, Wang H, Lin P, ... While at Yale, Farquhar's research focused on secretory granule membranes that merge with cell membranes during exocytosis. She ... MIR16, a putative membrane glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase, interacts with RGS16. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 97:3999-4004. ... Her research focuses on control of intracellular membrane traffic and the molecular pathogenesis of auto immune kidney diseases ...
ISBN 978-0-323-53265-5. DeVrieze BW, Hurley JA (2019). "Goodpasture Syndrome (Anti-glomerular Basement Membrane Antibody ...
... macro-plaques or mini-basement membranes in human term fetal membranes?". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of ... Basement membrane assembly is a cooperative process in which laminins polymerise through their N-terminal domain (LN or domain ... They are a major component of the basal lamina (one of the layers of the basement membrane), a protein network foundation for ... The A chain has a unique globular domain and homology with the basement membrane proteoglycan and the laminin B chains". The ...
The mitotic activity that occurs in the neonatal period is necessary for the migration of gonocytes to the basement membrane of ... The differentiation of gonocytes to SSC only occur once the cells have established close contact with the basement membrane in ... These complexes consist of various proteins that bind to integrins found on the basement membrane of the seminiferous cords and ... Gonocytes migrate to the basement membrane to proliferate. Gonocytes that do not migrate undergo apoptosis and are cleared from ...
The protein encoded by this gene may be an anchoring filament that is a component of basement membranes. It may contribute to ... 1996). "97-kDa linear IgA bullous dermatosis (LAD) antigen localizes to the lamina lucida of the epidermal basement membrane". ... "Entrez Gene: LAD1 ladinin 1". Uitto J, Pulkkinen L (1997). "Molecular complexity of the cutaneous basement membrane zone". Mol ... a novel basement membrane zone component". Genomics. 39 (3): 323-30. doi:10.1006/geno.1996.4507. PMID 9119369. " ...
Macro-Plaques or Mini-Basement Membranes in Human Term Fetal Membranes?". Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. 342 (1300): 121-136. ... Both nidogen-1 and nidogen-2 are essential components of the basement membrane alongside other components such as type IV ... Nidogen-1 is a member of the nidogen family of basement membrane glycoproteins. The protein interacts with several other ... Yurchenco PD, Schittny JC (1990). "Molecular architecture of basement membranes". FASEB J. 4 (6): 1577-90. doi:10.1096/fasebj. ...
1987). "Human collagen genes encoding basement membrane alpha 1 (IV) and alpha 2 (IV) chains map to the distal long arm of ... Hahn E, Wick G, Pencev D, Timpl R (1980). "Distribution of basement membrane proteins in normal and fibrotic human liver: ... Type IV collagen, the major structural component of basement membranes, is a multimeric protein composed of 3 alpha subunits. ... This gene encodes alpha 3. In Goodpasture's syndrome, autoantibodies bind to the collagen molecules in the basement membranes ...
Ehrig K, Leivo I, Argraves WS, Ruoslahti E, Engvall E (Jun 1990). "Merosin, a tissue-specific basement membrane protein, is a ... Laminin, an extracellular matrix protein, is a major component of the basement membrane. It is thought to mediate the ... 1999). "Characterization and Expression of the Laminin γ3 Chain: A Novel, Non-Basement Membrane-associated, Laminin Chain". J. ... "Macromolecular organization of basement membranes". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 8 (5): 618-24. doi:10.1016/S0955-0674(96)80102-5. ...
Laminins are basement membrane components thought to mediate the attachment, migration and organization of cells into tissues ... Timpl R (1997). "Macromolecular organization of basement membranes". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 8 (5): 618-24. doi:10.1016/S0955- ...
Yurchenco, P. D., & Schittny, J. C. (1990). Molecular architecture of basement membranes. The FASEB Journal, 4(6), 1577-1590. ... Collectively, these plasma membrane changes have been termed the plasma membrane transformation. Changes in the lateral ... The Journal of membrane biology, 206(1), 17-28. Tsang, L. L., Chan, L. N., Wang, X. F., So, S. C., Yuen, J. P., Fiscus, R. R ... The lateral plasma membrane domain is responsible for cell adhesion and is believed to control the paracellular transport of ...
That non-cellular membrane is called the basement membrane. The layer of epithelium on the basement membrane produces the ... is the product of the single layer of columnar or cuboidal epithelial cells attached to the basement membrane. The cuticle ... That layer is attached to the external or distal surface of the deepest layer, the non-cellular internal membrane of the ...
November 2007). "Syndecan-1 deficiency aggravates anti-glomerular basement membrane nephritis". Kidney International. 72 (10): ... The extracellular domain can be cleaved (shed) from the cell surface at a juxtamembrane site, converting the membrane-bound ... The syndecan-1 protein functions as an integral membrane protein and participates in cell proliferation, cell migration and ... an integral membrane proteoglycan and a matrix receptor, to chromosome 2". Somatic Cell and Molecular Genetics. 16 (5): 501-5. ...
Metastasis is an example of a disease state in which a breach of the basement membrane barrier occurs. Cancer begins as cells ... These cells are separated from stromal cells by a basement membrane that prevents these cell populations from mixing. A mixture ... Liotta, LA (1984). "Tumor invasion and metastases: Role of the basement membrane. Warner-Lambert Parke-Davis Award lecture". ...
Seano G, Primo L (2015). "Podosomes and invadopodia: tools to breach vascular basement membrane". Cell Cycle. 14 (9): 1370-4. ... In the early 1980s, researchers noticed protrusions coming from the ventral membrane of cells that had been transformed by the ... Initiation of invadopodia involves the formation of buds in the plasma membrane and is initiated by growth factors like ... Invadopodia are actin-rich protrusions of the plasma membrane that are associated with degradation of the extracellular matrix ...
This gene encodes one of the six subunits of type IV collagen, the major structural component of basement membranes. Mutations ... Hahn E, Wick G, Pencev D, Timpl R (1980). "Distribution of basement membrane proteins in normal and fibrotic human liver: ... Sundarraj N, Willson J (1982). "Monoclonal antibody to human basement membrane collagen type IV". Immunology. 47 (1): 133-40. ...
The basement membrane acts as a selectively permeable membrane that determines which substances will be able to enter the ... They attach the epithelial cell to the basement membrane. Gap junctions connect the cytoplasm of two cells and are made up of ... 2005). Basement membranes: cell and molecular biology. Gulf Professional Publishing. ISBN 978-0-12-153356-4. Nagpal R, Patel A ... Simple epithelium is a single layer of cells with every cell in direct contact with the basement membrane that separates it ...
Definition of basement membrane. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions ... basement membrane. Definition: an amorphous extracellular layer closely applied to the basal surface of epithelium and also ... Synonym(s): basement lamina, basilemma. Further information. Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information ... of which type IV is unique to the lamina densa of this membrane), and several glycoproteins. ...
... Matrix Biol. 1995 Feb;14(6):439-45. doi: 10.1016/0945-053x(95)90001-2. ... in the macromolecular network of collagen IV, which provides the scaffold for basement membranes, the molecules are attached ...
The Gene Ontology (GO) project is a collaborative effort to address the need for consistent descriptions of gene products across databases. You can use this browser to view terms, definitions, and term relationships in a hierarchical display. Links to summary annotated gene data at MGI are provided in Term Detail reports.
The basement membrane extracellular matrix contacts epithelial, endothelial, fat and smooth muscle cells. Because this ... Matrigel: basement membrane matrix with biological activity Semin Cancer Biol. 2005 Oct;15(5):378-86. doi: 10.1016/j.semcancer. ... The basement membrane extracellular matrix contacts epithelial, endothelial, fat and smooth muscle cells. Because this ... An extract of a tumor was found to contain all of the components present in basement and to be very biologically active. This ...
... patients were used for the ultrastructural investigation of capillary cellular components and basement membranes (BM). ... Basement membranes Basement membrane thickening Synovial capillaries Rheumatoid arthritis Endothelial cells This is a preview ... Ashworth CT, Erdmann RR, Arnold NJ (1960) Age changes in the renal basement membrane in rats. Am J Pathol 36: 165-179Google ... Hughes KT, Davies M, Sanders E, Coles GA (1979): A kinetic study of the degradation of human glomerular basement membrane by ...
Yurchenco, P.D. and Schittny, J.C., 1990, Molecular architecture of basement membranes. FASEB J. 4:1577.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Streuli C.H. (1995) Basement Membrane in the Control of Mammary Gland Function. In: Wilde C.J., Peaker M., Knight C.H. (eds) ... I show that milk production is dependent on a specific component of the basement membrane and is under coordinate regulation by ... Influence of a reconstituted basement membrane and its components on casein gene expression and secretion in mouse mammary ...
The basement membrane is also essential for angiogenesis (development of new blood vessels). Basement membrane proteins have ... The most notable examples of basement membranes is the glomerular basement membrane of the kidney, by the fusion of the basal ... the basement membrane is organized as follows: Epithelial/mesothelial/endothelial tissue (outer) Basement membrane Basal lamina ... Diseases involving basement membranes at multiple locations include: Genetic defects in the collagen fibers of the basement ...
MORPHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF BASEMENT-MEMBRANES AND THEIR RECEPTORS IN BENIGN AND MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS (REVIEW) ... We review the current knowledge on alterations of the major basement membrane (BM) components and their cellular integrin ...
... a protein linked to heparan sulfate basement membrane nephrin Renal corpuscle (glomerulus) showing glomular basement membrane. ... The glomular basement membrane contains three layers: The glomerular membrane consists of mesangial cells, modified pericytes ... The glomerular basement membrane is a fusion of the endothelial cell and podocyte basal laminas, and is the main site of ... The glomerular basement membrane of the kidney is the basal lamina layer of the glomerulus. The glomerular endothelial cells, ...
Antiglomerular basement membrane antibody mediated disease in the British Isles 1980-4. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1986; 292 :301 ... Antiglomerular basement membrane antibody mediated disease in the British Isles 1980-4.. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1986; 292 doi: ... Antiglomerular basement membrane antibody mediated disease in the British Isles 1980-4. ... Clinical and pathological data on 71 patients from throughout the British Isles who developed antiglomerular basement membrane ...
Associations of Basement Membrane with chemical compounds. *We examined the expression of laminin, a basement membrane ... Anatomical context of Basement Membrane. *The presence of LETS protein and GP-2 in basement membranes suggests that there are ... Gene context of Basement Membrane. *The ultrastructure of basement membranes and the deposition of laminin within them, however ... Psychiatry related information on Basement Membrane. *Small blood vessels were characterised by duplicated basement membranes ...
The membranes are mostly made for commercial use, right? Id like to find an affordable one to try at home. ... Im looking to protect my newly done basement in San Jose with floor sealant before moving into the home office Ive completed ... Can I expand the size of my homes basement?. Is it possible to remove one of my basement walls so that I can expand the size ... How can I waterproof my porch to prevent rain water from flooding the basement?. My homes unheated basement gets wet from ...
Transforming growth factor-beta production in anti-glomerular basement membrane disease in the rabbit.. Coimbra T1, Wiggins R, ... A model of antiglomerular basement (anti-GBM) disease in the rabbit was induced on day 0 by the injection of anti-GBM antibody ...
The basement membranes of bovine cornea are found to contain an angiogenic endothelial cell mitogen, basic fibroblast growth ... A heparin-binding angiogenic protein--basic fibroblast growth factor--is stored within basement membrane.. Folkman J1, ... These findings indicate that basement membranes of the cornea may serve as physiologic storage depots for an angiogenic ... The sequestration of angiogenic endothelial mitogens in the basement membrane may be a general mechanism for regulating their ...
The degree of basement membrane thickening in diabetic patients is, however, unrelated to age, weight, severity, or duration of ... Second, capillary basement membrane hypertrophy has been found in approximately 50% of patients who are genetically prediabetic ... With this procedure it has been possible to obtain an objective evaluation of the significance of capillary basement membrane ... First, that the average capillary basement membrane width of diabetic patients is over twice that of normal subjects; moreover ...
Finally, the discovery of thickened capillary basement membranes in prediabetic patients suggests that basement membrane ... The degree of basement membrane thickening in diabetic patients is, however, unrelated to age, weight, severity, or duration of ... Studies of muscle capillary basement membranes in normal subjects, diabetic, and prediabetic patients. M. D. Siperstein, R. H. ... Second, capillary basement membrane hypertrophy has been found in approximately 50% of patients who are genetically prediabetic ...
Basement membrane sliding followed by targeted adhesion represents a new mechanism for creating precise basement membrane ... Both concentrate within vulval cells at the basement membrane gap boundary and halt expansion of the shifting basement membrane ... basement membrane sliding, underlies basement membrane gap enlargement during uterine-vulval attachment in Caenorhabditis ... in the basement membrane and have been previously accounted for by the degradation or reduced synthesis of basement membrane ...
Delta Membrane Systems was recently specified to help transform the basement of a Victorian detached residence in Altrincham, ... Delta Membrane Systems was recently specified to help transform the basement of a Victorian detached residence in Altrincham, ... The installation of Deltas products enabled the basement to be transformed from a damp unused basement into a dry habitable ... Delta Membrane Systems,. Delta House,. Merlin Way,. North Weald,. Epping,. Essex,. CM16 6HR. United Kingdom ...
Glomerular basement membrane disorders. On this page we describe the normal glomerular basement membrane (GBM) and then some of ... The GBM is thickened with normal basement membrane material in two common kidney disease, membranous nephropathy and diabetic ... Some specialized subtypes of these molecules are only found in specialised basement membranes such as the GBM. These are ...
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OBSERVATIONS ON THE BASEMENT MEMBRANES IN RAT KIDNEY. V. L. van Breemen, James F. Reger, W. Gregory Cooper ... Basement membranes in the kidney are made up of a homogeneous matrix. In argyria, silver passes from the blood in the ionic ... It appears that silver ions combine with either or both the sulfhydryl or disulfide groups in the basement membranes and also ... Histochemical staining for sulfhydryls and disulfides demonstrates the presence of these groups in basement membranes. ...
Muscle capillary basement-membrane thickness and long-term glycemia in Type I diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 311: 694-698, ... Pericapillary basement membrane thickening in human skeletal muscles Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... Capillary basement membrane thickness: a comparison of two morphometric methods for its estimation. Microvasc Res 10: 76-82, ... Muscle capillary basement membrane width and its relationship to diabetes mellitus in monozygotic twins. Diabetes 32: 549-556, ...
Muscle Capillary Basement Membrane Width and Its Relationship to Diabetes Mellitus in Monozygotic Twins. ... Muscle Capillary Basement Membrane Width and Its Relationship to Diabetes Mellitus in Monozygotic Twins ... Muscle Capillary Basement Membrane Width and Its Relationship to Diabetes Mellitus in Monozygotic Twins ... Muscle Capillary Basement Membrane Width and Its Relationship to Diabetes Mellitus in Monozygotic Twins ...
Thus, in addition to maintaining tissue-specific cytodifferentiation and function, a basement membrane promotes the expression ... of functional alveoli-like structures by primary mammary epithelial cells cultured on a reconstituted basement membrane matrix ... Thus, in addition to maintaining tissue-specific cytodifferentiation and function, a basement membrane promotes the expression ... Functional differentiation and alveolar morphogenesis of primary mammary cultures on reconstituted basement membrane ...
... especially the tubular basement membrane, for IgG and albumin. Dual-labeled studies using FITC anti-basement-membrane (BM) and ... Immunopathology of Renal Extracellular Membranes in Diabetes Mellitus: Specificity of Tubular Basement-membrane ... Immunopathology of Renal Extracellular Membranes in Diabetes Mellitus: Specificity of Tubular Basement-membrane ... Immunopathology of Renal Extracellular Membranes in Diabetes Mellitus: Specificity of Tubular Basement-membrane ...
... aeruginosa has a high affinity for human basement membrane collagen fibrils in vitro 9. Adherence to basement membrane is, ... Pseudomonas aeruginosa adherence to human basement membrane collagen in vitro. K.W. Tsang, D.K. Shum, S. Chan, P. Ng, J. Mak, R ... Pseudomonas aeruginosa adherence to human basement membrane collagen in vitro. K.W. Tsang, D.K. Shum, S. Chan, P. Ng, J. Mak, R ... Pseudomonas aeruginosa adherence to human basement membrane collagen in vitro. K.W. Tsang, D.K. Shum, S. Chan, P. Ng, J. Mak, R ...
What is basement membrane of epithelium? Meaning of basement membrane of epithelium medical term. What does basement membrane ... Looking for online definition of basement membrane of epithelium in the Medical Dictionary? basement membrane of epithelium ... redirected from basement membrane of epithelium). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia.. Related to basement ... Basement membrane of epithelium , definition of basement membrane of epithelium by Medical dictionary https://medical- ...
... is essential in protecting your basement from flooding or water ingress. ... Basement drainage protection - a Sump and Pump System (package pump) ... Basement Drainage & Protection Basement Protection. One of the main design considerations when designing a Cavity Drain System ... The number of pump systems required for each project will (in part) depend on the overall basement size, perimeter and also the ...
... buy latest basement wall waterproofing membrane direct from 27 basement wall waterproofing membrane Factories. ... basement wall waterproofing membrane. All basement wall waterproofing membrane wholesalers & basement wall waterproofing ... Quality Basement Waterproofing Membrane For Basement Waterproof project The basement is one of the places that require the most ... seepage Basement Waterproofing Membrane Waterproof is important for the basement. DWD waterproofing membrane protects the ...
Cultrex® 3D Basement Membrane Matrix, Reduced Growth Factor. Cultrex® 3D Culture Matrix® RGF BME is a Basement Membrane Matrix ... Cultrex® Basement Membrane Extract (BME) is a soluble form of basement membrane purified from Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm (EHS) tumor ... C to form a reconstituted basement membrane. Basement membranes are continuous sheets of specialized extracellular matrix that ... 3D Culture: Basement Membrane Extract promotes differentiation of a human epithelial cell line derived from mammary gland (MCF- ...
  • Wick G, Honigsmann H, Timpl R (1979) Immunofluorescence demonstration of type IV collagen and a noncollagenous glycoprotein in thickened vascular basal membranes in protoporphyria. (springer.com)
  • Capillaries become inflamed as a result of damage to the basement membrane by antibodies to alpha 3 NC1 domain of type IV collagen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alport syndrome is a X-linked hereditary nephritis caused by mutations in type IV collagen, leading to a split lamina densa of the glomerular basement membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • In early and moderate stages of disease there was polyantigenic expansion of all the intrinsic components of mesangium, glomerular basement membrane (GBM), and tubular basement membrane (TBM) assessed by polyclonal antisera to collagen types IV and V, laminin, and by monoclonal antibodies to type IV collagen and fibronectin and to four other intrinsic components of normal renal extracellular matrices (MBM10, 11, 12, and 15). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Using landmark photobleaching and optical highlighting of laminin and type IV collagen, we find that a new mechanism, basement membrane sliding, underlies basement membrane gap enlargement during uterine-vulval attachment in Caenorhabditis elegans . (nature.com)
  • Not all genetic mutations have been characterized, but in some families with thin basement membrane disease there is a mutation in the type IV collagen α 4 gene. (merckmanuals.com)
  • The authors have developed an in vitro model to study P. aeruginosa adherence tohuman basement membrane type-IV collagen by using scanning electron microscopy. (ersjournals.com)
  • The enzyme is secreted in a latent form which can be activated to catalyze the cleavage of the basement membrane macromolecule type IV collagen. (osti.gov)
  • Upon binding, laminin interacts with dystroglycan, mobilizes utrophin, and assembles a `nascent' basement membrane, independent of integrin, that is completed by incorporation of type IV collagen. (biologists.org)
  • To know the change of type IV collagen, as major component of the basement membranes, in the encephalopathy model, we performed Western blot and immunohistochemistry. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Antiglomerular basement membrane disease (anti-GBM disease, also known as Goodpasture's disease) is a rare autoimmune disease caused by pathogenic autoantibodies directed against the noncollagenous, C-terminal domain of the α‎-3 chain of type IV collagen (α‎3(IV)NC1). (oxfordmedicine.com)
  • We conclude that laminin forms a network independent of that of type IV collagen in basement membranes. (rupress.org)
  • Embryonal carcinoma and the basement membrane glycoproteins laminin and entactin. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The mouse embryonal carcinoma lines PCC4-F and F9 have played important roles in the isolation and characterization of the two ubiquitous basement membrane proteins, laminin and entactin. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The differentiated cells synthesize basement membrane components and provided the probes for the cDNA cloning of entactin and the three chains of laminin. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Integrins α3β1 and α6β4 are abundant receptors on keratinocytes for laminin-5, a major component of the basement membrane between the epidermis and the dermis in skin. (rupress.org)
  • Laminin-5 and other matrix proteins remained associated with both the dermal and epidermal sides of blisters, suggesting rupture of the basement membrane itself, rather than detachment of the epidermis from the basement membrane as occurs in some blistering disorders such as epidermolysis bullosa. (rupress.org)
  • These experiments, along with Laminin-111 immunoreactivity, revealed disruptions in basement membrane integrity. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The most common form of congenital muscular dystrophy is caused by mutations in the gene encoding one chain of laminin-211, a basement membrane component. (sciencemag.org)
  • studied whether linker proteins could be used to fortify the basement membrane, using laminin-411 as a scaffold. (sciencemag.org)
  • Transgenic mice expressing two linker proteins-a shorter form of agrin and the fusion protein αLNNd, composed of parts of laminin-α1 and nidogen-1-had stable basement membranes, improved muscle function, and prolonged life spans. (sciencemag.org)
  • It is caused by mutations in LAMA2 , the gene encoding laminin-α2, the long arm of the heterotrimeric (α2, β1, and γ1) basement membrane protein laminin-211 (Lm-211). (sciencemag.org)
  • We establish that despite compensatory expression of laminin-α4, giving rise to Lm-411 (α4, β1, and γ1), muscle basement membrane is labile in LAMA2 MD biopsies. (sciencemag.org)
  • Here we show that this process is accompanied by three stages of remodeling of the basement membrane protein laminin, from regression to expansion and channel formation. (caltech.edu)
  • Erica J. Hutchins, Marianne E. Bronner, Draxin alters laminin organization during basement membrane remodeling to control cranial neural crest EMT, Developmental Biology, Volume 446, Issue 2, 2019, Pages 151-158, ISSN 0012-1606, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ydbio.2018.12.021. (caltech.edu)
  • Ultrastructural analysis revealed that laminin treatment induced the formation of a linear electron-dense extracellular matrix ( lamina densa ) separated from plasma membrane by a narrow lucent zone ( lamina lucida ). (biologists.org)
  • Finally, cell competency to bind laminin and form a basement membrane was passage-dependent. (biologists.org)
  • We postulate that laminin induces the assembly of a basement membrane on competent cell surfaces probably mediated by anchorage through LG 4-5. (biologists.org)
  • In this study we have investigated the contributions of dystroglycan,β 1-integrin, and corresponding interacting long arm globular LG modules of laminin to Schwann cell basement membrane formation in vitro. (biologists.org)
  • Later passaged Schwann cells became competent for basement membrane assembly, a process initiated by exogenous laminin. (biologists.org)
  • We found that dystroglycan and utrophin underwent a dynamic rearrangement with exogenous laminin into a dense (reticular) structure with classical ultrastructural features of a basement membrane. (biologists.org)
  • According to the classical hypothesis of basement membrane organization, nidogens connect the laminin and collagen IV networks, so stabilizing the basement membrane, and integrate other proteins. (asm.org)
  • Laminin was extracted from both control and nidogen knockout mice and the biochemical aspects of basement membrane deposition which seemed to be altered in the absence of nidogen was studied. (uni-koeln.de)
  • Defective formation of the inner limiting membrane in laminin beta2- and gamma3-null mice produces retinal dysplasia. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We now find that this polymer is required for the structural integrity of the collagen-free basement membrane of cultured embryonal carcinoma cells (ECC) and for the supramolecular organization and anchorage of laminin in the collagen-rich basement membrane of the Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm tumor (EHS). (rupress.org)
  • First, low temperature and EDTA induced the dissolution of ECC basement membranes and released approximately 80% of total laminin from the EHS basement membrane. (rupress.org)
  • Second, laminin elastase fragments (E4 and E1') possessing the short arm globules of the B1, B2, and A chains selectively acted as competitive ligands that dissolved ECC basement membranes and displaced laminin from the EHS basement membrane into solution. (rupress.org)
  • The supramolecular architecture of freeze-etched and platinum/carbon replicated reconstituted laminin gel polymer, ECC, and collagenase-treated EHS basement membranes were compared and found to be similar, further supporting the biochemical data. (rupress.org)
  • Furthermore, in the EHS basement membrane four-fifths of laminin is anchored strictly through noncovalent bonds between laminin monomers while one-fifth is anchored through a combination of these bonds and laminin-collagen bridges. (rupress.org)
  • In skin and ovary, fibrillar immunoreactivity for the laminin alpha4, beta1, beta2 and gamma1 chains, type IV and XVIII collagens and nidogen-1 was found in the basement membrane region of the lymphatic endothelium, whereas also heterogeneous reactivity for the laminin alpha5 chain was detected in the digestive tract. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The basement membrane extracellular matrix contacts epithelial, endothelial, fat and smooth muscle cells. (nih.gov)
  • In recent years, the basement membrane (BM)--a specialized form of extracellular matrix (ECM)--has been recognized as an important regulator of cell behaviour, rather than just a structural feature of tissues. (nih.gov)
  • The basement membrane is a thin, pliable sheet-like type of extracellular matrix, that provides cell and tissue support and acts as a platform for complex signalling. (wikipedia.org)
  • This extract provides a natural extracellular matrix hydrogel that polymerizes at 37°C to form a reconstituted basement membrane. (trevigen.com)
  • Basement membranes are continuous sheets of specialized extracellular matrix that form an interface between endothelial, epithelial, muscle, or neuronal cells and their adjacent stroma and that play an essential role in tissue organization by influencing cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, and differentiation. (trevigen.com)
  • Examination of extracellular matrix by immunofluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy revealed regions of disorganized basement membrane in α3β1-deficient skin. (rupress.org)
  • To withstand the mechanical force generated during contraction, muscle fibers are surrounded by basement membrane (BM), a highly structured assembly of extracellular matrix proteins. (sciencemag.org)
  • Osterby, 1983).In these studies, the most commonly reported alterations relate to increased accumulations of peripheral glomerular basement membrane (GBM) and a n expansion of the extracellular matrix surrounding mesangial cells (mesangial matrix, MM) in centrolobular regions (see Osterby, 1983, for review). (docme.ru)
  • Metastatic growth necessitates both degradation of a specialized form of extracellular matrix (ECM) known as the basement membrane (BM) and the invasion of surrounding tissues thereafter. (wku.edu)
  • Introduction: The basement membrane is a highly specialised extracellular matrix found underlying all endothelia and epithelia and surrounding many mesenchymal cells, in particular myocytes, peripheral nerves and adipocytes. (uni-koeln.de)
  • Basement membrane proteins have been found to accelerate differentiation of endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • We will demonstrate that the basement membrane is required for embryoid body differentiation by rescuing columnar ectoderm differentiation and cavitation in the mutant by externally added basement membrane proteins. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This treatment induced transcription of Eomesodermin, an early developmental gene, suggesting that purified basement membrane proteins can activate inherent developmental programs. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • These smart scaffolds tether proteins forming basement membranes that connect cells, provide strength to tissues, and transmit information that influences how the cells behave. (elifesciences.org)
  • Regions of disrupted inner limiting membrane were also associated with molecular abnormalities of Müller glia that included diminished presence of the integral membrane proteins Kir4.1 (an inwardly rectifying potassium channel) and aquaporin-4. (molvis.org)
  • Type IV and XVIII collagen/endostatin are structural proteins in vascular basement membrane (VBM), a specialised ECM structure. (diva-portal.org)
  • Nidogens are highly conserved proteins in vertebrates and invertebrates and are found in almost all basement membranes. (asm.org)
  • In vitro studies have indicated that the 150 kDa glycoprotein nidogen-1 may play a central role in the supramolecular organization of basement membranes through binding to a range of extracellular proteins. (uni-koeln.de)
  • Deposition of nidogens and other basement membrane proteins in the young and aging mouse retina. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We studied the distribution of basement membrane proteins in lymphatic vessels of normal human skin, digestive tract, ovary and, as an example of tumours with abundant lymphatics, ovarian carcinomas. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Basement membrane proteins were localized by immunohistochemistry with monoclonal antibodies, whereas lymphatic capillaries were detected with antibodies to the lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1, LYVE-1. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The localization of basement membrane proteins adjacent to lymphatic endothelia suggests a role for these proteins in lymphatic vessels. (ox.ac.uk)
  • ND 58202 ABSTRACT Previous transmission electron microscopic studies have demonstrated glomerular basement membrane (GBM) thickening and mesangial matrix (MM) expansion in chronic stages of diabetes. (docme.ru)
  • Antiglomerular basement membrane antibody mediated disease in the British Isles 1980-4. (bmj.com)
  • Clinical and pathological data on 71 patients from throughout the British Isles who developed antiglomerular basement membrane antibody mediated nephritis in the period 1980-4 were studied. (bmj.com)
  • Savage C O , Pusey C D , Bowman C , Rees A J , Lockwood C M . Antiglomerular basement membrane antibody mediated disease in the British Isles 1980-4. (bmj.com)
  • Dixon and coworkers (4, 5) showed that in one particular type of glomerulonephritis, originally described by Ernest Goodpasture in 1919 (6) and subsequently referred to as Goodpastures syndrome (7), the disease was caused by an antibody response against antigens present in the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). (bio-medicine.org)
  • We report here a classical case of Goodpasture's disease presenting as a pulmonary-renal syndrome with serum anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibody negativity and positive perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (p-ANCA). (omicsonline.org)
  • Glomerular Basement Membrane Antibody is present in one fourth of patients with Goodpasture's syndrome. (specialtylabs.com)
  • Kurz, Angela (2016): MST1 kinase is critical for neutrophil transmigration through the vascular basement membrane. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • This results in a defect in neutrophil vascular basement membrane penetration and thus strongly impaired extravasation. (haematologica.org)
  • Diseases involving basement membranes at multiple locations include: Genetic defects in the collagen fibers of the basement membrane, including Alport syndrome and Knobloch syndrome Autoimmune diseases targeting basement membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dryll A, Lansaman J, Cazalis P, Peltier AP, DeSeze S (1977) Light and electron microscopy study of capillaries in normal and inflammatory human synovial membrane. (springer.com)
  • The most notable examples of basement membranes is the glomerular basement membrane of the kidney, by the fusion of the basal lamina from the endothelium of glomerular capillaries and the podocyte basal lamina, and between lung alveoli and pulmonary capillaries, by the fusion of the basal lamina of the lung alveoli and of the basal lamina of the lung capillaries, which is where oxygen and CO 2 diffusion happens (gas exchange). (wikipedia.org)
  • The glomerular endothelial cells, the glomeular basement membrane, and the filtration slits between the podocytes perform the filtration function of the glomerulus, separating the blood in the capillaries from the filtrate that forms in Bowman's capsule. (wikipedia.org)
  • The glomular basement membrane contains three layers: The glomerular membrane consists of mesangial cells, modified pericytes that in other parts of the body separate capillaries from each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basement membrane (BM) surrounding capillaries in skeletal muscles varies physiologically in thickness according to age, physical fitness, and anatomical site in humans. (physiology.org)
  • Conclusion Vacuoles in the basement membrane are a normal feature of adult human retinal capillaries and do not indicate disease. (bmj.com)
  • Membrane between the pronephric podocytes and the pronephric glomerular capillaries. (zfin.org)
  • It is a trilaminar structure composed of the fused basement membranes of the glomerular capillaries and basement membrane of the podocytes. (zfin.org)
  • the inner limiting membrane (ILM), Bruch's membrane (BrM), and the BM surrounding the capillaries. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In normal lymphatic capillaries, the presence of primarily alpha4 chain laminins may therefore compromise the formation of endothelial basement membrane, as these truncated laminins lack one of the three arms required for efficient network assembly. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Synovial tissues from seven rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients were used for the ultrastructural investigation of capillary cellular components and basement membranes (BM). (springer.com)
  • The basement membrane of the living chick embryo epiblast has been labelled with ultrastructural markers in order to study the movement and turnover of this structure during gastrulation. (biologists.org)
  • Publications] Takahashi Sawada: 'Ultrastructural verification of anchoring role of lamina fibroreticularis of dental basement membrane in odontogenesis'Journal of Electron Microscopy. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Nidogen-2-deficient mice show no overt abnormalities and are fertile, and basement membranes appear normal by ultrastructural analysis and immunostaining. (asm.org)
  • Ultrastructural analysis of kidney and skeletal muscle from mice lacking nidogen-1 failed to reveal differences in morphology and basement membrane structure. (uni-koeln.de)
  • Age-related ultrastructural changes of the basement membrane in the mouse blood-brain barrier " has been published in the Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine . (neurodegenerationresearch.eu)
  • The ultrastructural characteristics of alveolar (ABM) and capillary (CBM) basement membranes in the adult rat lung have been defined using tannic acid fixation, ruthenium red staining, or incubation in guanidine HCl. (rupress.org)
  • Epidermal basement membrane zone components: ultrastructural distribution and molecular interactions. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Ultrastructural changes of the basement membrane zone in benign lesions of the vocal folds. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In this paper, we report that tissue-specific vectorial secretion coincides with the formation of functional alveoli-like structures by primary mammary epithelial cells cultured on a reconstituted basement membrane matrix (derived from Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm murine tumour). (unt.edu)
  • Cultrex® Basement Membrane Extract (BME) is a soluble form of basement membrane purified from Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm (EHS) tumor. (trevigen.com)
  • Geltrex hESC-Qualified, Ready-To-Use, Reduced Growth Factor Basement Membrane Matrix is a soluble form of basement membrane extracted from murine Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm (EHS) tumors. (thermofisher.com)
  • Kilo C, Vogler N, Williamson JR (1972) Muscle capillary basement membrane changes related to aging and to diabetes mellitus. (springer.com)
  • The results of such studies of muscle capillary basement membrane thickness in 50 normal, 51 diabetic, and 30 prediabetic patients have demonstrated the following. (jci.org)
  • Quadriceps (Q) and gastrocnemius (G) muscle capillary basement membrane width (CBMW) were measured in 18 pairs of monozygotic (MZ) twins. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This Immunoscan Anti-GBM was developed to detect the presence of antibodies against the glomerular basement membrane. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Since there are several other conditions presenting with similar symptoms, developed independently from anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibodies, this test can help to differentiate between these autoimmune renal disorders. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Recent studies have shown that all Goodpasture patients have antibodies directed against M2 and some patients have additional antibodies against other basement membrane constituents and/or other collagen IV domains. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Guinea pigs injected with heterologous renal basement membranes (RBM) and complete Freund's adjuvant (FA) develop a new renal cortical tubular disease and form antibodies that react with renal tubular basement membrane (TBM) (1-3). (jimmunol.org)
  • The IgG subclass distribution of autoantibodies to glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM antibodies) was investigated and compared to the distribution of liver-kidney microsomal (LKM) autoantibodies in chronic active hepatitis, to antimitochondrial autoantibodies (AMA) in primary biliary cirrhosis, and to the subclass distribution of total serum IgG within a healthy population. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Circulating basement membrane zone antibodies are found in lichen sclerosus of the vulva. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Evidence that anti-basement membrane zone antibodies in bullous eruption of systemic lupus erythematosus recognize epidermolysis bullosa acquisita autoantigen. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Antibodies against conjunctival basement membrane zone. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Thin basement membrane disease (TBMD, also known as benign familial hematuria and thin basement membrane nephropathy or TBMN) is, along with IgA nephropathy, the most common cause of asymptomatic hematuria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most patients with thin basement membrane disease are incidentally discovered to have microscopic hematuria on urinalysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thin basement membrane disease must be differentiated from the other two common causes of glomerular hematuria, IgA nephropathy and Alport syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • A kidney biopsy is the only way to diagnose thin basement membrane disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most patients with thin basement membrane disease need only reassurance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overall, most people with thin basement membrane disease have an excellent prognosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thin basement membrane disease may co-exist with other kidney diseases, which may in part be explained by the high prevalence of thin basement membrane disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thin basement membrane disease is diffuse thinning of the glomerular basement membrane from a width of 300 to 400 nm in normal subjects to 150 to 225 nm. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Thin basement membrane disease is a type of nephritic syndrome . (merckmanuals.com)
  • Early on, thin basement membrane disease may be difficult to differentiate from hereditary nephritis because of histologic similarities. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Thin basement membrane syndrome in adults. (bmj.com)
  • Eight (two men, six women) cases of adult thin basement membrane syndrome were studied to clarify the clinicopathological characteristics of the disease. (bmj.com)
  • However, recent work has revealed roles for basement membrane remodelling in global tissue morphogenesis. (caltech.edu)
  • Signalling between the basement membrane and these tissues is critical for cell polarization and the ensuing morphogenesis. (caltech.edu)
  • Thus, in addition to maintaining tissue-specific cytodifferentiation and function, a basement membrane promotes the expression of tissue-like morphogenesis. (unt.edu)
  • Firstly, to what extent does the basement membrane move medially with the epiblast during morphogenesis? (biologists.org)
  • Fibroblast growth factor signaling and basement membrane assembly are connected during epithelial morphogenesis of the embryoid body. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Among these, the submandibular salivary gland (SMG) has been chosen to review the expression patterns and roles of the epithelial basement membrane and its components, in particular the laminins, during SMG morphogenesis. (ovid.com)
  • A technique is described for the measurement of muscle capillary basement membranes by electron microscopic examination of needle biopsies of the quadriceps muscle. (jci.org)
  • These results indicate that thickening of the muscle capillary basement membranes is a characteristic of genetic diabetes mellitus, and further, that the hyperglycemia of diabetes is probably not the factor responsible for the microangiopathy characteristic of diabetes mellitus. (jci.org)
  • Finally, the discovery of thickened capillary basement membranes in prediabetic patients suggests that basement membrane hypertrophy is a relatively early lesion of the diabetic syndrome and provides further support for the conclusion that this vascular defect is independent of carbohydrate derangements of diabetes mellitus. (jci.org)
  • Results Vacuoles were found in capillary basement membranes at the vessel-glia interface in all samples, from both the normal and disease cases. (bmj.com)
  • The basement membrane sits between epithelial tissues including mesothelium and endothelium, and the underlying connective tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basement membrane acts as a mechanical barrier, preventing malignant cells from invading the deeper tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Collagen IV, as molecular glue, enabled the formation of a fundamental architectural unit of basement membrane and cells that allowed multicellular tissues and organs to evolve. (elifesciences.org)
  • Tissues employ basement membranes (BM) as specialized sheet-like extracellular matrices which are instrumental for tissue compartmentalization and maintenance of cell phenotypes, but they also may act as a source of morphogenetic stimuli for development and tissue remodeling ( 8 , 10 , 52 ). (asm.org)
  • The basement membrane, in turn, undergirds cell layers and reinforces the structural integrity of nearly all animal tissues. (vumc.org)
  • In au earlier publication upon reticulated tissues in general the statement was made that the whole framework of the kidney, including the basement membranes, from the capsule to the pelvis, is formed by one mass of anastomosing fibrils, and that the sharp borders of the fibrils mark the outlines of the tubules to form the basement membranes which in ordinary sections i! (edu.au)
  • Basement membrane protein distribution in LYVE-1-immunoreactive lymphatic vessels of normal tissues and ovarian carcinomas. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Collagen types XII and XIV belong to a subgroup of non-fibrillar-collagens termed (fibril-associated collagens with interrupted triple-helices) (FACIT) and may be involved in basement membrane regulation providing specific molecular bridges between fibrils and other matrix components. (springer.com)
  • it is composed of three successive layers (lamina lucida, lamina densa, and lamina fibroreticularis), a matrix of collagen (of which type IV is unique to the lamina densa of this membrane), and several glycoproteins. (drugs.com)
  • As seen with the electron microscope, the basement membrane is composed of two layers, the basal lamina and the reticular lamina. (wikipedia.org)
  • The glomerular basement membrane of the kidney is the basal lamina layer of the glomerulus. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1. In the developing tooth of monkey and rat a characteristic fibrillar layer associated with the basement membrane of inner enamel epithelium was found to be a highly specialized lamina fibroreticularis of the basement membrane which is unusually rich in basotubules, 10nm wide microfibril-like structures. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Basot … More ubules, thought to be basement membrane-incorporated microfibrils, in the lamina fibroreticularis in this study are likely to function as an anchoring device to immobilize dental papilla cells along the basement membrane. (nii.ac.jp)
  • 2. A basement membrane-like structure associated with the maturation stage ameloblasts of the monkey was composed of a lamina lucida and lamina densa. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In the present study we have isolated and characterized chemically and immunologically the antigenic components of basement membranes from the glomerulus, alveolus, and lens capsule. (annals.org)
  • Conclusion In this brief review we have attempted to describe the known components of basement membranes in relation to the morphology and function of these matrices. (bioscirep.org)
  • This indicates that constituents of the basement membrane are transported medially with the epiblast cells and are sloughed off as the latter pass through the primitive streak. (biologists.org)
  • This movement of basement membrane constituents is counter to the direction of migration of the underlying mesoderm cells. (biologists.org)
  • However, little is known about the distribution of basement membrane constituents in lymphatic vessels. (ox.ac.uk)
  • ANCA-mediated crescentic glomerulonephritis with linear deposition of IgG along the glomerular basement membrane. (cornell.edu)
  • The classic renal histopathology described in Alagille syndrome is mesangiolipidosis, with lipid deposits predominately confined to the mesangium and minimal deposition within the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). (elsevier.com)
  • Alport syndrome is a disorder of the glomerular basement membrane resulting in glomerular hematuria. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • Kashtan, CE 1998, ' Alport syndrome and thin glomerular basement membrane disease ', Journal of the American Society of Nephrology , vol. 9, no. 9, pp. 1736-1750. (umn.edu)
  • MaxGel™ ECM is a human-based alternative to EHS murine sarcoma cell basement membrane extracts (BME) and is produced from the in vitro co-culture of human fibroblasts and human epithelial cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Nephrotic syndrome is a change in the structure of the glomerular filtration mechanism usually in the glomerular basement membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Autoantibody to a renal glomerular basement membrane antigen. (dictionary.com)
  • Non-collagenous domain basement membrane collagen type IV is autoantigen (target antigen) of autoantibodies in the autoimmune disease Goodpasture's syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • This antigen is fully described in the review article Biology of Disease Goodpasture Syndrome: Molecular Architecture and Function of Basement Membrane Antigen (1). (bio-medicine.org)
  • A novel subepidermal blistering disease with autoantibodies to a 200-kDa antigen of the basement membrane zone. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Basement membranes in the kidney are made up of a homogeneous matrix. (rupress.org)
  • In argyria, silver passes from the blood in the ionic form and diffuses into the kidney basement membranes in which it is precipitated. (rupress.org)
  • Organogenesis of the kidney glomerulus: focus on the glomerular basement membrane. (nextbio.com)
  • Neuropilin1 regulates glomerular function and basement membrane composition through pericytes in the mouse kidney. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The observations given above have been confirmed by Disse,' who states, however, that the basement membranes of the kidney which have been isolated by means of strong acids always appear to be homogeneous. (edu.au)
  • Von Ebner is of the opinion that the fibrillar appearance of the basement membranes of the kidney is due to fine folds in it owing to the method of preparation. (edu.au)
  • There is some truth in this statement, for in sections of the kidney which have been macerated and slightly tinged the stained fibres shine through the homogeneous membrane, often making it ajipcar folded. (edu.au)
  • Agrin, a protein linked to heparan sulfate basement membrane nephrin Renal corpuscle (glomerulus) showing glomular basement membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3D Culture Matrix® RGF BME is a standardized basement membrane matrix for use in 3D cultures, and a special process has been employed to reduce growth factors and provide a protein concentration of approximately 15 mg/ml. (trevigen.com)
  • Alterations in synaptic plasticity and network function in the nidogen-1 null animals are indicative of a novel role for a nidogen-1, a protein found only in basement membranes. (uni-koeln.de)
  • Although basement membranes appear to contain essentially similar protein and carbohydrate moieties, the proportions and organization of these may differ and, in the opinion of the authors, the key to an understanding of basement membranes lies in the recognition of this heterogeneity. (bioscirep.org)
  • Anti-angiogenic effect of the basement membrane protein nidogen-1 in a mouse model of choroidal neovascularization. (semanticscholar.org)
  • By using transmission electron microscopy, the present group has recently shown that P. aeruginosa has a high affinity for human basement membrane collagen fibrils in vitro 9 . (ersjournals.com)
  • Previously unreported abnormalities of dermal basement membranes and collagen fibrils in a patient with X-linked spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia tarda. (bmj.com)
  • This he explains by as.suming that pancreatic digestion resolves the membrane into fibrils by dissolving the cement substance between them. (edu.au)
  • The strong acids, however, dissolve the interstitial connective tissue but do not affect those fibrils which are stuck together by the cement substance to form basement membranes. (edu.au)
  • He further states that the fibrils of connective tissue between the tubules stain with acid fuchsin while the membranes do not. (edu.au)
  • Integrins are a key component of hemidesmosomes which serve to anchor the epithelium to the underlying basement membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The epithelium is a thin layer of surface skin covering the cornea, and the basement membrane anchors the epithelium to the cornea. (patientslikeme.com)
  • With ABMD, the basement membrane anchors does not properly anchor the epithelium to the cornea. (patientslikeme.com)
  • P. aeruginosa could evade mucociliary clearance by adhering to the basement membrane at areas denuded of intact respiratory epithelium. (ersjournals.com)
  • 1 - 4 Prior studies have suggested that the structural integrity of the regenerated epithelial basement membrane plays a critical role in determining whether a particular cornea develops haze by limiting the access of epithelium-derived growth factors, such as transforming growth factor beta, to the stroma that modulate myofibroblast development from precursor cells and block myofibroblast apoptosis. (arvojournals.org)
  • Does anyone know any reference showing the HPV signal can be observed other than basement membrane and epithelium? (protocol-online.org)
  • The basement membrane separates the epithelium from the surrounding mesenchyme and plays an essential role in the development of various epithelial-mesenchymal organs. (ovid.com)
  • Therefore, the authors have recently established a model to study bacterial adherence to basement membrane collagen and applied this to evaluate the effects of various chemicals on the adherence of P. aeruginosa to collagen in vitro 10 . (ersjournals.com)
  • MaxGel™ ECM is an in vitro derived human basement membrane extracts (BME) that provides a rich three-dimensional environment to promote cellular proliferation for multiple cell types. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The basement membrane from the lens capsule of the eye is a collagen IV-rich matrix that can easily be extracted and manipulated in vitro. (elsevier.com)
  • The basement membrane is also essential for angiogenesis (development of new blood vessels). (wikipedia.org)
  • The endothelial cells of blood vessels assemble basement membranes that play a role in vessel formation, maintenance and function, and in the migration of inflammatory cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • All basement wall waterproofing membrane wholesalers & basement wall waterproofing membrane manufacturers come from members. (futurenowinc.com)
  • We doesn't provide basement wall waterproofing membrane products or service, please contact them directly and verify their companies info carefully. (futurenowinc.com)
  • seepage Basement Waterproofing Membrane Waterproof is important for the basement . (futurenowinc.com)
  • DWD waterproofing membrane protects the basement against damage from water and moisture through the application of membranes . (futurenowinc.com)
  • Choose DWD waterproofing membrane to protect. (futurenowinc.com)
  • Our findings support a novel role for α3β1 in establishment and/or maintenance of basement membrane integrity, while α6β4 is required for stable adhesion of the epidermis to the basement membrane through hemidesmosomes. (rupress.org)
  • Disruptions in inner limiting membrane integrity developmentally precede the cellular abnormalities. (molvis.org)
  • The weakened ILM results in the disruption of the membrane and subsequent reduction in retinal integrity. (molvis.org)
  • Also, it suggests that nidogen-1 is important for maintaining the structural integrity of basement membranes. (uni-koeln.de)
  • We classified these foamy structures as 'spumiform basement membrane degenerations' (sbmd) in which we could distinguish 4 stages depending on the size and intramembranous localization, ranging from split bm (stage I), intermediate stages II and III, to extensive stage IV, affecting almost the complete capillary bm outline. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Nidogen-2 is typically enriched in endothelial basement membranes, whereas nidogen-1 shows broader localization in most basement membranes. (asm.org)
  • Kanwar YS, Farquhar MG (1979) Presence of heparan sulfate in the glomerular basement membrane. (springer.com)
  • The epithelial basement membrane was irregular and discontinuous and lacking typical morphology in all corneas at 1 month after −9D PRK compared to corneas at 1 month in the −4.5D PRK group. (arvojournals.org)
  • Frei, J. V. The fine structure of the basement membrane in epidermal tumours. (nature.com)
  • and is a major component of the epidermal basement membrane. (rupress.org)
  • An extract of a tumor was found to contain all of the components present in basement and to be very biologically active. (nih.gov)
  • 3D Culture: Basement Membrane Extract promotes differentiation of a human epithelial cell line derived from mammary gland (MCF-10A) or human prostate (PC-3) into acinar structures. (trevigen.com)
  • Cell Invasion Assay Kit utilizes a Boyden chamber coated with Basement Membrane Extract (BME), where the cells invade the matrix and then migrate through a semipermeable membrane in the Boyden chamber in response to stimulatory or inhibitory compounds. (creativebiomart.net)
  • The basement membrane serves as a mechanical scaffold and promotes molecular signalling to adjacent cells. (biologists.org)
  • Molecular pathology of the cutaneous basement membrane zone. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Molecular transport through the basement membrane is important for a number of physiological functions, and dysregulation of basement membrane architecture can have serious pathological consequences. (elsevier.com)
  • The structure-function relationships that govern molecular transport in basement membranes are not fully understood. (elsevier.com)
  • As such, it provides a convenient model for studying the functional relationships that govern molecular transport in basement membranes. (elsevier.com)
  • When keratinocytes of the basal layer withdraw from the cell cycle and become committed to terminal differentiation, they detach from the basement membrane and migrate into the suprabasal layers. (rupress.org)
  • Our results provide a new paradigm for the role of fibroblast growth factor signaling in basement membrane formation and epithelial differentiation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • As of 2017 many other roles for basement membrane have been found that include blood filtration and muscle homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Renal biopsy findings observed by light and immunofluorescence microscopy did not indicate any important abnormalities, but extensive diffuse thinning of the glomerular basement membrane, ranging from 153 to 213 nm, was a constant finding by electron microscopy. (bmj.com)
  • Abnormalities of the basement membranes in brain small vessels are considered to cause the break-down of blood-brain barrier (BBB) and intracerebral hemorrhage. (nii.ac.jp)
  • To assess the ultrastructure of the epithelial basement membrane using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in rabbit corneas with and without subepithelial stroma opacity (haze). (arvojournals.org)
  • On immunodiffusion two precipitin lines of identity form when antiserum to either reduced and alkylated glomerulus or lens-capsule basement membranes is reacted with both antigens. (annals.org)
  • Ashworth CT, Erdmann RR, Arnold NJ (1960) Age changes in the renal basement membrane in rats. (springer.com)
  • The immunohistopathology of the intrinsic basement membrane-associated antigens were examined in diabetic nephropathy. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • I show that milk production is dependent on a specific component of the basement membrane and is under coordinate regulation by the matrix as well as hormones. (springer.com)
  • In histopathology, a thickened basement membrane indicates mainly systemic lupus erythematosus or dermatomyositis, but also possibly lichen sclerosus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, we show that Nodal signalling directs the generation and dynamic distribution of perforations in the basement membrane by regulating the expression of matrix metalloproteinases. (caltech.edu)
  • Cultrex® 3D Culture Matrix® RGF BME is a Basement Membrane Matrix that has been developed, produced and qualified specifically for use in 3D culture studies. (trevigen.com)
  • Taken together, this study suggests that the gut basement membrane is a dynamic matrix and proposes a DSS-based experimental model for damage and repair of the basement membrane. (biologists.org)
  • Geltrex hESC-Qualified Ready-To-Use basement membrane matrix is optimized for stem cell culture applications using StemPro hESC SFM. (thermofisher.com)
  • For stem cell culture using the StemFlex Medium or Essential 8 Media System, use Geltrex LDEV-Free, hESC-Qualified, Reduced Growth Factor Basement Membrane Matrix. (thermofisher.com)
  • However, the fibrillar β1-integrin dependent matrix is unlikely to be precursor to basement membrane. (biologists.org)
  • Within this process, neutrophils migrate across the endothelium and subsequently need to penetrate the perivascular basement membrane. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Mst1 knock out neutrophils (Mst1-/-) persist between the endothelium and the basement membrane of inflamed murine cremaster muscle venules and fail to migrate into inflamed tissue. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Adult human corneal epithelial basement membrane (EBM) and Descemet's membrane (DM) components exhibit heterogeneous distribution. (arvojournals.org)
  • Structural features of alveolar wall basement membrane in the adult rat lung. (rupress.org)
  • Mesangial IgA deposits indicate pathogenesis of anti-glomerular basement membrane disease. (nih.gov)
  • Diabetic glomerulosclerosis is a thickening of the basement membrane, which can become up to 4-5 times thicker than normal. (wikipedia.org)
  • With this procedure it has been possible to obtain an objective evaluation of the significance of capillary basement membrane hypertrophy in diabetic microangiopathy. (jci.org)
  • moreover, such basement membrane thickening is a very constant finding among overtly diabetic patients, in that approximately 98% of individual diabetic subjects demonstrated this lesion. (jci.org)
  • Third, in contrast to the results obtained in genetically diabetic patients, subjects with severe hyperglycemia due to causes other than genetic diabetes only infrequently show basement membrane hypertrophy. (jci.org)
  • SEM studies of acellular glomerular basement membrane in human diabetic glomerulopathy. (docme.ru)
  • THE ANATOMICAL RECORD 216:349-358 (1986) SEM Studies of Acellular Glomerular Basement Membrane in Human Diabetic Glomerulopathy EDWARD C.CARLSON AND KRISTENE K. SURERUS Department of Anatomy, University of North Dakota School of Medicine, Grand Forks. (docme.ru)
  • Laminins are important for Schwann cell basement membrane assembly and axonal function. (biologists.org)
  • Figure 2: The role of the uterine cells during basement membrane gap formation. (nature.com)
  • Martim Dias Gomes highlights a preprint showing that membrane-cortex detachment is essential for the formation of both pressure- and actin-based protrusions. (biologists.org)
  • We conclude that increased production of the basement membrane-degrading MMP-2 and MMP-9 spanned the period of neointima formation and SMC proliferation in experimental vein grafts. (ahajournals.org)
  • Although their signaling mechanisms have been intensively studied, integrin roles in basement membrane formation are not well understood. (biologists.org)
  • Surprisingly, analysis of nidogen-1 gene knockout mice presented evidence that nidogen-1 is not essential for basement membrane formation and may be compensated for by nidogen-2. (asm.org)
  • Our results show that nidogen-2 is not essential for basement membrane formation or maintenance. (asm.org)
  • Peroxidasin catalyzes the formation of the sulfilimine crosslinks between collagen IV molecules, a major constituent of the basement membrane. (vumc.org)
  • Here we demonstrate the importance of spatiotemporally regulated basement membrane remodelling during early embryonic development. (caltech.edu)
  • We detected specific differences between the expression patterns of the two molecules, which may be related to their respective function within the basement membrane zones during human embryonic development. (springer.com)
  • The glomerular basement membrane is a fusion of the endothelial cell and podocyte basal laminas, and is the main site of restriction of water flow.Glomeular basement membrane is secreted and maintained by podocyte cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the epidermis, basal keratinocytes adhere to the basement membrane through integrins. (rupress.org)
  • in the macromolecular network of collagen IV, which provides the scaffold for basement membranes, the molecules are attached and cross-linked via their like end-regions and they interact laterally with their triple-helical domains in a not yet fully understood manner. (nih.gov)
  • The only abnormal finding in this disease is a thinning of the basement membrane of the glomeruli in the kidneys. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) disease is characterized by crescentic glomerulonephritis with immunoglobulin G (IgG) autoantibodies to the non-collagenous (NC1) domain of α3(IV) collagen presenting along the GBM. (nih.gov)
  • Goodpasture's syndrome is also known as anti-glomerular basement membrane disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Borkum M, Calligaro GL, Symons G (2014) A Case of Anti Glomerular Basement Membrane (GBM) Negative Goodpasture's Disease .J Pulm Respir Med 4:213. (omicsonline.org)
  • One particular aspect of airway remodeling, reticular basement membrane (RBM) thickening has been noted as a feature of asthmatic airways that could contribute to disease severity. (pacificu.edu)