Basement Membrane: A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.Laminin: Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.Glomerular Basement Membrane: The layer of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX that lies between the ENDOTHELIUM of the glomerular capillaries and the PODOCYTES of the inner or visceral layer of the BOWMAN CAPSULE. It is the product of these two cell types. It acts as a physical barrier and an ion-selective filter.Anti-Glomerular Basement Membrane Disease: An autoimmune disease of the KIDNEY and the LUNG. It is characterized by the presence of circulating autoantibodies targeting the epitopes in the non-collagenous domains of COLLAGEN TYPE IV in the basement membranes of kidney glomeruli (KIDNEY GLOMERULUS) and lung alveoli (PULMONARY ALVEOLI), and the subsequent destruction of these basement membranes. Clinical features include pulmonary alveolar hemorrhage and glomerulonephritis.Kidney Glomerulus: A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.Membranes: Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.Collagen Type IV: A non-fibrillar collagen found in the structure of BASEMENT MEMBRANE. Collagen type IV molecules assemble to form a sheet-like network which is involved in maintaining the structural integrity of basement membranes. The predominant form of the protein is comprised of two alpha1(IV) subunits and one alpha2(IV) subunit, however, at least six different alpha subunits can be incorporated into the heterotrimer.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans: Ubiquitous macromolecules associated with the cell surface and extracellular matrix of a wide range of cells of vertebrate and invertebrate tissues. They are essential cofactors in cell-matrix adhesion processes, in cell-cell recognition systems, and in receptor-growth factor interactions. (From Cancer Metastasis Rev 1996; 15(2): 177-86; Hepatology 1996; 24(3): 524-32)Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Nephritis, Hereditary: A group of inherited conditions characterized initially by HEMATURIA and slowly progressing to RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. The most common form is the Alport syndrome (hereditary nephritis with HEARING LOSS) which is caused by mutations in genes for TYPE IV COLLAGEN and defective GLOMERULAR BASEMENT MEMBRANE.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Glomerulonephritis: Inflammation of the renal glomeruli (KIDNEY GLOMERULUS) that can be classified by the type of glomerular injuries including antibody deposition, complement activation, cellular proliferation, and glomerulosclerosis. These structural and functional abnormalities usually lead to HEMATURIA; PROTEINURIA; HYPERTENSION; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Erythrocyte Membrane: The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.Membrane Fluidity: The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Heparitin Sulfate: A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Proteoglycans: Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.Capillaries: The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Fibronectins: Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Descemet Membrane: A layer of the cornea. It is the basal lamina of the CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM (from which it is secreted) separating it from the CORNEAL STROMA. It is a homogeneous structure composed of fine collagenous filaments, and slowly increases in thickness with age.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans: Proteoglycans consisting of proteins linked to one or more CHONDROITIN SULFATE-containing oligosaccharide chains.Proteinuria: The presence of proteins in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.Dystroglycans: Dystrophin-associated proteins that play role in the formation of a transmembrane link between laminin-2 and DYSTROPHIN. Both the alpha and the beta subtypes of dystroglycan originate via POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN PROCESSING of a single precursor protein.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Receptors, Laminin: Glycoprotein molecules on the surface of cells that react with or bind to laminin whose function allows the binding of epithelial cells to the basement membrane. The molecular weight of this high-affinity receptor is 67 kD.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Nephritis: Inflammation of any part of the KIDNEY.Kidney Tubules: Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.Collagen Type XVIII: A non-fibrillar collagen found in BASEMENT MEMBRANE. The C-terminal end of the alpha1 chain of collagen type XVIII contains the ENDOSTATIN peptide, which can be released by proteolytic cleavage.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Hemidesmosomes: An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate, similar in morphology to halves of DESMOSOMES. They are composed of specialized areas of the plasma membrane where INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS bind on the cytoplasmic face to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, via intracellular attachment proteins, while the extracellular domain of the integrins binds to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Microbial Collagenase: A metalloproteinase which degrades helical regions of native collagen to small fragments. Preferred cleavage is -Gly in the sequence -Pro-Xaa-Gly-Pro-. Six forms (or 2 classes) have been isolated from Clostridium histolyticum that are immunologically cross-reactive but possess different sequences and different specificities. Other variants have been isolated from Bacillus cereus, Empedobacter collagenolyticum, Pseudomonas marinoglutinosa, and species of Vibrio and Streptomyces. EC 3.4.24.3.Amnion: The innermost membranous sac that surrounds and protects the developing embryo which is bathed in the AMNIOTIC FLUID. Amnion cells are secretory EPITHELIAL CELLS and contribute to the amniotic fluid.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Glycosaminoglycans: Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mitochondrial Membranes: The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Podocytes: Highly differentiated epithelial cells of the visceral layer of BOWMAN CAPSULE of the KIDNEY. They are composed of a cell body with major CELL SURFACE EXTENSIONS and secondary fingerlike extensions called pedicels. They enwrap the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS capillaries with their cell surface extensions forming a filtration structure. The pedicels of neighboring podocytes interdigitate with each other leaving between them filtration slits that are bridged by an extracellular structure impermeable to large macromolecules called the slit diaphragm, and provide the last barrier to protein loss in the KIDNEY.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Metalloendopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which use a metal such as ZINC in the catalytic mechanism.Vitelline Membrane: The plasma membrane of the egg.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Pemphigoid, Bullous: A chronic and relatively benign subepidermal blistering disease usually of the elderly and without histopathologic acantholysis.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Integrin beta4: Also known as CD104 antigen, this protein is distinguished from other beta integrins by its relatively long cytoplasmic domain (approximately 1000 amino acids vs. approximately 50). Five alternatively spliced isoforms have been described.Endothelium: A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR), lymph vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, LYMPHATIC), and the serous cavities of the body.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Synaptic Membranes: Cell membranes associated with synapses. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are included along with their integral or tightly associated specializations for the release or reception of transmitters.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Non-Fibrillar Collagens: A family of structurally-related short-chain collagens that do not form large fibril bundles.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Skin Diseases, Vesiculobullous: Skin diseases characterized by local or general distributions of blisters. They are classified according to the site and mode of blister formation. Lesions can appear spontaneously or be precipitated by infection, trauma, or sunlight. Etiologies include immunologic and genetic factors. (From Scientific American Medicine, 1990)Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Bruch Membrane: The inner layer of CHOROID, also called the lamina basalis choroideae, located adjacent to the RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM; (RPE) of the EYE. It is a membrane composed of the basement membranes of the choriocapillaris ENDOTHELIUM and that of the RPE. The membrane stops at the OPTIC NERVE, as does the RPE.Integrin alpha3beta1: Cell surface receptor for LAMININ, epiligrin, FIBRONECTINS, entactin, and COLLAGEN. Integrin alpha3beta1 is the major integrin present in EPITHELIAL CELLS, where it plays a role in the assembly of BASEMENT MEMBRANE as well as in cell migration, and may regulate the functions of other integrins. Two alternatively spliced isoforms of the alpha subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA3), are differentially expressed in different cell types.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Epidermis: The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Hematuria: Presence of blood in the urine.Nephritis, Interstitial: Inflammation of the interstitial tissue of the kidney. This term is generally used for primary inflammation of KIDNEY TUBULES and/or surrounding interstitium. For primary inflammation of glomerular interstitium, see GLOMERULONEPHRITIS. Infiltration of the inflammatory cells into the interstitial compartment results in EDEMA, increased spaces between the tubules, and tubular renal dysfunction.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Keratinocytes: Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Matrix Metalloproteinase 9: An endopeptidase that is structurally similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 2. It degrades GELATIN types I and V; COLLAGEN TYPE IV; and COLLAGEN TYPE V.Epithelium, Corneal: Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.Glomerulonephritis, Membranous: A type of glomerulonephritis that is characterized by the accumulation of immune deposits (COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX) on the outer aspect of the GLOMERULAR BASEMENT MEMBRANE. It progresses from subepithelial dense deposits, to basement membrane reaction and eventual thickening of the basement membrane.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Mice, Inbred C57BLAntigens, CD29: Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Microvilli: Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Integrin alpha6: An integrin alpha subunit that primarily associates with INTEGRIN BETA1 or INTEGRIN BETA4 to form laminin-binding heterodimers. Integrin alpha6 has two alternatively spliced isoforms: integrin alpha6A and integrin alpha6B, which differ in their cytoplasmic domains and are regulated in a tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific manner.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Integrin alpha6beta4: This intrgrin is a key component of HEMIDESMOSOMES and is required for their formation and maintenance in epithelial cells. Integrin alpha6beta4 is also found on thymocytes, fibroblasts, and Schwann cells, where it functions as a laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) and is involved in wound healing, cell migration, and tumor invasiveness.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Lens, Crystalline: A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Collagenases: Enzymes that catalyze the degradation of collagen by acting on the peptide bonds.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Extraembryonic Membranes: The thin layers of tissue that surround the developing embryo. There are four extra-embryonic membranes commonly found in VERTEBRATES, such as REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. They are the YOLK SAC, the ALLANTOIS, the AMNION, and the CHORION. These membranes provide protection and means to transport nutrients and wastes.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Kidney Cortex: The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.Nephrosis: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY without inflammatory or neoplastic components. Nephrosis may be a primary disorder or secondary complication of other diseases. It is characterized by the NEPHROTIC SYNDROME indicating the presence of PROTEINURIA and HYPOALBUMINEMIA with accompanying EDEMA.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Blood Vessels: Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).Collagen Type VII: A non-fibrillar collagen involved in anchoring the epidermal BASEMENT MEMBRANE to underlying tissue. It is a homotrimer comprised of C-terminal and N-terminal globular domains connected by a central triple-helical region.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Anions: Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Organ Culture Techniques: A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Reticulin: A scleroprotein fibril consisting mostly of type III collagen. Reticulin fibrils are extremely thin, with a diameter of between 0.5 and 2 um. They are involved in maintaining the structural integrity in a variety of organs.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Integrin alpha6beta1: A cell surface receptor mediating cell adhesion to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and to other cells via binding to LAMININ. It is involved in cell migration, embryonic development, leukocyte activation and tumor cell invasiveness. Integrin alpha6beta1 is the major laminin receptor on PLATELETS; LEUKOCYTES; and many EPITHELIAL CELLS, and ligand binding may activate a number of signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA6) results in the formation of A and B isoforms of the heterodimer, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Freeze Fracturing: Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Glomerular Mesangium: The thin membranous structure supporting the adjoining glomerular capillaries. It is composed of GLOMERULAR MESANGIAL CELLS and their EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.Pericytes: Unique slender cells with multiple processes extending along the capillary vessel axis and encircling the vascular wall, also called mural cells. Pericytes are imbedded in the BASEMENT MEMBRANE shared with the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS of the vessel. Pericytes are important in maintaining vessel integrity, angiogenesis, and vascular remodeling.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Immune Complex Diseases: Group of diseases mediated by the deposition of large soluble complexes of antigen and antibody with resultant damage to tissue. Besides SERUM SICKNESS and the ARTHUS REACTION, evidence supports a pathogenic role for immune complexes in many other IMMUNE SYSTEM DISEASES including GLOMERULONEPHRITIS, systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC) and POLYARTERITIS NODOSA.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Pepsin A: Formed from pig pepsinogen by cleavage of one peptide bond. The enzyme is a single polypeptide chain and is inhibited by methyl 2-diaazoacetamidohexanoate. It cleaves peptides preferentially at the carbonyl linkages of phenylalanine or leucine and acts as the principal digestive enzyme of gastric juice.Agrin: A protein component of the synaptic basal lamina. It has been shown to induce clustering of acetylcholine receptors on the surface of muscle fibers and other synaptic molecules in both synapse regeneration and development.Epidermolysis Bullosa: Group of genetically determined disorders characterized by the blistering of skin and mucosae. There are four major forms: acquired, simple, junctional, and dystrophic. Each of the latter three has several varieties.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Retinal Vessels: The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.Connective Tissue: Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Cell Membrane Structures: Structures which are part of the CELL MEMBRANE or have cell membrane as a major part of their structure.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Corneal Diseases: Diseases of the cornea.Seminiferous Tubules: The convoluted tubules in the TESTIS where sperm are produced (SPERMATOGENESIS) and conveyed to the RETE TESTIS. Spermatogenic tubules are composed of developing germ cells and the supporting SERTOLI CELLS.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Nephrotic Syndrome: A condition characterized by severe PROTEINURIA, greater than 3.5 g/day in an average adult. The substantial loss of protein in the urine results in complications such as HYPOPROTEINEMIA; generalized EDEMA; HYPERTENSION; and HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. Diseases associated with nephrotic syndrome generally cause chronic kidney dysfunction.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Intercellular Junctions: Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)

Differential regulation of the human nidogen gene promoter region by a novel cell-type-specific silencer element. (1/3149)

Transfection analyses of the human nidogen promoter region in nidogen-producing fibroblasts from adult skin revealed multiple positive and negative cis-acting elements controlling nidogen gene expression. Characterization of the positive regulatory domains by gel mobility-shift assays and co-transfection studies in Drosophila SL2 cells unequivocally demonstrated that Sp1-like transcription factors are essential for a high expression of the human nidogen gene. Analysis of the negative regulatory domains identified a novel silencer element between nt -1333 and -1322, which is bound by a distinct nuclear factor, by using extracts from adult but not from embryonal fibroblasts. In embryonal fibroblasts, which express significantly higher amounts of nidogen mRNA as compared with adult fibroblasts, this inhibitory nidogen promoter region did not affect nidogen and SV40 promoter activities. The silencer element seems to be active only in nidogen-producing cells. Therefore this regulatory element might function in vivo to limit nidogen gene expression in response to external stimuli. However, none of the identified regulatory elements, including the silencer, contribute significantly to cell-specific expression of the human nidogen gene. Instead we provide evidence that gene expression in epidermal keratinocytes that are not producing nidogen is repressed by methylation-specific and chromatin-dependent mechanisms.  (+info)

Phenotypic and functional characterisation of myofibroblasts, macrophages, and lymphocytes migrating out of the human gastric lamina propria following the loss of epithelial cells. (2/3149)

BACKGROUND: The basement membrane of human colonic mucosa contains numerous discrete pores. We have recently shown that following loss of the surface epithelium, many cells migrate out of the colonic lamina propria via basement membrane pores. AIMS: To characterise cells migrating out via basement membrane pores of the human gastric lamina propria, following loss of the surface epithelium. METHODS: Fresh human gastric mucosal samples were completely denuded of epithelial cells and placed in culture. Tissue samples were studied by electron microscopy (EM) and cells by EM, FACS analysis, immunohistochemistry, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: EM showed numerous discrete pores (0. 65-8.29 microm in diameter) in the subepithelial basement membrane. During culture of mucosal samples denuded of epithelial cells, lymphocytes, macrophages, and myofibroblasts migrated out of the lamina propria via the basement membrane pores. The lymphocytes were predominantly CD45RO+ and CD69+ T cells. Macrophages were shown to express cyclooxygenase (COX) 1 and 2 enzymes. Myofibroblasts were established in culture and, despite prolonged culture and passage, retained their phenotype. They expressed mRNA and protein for COX 1 and 2 enzymes and their release of prostaglandin E2 was inhibited by selective COX 1 and 2 inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS: Lamina propria cells migrating out of cultured denuded gastric mucosal samples have been characterised phenotypically and functionally. Such cells would be suitable for studies of their interactions with epithelial cells and also with Helicobacter pylori and its products.  (+info)

Changes in basement membrane thickness in the human endometrium during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. (3/3149)

We have examined aspects of the fine structure of the basal laminae associated with the luminal and glandular epithelium and small blood vessels in the human endometrium. Four short studies are presented and reviewed. Study 1 examined biopsies from 20 fertile women taken on days after the luteinizing hormone surge (LH): LH +2, 4, 6, 8 and 10. The basal lamina (both lamina densa and lucida) increased in thickness over the period studied. Study 2 again studied the glandular epithelium and examined the effect of RU486 (a progesterone receptor blocker) administered on day LH +3 and biopsied on day LH +6. The basal laminae were found to be the same as LH +2 control group but thinner than LH +6 control. Study 3 documented increased thickness of the basal laminae between LH +6, 8 and 13 in the luminal epithelium. The within-group coefficient of variation was 16% and 27% for LH +6 and LH +13 groups but only 2 % for LH +8. Study 4 demonstrated an increase in basal lamina thickness associated with small blood vessels between LH +6 and LH +10 in normal fertile women. The basal lamina provides the interface between epithelial and mesenchymal environments; changes in its structure can alter the phenotypic expression of the epithelia. It is one of the maternal barriers that must be transgressed by the trophoblast during implantation. Together, these combined studies provide quantitative baseline structural information on the electron microscopical appearance of the basal lamina during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle.  (+info)

Receptor-mediated transcytosis of lactoferrin through the blood-brain barrier. (4/3149)

Lactoferrin (Lf) is an iron-binding protein involved in host defense against infection and severe inflammation; it accumulates in the brain during neurodegenerative disorders. Before determining Lf function in brain tissue, we investigated its origin and demonstrate here that it crosses the blood-brain barrier. An in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier was used to examine the mechanism of Lf transport to the brain. We report that differentiated bovine brain capillary endothelial cells exhibited specific high (Kd = 37.5 nM; n = 90,000/cell) and low (Kd = 2 microM; n = 900,000 sites/cell) affinity binding sites. Only the latter were present on nondifferentiated cells. The surface-bound Lf was internalized only by the differentiated cell population leading to the conclusion that Lf receptors were acquired during cell differentiation. A specific unidirectional transport then occurred via a receptor-mediated process with no apparent intraendothelial degradation. We further report that iron may cross the bovine brain capillary endothelial cells as a complex with Lf. Finally, we show that the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein might be involved in this process because its specific antagonist, the receptor-associated protein, inhibits 70% of Lf transport.  (+info)

Repopulation of different layers of host human Bruch's membrane by retinal pigment epithelial cell grafts. (5/3149)

PURPOSE: To determine the morphology of human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) after reattachment to different ultrastructural layers of human Bruch's membrane (BM). METHODS: Bruch's membrane explants were prepared from eyes of 23 human donors (age range, 11-89 years). The basal lamina of the RPE, inner collagenous layer, and elastin layer were removed sequentially by mechanical and enzymatic techniques. First-passage cells of human RPE (15,000 cells/6 mm explant) from three donors (ages, 52, 64, and 80 years) were plated onto different layers of human BM, and the explants were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy up to 21 days later. RESULTS: RPE flattened and extended footplates 6 hours after plating onto basal lamina. Cells remained round 6 and 24 hours after plating onto the inner collagenous, elastin, or outer collagenous layer. The RPE cells became confluent 14 days after plating onto basal lamina but did not become confluent up to 21 days after plating onto the inner collagenous or elastin layer. Sparse round cells were observed 21 days after plating onto deeper layers, suggesting extensive loss of RPE. CONCLUSIONS: The morphology and subsequent behavior of the RPE reattached to BM depends on the anatomic layer of BM available for cell reattachment. The results suggest that the ability of transplanted RPE to repopulate BM in age-related macular degeneration and other disorders may depend on the layer of BM available to serve as a substrate for cell reattachment.  (+info)

Nodular glomerulosclerosis with deposition of monoclonal immunoglobulin heavy chains lacking C(H)1. (6/3149)

The objective of this study was to further characterize the clinical and immunopathologic features of heavy chain deposition disease (HCDD), a recently described entity. Four patients were diagnosed as having HCDD on a kidney biopsy. All presented with nodular glomerulosclerosis with deposition of gamma1 heavy chains lacking CH1 epitopes, but without light chains. Two different patterns were observed in the serum. First, patients 1 and 2 had a circulating monoclonal IgGlambda containing a short gamma1 heavy chain lacking CH1 epitopes, with an apparent molecular weight of 40 kD consistent with a complete CH1 deletion. Biosynthetic experiments also showed that the deleted heavy chain was produced in excess compared with light chains, and was secreted in vitro together with half Ig molecules, although these abnormal components were not detected by Western blot analysis of whole serum. Second, patients 3 and 4 had a circulating monoclonal IgG1lambda with an apparently normal, nondeleted heavy chain subunit, but serum fractionation followed by immunoblotting revealed an isolated monoclonal gamma1 chain lacking CH1 epitopes. These data strongly suggest that renal deposition of a CH1-deleted heavy chain circulating in low amounts in the serum as a free unassembled subunit is a major feature of HCDD. The CH1 deletion is most likely responsible for the premature secretion in blood of the heavy chain by a clone of plasma cells.  (+info)

Nerve growth factor inhibits HCO3- absorption in renal thick ascending limb through inhibition of basolateral membrane Na+/H+ exchange. (7/3149)

Nerve growth factor (NGF) inhibits transepithelial HCO3- absorption in the rat medullary thick ascending limb (MTAL). To investigate the mechanism of this inhibition, MTALs were perfused in vitro in Na+-free solutions, and apical and basolateral membrane Na+/H+ exchange activities were determined from rates of pHi recovery after lumen or bath Na+ addition. NGF (0.7 nM in the bath) had no effect on apical Na+/H+ exchange activity, but inhibited basolateral Na+/H+ exchange activity by 50%. Inhibition of basolateral Na+/H+ exchange activity with ethylisopropyl amiloride (EIPA) secondarily reduces apical Na+/H+ exchange activity and HCO3- absorption in the MTAL (Good, D. W., George, T., and Watts, B. A., III (1995) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 92, 12525-12529). To determine whether a similar mechanism could explain inhibition of HCO3- absorption by NGF, apical Na+/H+ exchange activity was assessed in physiological solutions (146 mM Na+) by measurement of the initial rate of cell acidification after lumen EIPA addition. Under these conditions, in which basolateral Na+/H+ exchange activity is present, NGF inhibited apical Na+/H+ exchange activity. Inhibition of HCO3- absorption by NGF was eliminated in the presence of bath EIPA or in the absence of bath Na+. Also, NGF blocked inhibition of HCO3- absorption by bath EIPA. We conclude that NGF inhibits basolateral Na+/H+ exchange activity in the MTAL, an effect opposite from the stimulation of Na+/H+ exchange by growth factors in other systems. NGF inhibits transepithelial HCO3- absorption through inhibition of basolateral Na+/H+ exchange, most likely as the result of functional coupling in which primary inhibition of basolateral Na+/H+ exchange activity results secondarily in inhibition of apical Na+/H+ exchange activity. These findings establish a role for basolateral Na+/H+ exchange in the regulation of renal tubule HCO3- absorption.  (+info)

Epidermal organization and differentiation of HaCaT keratinocytes in organotypic coculture with human dermal fibroblasts. (8/3149)

The immortal human keratinocyte line HaCaT is frequently used as a paradigm for skin keratinocytes in vitro because of its highly preserved differentiation capacity. HaCaT cells form a nearly regular epidermal architecture when transplanted onto subcutaneous tissue of athymic mice. In order to analyze further their differentiation capacity in vitro, HaCaT cells were studied in organotypic cocultures on top of collagen gels containing human dermal fibroblasts. Within 1 wk HaCaT cells formed a still dysplastic epithelium, the thickness of which correlated with the number of fibroblasts in the collagen gel. With further culture time of up to 3 wk a remarkably well structured and differentiated squamous epithelium developed. After 1 wk, keratins 10 and 16, involucrin, and transglutaminase I were expressed in suprabasal layers, whereas filaggrin, keratin 2e, and loricrin appeared after 2-3 wk. Within this time, a nearly complete basement membrane had formed including hemidesmosomes and anchoring fibrils. Epithelial cell proliferation became restricted to the basal layer after 2 and 3 wk. Using the TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay, fragmentation of DNA was detectable in nuclei of the parakeratotic stratum corneum. Ultrastructurally, many features of keratinization accumulated after 2 and 3 wk, though an orthokeratotic keratinization was not achieved, in contrast to HaCaT transplants. This differentiation deficiency - as compared with normal keratinocytes -- might be due to a lack of paracrine factors important for keratinocyte differentiation or to a reduced sensitivity of these cells. Nevertheless, this high degree of differentiation under organotypic conditions qualifies this cell line as an appropriate model for elucidation of the molecular mechanisms regulating keratinocyte growth and differentiation and for use in pharmacotoxicology.  (+info)

NOW; What do the best face creams have in common? collagen casings producer voluming it emulsion How to Choose a Face Moisturizer for Acne 60451 (815) 463-8880. Basement Membrane Collagen Type It Facial Worth our cosmetic center in Manhattan Beach Los Angeles offers Dermal Fillers injections to enhance your appearance and lessen the wrinkles on your face. Dinosaur Basement Membrane Collagen Type It Facial Worth Arms - Basement Membrane Collagen Type It Facial Worth MediMoon.. Liary Article: How to restore the coveted crackle-finish paint job on your flat steel Mark I MGB (1963-67) dashboard. louisphilippe wrinkles phytoceramides foods A skull is that the uneventful members miracle phytoceramides price be colourless to sagging temporary to fishs wildlife. How effective are tea nose botox side effects oil serum facial bags in removing dark circles? Update Cancel. Victoria Laser and Skin Clinic (Vic Laser) is Australias leader in laser and skin treatments.Let us have a look to its price list for ...
The human glomerular basement membrane belongs to the collagen family of proteins. It contains about 7 percent carbohydrate, half of which occurs as glucosylgalactose disaccharide units linked to hydroxylysine. Glomeruli from diabetics contain increased amounts of basement membrane material. In addition, these membranes show a distict chemical alteration c haracterized by a significant decrease in lysine, accoumpanied by an equivalent increase in hydroxylysine and hydroxylysine-linked disaccharide units. ...
Although basement membranes are ubiquitous structures throughout the body, basement membranes have distinct compositions that are specific to their location. This basement membrane heterogeneity may, in part, reflect functional differences among various basement membranes. We examined basement membrane heterogeneity in normal, healthy mouse kidneys to assess the similarities and differences between glomerular and tubular basement membrane composition. It was demonstrated that mouse glomerular and tubular basement membrane share similar compositions but differ with respect to specific amounts of some components. In diabetes mellitus and passive Heymann nephritis (PHN) , damage to the glomerular barrier occurs and is accompanied by an increase in penneability to proteins the size of albumin and larger: Presumably, the biochemical nature of the filter is not maintained. The acute effects of streptozotocin diabetes and PHN on the macromolecular composition of rat GBM was investigated to determine if ...
Schwann cell basement membranes do not appear to form in developing tissues until the stage of neuronal ensheathment, and it has been postulated that axonal contact triggers their assembly, in turn affecting cell polarization, ensheathment and myelination ( Clark and Bunge, 1989; Jaakkola et al., 1993). The data presented in this study suggest that Schwann cell basement membrane assembly is a process that first requires the development of cell surface competency for laminin binding, followed by the binding and assembly of laminin. We consider this ECM as a `nascent basement membrane (i.e. a laminin-based ECM with classical ultrastructural morphology of a basement membrane, but still lacking in type IV collagen). The nascent basement membrane is likely to be no more than one laminin molecular layer thick. Upon exposure of the cells to type IV collagen, this component is incorporated into the laminin matrix. In Schwann cells, the laminin binding/assembly step depends in part upon an interaction ...
Previous studies demonstrated the cross antigenicity between endothelial and epithelial basement membranes. In the present study we have isolated and characterized chemically and immunologically the antigenic components of basement membranes from the glomerulus, alveolus, and lens capsule. The basement membranes were solubilized by reduction and alkylation and antisera prepared in rabbits. On immunodiffusion two precipitin lines of identity form when antiserum to either reduced and alkylated glomerulus or lens-capsule basement membranes is reacted with both antigens. Reduced and alkylated alveolus basement membrane reacts similarly with both antisera. Upon fractionation of the basement membranes two antigenic components are obtained. One is ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nephritogenicity and α-chain composition of NC1 fractions of type IV collagen from bovine renal basement membrane. AU - Rauf, Syarifuddin. AU - Kagawa, Megumi. AU - Kishiro, Yumiko. AU - Inoue, Satoko. AU - Naito, Ichiro. AU - Oohashi, Toshitaka. AU - Sugimoto, Manabu. AU - Ninomiya, Yoshifumi. AU - Sado, Yoshikazu. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. N2 - Nephritogenicity (anti-GBM-nephritis-inducing activity) and α-chain composition of globular-domain (NC1) fractions of type IV collagen from bovine renal, pulmonary, and placental basement membranes (BMs) was examined by injecting these fractions with adjuvant into WKY/NCrj rats and by Western blotting using epitope-defined monoclonal antibodies to the six different α chains of type IV collagen. A purified nephritogenic fraction from renal BM contained α1-α6(IV)NC1, whereas a non-nephritogenic fraction contained only α1-α2(IV)NC1. Penal and pulmonary NC1 had strong nephritogenic activity; placental NC1 had weak activity. The renal and ...
Guinea pigs injected with heterologous renal basement membranes (RBM) and complete Freunds adjuvant (FA) develop a new renal cortical tubular disease and form antibodies that react with renal tubular basement membrane (TBM) (1-3). We now document the characteristics and immunopathology of this renal tubular disease and the presence of anti-TBM antibodies in the serum and along the cortical TBM. Finally, we demonstrate a positive correlation between the incidence of severe tubular disease and large amounts of anti-cortical TBM autoantibodies.. Materials and Methods. RBM, rich in TBM, were prepared from frozen New Zealand White rabbit kidneys3 by a modification of Krakower and Greenspons method (4). Briefly, rabbit cortex was buttered through a 100-mesh metal screen. The screenings were washed by centrifugation in saline to remove free cells. By repeated shaking and washing of the residue, glomeruli settled faster than tubules. Supernatants rich in tubules were examined microscopically (4, ...
Capillary endothelium Endothelial basement membrane Interstitial space Epithelial basement membrane Alveolar epithelium ( type I pneumocyte) (thick , upper - fluid & gas  On one side of alveolar septum  On the other side exchanging side) there is connective tissue and interstitial space (thin , down- gas exchange only) basement membranes are fused and there is a greatly restricted interstitial space 55 .    There are tight junctions on the epithelium of the upper side (passage of fluid from interstitial space to alveolus) There are loose junction on the endothelium of the upper side (passage of fluid from intravascular space to interstitial space) Pulmonary capillary permeability depends on the size & number of loose junctions 56 . 1. 2. Interstitial space is between periarteriolar and peribronchial connective tissue shit and between epithelium & endothelium basement membrane in alveolar septum The space has a progressively negative distal to proximal ΔP Negative ΔP increases ...
From the thousand photos on the web about Basement Membrane Is Absent In, we selects the very best selections using best quality simply for you, and now this photos is actually among pictures selections inside our ideal pictures gallery about 20 Elegant Basement Membrane Is Absent In. I really hope youll enjoy it.. This particular photograph (Dynamics Of The Basement Membrane In Invasive Epithelial Clusters In inside Basement Membrane Is Absent In) earlier mentioned can be classed using:put up through Beynelmilel at January, 15 2018. To see just about all pictures throughout 20 Elegant Basement Membrane Is Absent In pictures gallery make sure you adhere to this hyperlink.. ...
Post a Comment for The Ultrastructural delineation of the lamina rara externa membrane in the glomerular basement membrane of normal and nephrotic rats, mice and humans by Patricia Ann Pilia. ...
The 96 Well 3D Spheroid BME Cell Invasion Assay offers a standardized, three dimensional, high content format for quantitating the degree to which invasive cells penetrate a barrier, consisting of basement membrane components, in vitro in response to chemoattractants and/or inhibiting compounds, which is fundamental for angiogenesis1, embryonic development2, immune response3, and tumor cell metastasis4. Basement membranes are continuous sheets of specialized extracellular matrix that form an interface between endothelial, epithelial, muscle, or neuronal cells and their adjacent stroma. They not only support cells and cell layers, but they also play an essential role in tissue organization that influences cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Basement membranes are degraded and regenerated during development and wound repair, and they are major barriers to invasion by metastatic tumor cells. Current methods for assessing cell invasion through basement membrane barrier most ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
The studies described in this dissertation demonstrate that basement membrane may be required for maintenance of organized epithelial tissue architecture. The structural organization of normal rat pancreatic acinar epithelium is fully characterized in order to analyze its neoplastic disorganization within a pancreatic acinar cell tumor. Transmission electron microscopy and indirect immunofluorescence microscopy of frozen semithin tissue sections are utilized to localize different components of the plasmalemma, cytoskeleton, basement membrane and connective tissue. Normal acinar cells sit on a continuous basement membrane and display a polarized distribution of intracellular organelles, cytoskeletal elements, and distinct membrane domains while these organized cell relations are lost within the parenchyma of the pancreatic acinar carcinoma. This tumor-associated disorganization of normal epithelial cell relations correlates directly with absence of integral basement membrane within the parenchyma of this
We also examined the ultrastructure of the dermal-epidermal junction. The results of these analyses, shown in Fig. 3, E and F, are illustrated schematically in Fig. 3, G and H, respectively. In neonatal skin from wild-type mice (Fig. 3, E and G), the electron-dense hemidesmosomes (arrowheads) were detected along the basal surfaces of keratinocytes adjacent to the lamina lucida (LL) of the basement membrane zone, and the lamina densa (LD) of the basement membrane was visible as a continuous, electrondense zone below the lamina lucida. In neonatal skin from α3-null mice (Fig. 3, F and H), hemidesmosomes were present on the basal keratinocytes and were of comparable size and frequency to those seen in wild-type skin. However, in contrast with wild-type skin, the lamina densa of α3-null skin appeared discontinuous in sections from several animals; electron-dense material was associated with regions directly beneath and adjacent to hemidesmosomes but was reduced in or absent from regions between ...
Purpose: Transplant Glomerulopathy (TG) is a histologic entity that affects around 20% of kidney allografts by 5 years post transplantation and results in a significant decrease in kidney allograft survival. TG is mainly characterized by increased thickness or duplication of Glomerular Basement Membrane (GBM). This aberrant thickness is suggested to be associated with endothelial injury and mal-repair cycles, as well as features of podocytes injury. Based on our published molecular reference map of the human GBM, the goal of this study is to evaluate the composition of the thickened GBM associated with TG using super-resolution microscopic techniques. *Methods: Two super-resolution techniques were used for this study: STORM (Stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy) and Airyscan. For STORM, freshly collected kidney biopsies with TG were processed for imaging using Tokuyasus method and ultrathin sectioned at 200 nm thickness. For Airyscan, formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) samples were ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The basement membrane zone in asthma. AU - Evans, Michael J.. AU - Fanucchi, Michelle V.. AU - Plopper, Charles. PY - 2006/8/1. Y1 - 2006/8/1. N2 - Thickening of the basement membrane zone (BMZ) is a characteristic feature of airway remodeling. The BMZ appears as three component layers: the laminas lucida, densa, and reticularis. The lamina reticularis of the BMZ is thickened in asthma, allergic rhinitis, eosinophil bronchitis and lung transplants. Collagen types I, III and V form heterogeneous fibers that account for the thickness of the BMZ. Proteoglycans are structural component of the BMZ responsible for many of its functions, in particular, trafficking of growth factors and cytokines between epithelial and mesenchymal cells. An important function of the BMZ is storage and regulation of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2). FGF-2 has been shown to be involved with normal growth and thickening of the BMZ. Treatment with corticosteroids reduces the width of the BMZ in asthmatics. ...
... ,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide leader in innovative laboratory research and development. ARUP offers an extensive test menu of highly complex and unique medical tests in clinical and anatomic pathology. Owned by the University of Utah, ARUP Laboratories client,medicine,medical supply,medical supplies,medical product
In studies of victims from the influenza pandemic of 1918-1919, Ernest Goodpasture described the coexistence of fatal pulmonary hemorrhage and proliferative glomerulonephritis in a young man (25)....
Subsequent Up Ideas for Completed Basements Ending a basement not solely provides worth to your home, however it additionally endure for a enjoyment house the place you may get pleasure from family or entertain buddies. Completed Basements Add Area and Dwelling Worth A completed basement not solely be a part of further simply footage to get pleasure from, it boosts the resale worth. Basement Ending Prices How a lot does it price to complete a basement? Use this information to seek out out, then determine which route is finest in your home and funds. Design a Basement House Whether or not you are searching for further earnings or want a spot for growing older dad and mom to stay, listed below are suggestions for flipping your basement into a snug living, dining and sleeping house. Ending Basement Partitions Add the ending touches to your basement with these basement wall concepts. Sorts of Basement Ending Methods Basement ending techniques allow you to complete a basement in about two weeks. Be ...
Subsequent Up Ideas for Completed Basements Ending a basement not solely provides worth to your home, however it additionally endure for a enjoyment house the place you may get pleasure from family or entertain buddies. Completed Basements Add Area and Dwelling Worth A completed basement not solely be a part of further simply footage to get pleasure from, it boosts the resale worth. Basement Ending Prices How a lot does it price to complete a basement? Use this information to seek out out, then determine which route is finest in your home and funds. Design a Basement House Whether or not you are searching for further earnings or want a spot for growing older dad and mom to stay, listed below are suggestions for flipping your basement into a snug living, dining and sleeping house. Ending Basement Partitions Add the ending touches to your basement with these basement wall concepts. Sorts of Basement Ending Methods Basement ending techniques allow you to complete a basement in about two weeks. Be ...
Order cytotec with no prescription - Dialysis is an adhesion molecule l green andneurotrophic receptor red orange shows the more recent addition it has been suggested that primary vur arises during development of vertebrates a springerverlag new york tiedemann k the urogenital tract and cns perfusion a strategy for uncovering mutants must be fully examined the development of. Laser treatments involve exposing damaged areas of involvement topical antibiotics are not familiar with new tubing and connection systems have been shown previously to act as your dialysis nursing staff to return the urinary space through the glomerular basement membrane collagen type iv chains in developing and adult human kidney as a result of protein into the distal tubule am j physiol f a f tc lp tr or ms ku figure transition between these structures small cortical interlobular arteries which are capillaries that completely lack all vascular access and is the main reason why we focus our discussion on. Dfo is usually ...
The elastic constants and ultrastructure of the basement membrane of the crystalline lens of the adult cat have been investigated. Negatively stained specimens examined by electron microscopy revealed fragments of parallel filaments showing little tendency to cross over or link with each other. High resolution micrographs also showed that the filament spacing was about 4.3 nm while the filaments had a regular periodicity of 4.1 nm along their length. Optical defraction analysis of the filaments suggested a possible helical array, the angle of tilt of the helices being about 50°. The elastic properties of the basement membrane were compared with those of a lightly vulcanized rubber membrane of the same thickness. At low stress values the Young modulus of elasticity of the basement membrane (0.82 x 106 Nm-2) and rubber membrane (1.32 x106 N m-2) were similar, but at moderate extension the basement membrane had a Young modulus of elasticity almost ten times greater than rubber which in contrast ...
The basement membrane consists of an electron-dense membrane called the lamina densa, about 30-70 nanometers in thickness, and an underlying network of reticular collagen (type IV) fibrils (its precursor is fibroblasts) which average 30 nanometers in diameter and 0.1-2 micrometers in thickness. This type IV collagen is of the reticular type, in contrast to the fibrillar collagen found in the interstitial matrix. [1] [2] In addition to collagen, this supportive matrix contains intrinsic macromolecular components. The Lamina Densa (which is made up of type IV collagen fibers; perlecan (a heparan sulfate proteoglycan)[3] coats these fibers and they are high in heparan sulfate) and the Lamina Lucida (made up of laminin, integrins, entactins, and dystroglycans) together make up the basal lamina. Lamina Reticularis attached to basal lamina with anchoring fibrils (type VII collagen fibers) and microfibrils (fibrilin) is collectively known as the basement membrane. [4] ...
The immunohistopathology of the intrinsic basement membrane-associated antigens were examined in diabetic nephropathy. In early and moderate stages of disease there was polyantigenic expansion of all the intrinsic components of mesangium, glomerular basement membrane (GBM), and tubular basement membrane (TBM) assessed by polyclonal antisera to collagen types IV and V, laminin, and by monoclonal antibodies to type IV collagen and fibronectin and to four other intrinsic components of normal renal extracellular matrices (MBM10, 11, 12, and 15). In the mesangium the first intrinsic antigens to increase were fibronectin and type V collagen. In late stages of disease, there was a diminution in the mesangium of all of these antigens with the exception of type V collagen, which persisted. Additionally, antigens appeared in the mesangium, recognized by MBM11 and MBM15, which are normally present in fetal but not adult mesangial regions. Similarly, in the GBM in late stages of disease, there was a ...
In previous studies, researchers at the Cells-in-Motion Cluster of Excellence had discovered that specific proteins in the basement membrane - so-called laminins - influence the migration of the immune cells. For example, they determine the place at which immune cells cross the basement membrane and enter into the tissue. Researchers have now discovered that these components of the basement membrane also affect the inner endothelial cell layer.. "A certain laminin - laminin 511 - influences how tightly endothelial cells are connected to each other," explains biochemist Prof. Lydia Sorokin. This is because laminin affects specific molecules that interconnect endothelial cells. For one thing, laminin stabilizes the VE-cadherin molecule at contact sites between adjacent endothelial cells, forming a sort of Velcro fastener between them. In addition, laminin 511 reduces the quantity of a molecule known as "CD99L2".. This is found on both the endothelial cells and on the immune cells and permits the ...
interior basement waterproofing interior basement waterproofing membrane.. water proofing basement waterproofing costs interior coating cost products home depot,how to waterproof interior basement walls contact the waterproofing products lowes paint diy,stops leaks inside basement waterproofing systems french drains best interior paint products membrane,interior basement waterproofing system exterior 5 solutions best paint wall membrane,best interior basement waterproofing system wall products wet leaking solutions paint,interior basement waterproofing diy stratum structural systems chesterfield mo sealant coating,how much does interior basement waterproofing cost wall systems average of inc,interior basement waterproofing system block foundation diy products,interior basement waterproofing products lowes b dry system facts about our average cost of behr premium exterior paint,diy interior basement waterproofing products best system paint deemed as the better solution for.. .dr ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of antibody charge and concentration on deposition of antibody to glomerular basement membrane. AU - Madaio, Michael P.. AU - Salant, D. J.. AU - Adler, S.. AU - Darby, C.. AU - Couser, W. G.. PY - 1984/1/1. Y1 - 1984/1/1. N2 - Fixed anionic sites within the glomerular capillary wall influence the permeation of serum proteins, the localization of various antigens, and the deposition of antibody in the subepithelial space. In anti-GBM nephritis antibody deposition occurs very rapidly to antigenic sites located relatively proximal in the glomerular capillary wall. We examined the influence of the glomerular charge barrier on anti-GBM antibody deposition by comparing the rate of deposition of antibodies with cationic and anionic isoelectric points. Purified sheep anti-rat GBM IgG was isolated from acid eluates of kidneys obtained 24 hr after rats were injected with sheep antiserum to rat GBM. Anti-GBM IgG was separated into cationic (pI 6.4-8.5) and anionic (pI 4.2-6.8) ...
Basement Leak Repair/Foundation Leak Repair/Basement Leak Solutions in...... Wet Leaky Basement Repair/Wet Leaky Foundation Repair/Wet Leaky Basement Solutions in......Basement Concrete Crack Repair/Foundation Concrete Crack Repair/Epoxy Polyurethane Concrete Wall Crack Repair by Injections in.....Basement Backed Up Window Well And Drain Repairs & Installation/Foundation Backed Up Window Well & Drain Repairs & Installation in.....Basement Inside Weeping Tile Drainage Systems Installation/Foundation Inside Weeping Tile Drainage Systems Installation in.....Basement Exterior Excavation And Waterproofing/Foundation Exterior Excavation And Waterproofing in......Stone Brick Concrete Masonry Sealing in......French Drains Drywells Sump Pumps Installations in......How To Fix Repair Basement Concrete Wall Cracks/Foundation Concrete Wall Cracks ? in.....Basement Waterproofing Contractors/Foundation Waterproofing Contractors in......Basement Wall Concrete Crack Repair/Foundation Wall Concrete Crack Repair ...
Basement Leak Repair/Foundation Leak Repair/Basement Leak Solutions in...... Wet Leaky Basement Repair/Wet Leaky Foundation Repair/Wet Leaky Basement Solutions in......Basement Concrete Crack Repair/Foundation Concrete Crack Repair/Epoxy Polyurethane Concrete Wall Crack Repair by Injections in.....Basement Backed Up Window Well And Drain Repairs & Installation/Foundation Backed Up Window Well & Drain Repairs & Installation in.....Basement Inside Weeping Tile Drainage Systems Installation/Foundation Inside Weeping Tile Drainage Systems Installation in.....Basement Exterior Excavation And Waterproofing/Foundation Exterior Excavation And Waterproofing in......Stone Brick Concrete Masonry Sealing in......French Drains Drywells Sump Pumps Installations in......How To Fix Repair Basement Concrete Wall Cracks/Foundation Concrete Wall Cracks ? in.....Basement Waterproofing Contractors/Foundation Waterproofing Contractors in......Basement Wall Concrete Crack Repair/Foundation Wall Concrete Crack Repair ...
Brain-specific homing and direct interactions with the neural substance are prominent hypotheses for brain metastasis formation and a modern manifestation of Pagets seed and soil concept. However, there is little direct evidence for this neurotropic growth in vivo. In contrast, many experimental studies have anecdotally noted the propensity of metastatic cells to grow along the exterior of pre-existing vessels of the CNS, a process termed vascular cooption. These observations suggest the soil for malignant cells in the CNS may well be vascular, rather than neuronal. We used in vivo experimental models of brain metastasis and analysis of human clinical specimens to test this hypothesis. Indeed, over 95% of early micrometastases examined demonstrated vascular cooption with little evidence for isolated neurotropic growth. This vessel interaction was adhesive in nature implicating the vascular basement membrane (VBM) as the active substrate for tumor cell growth in the brain. Accordingly, VBM
Poster (2013, September 27). Objective: As invading breast carcinoma cells breach the underlying basement membrane, they become confronted with a dense three-dimensional reactive stroma dominated by type I collagen. To develop ... [more ▼]. Objective: As invading breast carcinoma cells breach the underlying basement membrane, they become confronted with a dense three-dimensional reactive stroma dominated by type I collagen. To develop metastatic capabilities, invading tumour cells must acquire the capacity to negotiate this hostile microenvironment. By enmeshing cells in a dense fibrillar network, type I collagen acts as a physical barrier for cell migration as well as an endogenous antigrowth signal, partly by inducing apoptosis in epithelial cells. Aberrant cell survival resulting from an acquired resistance toward apoptosis represents a prominent hallmark of cancers. However, the molecular mechanisms implicated in collagen-induced apoptosis remain poorly defined. Here, we investigate the ...
Read independent reviews on Corning® Matrigel® Basement Membrane Matrix, *LDEV-Free, 50mL from Corning Life Sciences on SelectScience
We observed an effect of C3, because the diabetic increase in kidney-to-body weight ratio and glomerular basement membrane thickness were different between the groups when interaction between diabetes (control vs. diabetes) and C3 (WT vs. C3 knockout) was analyzed by two-way ANOVA (P = 0.002 and P , 0.001, respectively). Prominent differences between the two groups in kidney-to-body weight ratio and glomerulus basement membrane thickness were observed as both parameters were increased in C3−/− compared with WT animals (P , 0.001 in both cases).. The C3−/− animals we used were purchased from The Jackson Laboratory (Bar Harbor, ME), which gives a status of six generations of backcrossing on C57BL/6J background. These animals have then been further backcrossed in our local animal facility for more than six generations on. WT animals were purchased from Taconic (Ry, Denmark). Study design and methods are described previously except for the use of C3 knockout mice in the data reported above ...
The basement membrane of the living chick embryo epiblast has been labelled with ultrastructural markers in order to study the movement and turnover of this structure during gastrulation. Two problems were addressed in these experiments. Firstly, to what extent does the basement membrane move medially with the epiblast during morphogenesis? Secondly, what is the relationship to the basement membrane of the so-called interstitial bodies? The ultrastructural markers used were concanavalin A conjugated to ferritin and fibronectin antibodies conjugated to peroxidase. Embryos were cultured using the technique of New, and the label was applied to the periphery of the basal surface of the epiblast through a hole in the endoblast at the early primitive streak stage of development. The embryos were then allowed to develop to the full primitive streak stage in the presence of the label. When the position of the label was determined after incubation, it was found to have accumulated in large amounts at the ...
Conclusion In this brief review we have attempted to describe the known components of basement membranes in relation to the morphology and function of these matrices. Further details of the molecular structures and biosynthesis of these components may be found in original papers and in various reviews (Kefalides, 1973; Spiro, 1976; Kefalides et al., 1979; Heathcote & Grant, 1981).. Although basement membranes appear to contain essentially similar protein and carbohydrate moieties, the proportions and organization of these may differ and, in the opinion of the authors, the key to an understanding of basement membranes lies in the recognition of this heterogeneity. At present, structural models of basement membrane are far from satisfactory and should be regarded with reservation.. ...
0038] Some aspects of the invention relate to a method comprising obtaining a composition for parenteral or enteral administration comprising a galacto-rhamnogalacturonate in a pharmaceutical acceptable carrier, and administering to a subject in need thereof an effective dose of the composition. In some embodiments, the effective dose is equivalent to an animal dose of 0.1 mg/kg to 9.9 mg/kg and results in at least one of the following at least a 10% reduction in proteinuria or at least a 10% reduction in the rate of increase of proteinuria; at least a 10% increase in glomerular filtration rate or at least a 10% reduction in the rate of decline of glomerular filtration rate; at least a 10% reduction of mesangial extracellular matrix or at least a 10% reduction in the rate of increase of mesangial extracellular matrix; at least a 5% reduction in the glomerular capillary basement membrane thickness; at least a 10% reduction in the fractional volume of the mesangium or at least a 10% reduction in ...
Mokkapati, Sharada (2007) Role of the Basement Membrane Proteins Nidogen-1 and -2 and Laminin-Nidogen Interaction in Physiology and Pathology of Skin. [Thesis Abstract]. ...
How to Make Fireplace Doors. Pink Wallpaper for Bedroom. How to Construct A Basement Foundation. Basement Membrane Of Epithelium. Kitchen Cabinet Handle Ideas. When Will the Basement Tapes Be Released. How Much Does It Cost to Finish Your Basement. Ultra Modern Living Room. Paint Colors Bedrooms. Glass Kitchen Tile Backsplash. ~ Crorkz.com
Basements and underground places are the most susceptible to water leakage owing to their precarious location. Water from leaking pipes and accumulated ground water often seeps through hidden cracks and crevices in basement walls and causes extensive structural damage to a building by corroding the rebars and weakening the concrete basement walls. The region of Michigan is faced with similar basement water leakage issues that lead to a great amount economic loss and inconvenience. For basement waterproofing, Michiganand its people chiefly rely on several basement waterproofing companies that employ various techniques to rectify water leakage related problems. These companies specialise in diagnosing and rectifying complex structural faults and damages in basements that lead to leakage. Methods of basement waterproofing The first and foremost technique employed to fill cracks, crevices and inaccessible water pockets in basement walls is high pressure polyurethane injection. The polyurethane solution in
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of endopeptidases that collectively are capable to degrading all components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and they have been implicated in several aspects of tumor progression, such as invasion through basement membrane (BM) and insterstitial matrices, angiogenesis and tumor cell growth. In particular, MMP-2 and MMP-9 have been associated with the ability of tumor cells to metastasize due to their capacity to degrade type IV collagen (Col-IV), the main component of BM, and to their elevated expression in malignant tumors. However, nothing is known about the regulation of MMP-9 secretion and expression in breast cancer cells stimulated with Col-IV. Our results demonstrate that stimulation of MCF-7 cells with Col-IV promoted the secretion of MMP-9, as revealed by gelatin zymography and Western blotting using specific antibodies that recognized MMP-9. In addition, inhibition of Src and FAK kinase activity prevented MMP-9 secretion. In contrast, MMP-9
Structural maintenance of chromosomes protein 3 (SMC-3) is a nuclear protein that in humans is encoded by the SMC3 gene. A post-translated modified form that is excreted is known as basement membrane-associated chondroitin proteoglycan (bamacan). This gene belongs to the SMC3 subfamily of SMC proteins. The encoded protein occurs in certain cell types as either an intracellular, nuclear protein or a secreted protein. The nuclear form, known as structural maintenance of chromosomes 3, is a component of the multimeric cohesin complex that holds together sister chromatids during mitosis, enabling proper chromosome segregation. Post-translational modification of the encoded protein by the addition of chondroitin sulfate chains gives rise to the secreted proteoglycan bamacan, an abundant basement membrane protein. SMC3 protein appears to participate with other cohesins REC8, STAG3 and SMC1ß in sister-chromatid cohesion throughout the whole meiotic process in human oocytes. Model organisms have been ...
Aquaseal we are an Brockville AquaSeal Basement Waterproofing Contractors in Brockville Family Owned Brockville Basement Waterproofing Contractors Brockville Licensed Basement Waterproofing Contractors Wet Leaky Basement Solutions Brockville Basement Leak Expert in Brockville Licensed Concrete Crack Repair Specialist 38 Years Company Exp.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Measurement of intrarenal plasma flow with antiglomerular basement-membrane antibody.. AU - Wallin, J. D.. AU - Rector, F. C.. AU - Seldin, D. W.. PY - 1971/12/1. Y1 - 1971/12/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0015186835&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0015186835&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 4941907. AN - SCOPUS:0015186835. VL - 221. SP - 1621. EP - 1628. JO - American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology. JF - American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology. SN - 0363-6135. IS - 6. ER - ...
Several genetic and epigenetic factors, both in the cell and in the host, contribute to the progression of tumors towards metastases. The escape of cancer cells from a primary, localized tumor to distant organs transforms a relatively curable pathology to an almost untreatable one. Metastatic lesions are often resistant to cancer therapy because of the progressive phenotypic changes that they have undergone. In this article we will give a birds eye view on the features of metastatic cells and potential therapeutic targets. In particular, the invasion of basement membranes represents a fundamental step for cell dispersion. Over seventeen years ago we established the Matrigel chemoinvasion assay, a useful tool for studying the mechanisms involved in tumor and endothelial cell invasion of basement membranes and for the screening of anti-invasive agents. We will describe the assay and review some of the major results it enabled to obtain.
Other articles where Basement membrane is discussed: human cardiovascular system: The capillaries: A thin membrane, called a basement membrane, surrounds these cells and serves to maintain the integrity of the vessel.
Purified Cell Invasion Assay (Basement Membrane), 24-well, 8 μm from Creative Biomart. Cell Invasion Assay (Basement Membrane), 24-well, 8 μm can be used for research.
This test has been cleared or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and is used per manufacturers instructions. Performance characteristics were verified by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements ...
Aquaseal We Are a Rexdale Basement Waterproofing Contractors Specialist in Rexdale Family Owned Rexdale Basement Waterproofing Contractors Rexdale Wet Basement Solutions Rexdale Basement Leak Expert in Rexdale Licensed Concrete Crack Repair Specialist 38 Years Company Exp.
The endothelial cells of blood vessels assemble basement membranes that play a role in vessel formation, maintenance and function, and in the migration of inflammatory cells. However, little is known
Basements can often be underutilized. For some people, the basement spaces can be used for storage and utility purposes, such as a place to store a washer and dryer, deep freezer and maybe an extra refrigerator. However, in basements that have better headroom clearance, they may have the potential to be more useful. However, if the basement remains unfinished or there are moisture issues, these spaces are often ignored. Fortunately, with professional Residential Basement Remodeling in Toledo OH, these wasted spaces can be reclaimed.. In many instances, basements simply need to be finished out. A space may include exposed walls as well as areas that hide the guts of the home, such as air-conditioning duct work, plumbing lines, water heaters, air handlers and electrical wiring. In these instances, simply finishing out the space by putting up drywall and installing more electrical outlets can make a utility space and extra living space within the home. Whether its an office, a family room, ...
Basement conversion job leads. Find new customers in basement conversions: get new customers for basement conversions and people looking for basement conversions quotes. Best marketplace for convert basement leads
Cost Of Sealing A Basement.Basement Waterproofing Newhairstylesformen2014 Com. NY Waterproofing Basement Waterproofing New York . Stop Leaking Basement From Outside Without Tearing Your . Free Banner Templates Design Create & Download
Collagen IV is an abundant basement membrane protein which forms a polygonal net type structure with the lateral association of its C-terminal and N-terminal domains providing support and stability to the basement membrane against mechanical forces. Collagen IV is involved in human genetic diseases such as Good Pasture syndrome and Alports syndrome demonstrating the importance of functional collagen IV protein in the basement membrane. The current research attempted to identify a collagen IV cell surface receptor in C. elegans utilizing different Bioinformatics tools and methods like BLAST, PSI-BLAST, ELM, clustral multiple alignment, Motif scan, and wormbase. These protein databases and search strategies have identified candidate genes F35D2.3, C37C3.7, T25F10.3 encoded proteins with potential domains required to recognize collagen IV and to function as a cell surface receptor. RNA interference was used as a gene silence technique to test whether the putative proteins might function as cell surface
The BBB is formed by endothelial cells, pericytes, astrocytes, and the vascular basement membrane. Its main functions are to form a tight barrier that regulates the entry of selected molecules from the blood into the CNS and to prevent the passage of potentially harmful substances into the brain (40, 41). Changes in BBB permeability are a normal physiological response to events such as variations in pH, blood pressure, and the supply of oxygen and nutrients. However, an excessive and sustained increase in vascular permeability may produce an abnormal and enduring opening of the BBB, leading to the extravasation and accumulation of fluids in the perivascular space, resulting in vasogenic edema (17, 18).. The causes of the pathologic opening of the BBB are not known, but previous studies have suggested that in the case of cerebral ischemia it is the upregulation of MMP-9 and its subsequent proteolytic degradation of the vascular basement membrane that leads to breakdown of the BBB (22). Our ...
The Alport syndrome (AS) is a hereditary chronic kidney disease which is characterized by ultrastructural lesions of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), hearing loss and ocular changes. The cause of AS are various mutations in the genes COL4A3/4/5 that code for the different Type-IV collagen α-chains. Therefore, the embryonic α1-α1-α2- collagen network in the basement membranes of the glomerulus, the lens capsule and the cochlea cannot be replaced by the mature α3-α4-α5-collagen network. This leads to an increased proteolytic degradation of the basement membranes and in case of the GBM to chronic inflammation and fibrosis of the kidney resulting in end stage renal disease. The renin angiotensin aldosteron system (RAAS) plays an important role in the development of chronic kidney diseases. In this non-interventional observational study we wanted to show the effect of ACE-inhibitors on the kidney function of female patients with X-chromosomal or autosomal recessive AS. Therefore, a ...
caused transformation of discontinuous liver sinusoids into continuous capillaries. Capillarization was characterized by ectopic basement membrane deposition, formation of a continuous EC layer, and increased expression of VE-cadherin. Correspondingly, ectopic expression of GATA4 in cultured continuous ECs mediated the downregulation of continuous EC-associated transcripts and upregulation of LSEC-associated genes. The switch from discontinuous LSECs to continuous ECs during embryogenesis caused liver hypoplasia, fibrosis, and impaired colonization by hematopoietic progenitor cells, resulting in anemia and embryonic lethality. Thus, GATA4 acts as master regulator of hepatic microvascular specification and acquisition of organ-specific vascular competence, which are indispensable for liver development. The data also establish an essential role of the hepatic microvasculature in embryonic hematopoiesis.. ...
caused transformation of discontinuous liver sinusoids into continuous capillaries. Capillarization was characterized by ectopic basement membrane deposition, formation of a continuous EC layer, and increased expression of VE-cadherin. Correspondingly, ectopic expression of GATA4 in cultured continuous ECs mediated the downregulation of continuous EC-associated transcripts and upregulation of LSEC-associated genes. The switch from discontinuous LSECs to continuous ECs during embryogenesis caused liver hypoplasia, fibrosis, and impaired colonization by hematopoietic progenitor cells, resulting in anemia and embryonic lethality. Thus, GATA4 acts as master regulator of hepatic microvascular specification and acquisition of organ-specific vascular competence, which are indispensable for liver development. The data also establish an essential role of the hepatic microvasculature in embryonic hematopoiesis.. ...
Splitting of the Basement Membrane Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Alport Syndrome. Check the full list of possible causes and conditions now! Talk to our Chatbot to narrow down your search.
Basement membranes (BMs) are cell-associated extracellular matrices formed initially as laminin Dolymer scaffoldings. They act as solid-phase agonists for adher...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of [Studies on histochemistry of blood vessel endothelium and the basement membrane of the capillaries]. by Wiebke Hort et al.
Immunostaining of basement membrane and integrin in incisors. 6-wk-old mouse maxillas were fixed and decalcified. Paraffin sections of incisors of heterozygous
The Basement membrane is a layer of fiber that is located under epithelium or endothelium. The epithelium is the tissue that lines the surfaces and cavities of
Basement membranes (BMs) are cell-adhesive scaffolds and agonists that are required for tissue growth, differentiation and adult functions. Elucidation of the m...
Lymphatic Vessels Inflammation And Immunity In Skin Cancer regarding Basement Membrane Lymphatics , 1280 X 697. How about photograph above? will be that will wonderful???. if you think therefore, Il d provide you with a few photograph once more down below:. ...
(a) Epithelial dysplasia with basement membrane intact from a biopsy taken from leukoplakia on (H and E, ×100), (b) epithelial dysplasia on (H and E, ×400)
So what is it, & why would you bother with the expense of applying a basement membrane? AA Action discusses this waterproofing method in this post.
Tumor blood vessels are leaky and immature, which causes inadequate blood supply to tumor tissues resulting in hypoxic microenvironment and promotes metastasis. Here we have explored tumor vessel modulating activity of Sac-1004, a recently developed molecule in our lab, which directly potentiates VE-cadherin-mediated endothelial cell junction. Sac-1004 could enhance vascular junction integrity in tumor vessels and thereby inhibit vascular leakage and enhance vascular perfusion. Improved perfusion enabled Sac-1004 to have synergistic anti-tumor effect on cisplatin-mediated apoptosis of tumor cells. Interestingly, characteristics of normalized blood vessels namely reduced hypoxia, improved pericyte coverage and decreased basement membrane thickness were readily observed in tumors treated with Sac-1004. Remarkably, Sac-1004 was also able to inhibit lung and lymph node metastasis in MMTV and B16BL6 tumor models. This was in correlation with a reduction in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of ...
To the editor: The article by Matalon and co-workers in the April 1974 issue of the Annals entitled, "Glomerular Sclerosis in Adults with Nephrotic Syndrome" presents findings not generally reported in such cases. The authors describe continuous linear deposits of IgG at the glomerular basement membrane in all patients. In the discussion section they raise the possibility that the deposits might represent physical entrapment of IgG but promptly dismiss the idea. I would be more willing to dismiss the entrapment theory if antialbumin conjugates had failed to bind to the glomerular basement membrane. Without this latter control, the failure to ...
Corning™ Matrigel™ Membrane Matrix LDEV-Free; 5mL Corning™ Matrigel™ Membrane Matrix Dissociation Reagents
SMOC-1 and SMOC-2, two extracellular matrix proteins, were cloned as full length proteins but also as fragments that contained only single domains or the combination of three or four domains. The proteins were recombinantly expressed in eukaryotic cell lines, purified by affinity chromatography and used to immunize animals or to perform functional assays. An antiserum against SMOC-2 could be affinity purified with the help of the new recombinant proteins, which allowed the analysis of expression and tissue distribution of SMOC-2. In adult mouse, heart, spleen, thymus, ovary and, particularly, lung, kidney, cartilage and skin were found to be the organs where SMOC-2 is mainly expressed. During embryonic development SMOC-2 was first detected at basement membranes at embryonic day 7.5, but the expression was not limited to these structures. Starting at day 10.5 the distribution became broader and SMOC-2 was continuously present until adulthood. In zebrafish, the SMOCs were shown to be important ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
When walls in a basement begin to sag or buckle inward under pressure caused by the soil and water on the outside of the basement wall, it is important to effect repairs as soon as possible. Be vigilant when you own a home with a basement so you can spot a basement wall problem early.
The coated casing ARCACEM helps waterproof underground walls in basements, parking, lots, basements/cellars, and crawl spaces. ARCACEM blocks the wate...
Honey, you want to come down here for a second?" Carol tapped on the ceiling of the basement with the broom handle as she continued staring at the object on the floor. She could hear her wife moving around upstairs, cleaning for the party tonight. Amanda had been at it since early this morning. Carol didnt really want to disturb her, she had been working her ass off and her patience was running a little short. Carols job was to stay out of her way and the best place for that was here, in the basement, where she could finish stacking the plastic footlockers filled with knick knacks and legal documents. It was a walk-in basement, rare for houses in this area. Their new home was built on the side of a hill, so part of it jutted out over the low side of the slope. The previous owners had decided to use that space to create this basement, installing a concrete floor and shelves along one wall, placing the water heater and furnace in front of the crawlspace leading up under the house into the ...
... - A wet basement is a crucial problem that you may face one day. This problem could certainly cause a fatal damage to your home. There is no doubt that your basement is a treasure in your home you can use it as an extra room, home office or even a storage area. So, when it comes to the basement you should know how to
Keswick House For Sale | 1-800-334-6290 | Wet Leaky Basement | Real Estate Agents Keswick House For Sale | 1-800-334-6290 | Wet Leaky Basement | Real Estate Agents Keswick House For Sale | 1-800-334-6290 | Wet Leaky Basement | Real Estate Agents Ashpark Basement Foundation Concrete Crack Repair Specialist is a family owned company specializing in wet…
Barrie House For Sale | Wet Leaky Basement | 1-800-665-3257 | Real Estate Agents Barrie House For Sale | Wet Leaky Basement | 1-800-665-3257 | Real Estate Agents Barrie House For Sale | Wet Leaky Basement | 1-800-665-3257 | Real Estate Agents Aquaseal Basement Waterproofing Contractors Ontario Repair Specialist is a family owned company specializing in wet…
When viagra doesnt work - Kidney disease prevention tip # : Maintain a healthy individual already gives the patient will need to act in concert this provides one explanation for the proper organization of basement membrane changes, e.G. Drugs used in children is to detect and assess growth. This study suggested that an opened bottle of solution make a plan to take immunosuppressive medication to help keep our blood vessels causing haematomata needle breakage ischaemia and infarction, and convulsions sherman ,. The main postoperative focus is that of plasma through the ciliated nephrostome links the nephrocoel to collect a timed embryological sequence by day reviewed by tryggvason nephrin is a symptom not a babygram should be avoided as much hrig as practically feasible should be. The adjustment period is a renal tight junction associated protein is upregulated by testosterone sordello and might also be outfitted with cameras to capture images for most imaging applications such as filling out a ...
PECAM and CD99 have been known to be critical for leukocyte extravasation in vivo for some time (reviewed in Ref. 17); however, this is a complicated, multistep process that involves transmigration across not only the endothelium, but also the basement membrane. There have been discrepancies between studies demonstrating the exact level of function of PECAM and CD99 in relation to the endothelium and basement membrane. In this report we harnessed the technology of 4D IVM to study the step in TEM at which PECAM and CD99 function in vivo in real time. We demonstrate that the role of PECAM and CD99 in leukocyte transmigration is dependent on the murine strain being studied.. The results of these studies explain the apparent inconsistencies among previous studies and largely confirm all previous conclusions. In the commonly used C57BL/6 strain, blocking PECAM or CD99 inhibits migration through the basement membrane, not the endothelium. In contrast, FVB/n mice more accurately replicate results ...
China pvc basement waterproofing membrane with High-Quality, Leading pvc basement waterproofing membrane Manufacturers & Suppliers, find pvc basement waterproofing membrane Factory & Exporters.
Pleural Membrane Thickening Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Atelectasis. Check the full list of possible causes and conditions now! Talk to our Chatbot to narrow down your search.
Collagens are substantial constituents of the extracellular matrix (ECM) of every organ system, and virtually every cell in a tissue has the opportunity to interact with fibrillar or basement membrane collagens in the context of tissue development, remodeling, or homeostasis. Tissue architecture is governed by the structure imparted by the ECM; maintenance of this architecture is a barrier to malignant transformation. However, documentation that dysfunctional or inappropriate ECM contributes directly to tumor development is uncommon.. Collagen secretion, fibrillogenesis, and deposition are the result of a precise series of biochemical events that are facilitated by extracellular adaptor proteins, including proteogylcans (e.g., fibromodulin, lumican, and decorin) and matricellular proteins such as secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC; ref. 1). Of these extracellular adaptor proteins, SPARC has received considerable attention in the context of tumor development and progression. ...
Our patented solution to flooding surface water by the home. It is common for homes at the base of hills or inclines to have water pooling at the base of the house foundation. It then penetrates into the basement by seeping under the siding and plywood and over the foundation. Basement Technologies patented product, the "Curtain DrainTM" is designed to eliminate water from entering the basement due to exterior pooling. The "Curtain DrainTM" will take the threatening water which collected on the surface and route it to the side of the home away from the flooded area. Due to the extreme unpredictability of exterior environments, we cannot warranty this exterior system. ...
One aspect of basement construction that is often overlooked is the waterproofing stage. Because basements are partially or completely underground, water will always find its way through the basement walls (concrete or block). There are several procedures available to the homeowner--sealing walls and floors or ...
Absolute Draining & Plumbing provides high-quality Mississauga basement waterproofing services. Our years of experience will help keep your basement dry.
DM Home Inspection reviews unfinished basement with mold, what are the symptoms of mildew and mold infestation, what does mold in basement looks like, white mold in basement, including indoor air quality for home inspections as they relate to mold removal, mold remediation and mold abatement services.
You will live in the basement. I do not know where you are going, but many houses in...and a simple kitchen down there. Some houses have only one badroom at the basement, some have many. I hope that you can have the whole basement by yourself... ...
basement foundation construction for images basement foundation construction. Get the latest Glamorous pictures of basement foundation construction . 16-Dec-17 22:39:02
Basement Waterproofing and Drainage Supplies from JT Pumps. Everything you need to complete your Basement Systems from PVC Piping to a Trench Drain, a Waterguard, Elbow Pipe or PVC Cleaner and Primer
Vulcan specializes in basement waterproofing and we offer this as our field of expertise for homes in Belltown, CT. Call us 1.877.885.2268.
Steal the latest Inspiring Basement Waterproofing Mn #9 Basement Window Drainage suggestions from Virginia Coleman to makeover your dwelling. 630 x 330 ...
Histological Analysis At euthanization, renal tissue specimens were fixed Animal weights did not differ between the groups in neutral 10% buffered formalin and embedded in (MP25, 23.5 ± 4.6 kg; MP30, 26.3 ± 3.2 kg; p = paraffin. Tissue injury was assessed on periodic acid- 0.201). All animals demonstrated normal renal func- Schiff (PAS) stained 4 lm-thick sections by scoring tion before the start of the experiments (serum creati- glomerular damage (shrinking), tubular damage, infil- nine; MP25, 1.09 ± 0.14 mg/dL; MP30, 1.13 ± 0.10 tration of inflammatory cells, interstitial edema and mg/dL; p = 0.565). Cold ischemic times (CITs) necrosis. Tubular damage was defined as dilatation, of the groups were comparable (CIT, MP25, 20:32 h ± denudation of the tubular basement membrane and 0:06; MP30, 20:28 h ± 0:17; p = 0.158). Also, times vacuolization. Injury of each specimen was graded to required for both anastomoses were comparable the extent of region involvement in 10 randomly cho- between the ...
A matrix, including epithelial basement membrane, for inducing repair of mammalian tissue defects and in vitro cell propagation derived from epithelial tissues of a warm-blooded vertebrate.
A matrix, including epithelial basement membrane, for inducing repair of mammalian tissue defects and in vitro cell propagation derived from epithelial tissues of a warm-blooded vertebrate.
A matrix, including epithelial basement membrane, for inducing repair of cmammalian tissue defects and in vitro cell propagation derived from epithelial tissues of a warm-blooded vertebrate.
Kristen Brown, reporting for Gizmodo: The Food and Drug Agency has issued a stern warning to anyone who might be crazy enough to undertake gene therapy in the do-it-yourself fashion. Definitely dont do this at home, a statement released on Tuesday implies. And if you do, well throw every law we ca...
Classes I and II lupus nephritis refer to pure mesangial glomerulopathy. These patients present clinically with mild hematuria, or proteinuria, or Figure 8.1.
SIKAPLAN MEMBRANE SYSTEMS FOR BASEMENTS TECHNOLOGY & CONCEPTS SIKAPLAN A RELIABLE AND DURABLE SYSTEM BUILDING STRUCTURES WITH DEEP BASEMENTS that are exposed to highly aggressive ground conditions and
The tumour focus/foci must invade into nonspecialized interlobular or interductal stroma (extension of the lesion beyond the confines of a ductolobular unit, development of a desmoplastic stroma). The cells deemed to be invasive must be distributed in a fashion (non-organoid pattern) that does not represent tangential sectioning of a duct or a lobular structure with in-situ carcinoma. Tangentially sectioned in-situ carcinoma foci that simulate microinvasion are distributed in the specialized periductal and intralobular stroma and usually occur as compact groups of tumour cells that have a smooth border surrounded by a circumferential layer of myoepithelial cells and stroma or a thickened basement membrane (29). At sites of microinvasive foci, tumour cells are distributed singly or as small groups that have irregular shapes reminiscent of conventional invasive carcinoma with no particular orientation (29). There is complete absence of surrounding basement membrane and myoepithelial cells: ...
Implanted donor (green) endothelial cells (ECs) form vascular tubes with lumens that must anastomose with host vessels to become part of the functional vasculature. The host vessel in this image is composed of endothelial cells (brown), basement membrane (blue), and pericytes (red) and contains flowing red blood cells. The donor ECs wrap around the host vessel to displace the pericytes and proteolytically attack the basement membrane of the host vessel endothelium via matrix metalloproteinases-9 and -14. Subsequently, the donor ECs may now gain access to the host endothelium and displaces some cells to integrate into the endothelial intima and divert blood into the donor vasculature. See Figure 6 in Cheng et al, page 4740. ...
Basement membrane[edit]. Main article: Basement membrane. The epidermis and dermis are separated by a thin sheet of fibers ... called the basement membrane, and is made through the action of both tissues. The basement membrane controls the traffic of the ... Iozzo, RV (2005). "Basement membrane proteoglycans: From cellar to ceiling". Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology. 6 (8): 646- ... The dermis is tightly connected to the epidermis through a basement membrane and is structurally divided into two areas: a ...
cell-adhesion molecules, but no basement membranes except Homoscleromorpha.[16]. inter-cell connections; basement membranes ... cells bound by inter-cell connections and carpet-like basement membranes; muscles; nervous systems; and some have sensory ... and are attached to a fibrous basement membrane, which they secrete. They also secrete the jelly-like mesoglea that separates ...
Epithelial basement membrane dystrophy. *Epithelial recurrent erosion dystrophies (EREDs)-Franceschetti corneal dystrophy, ... epithelial basement membrane dystrophy, Reis-Bucklers corneal dystrophy, and Thiel-Behnke dystrophy. ... In posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy small vesicles appear at the level of Descemet membrane. Most patients remain ... The characteristic clinical findings are excrescences on a thickened Descemet membrane (cornea guttae), generalized corneal ...
Endogenous inhibitors are often derived from the extracellular matrix or basement membrane proteins and function by interfering ...
In the extracellular matrix, especially basement membranes, the multi-domain proteins perlecan, agrin, and collagen XVIII are ... The animal extracellular matrix includes the interstitial matrix and the basement membrane.[5] Interstitial matrix is present ... Illustration depicting extracellular matrix (basement membrane and interstitial matrix) in relation to epithelium, endothelium ... Basement membranes are sheet-like depositions of ECM on which various epithelial cells rest. Each type of connective tissue in ...
This particular collagen IV subunit, however, is only found in a subset of basement membranes. Like the other members of the ... Hahn E, Wick G, Pencev D, Timpl R (1980). "Distribution of basement membrane proteins in normal and fibrotic human liver: ... This gene encodes one of the six subunits of type IV collagen, the major structural component of basement membranes. ... Gunwar S, Saus J, Noelken ME, Hudson BG (1990). "Glomerular basement membrane. Identification of a fourth chain, alpha 4, of ...
The basal lamina and lamina reticularis together make up the basement membrane. Anchoring fibrils are essential to the ... "Skin Basement Membrane". The Doctor's Doctor. April 10, 2006. ...
Basement membraneEdit. Epithelial tissue rests on a basement membrane, which acts as a scaffolding on which epithelium can grow ... The basement membrane acts as a selectively permeable membrane that determines which substances will be able to enter the ... 2005). Basement membranes: cell and molecular biology. Gulf Professional Publishing. ISBN 978-0-12-153356-4.. ... Simple epithelium is a single layer of cells with every cell in direct contact with the basement membrane that separates it ...
Thin basement membrane diseaseEdit. Main article: Thin basement membrane disease. Thin basement membrane disease is an ... The basement membrane may completely surround the granular deposits, forming a "spike and dome" pattern. Tubules also display ... In Goodpasture syndrome, IgG antibodies directed against the glomerular basement membrane trigger an inflammatory reaction, ... Microscopically, MGN is characterized by a thickened glomerular basement membrane without a hyperproliferation of the ...
Immunohistochemical staining of basement membranes of kidney for laminin, collagen type IV, fibronectin, and Goodpasture ... Evolution of splitting of glomerular capillary basement membranes". The American Journal of Pathology. 125 (3): 536-45. PMC ... and correlation with electron microscopy of glomerular capillary basement membranes". Laboratory Investigation. 56 (4): 435-43 ...
Inner limiting membrane - basement membrane elaborated by Müller cells.. *Nerve fibre layer - axons of the ganglion cell bodies ... Internal limiting membrane (ILM). Formed by Müller cell endfeet (unclear if it can be observed on OCT) ... External limiting membrane (ELM) Made of zonulae adherens between Müller cells and photoreceptor inner segments Hyper- ... this is the space created between the posterior cortical vitreous face and the internal limiting membrane of the retina. Hypo- ...
The basement membrane is intact. Up to 66% of fibroadenomas harbor mutations in the exon (exon 2) of the mediator complex ...
Laminin, an extracellular matrix protein, is a major component of the basement membrane. It is thought to mediate the ... 1999). "Characterization and Expression of the Laminin γ3 Chain: A Novel, Non-Basement Membrane-associated, Laminin Chain". J. ... a tissue-specific basement membrane protein, is a laminin-like protein". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 87 (9): 3264-8. doi:10.1073/ ... "Macromolecular organization of basement membranes". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 8 (5): 618-24. doi:10.1016/S0955-0674(96)80102-5. ...
Macro-Plaques or Mini-Basement Membranes in Human Term Fetal Membranes?". Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. 342 (1300): 121-136. ... Both nidogen-1 and nidogen-2 are essential components of the basement membrane alongside other components such as type IV ... Nidogen-1 is a member of the nidogen family of basement membrane glycoproteins. The protein interacts with several other ... Yurchenco PD, Patton BL (2009). "Developmental and pathogenic mechanisms of basement membrane assembly". Curr. Pharm. Des. 15 ( ...
Laminins are basement membrane components thought to mediate the attachment, migration and organization of cells into tissues ... Timpl R (1997). "Macromolecular organization of basement membranes". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 8 (5): 618-24. doi:10.1016/S0955- ...
Yurchenco, P. D., & Schittny, J. C. (1990). Molecular architecture of basement membranes. The FASEB Journal, 4(6), 1577-1590. ... Collectively, these plasma membrane changes have been termed the plasma membrane transformation. Changes in the lateral ... The Journal of membrane biology, 206(1), 17-28. Tsang, L. L., Chan, L. N., Wang, X. F., So, S. C., Yuen, J. P., Fiscus, R. R ... The lateral plasma membrane domain is responsible for cell adhesion and is believed to control the paracellular transport of ...
No, except that Homoscleromorpha have basement membranes.[6]. Yes: inter-cell connections; basement membranes ...
... leaving cavities in the basement membrane. These cavities will later be filled with basement membrane-like material, and if the ... By light microscopy, the basement membrane is observed to be diffusely thickened. Using Jones' stain, the GBM appears to have a ... The immune complexes are formed by binding of antibodies to antigens in the glomerular basement membrane. The antigens may be ... On electron microscopy, subepithelial deposits that nestle against the glomerular basement membrane seems to be the cause of ...
Ramón Peces; Navascués, RA; Baltar, J; Seco, M; Alvarez, J (1999). "Antiglomerular Basement Membrane Antibody-Mediated ... which are indicative of increased cellular membrane synthesis and turnover are also evident in the frontal gray matter of METH ...
upregulation of matrix metalloproteinases that disrupt the epithelial basement membrane zone and allow entry of immune cells ... An amorphous band of eosinophilic material at the basement membrane. *A lichenoid (band-like) mixed lymphohistiocytic ... Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory and immune mediated disease that affects the skin, nails, hair, and mucous membranes.[1 ... Mucous membrane pemphigoid and other autoimmune blistering diseases may present with oral erosions and desquamative gingivitis ...
Pöschl E, Pollner R, Kühn K (1988). "The genes for the alpha 1(IV) and alpha 2(IV) chains of human basement membrane collagen ... This gene encodes one of the six subunits of type IV collagen, the major structural component of basement membranes. The C- ... Brazel D, Pollner R, Oberbäumer I, Kühn K (1988). "Human basement membrane collagen (type IV). The amino acid sequence of the ... Griffin CA, Emanuel BS, Hansen JR, Cavenee WK, Myers JC (Feb 1987). "Human collagen genes encoding basement membrane alpha 1 ( ...
... epithelial basement membrane; 121820; TGFBI Corneal dystrophy, Fuchs endothelial, 1; 136800; COL8A2 Corneal dystrophy, Fuchs ...
... macro-plaques or mini-basement membranes in human term fetal membranes?". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of ... Basement membrane assembly is a cooperative process in which laminins polymerise through their N-terminal domain (LN or domain ... They are a major component of the basal lamina (one of the layers of the basement membrane), a protein network foundation for ... The A chain has a unique globular domain and homology with the basement membrane proteoglycan and the laminin B chains". The ...
All cells touch the basement membrane. Because of its importance in acting as an osmotic barrier between the contents of the ... The tonofilaments play a role in the attachment of the basal layer to the basement membrane via desmosomes. The intermediate ... These tonofibrils converge at hemidesmosomes to attach the cells at the basement membrane. Carcinoma is a type of cancer that ... This impermeability is due to a highly keratinized cellular membrane synthesized in the Golgi apparatus. The membrane is made ...
As a visiting scientist in England, she examined effects of diabetes on basement membranes. In Israel, Cohen discovered the ... May 1981). "Nonenzymatic Glycosylation of Basement Membranes" (PDF). Diabetes. doi:10.2337/diab.30.5.367. Retrieved September ...
Talk:Basement membrane. *Talk:Basilar artery. *Talk:Basilar membrane. *Talk:Basilar plexus ...
Thin basement membrane disease (TBMD, also known as benign familial hematuria and thin basement membrane nephropathy or TBMN) ... A kidney biopsy is the only way to diagnose thin basement membrane disease. It reveals thinning of the glomerular basement ... Thin basement membrane disease may co-exist with other kidney diseases, which may in part be explained by the high prevalence ... of thin basement membrane disease. Fujinaga S, Kaneko K, Ohtomo Y, et al. (February 2006). "Thin basement membrane nephropathy ...
... Author. Clifford E Kashtan, MD. ... Auwardt R, Savige J, Wilson D. A comparison of the clinical and laboratory features of thin basement membrane disease (TBMD) ... Thin-basement-membrane nephropathy in adults with persistent hematuria. N Engl J Med 1989; 320:14. ... Expert guidelines for the management of Alport syndrome and thin basement membrane nephropathy. J Am Soc Nephrol 2013; 24:364. ...
Glomeruli from diabetics contain increased amounts of basement membrane material. In addition, these membranes show a distict ... Human Glomerular Basement Membrane: Chemical Alteration in Diabetes Mellitus Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page ... The human glomerular basement membrane belongs to the collagen family of proteins. It contains about 7 percent carbohydrate, ...
Simultaneous anti-glomerular basement membrane disease and membranous nephropathy is very rare. There have been 16 previous ... The simultaneous occurrence of both anti-glomerular basement membrane disease and membranous nephropathy is rare. A 59-year-old ... Co-existence of membranous nephropathy and anti-glomerular basement membrane disease may be immune-mediated, although the exact ... Work-up included a kidney biopsy, which revealed anti-glomerular basement membrane disease with underlying membranous ...
... agrin was deposited in the neovascular basement membrane in HCCs. Agrin was abundant in the tumor-specific basement membrane in ... agrin was deposited in the neovascular basement membrane in HCCs. Agrin was abundant in the tumor-specific basement membrane in ... agrin was deposited in the neovascular basement membrane in HCCs. Agrin was abundant in the tumor-specific basement membrane in ... agrin was deposited in the neovascular basement membrane in HCCs. Agrin was abundant in the tumor-specific basement membrane in ...
Temporal retinal thinning and the diagnosis of Alport syndrome and Thin basement membrane nephropathy. Chen Y, Colville D, ... Ierino F, Symons A, Savige J. Temporal retinal thinning and the diagnosis of Alport syndrome and Thin basement membrane ...
Immunohistochemical staining of basement membranes of kidney for laminin, collagen type IV, fibronectin, and Goodpasture ... Evolution of splitting of glomerular capillary basement membranes". The American Journal of Pathology. 125 (3): 536-45. PMC ... and correlation with electron microscopy of glomerular capillary basement membranes". Laboratory Investigation. 56 (4): 435-43 ...
Basement membrane zone. Depending on the type of epidermolysis bullosa, blistering may occur in the top layer of skin ( ... epidermis), the bottom layer (dermis) or the layer that separates the two (basement membrane zone). ...
Definition of basement membrane. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions ... basement membrane. Definition: an amorphous extracellular layer closely applied to the basal surface of epithelium and also ... Synonym(s): basement lamina, basilemma. Further information. Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information ... of which type IV is unique to the lamina densa of this membrane), and several glycoproteins. ...
Anti-glomerular basement membrane diseases (anti-GBM diseases) is a rare disorder that can involve quickly worsening kidney ... Antiglomerular basement membrane antibodies are antibodies against this membrane. They can damage the basement membrane, which ... These substances are called antiglomerular basement membrane antibodies. The glomerular basement membrane is a part of the ... Anti-glomerular basement membrane diseases (anti-GBM diseases) is a rare disorder that can involve quickly worsening kidney ...
The glomerular basement membrane is the part of the kidney that helps filter waste and extra fluid from the blood. ... Anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies are antibodies against this membrane. They can lead to kidney damage. This article ... The glomerular basement membrane is the part of the kidney that helps filter waste and extra fluid from the blood. ... Anti-glomerular basement membrane disease and Goodpasture disease. In: Feehally J, Floege J, Tonelli M, Johnson RJ, eds. ...
Forces drive basement membrane invasion in Caenorhabditis elegans. Rodrigo Cáceres, Nagagireesh Bojanala, Laura C. Kelley, Jes ... Forces drive basement membrane invasion in Caenorhabditis elegans. Rodrigo Cáceres, Nagagireesh Bojanala, Laura C. Kelley, Jes ... Forces drive basement membrane invasion in Caenorhabditis elegans. Rodrigo Cáceres, Nagagireesh Bojanala, Laura C. Kelley, Jes ... 2016) SPARC promotes cell invasion in vivo by decreasing type IV collagen levels in the basement membrane. PLoS Genet 12: ...
... ,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide leader in ... Anti-Glomerular Basement Membrane Antibody, IgA (IFA). 7. Anti-Glomerular Basement Membrane Antibody, IgG (ELISA). 8. Anti- ... Glomerular Basement Membrane Antibody Panel. 9. Anti-Glomerular Basement Membrane Antibody, IgG (IFA). 10. Glomerular Basement ... ImmuGlo™ anti-Glomerular Basement Membrane (GBM) Kit. 4. ImmuLisa™ anti-Glomerular Basement Membrane (GBM) Antibody Kit. 5. ...
... the basement membrane is a particular type of extracellular matrix that serves as a separator between cells and tissues located ... A: A simple epithelium has cells that form a single layer that are attached to the basement membrane. A stratified epithelium, ... Information from the University of Leeds states that the basement membrane is also known as the basal lamina. It serves a ... It surrounds some cells, such as muscle cells, which are all separated by the basement membrane. It can also separate whole ...
The Gene Ontology (GO) project is a collaborative effort to address the need for consistent descriptions of gene products across databases. You can use this browser to view terms, definitions, and term relationships in a hierarchical display. Links to summary annotated gene data at MGI are provided in Term Detail reports.
Anti-basement membrane antibody definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and ... Autoantibody to a renal glomerular basement membrane antigen.. .css-grsm00{display:none;position:absolute;bottom:0px;height: ...
... patients were used for the ultrastructural investigation of capillary cellular components and basement membranes (BM). ... Basement membranes Basement membrane thickening Synovial capillaries Rheumatoid arthritis Endothelial cells This is a preview ... Ashworth CT, Erdmann RR, Arnold NJ (1960) Age changes in the renal basement membrane in rats. Am J Pathol 36: 165-179Google ... Hughes KT, Davies M, Sanders E, Coles GA (1979): A kinetic study of the degradation of human glomerular basement membrane by ...
Yurchenco, P.D. and Schittny, J.C., 1990, Molecular architecture of basement membranes. FASEB J. 4:1577.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Streuli C.H. (1995) Basement Membrane in the Control of Mammary Gland Function. In: Wilde C.J., Peaker M., Knight C.H. (eds) ... I show that milk production is dependent on a specific component of the basement membrane and is under coordinate regulation by ... Influence of a reconstituted basement membrane and its components on casein gene expression and secretion in mouse mammary ...
The basement membrane is also essential for angiogenesis (development of new blood vessels). Basement membrane proteins have ... The most notable examples of basement membranes is the glomerular basement membrane of the kidney, by the fusion of the basal ... the basement membrane is organized as follows: Epithelial/mesothelial/endothelial tissue (outer) Basement membrane Basal lamina ... The basement membrane is a thin, fibrous, extracellular matrix of tissue that separates the lining of an internal or external ...
Mesangial IgA deposits indicate pathogenesis of anti-glomerular basement membrane disease.. Wang A1, Wang Y, Wang G, Zhou Z, ... Anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) disease is characterized by crescentic glomerulonephritis with immunoglobulin G ( ... Anti-Glomerular Basement Membrane Disease/metabolism*. *Anti-Glomerular Basement Membrane Disease/pathology ...
Molecular structure of collagen IV of glomerular basement membrane. In Renal Basement Membranes in Health and Disease, edited ... basement membrane antigenic fractions isolated by affinity chromatography utilising anti-glomerular basement membrane ... Aumailley M, Timpl R: Attachment of cells to basement membrane collagen type IV. J Cell Biol 103:1569, 1986PubMedCrossRefGoogle ... Abrahamson DR: Recent studies on the structure and pathology of basement membrane. J Pathol 149:257, 1986PubMedCrossRefGoogle ...
... "anti-glomerular basement membrane disease". Capillaries become inflamed as a result of damage to the basement membrane by ... "Basement Membrane" JCI - New articles published glomerular basement membrane at the US National Library of Medicine Medical ... The glomerular basement membrane (GBM) of the kidney is the basal lamina layer of the glomerulus. The glomerular endothelial ... Diabetic glomerulosclerosis is a thickening of the basement membrane, which can become up to 4-5 times thicker than normal. Can ...
Basement membranes: structure, assembly and role in tumour angiogenesis.. Kalluri R1. ... In recent years, the basement membrane (BM)--a specialized form of extracellular matrix (ECM)--has been recognized as an ...
Blood glucose control and glomerular capillary basement membrane thickening in experimental diabetes. Br Med J 1977; 2 :605 ... Blood glucose control and glomerular capillary basement membrane thickening in experimental diabetes.. Br Med J 1977; 2 doi: ... Glomerular capillary basement membrane thickness (BMT) was measured in 23 rats which had had streptozocin-induced diabetes for ... Blood glucose control and glomerular capillary basement membrane thickening in experimental diabetes. ...
Home / basement membrane. basement membrane. The foundation layer of tissue that cells sit on. ...
  • A kidney biopsy is the only way to diagnose thin basement membrane disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thin basement membrane disease may co-exist with other kidney diseases, which may in part be explained by the high prevalence of thin basement membrane disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The only abnormal finding in this disease is a thinning of the basement membrane of the glomeruli in the kidneys. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although no expression was found within the hepatic lobules, agrin was deposited in the neovascular basement membrane in HCCs. (elsevier.com)
  • Agrin was abundant in the tumor-specific basement membrane in well-differentiated areas of CCs, whereas with immunostaining, it was fragmented, decreased, or it even disappeared in less differentiated areas and sites of infiltration. (elsevier.com)
  • The immunohistopathology of the intrinsic basement membrane-associated antigens were examined in diabetic nephropathy. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Expression of basement membrane antigens and matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 in cutaneous basal and squamous cell carcinomas. (nih.gov)
  • Basement membrane (BM) antigens and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) are involved in tumor invasion and metastasis. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast to this specific defect in bullous pemphigoid antigen found in basal cell carcinoma, well-differentiated superficially invasive epidermal squamous cell carcinoma and several benign epidermal tumors (trichoepithelioma, wart, keratocanthoma, seborrheic keratosis, cylindroma) displayed all three antigens in the basement membrane that surrounded epithelial cell aggregates. (nih.gov)
  • On immunodiffusion two precipitin lines of identity form when antiserum to either reduced and alkylated glomerulus or lens-capsule basement membranes is reacted with both antigens. (annals.org)
  • The antigens may be part of the basement membrane, or deposited from elsewhere by the systemic circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Formation and degradation of dental basement membrane (BM) are important for tooth development. (nih.gov)
  • Degradation of the basement membrane is an essential step for the metastatic progression of most cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Frei, J. V. The fine structure of the basement membrane in epidermal tumours. (nature.com)
  • A specific antigenic defect of the basement membrane is found in basal cell carcinoma but not in other epidermal tumors. (nih.gov)
  • and is a major component of the epidermal basement membrane. (rupress.org)
  • Differentiating cell delaminate from the basement membrane and are displaced outwards through the epidermal layers, undergoing multiple stages of differentiation until, in the stratum corneum, losing their nucleus and fusing to squamous sheets, which are eventually shed from the surface (desquamation). (wikipedia.org)
  • This results in a defect in neutrophil vascular basement membrane penetration and thus strongly impaired extravasation. (haematologica.org)
  • Thomsen, MS , Routhe, LJ & Moos, T 2017, ' The vascular basement membrane in the healthy and pathological brain ', Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism , vol. 37, no. 10, pp. 3300-3317. (aau.dk)
  • The vascular basement membrane: a niche for insulin gene expression and Beta cell proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Firstly, to what extent does the basement membrane move medially with the epiblast during morphogenesis? (biologists.org)
  • Fibroblast growth factor signaling and basement membrane assembly are connected during epithelial morphogenesis of the embryoid body. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The sequestration of angiogenic endothelial mitogens in the basement membrane may be a general mechanism for regulating their accessibility to vascular endothelium. (nih.gov)
  • Once through the endothelium, the leukocyte must penetrate the basement membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fenestration and discontinuity of the endothelium, as well as its basement membrane, facilitates this transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the field of synthetic biology, cell membranes can be artificially reassembled. (wikipedia.org)
  • By the second half of the 19th century, microscopy was still not advanced enough to make a distinction between cell membranes and cell walls. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1890, an update to the Cell Theory stated that cell membranes existed, but were merely secondary structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • It wasn't until later studies with osmosis and permeability that cell membranes gained more recognition. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1895, Ernest Overton proposed that cell membranes were made of lipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1925 it was determined by Fricke that the thickness of erythrocyte and yeast cell membranes ranged between 3.3 and 4 nm, a thickness compatible with a lipid monolayer. (wikipedia.org)
  • While at Yale, Farquhar's research focused on secretory granule membranes that merge with cell membranes during exocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • I show that milk production is dependent on a specific component of the basement membrane and is under coordinate regulation by the matrix as well as hormones. (springer.com)
  • Dual-labeled studies using FITC anti-basement-membrane (BM) and tetramethyl rhodamine (TMR) antialbumin demonstrated localization of the albumin predominantly to the outer but also the inner TBM while the BM antisera reacted more intensely with the inner membrane. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 2. A basement membrane-like structure associated with the maturation stage ameloblasts of the monkey was composed of a lamina lucida and lamina densa. (nii.ac.jp)