Cumulative Trauma Disorders
Measurement of fatigue in knee flexor and extensor muscles. (1/105)In order to examine fatigue of the knee flexor and extensor muscles and to investigate the characteristics of muscular fatigue in different sports, a Cybex machine was used to measure muscle fatigue and recovery during isokinetic knee flexion and extension. Eighteen baseball players, 12 soccer players and 13 marathon runners were studied. Each subject was tested in the sitting position and made to perform 50 consecutive right knee bends and stretches at maximum strength. This was done 3 times with an interval of 10 min between each series. The peak torque to body weight ratio and the fatigue rate were determined in each case. In all subjects, the peak torque to body weight ratio was higher for extensors than flexors. Over the 3 trials, the fatigue rate of extensors showed little change, while that of flexors had a tendency to increase. In each subject, knee extensors showed a high fatigue rate but a quick recovery, while knee flexors showed a low fatigue rate but a slow recovery. As the marathon runners had the smallest fatigue rates for both flexors and extensors, we concluded that marathon runners had more stamina than baseball players and soccer players. (+info)
Spit (smokeless) tobacco use by high school baseball athletes in California. (2/105)OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence, patterns, and correlates of spit (smokeless) tobacco (ST) use in a sample of high school baseball athletes in California. DESIGN: This cross sectional study was a survey of 1226 baseball athletes attending 39 California high schools that were randomly selected from a list of all publicly supported high schools with baseball teams. At a baseball team meeting, athletes who agreed to participate and had parental consent completed the study questionnaire. To enhance the accuracy of self reported ST use status, a saliva sample was collected from each subject. The questionnaires and saliva samples were coded and salivary cotinine assay was performed on a random subsample of 5% of non-users who also were non-smokers. Biochemical assay indicated that 2% tested positive for cotinine inconsistent with self reported ST non-use. RESULTS: Overall, 46% had ever used ST and 15% were current users. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) suggested that, among high school baseball athletes, age, living in a rural area, being white, smoking cigarettes, drinking alcohol, not knowing about the adverse effects of ST, perceiving little personal risk associated with ST use, and believing that friends, role models, teammates, and same age baseball athletes in general used ST, increased the likelihood of being an ST user. CONCLUSION: The findings indicate that considerable experimentation with ST products occurs among high school baseball athletes in California, and many are current users. ST interventions targeting this population are needed to stop the transition from experimental ST use to tobacco dependence. Correlates of ST use for consideration in future intervention studies are identified. (+info)
Acceptability of baseball face guards and reduction of oculofacial injury in receptive youth league players. (3/105)GOALS: To assess the relative injury reduction effect and acceptability of face guards on batter's helmets. METHODS: A non-randomized prospective cohort study among 238 youth league baseball teams in Central and Southern Indiana during the 1997 season. Coaches, parents, and players were asked to respond to pre-season and post-season questionnaires. Approximately one half of the teams were supplied with face guard helmets (intervention); all others used this protection at their discretion (comparison). RESULTS: Parents, players, and coaches on the intervention teams reported a reduction in the incidence of oculofacial injuries compared with comparison team respondents (p=0.04). There was no reported adverse effect of face guard use on player performance. CONCLUSIONS: Helmet face guards should be required for batters to prevent facial injuries in baseball. (+info)
Impact directly over the cardiac silhouette is necessary to produce ventricular fibrillation in an experimental model of commotio cordis. (4/105)OBJECTIVES: In an experimental model of sudden death from chest wall impact (commotio cordis), we sought to define the chest wall areas important in the initiation of ventricular fibrillation (VF). BACKGROUND: Sudden death can result from an innocent chest blow by a baseball or other projectile. Observations in humans suggest that these lethal blows occur over the precordium. However, the precise location of impact relative to the risk of sudden death is unknown. METHODS: Fifteen swine received 178 chest impacts with a regulation baseball delivered at 30 mph at three sites over the cardiac silhouette (i.e., directly over the center, base or apex of the left ventricle [LV]) and four noncardiac sites on the left and right chest wall. Chest blows were gated to the vulnerable portion of the cardiac cycle for the induction of VF. RESULTS: Only chest impacts directly over the heart triggered VF (12 of 78: 15% vs. 0 of 100 for noncardiac sites: p < 0.0001). Blows over the center of the heart (7 of 23; 30%) were more likely to initiate VF than impacts at other precordial sites (5 of 55; 9%, p = 0.02). Peak LV pressures generated instantaneously by the chest impact were directly related to the risk of VF (p < 0.0006). CONCLUSIONS: For nonpenetrating, low-energy chest blows to cause sudden death, impact must occur directly over the heart. Initiation of VF may be mediated by an abrupt and substantial increase in intracardiac pressure. Prevention of sudden death from chest blows during sports requires that protective equipment be designed to cover all portions of the chest wall that overlie the heart, even during body movements and positional changes that may occur with athletic activities. (+info)
Extra-anatomic bypass graft for management of axillary artery occlusion in pitchers. (5/105)OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to evaluate the long-term results of vein bypass grafts for axillary artery occlusion, specifically those placed extra-anatomically to prevent arterial injury in pitchers. METHODS: With the greater saphenous veins used as the selected conduit, arterial bypass grafts were routed anterior to the pectoralis minor muscle in four baseball pitchers who had occlusion of the axillary artery. We performed a follow-up in excess of 10 years with evaluations of the bypass grafts by ultrasonic duplex scan and magnetic resonance angiography. RESULTS: All four pitchers treated in this manner returned to the game and played for several seasons without a recurrence of the arterial injury. Long-term evaluation of the bypass grafts did not reveal any structural or functional disorder. CONCLUSIONS: Axillary artery occlusion in an athlete can be effectively treated with a vein bypass graft placed extra-anatomically, anterior to the pectoralis minor muscle. The greater saphenous vein should be considered the conduit of choice. (+info)
Two cases of peroneus brevis tendon tear. (6/105)A longitudinal tear of the peroneal tendon is thought to be the result of repetitive peroneal subluxation. However, this report documents two cases of longitudinal split of the peroneus brevis tendon that had no peroneal tendon subluxation. Primary suture was performed. Subluxation of the peroneal tendons was not identified surgically in either case. (+info)
Oral screening and brief spit tobacco cessation counseling: a review and findings. (7/105)This paper reviews five randomized controlled trials of brief spit (smokeless) tobacco (ST) cessation treatment by dental professionals consisting of oral cancer screening, cessation advice, self-help materials, and brief cessation counseling by a dental hygienist. In addition, original two-year findings from a randomized controlled trial to determine the effect of a dental-directed, peer-assisted ST intervention among high school baseball athletes in rural California (n=1084) are reported. In the latter study, results show sustained quitting at two years of 23 percent (32/141) in the intervention group and 13 percent (21/166) in the control group (OR=2.0, 95% CI 1.1-3.9) with subjects lost-to-follow-up considered non-quitters. The evidence presented supports the efficacy of oral screening and brief cessation counseling by dental professionals to promote ST cessation in the dental office or in athletic facilities. In addition, recommendations for policy and future research are presented. (+info)
Upper and lower limits of vulnerability to sudden arrhythmic death with chest-wall impact (commotio cordis). (8/105)OBJECTIVES: In an animal model of commotio cordis, sudden death with chest-wall impact, we sought to systematically evaluate the importance of impact velocity in the generation of ventricular fibrillation (VF) with baseball chest-wall impact. BACKGROUND: Sudden cardiac death can occur with chest-wall blows in recreational and competitive sports (commotio cordis). Analyses of clinical events suggest that the energy of impact is often not of unusual force, although this has been difficult to quantify. METHODS: Juvenile swine (8 to 25 kg) were anesthetized, placed prone in a sling to receive chest-wall strikes during the vulnerable time window during repolarization for initiation of VF with a baseball propelled at 20 to 70 mph. RESULTS: Impacts at 20 mph did not induce VF; incidence of VF increased incrementally from 7% with 25 mph impacts, to 68% with chest impact at 40 mph, and then diminished at >/=50 mph (p < 0.0001). Peak left ventricular pressure generated by the chest blow was related to the incidence of VF in a similar Gaussian relationship (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The energy of impact is an important variable in the generation of VF with chest-wall impacts. Impacts at 40 mph were more likely to produce VF than impacts with greater or lesser velocities, suggesting that the predilection for commotio cordis is related in a complex manner to the precise velocity of chest-wall impact. (+info)
1. The star quarterback suffered a serious athletic injury during last night's game and is out for the season.
2. The athlete underwent surgery to repair a torn ACL, one of the most common athletic injuries in high-impact sports.
3. The coach emphasized the importance of proper technique to prevent athletic injuries among his team members.
4. After suffering a minor sprain, the runner was advised to follow the RICE method to recover and return to competition as soon as possible.
The term "cumulative" refers to the gradual buildup of damage over time, as opposed to a single traumatic event that causes immediate harm. The damage can result from repetitive motions, vibrations, compressive forces, or other forms of stress that accumulate and lead to tissue injury and inflammation.
Some common examples of CTDs include:
1. Carpal tunnel syndrome: A condition that affects the wrist and hand, caused by repetitive motion and compression of the median nerve.
2. Tendinitis: Inflammation of a tendon, often caused by repetitive motion or overuse.
3. Bursitis: Inflammation of a bursa, a fluid-filled sac that cushions joints and reduces friction between tissues.
4. Tennis elbow: A condition characterized by inflammation of the tendons on the outside of the elbow, caused by repetitive gripping or twisting motions.
5. Plantar fasciitis: Inflammation of the plantar fascia, a band of tissue that runs along the bottom of the foot, caused by repetitive strain and overuse.
6. Repetitive stress injuries: A broad category of injuries caused by repetitive motion, such as typing or using a computer mouse.
7. Occupational asthma: A condition caused by inhaling allergens or irritants in the workplace, leading to inflammation and narrowing of the airways.
8. Hearing loss: Damage to the inner ear or auditory nerve caused by exposure to loud noises over time.
9. Vibration white finger: A condition that affects the hands, causing whiteness or loss of blood flow in the fingers due to exposure to vibrating tools.
10. Carpal tunnel syndrome: Compression of the median nerve in the wrist, leading to numbness, tingling, and weakness in the hand and arm.
It's important to note that these conditions can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, ability to work, and overall well-being. If you are experiencing any of these conditions, it is important to seek medical attention to receive proper diagnosis and treatment.
MLB.com | The Official Site of Major League Baseball
Society for American Baseball Research
Baseball Cards: Rookies
Baseball in Japan
Baseball's Most Valuable Teams 2016
Baseball, Amateur | Encyclopedia.com
National Association of Base Ball Players - Wikipedia
Baseball fans meet for diamond dialogue
Earl Weaver, Baseball's Brilliant Antagonist, Dies
Baseball T-Shirts Sale | adidas US
Baseball Writers' Ivory Tower Eroding | Techdirt
Baseball | WETA
Reviving Baseball in Inner Cities | MLB.com
Baseball and Softball Accessibility | Clemson Accessibility Portal
Jester Women's Baseball T-Shirt - Earth Times
Another established baseball executive turns Mets down
Baseball Leagues & Camps in Hialeah, FL | ACTIVE
Safety Tips: Baseball (for Teens) - CHOC Childrens
More Than Baseball | Trinity University
'Baseball Batter' Posters | AllPosters...
Baseball: A comeback story to admire - Los Angeles Times
Baseball | Occidental College
BEST SPEED BASEBALL
Lockouts, Strikeouts, and Baseball's Missed Opportunity | The Nation
San Francisco chewing tobacco ban: Baseball fields included.
About Minor League Baseball | MiLB.com
- Like in America, Japans' affection for a baseball team is only a thin disguise for one's deep-seated love for one's hometown. (nationalgeographic.com)
- The Baseball Writers Association of America seems to be buckling down and preparing for the "dark clouds" that they apparently see on the horizon. (techdirt.com)
- Learn how Minor League Baseball took root in America, along with some of the amazing achievements that have taken place since its formation in 1901. (milb.com)
- This game and the related rounders were brought by British and Irish immigrants to North America, where the modern version of baseball developed. (geni.com)
- Baseball on the professional, amateur, and youth levels is now popular in North America, parts of Central and South America and the Caribbean, and parts of East Asia. (geni.com)
- In North America, professional Major League Baseball (MLB) teams are divided into the National League (NL) and American League (AL). (geni.com)
- Lots of local baseball and softball games were played on Thursday as the early-starting season is wrapping up March and heading to April. (mcall.com)
- But on the final full day of baseball and softball in the Colonial League in March, there was plenty of roaring going on with some surprising results especially at Catasauqua where the Rough Riders got their first league win of the season over perennial power Northwestern Lehigh. (mcall.com)
- Sketches show baseball players, umpires, and managers in a variety of poses. (loc.gov)
Minor League B10
- Minor League Baseball consists of 120 full-season affiliated teams across the U.S. and Canada and serves as a developmental system for Major League Baseball. (milb.com)
- Players are assigned by MLB teams to Minor League affiliates -- there are no open tryouts for Minor League Baseball or its teams. (milb.com)
- With 120 teams and and 11 leagues around the U.S. and Canada, Minor League Baseball reaches millions of baseball fans each season. (milb.com)
- In 2009, Minor League Baseball laid the foundation for a comprehensive initiative designed to diversify the industry by addressing racial and gender diversity within ownership groups, executive management teams, employment and more. (milb.com)
- Minor League Baseball licensing offers a wide range of products and promotional opportunities for retailers through experienced licensing partners, appealing logos and accessible team assets. (milb.com)
- Minor League Baseball and its clubs celebrate a long history of supporting charitable organizations. (milb.com)
- Learn which teams and individuals have been recognized by Minor League Baseball for their achievements over the years, both on and off the field. (milb.com)
- The Minor League Baseball National office resides in sunny Saint Petersburg, Florida. (milb.com)
- In 2016, Minor League Baseball announced the creation of the MiLB CommUNITY initiative to urge fans to take action in their local communities and to promote unity. (milb.com)
- The Women in Baseball Leadership Committee is composed of women from the Minor League Baseball office and meets regularly to create programming and initiatives, discuss topics relevant to women in sports and help build comradery among women in the baseball industry. (milb.com)
Major League B6
- Reviewed annually by the NCAA and partially subsidized by Major League Baseball, ten sanctioned summer leagues played in 2003, with the Cape Cod League (established in 1885), Central Illinois Collegiate League (1963), and Valley League Baseball (1962) among the oldest. (encyclopedia.com)
- As the Major League Baseball Players Association (MLBPA) is locked out and mired in a protracted bargaining process with a group of billionaire owners, it might be instructive to look back at one of the sport's first organized labor struggles for some valuable lessons on work, solidarity, inclusion, and class consciousness. (thenation.com)
- Watch more than 6,500 games featuring some of the top prospects in Major League Baseball, with more than 95% of broadcasts available in high definition and games involving affiliates from every MLB club. (milb.com)
- Major League Baseball runs umpire development camps and hosts free one-day umpire clinics. (milb.com)
- George Washington Case (November 11, 1915 - January 23, 1989) was an American left and right fielder in Major League Baseball who played most of his career for the Washington Senators. (geni.com)
- John Joseph McGraw (April 7, 1873 - February 25, 1934) was an American Major League Baseball (MLB) player and manager who was for almost thirty years manager of the New York Giants. (geni.com)
- The National Baseball Federation (NBF-now the National Baseball Amateur Federation) was founded in 1915 and included semipro teams for several years while maintaining a classification for amateur teams. (encyclopedia.com)
- Despite the NCAA Committee on Summer Baseball determining that "the playing of baseball in summer for gain is distinctly opposed to the principles of amateurism," dissent among university faculty and staff and popular opinion supported baseball as reasonable summer employment. (encyclopedia.com)
- What most people don't know is that Japanese baseball has been around almost as long as American baseball. (nationalgeographic.com)
- Wikipedia explaines that there were subtle differences between American and Japanese baseball regulations, for instance, that "The Japanese baseball is wound more tightly wound and is harder than an American baseball. (nationalgeographic.com)
- I have never unwound the two baseballs to compare their tautness, nor have I been hit by enough American or Japanese baseballs to be an accurate judge of their hardness. (nationalgeographic.com)
- The American Baseball Congress (ABC-now American Amateur Baseball Congress, or AABC) was started as an explicitly amateur organization in 1935, in part with dissatisfied NBF members. (encyclopedia.com)
- His theorem can be represented by numbers, but it can also be explained by using as an analogy another very American institution - baseball. (go.com)
- Have you ever wanted to watch baseball, basketball, ice hockey or American football on your TV? (techdigest.tv)
- Dr. Daniel 'Doc' Lucius Adams A Founding Father of American Baseball Find A Grave Memorial ID # 70273343 Baseball pioneer. (geni.com)
- A photo of a Native American father and daughter playing baseball on a field. (cdc.gov)
- Generally referring to players over seventeen years old who have never been paid to play, amateur baseball has been managed nationally within the context of college athletics, various baseball organizations, and summer baseball leagues, and internationally with the goal of becoming part of the Olympic movement. (encyclopedia.com)
- Players during baseball's formative years of the 1840s and 1850s did not necessarily consider themselves amateurs because playing baseball was a social activity, not a commercial enterprise. (encyclopedia.com)
- Starting in the 1880s, many collegiate players were paid by elite eastern summer resorts to provide baseball as entertainment for guests. (encyclopedia.com)
- With effective control of college baseball players, the NCAA began to sanction summer baseball leagues during the 1960s. (encyclopedia.com)
- Baseball is a bat-and-ball sport played between two teams of nine players each. (geni.com)
- CT cross-sectional images of the humeri of professional baseball players reveal bigger bones in throwing arms (right) than in non-throwing arms (left). (nih.gov)
- A study of professional baseball players showed that some benefits of building bone during youth can last a lifetime. (nih.gov)
- To test whether the same holds true for humans, the researchers recruited more than 100 professional baseball players at different stages of their careers. (nih.gov)
- Baseball players have a unique internal control for such a study. (nih.gov)
- Baseball players also often retire from stressful throwing activities once they stop professional play. (nih.gov)
- The throwing arms of baseball players had more bone on the outer surface of the humerus (cortical bone), creating a bone with a bigger diameter. (nih.gov)
- The first official baseball game was played in the United States in 1846. (nationalgeographic.com)
- I watched my first Japanese baseball game in the Kleenex Miyagi Baseball Stadium, the same stadium that was so badly damaged in the 2011 Great Tohoko Earthquake . (nationalgeographic.com)
- When that hometown has suffered as Sendai has suffered, the cheering for something so small as a baseball game somehow becomes hugely important. (nationalgeographic.com)
- Since the 1870s, amateur baseball has existed in various forms as a reaction to the professionalism of the game. (encyclopedia.com)
- Following the successful tour of the 1869 Cincinnati Red Stockings, the first openly all-professional team, the rift was irresolvable between amateurs who sought to play the game for fun, social interaction, and physical improvement, and professionals for whom baseball was a career. (encyclopedia.com)
- As amateur baseball failed as a commercial enterprise, attention of those who rejected professionalism within the game moved toward college athletics. (encyclopedia.com)
- However, the college game was not immune from frequent controversies surrounding amateurism and professionalism and the issue of "summer baseball. (encyclopedia.com)
- Heck, sabermetric analysis of baseball games, popularized by Moneyball , does not even require that you ever go to a game (although, you're missing a lot if you don't). (techdirt.com)
- Many say baseball is a game, baseball is an option, but here we say baseball is life! (techdigest.tv)
- Toshiyasu Ogawa was a Japanese professional baseball player. (geni.com)
- That said, the costs of covering a baseball team should be plummeting. (techdirt.com)
- Nelson volunteered as a coach for the Roseville Raiders, a 13-year-old-and-under traveling baseball team that just wrapped up its season by winning the prestigious Gopher State Tournament of Champions in their age group. (nih.gov)
- Yahoo Fantasy Plus subscribers will have access to premium features on Fantasy Baseball, Basketball, Football and Hockey. (yahoo.com)
- The rest is history: baseball is Japan's most popular spectator sport, with a dozen major league teams and a whole exciting culture built around attending games, be they high school, amateur, or pro. (nationalgeographic.com)
- Baseball bloggers do a fine job of covering games by watching them on TV. (techdirt.com)
- Evolving from older bat-and-ball games, an early form of baseball was being played in England by the mid-eighteenth century. (geni.com)
- The Tohoku Rakuten Golden Eagles belong to the Pacific League of the NPB (Nippon Professional Baseball) and have long been synonymous with Sendai. (nationalgeographic.com)
- Baseball had become wildly popular, and the National League was cashing in. (thenation.com)
- Our women's 3/4 sleeve baseball T-shirts are perfect for Opening Day, super fandom, Little League championships and so much more. (cafepress.com)
- Don't just play fantasy baseball-win your league. (yahoo.com)
- Also, the bottom of the pad your baseball or inside the front of the helmet should be 1 inch above the athlete's eyebrows. (cdc.gov)
- Play baseball? (nih.gov)
- The job of a professional baseball umpire requires quick thinking, common sense and confidence. (milb.com)
- Are you looking for employment in affiliated baseball? (milb.com)
- The latest story, from the Wall Street Journal , fortells the doom of baseball writers, one of the oldest and most powerful sportswriting press corps in the country, in an article melodramatically titled Baseball Writers Brace for the End . (techdirt.com)
- A running discussion on the Cincinnati Reds and everything else in the baseball universe. (blogspot.com)
Major league baseball1
- Bahill and Laritz [ 5 ] suggested that major league baseball players make anticipatory saccades when dealing with balls traveling faster than the upper limit of eye movement as the ball approaches the batter's box. (medscape.com)
- This includes a baseball handout will help hat! (cdc.gov)
- For the 2015 season, Sanger ranked 40th in batting average, 11th in on-base percentage, and 2nd in walks in all of Division 1 baseball. (blogspot.com)
- Take On Sports Baseball is a sanctioned Little League Challenger Division league. (wcwaa.org)