Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The inferior region of the skull consisting of an internal (cerebral), and an external (basilar) surface.
Condensation products of aromatic amines and aldehydes forming azomethines substituted on the N atom, containing the general formula R-N:CHR. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
Neoplasms of the base of the skull specifically, differentiated from neoplasms of unspecified sites or bones of the skull (SKULL NEOPLASMS).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The presence of an uncomplimentary base in double-stranded DNA caused by spontaneous deamination of cytosine or adenine, mismatching during homologous recombination, or errors in DNA replication. Multiple, sequential base pair mismatches lead to formation of heteroduplex DNA; (NUCLEIC ACID HETERODUPLEXES).
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The part of a denture that overlies the soft tissue and supports the supplied teeth and is supported in turn by abutment teeth or the residual alveolar ridge. It is usually made of resins or metal or their combination.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Collections of facts, assumptions, beliefs, and heuristics that are used in combination with databases to achieve desired results, such as a diagnosis, an interpretation, or a solution to a problem (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed).
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Ketonic amines prepared from the condensation of a ketone with formaldehyde and ammonia or a primary or secondary amine. A Mannich base can act as the equivalent of an alpha,beta unsaturated ketone in synthesis or can be reduced to form physiologically active amino alcohols.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
A family of DNA repair enzymes that recognize damaged nucleotide bases and remove them by hydrolyzing the N-glycosidic bond that attaches them to the sugar backbone of the DNA molecule. The process called BASE EXCISION REPAIR can be completed by a DNA-(APURINIC OR APYRIMIDINIC SITE) LYASE which excises the remaining RIBOSE sugar from the DNA.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Any chemical species which acts as an electron-pair donor in a chemical bonding reaction with a LEWIS ACID.
A purine that is an isomer of ADENINE (6-aminopurine).
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A DNA repair enzyme that catalyses the excision of ribose residues at apurinic and apyrimidinic DNA sites that can result from the action of DNA GLYCOSYLASES. The enzyme catalyzes a beta-elimination reaction in which the C-O-P bond 3' to the apurinic or apyrimidinic site in DNA is broken, leaving a 3'-terminal unsaturated sugar and a product with a terminal 5'-phosphate. This enzyme was previously listed under EC
A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
Double-stranded nucleic acid molecules (DNA-DNA or DNA-RNA) which contain regions of nucleotide mismatches (non-complementary). In vivo, these heteroduplexes can result from mutation or genetic recombination; in vitro, they are formed by nucleic acid hybridization. Electron microscopic analysis of the resulting heteroduplexes facilitates the mapping of regions of base sequence homology of nucleic acids.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A DNA repair enzyme that catalyzes DNA synthesis during base excision DNA repair. EC
A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The sequential set of three nucleotides in TRANSFER RNA that interacts with its complement in MESSENGER RNA, the CODON, during translation in the ribosome.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A DNA repair enzyme that is an N-glycosyl hydrolase with specificity for DNA-containing ring-opened N(7)-methylguanine residues.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
An enzyme which catalyzes an endonucleolytic cleavage near PYRIMIDINE DIMERS to produce a 5'-phosphate product. The enzyme acts on the damaged DNA strand, from the 5' side of the damaged site.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.
A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.
An enzyme that catalyzes the HYDROLYSIS of the N-glycosidic bond between sugar phosphate backbone and URACIL residue during DNA synthesis.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Agents that are capable of inserting themselves between the successive bases in DNA, thus kinking, uncoiling or otherwise deforming it and therefore preventing its proper functioning. They are used in the study of DNA.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A group of enzymes catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. They include members of EC 3.1.21.-, EC 3.1.22.-, EC 3.1.23.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), EC 3.1.24.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), and EC 3.1.25.-.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of single-stranded regions of DNA or RNA molecules while leaving the double-stranded regions intact. They are particularly useful in the laboratory for producing "blunt-ended" DNA molecules from DNA with single-stranded ends and for sensitive GENETIC TECHNIQUES such as NUCLEASE PROTECTION ASSAYS that involve the detection of single-stranded DNA and RNA.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
RNA that has catalytic activity. The catalytic RNA sequence folds to form a complex surface that can function as an enzyme in reactions with itself and other molecules. It may function even in the absence of protein. There are numerous examples of RNA species that are acted upon by catalytic RNA, however the scope of this enzyme class is not limited to a particular type of substrate.
The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
A type of mutation in which a number of NUCLEOTIDES deleted from or inserted into a protein coding sequence is not divisible by three, thereby causing an alteration in the READING FRAMES of the entire coding sequence downstream of the mutation. These mutations may be induced by certain types of MUTAGENS or may occur spontaneously.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Rhodopsins found in the PURPLE MEMBRANE of halophilic archaea such as HALOBACTERIUM HALOBIUM. Bacteriorhodopsins function as an energy transducers, converting light energy into electrochemical energy via PROTON PUMPS.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A class of membrane lipids that have a polar head and two nonpolar tails. They are composed of one molecule of the long-chain amino alcohol sphingosine (4-sphingenine) or one of its derivatives, one molecule of a long-chain acid, a polar head alcohol and sometimes phosphoric acid in diester linkage at the polar head group. (Lehninger et al, Principles of Biochemistry, 2nd ed)
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Various mixtures of fats, waxes, animal and plant oils and solid and liquid hydrocarbons; vehicles for medicinal substances intended for external application; there are four classes: hydrocarbon base, absorption base, water-removable base and water-soluble base; several are also emollients.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Polydeoxyribonucleotides made up of deoxyadenine nucleotides and thymine nucleotides. Present in DNA preparations isolated from crab species. Synthetic preparations have been used extensively in the study of DNA.
The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Disturbances in the ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIUM of the body.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-oxygen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.2.
An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.
The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).
(T-4)-Osmium oxide (OsO4). A highly toxic and volatile oxide of osmium used in industry as an oxidizing agent. It is also used as a histological fixative and stain and as a synovectomy agent in arthritic joints. Its vapor can cause eye, skin, and lung damage.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
High molecular weight polymers containing a mixture of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides chained together by ribose or deoxyribose linkages.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A purine and a reaction intermediate in the metabolism of adenosine and in the formation of nucleic acids by the salvage pathway.
5-Hydroxymethyl-6-methyl- 2,4-(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione. Uracil derivative used in combination with toxic antibiotics to lessen their toxicity; also to stimulate leukopoiesis and immunity. Synonyms: pentoksil; hydroxymethylmethyluracil.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
A pyrimidine nucleoside that is composed of the base CYTOSINE linked to the five-carbon sugar D-RIBOSE.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying alanine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A DNA-dependent DNA polymerase characterized in prokaryotes and may be present in higher organisms. It has both 3'-5' and 5'-3' exonuclease activity, but cannot use native double-stranded DNA as template-primer. It is not inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents and is active in both DNA synthesis and repair. EC
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Enzyme systems containing a single subunit and requiring only magnesium for endonucleolytic activity. The corresponding modification methylases are separate enzymes. The systems recognize specific short DNA sequences and cleave either within, or at a short specific distance from, the recognition sequence to give specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. Enzymes from different microorganisms with the same specificity are called isoschizomers. EC
A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to DEOXYRIBOSE.
Adenosine molecules which can be substituted in any position, but are lacking one hydroxyl group in the ribose part of the molecule.
An amino alcohol with a long unsaturated hydrocarbon chain. Sphingosine and its derivative sphinganine are the major bases of the sphingolipids in mammals. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A methylated nucleotide base found in eukaryotic DNA. In ANIMALS, the DNA METHYLATION of CYTOSINE to form 5-methylcytosine is found primarily in the palindromic sequence CpG. In PLANTS, the methylated sequence is CpNpGp, where N can be any base.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Poly(deoxyribonucleotide):poly(deoxyribonucleotide)ligases. Enzymes that catalyze the joining of preformed deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes during repair of a single-stranded break in duplex DNA. The class includes both EC (ATP) and EC (NAD).
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Purines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PURINE NUCLEOTIDES.
A malignant tumor arising from the embryonic remains of the notochord. It is also called chordocarcinoma, chordoepithelioma, and notochordoma. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.
A cytotoxic polypeptide quinoxaline antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces echinatus that binds to DNA and inhibits RNA synthesis.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
Interruptions in one of the strands of the sugar-phosphate backbone of double-stranded DNA.
A carotenoid constituent of visual pigments. It is the oxidized form of retinol which functions as the active component of the visual cycle. It is bound to the protein opsin forming the complex rhodopsin. When stimulated by visible light, the retinal component of the rhodopsin complex undergoes isomerization at the 11-position of the double bond to the cis-form; this is reversed in "dark" reactions to return to the native trans-configuration.
An enzyme which catalyzes the endonucleolytic cleavage of phosphodiester bonds at purinic or apyrimidinic sites (AP-sites) to produce 5'-Phosphooligonucleotide end products. The enzyme prefers single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and was formerly classified as EC
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
Cytosine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Highly reactive chemicals that introduce alkyl radicals into biologically active molecules and thereby prevent their proper functioning. Many are used as antineoplastic agents, but most are very toxic, with carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, and immunosuppressant actions. They have also been used as components in poison gases.
Enzymes that are involved in the reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule, which contained damaged regions.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC
Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE and phosphate attached that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.
The regulatory elements of an OPERON to which activators or repressors bind thereby effecting the transcription of GENES in the operon.

A computational screen for methylation guide snoRNAs in yeast. (1/2613)

Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are required for ribose 2'-O-methylation of eukaryotic ribosomal RNA. Many of the genes for this snoRNA family have remained unidentified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, despite the availability of a complete genome sequence. Probabilistic modeling methods akin to those used in speech recognition and computational linguistics were used to computationally screen the yeast genome and identify 22 methylation guide snoRNAs, snR50 to snR71. Gene disruptions and other experimental characterization confirmed their methylation guide function. In total, 51 of the 55 ribose methylated sites in yeast ribosomal RNA were assigned to 41 different guide snoRNAs.  (+info)

Base pairing of anhydrohexitol nucleosides with 2,6-diaminopurine, 5-methylcytosine and uracil asbase moiety. (2/2613)

Hexitol nucleic acids (HNAs) with modified bases (5-methylcytosine, 2,6-diaminopurine or uracil) were synthesized. The introduction of the 5-methylcytosine base demonstrates that N -benzoylated 5-methylcytosyl-hexitol occurs as the imino tautomer. The base pairing systems (G:CMe, U:D, T:D and U:A) obey Watson-Crick rules. Substituting hT for hU, hCMefor hC and hD for hA generally leads to increased duplex stability. In a single case, replacement of hC by hCMedid not result in duplex stabilization. This sequence-specific effect could be explained by the geometry of the model duplex used for carrying out the thermal stability study. Generally, polypurine HNA sequences give more stable duplexes with their RNA complement than polypyrimidine HNA sequences. This observation supports the hypothesis that, besides changes in stacking pattern, the difference in conformational stress between purine and pyrimidine nucleosides may contribute to duplex stability. Introduction of hCMeand hD in HNA sequences further increases the potential of HNA to function as a steric blocking agent.  (+info)

Smoothing of the thermal stability of DNA duplexes by using modified nucleosides and chaotropic agents. (3/2613)

The effect of alkyltrimethylammonium ions on the thermostability of natural and modified DNA duplexes has been investigated. We have shown that the use of tetramethylammonium ions TMA+along with the chemical modification of duplexes allow the fine adjustment of T m and the possibility of obtaining several duplex systems with varied isostabilizedtemperatures, some of which show greater stability than those of natural DNA. This approach could be very useful for DNA sequencing by hybridization.  (+info)

Complete sequence of a 184-kilobase catabolic plasmid from Sphingomonas aromaticivorans F199. (4/2613)

The complete 184,457-bp sequence of the aromatic catabolic plasmid, pNL1, from Sphingomonas aromaticivorans F199 has been determined. A total of 186 open reading frames (ORFs) are predicted to encode proteins, of which 79 are likely directly associated with catabolism or transport of aromatic compounds. Genes that encode enzymes associated with the degradation of biphenyl, naphthalene, m-xylene, and p-cresol are predicted to be distributed among 15 gene clusters. The unusual coclustering of genes associated with different pathways appears to have evolved in response to similarities in biochemical mechanisms required for the degradation of intermediates in different pathways. A putative efflux pump and several hypothetical membrane-associated proteins were identified and predicted to be involved in the transport of aromatic compounds and/or intermediates in catabolism across the cell wall. Several genes associated with integration and recombination, including two group II intron-associated maturases, were identified in the replication region, suggesting that pNL1 is able to undergo integration and excision events with the chromosome and/or other portions of the plasmid. Conjugative transfer of pNL1 to another Sphingomonas sp. was demonstrated, and genes associated with this function were found in two large clusters. Approximately one-third of the ORFs (59 of them) have no obvious homology to known genes.  (+info)

Mutated epithelial cadherin is associated with increased tumorigenicity and loss of adhesion and of responsiveness to the motogenic trefoil factor 2 in colon carcinoma cells. (5/2613)

Epithelial (E)-cadherin and its associated cytoplasmic proteins (alpha-, beta-, and gamma-catenins) are important mediators of epithelial cell-cell adhesion and intracellular signaling. Much evidence exists suggesting a tumor/invasion suppressor role for E-cadherin, and loss of expression, as well as mutations, has been described in a number of epithelial cancers. To investigate whether E-cadherin gene (CDH1) mutations occur in colorectal cancer, we screened 49 human colon carcinoma cell lines from 43 patients by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and direct sequencing. In addition to silent changes, polymorphisms, and intronic variants in a number of the cell lines, we detected frameshift single-base deletions in repeat regions of exon 3 (codons 120 and 126) causing premature truncations at codon 216 in four replication-error-positive (RER+) cell lines (LS174T, HCT116, GP2d, and GP5d) derived from 3 patients. In LS174T such a mutation inevitably contributes to its lack of E-cadherin protein expression and function. Transfection of full-length E-cadherin cDNA into LS174T cells enhanced intercellular adhesion, induced differentiation, retarded proliferation, inhibited tumorigenicity, and restored responsiveness to the migratory effects induced by the motogenic trefoil factor 2 (human spasmolytic polypeptide). These results indicate that, although inactivating E-cadherin mutations occur relatively infrequently in colorectal cancer cell lines overall (3/43 = 7%), they are more common in cells with an RER+ phenotype (3/10 = 30%) and may contribute to the dysfunction of the E-cadherin-catenin-mediated adhesion/signaling system commonly seen in these tumors. These results also indicate that normal E-cadherin-mediated cell adhesion can restore the ability of colonic tumor cells to respond to trefoil factor 2.  (+info)

High base pair opening rates in tracts of GC base pairs. (6/2613)

Sequence-dependent structural features of the DNA double helix have a strong influence on the base pair opening dynamics. Here we report a detailed study of the kinetics of base pair breathing in tracts of GC base pairs in DNA duplexes derived from 1H NMR measurements of the imino proton exchange rates upon titration with the exchange catalyst ammonia. In the limit of infinite exchange catalyst concentration, the exchange times of the guanine imino protons of the GC tracts extrapolate to much shorter base pair lifetimes than commonly observed for isolated GC base pairs. The base pair lifetimes in the GC tracts are below 5 ms for almost all of the base pairs. The unusually rapid base pair opening dynamics of GC tracts are in striking contrast to the behavior of AT tracts, where very long base pair lifetimes are observed. The implication of these findings for the structural principles governing spontaneous helix opening as well as the DNA-binding specificity of the cytosine-5-methyltransferases, where flipping of the cytosine base has been observed, are discussed.  (+info)

How translational accuracy influences reading frame maintenance. (7/2613)

Most missense errors have little effect on protein function, since they only exchange one amino acid for another. However, processivity errors, frameshifting or premature termination result in a synthesis of an incomplete peptide. There may be a connection between missense and processivity errors, since processivity errors now appear to result from a second error occurring after recruitment of an errant aminoacyl-tRNA, either spontaneous dissociation causing premature termination or translational frameshifting. This is clearest in programmed translational frameshifting where the mRNA programs errant reading by a near-cognate tRNA; this error promotes a second frameshifting error (a dual-error model of frameshifting). The same mechanism can explain frameshifting by suppressor tRNAs, even those with expanded anticodon loops. The previous model that suppressor tRNAs induce quadruplet translocation now appears incorrect for most, and perhaps for all of them. We suggest that the 'spontaneous' tRNA-induced frameshifting and 'programmed' mRNA-induced frameshifting use the same mechanism, although the frequency of frameshifting is very different. This new model of frameshifting suggests that the tRNA is not acting as the yardstick to measure out the length of the translocation step. Rather, the translocation of 3 nucleotides may be an inherent feature of the ribosome.  (+info)

Trans-activation of the Tetrahymena group I intron ribozyme via a non-native RNA-RNA interaction. (8/2613)

The peripheral P2.1 domain of the Tetrahymena group I intron ribozyme has been shown to be non-essential for splicing. We found, however, that separately prepared P2.1 RNA efficiently accelerates the 3' splice-site-specific hydrolysis reaction of a mutant ribozyme lacking both P2.1 and its upstream region in trans. We report here the unusual properties of this trans-activation. Compensatory mutational analysis revealed that non-native long-range base-pairings between the loop region of P2.1 RNA and L5c region of the mutant ribozyme are needed for the activation in spite of the fact that P2.1 forms base-pairings with P9.1 in the Tetrahymena ribozyme. The trans -activation depends on the non-native RNA-RNA interaction together with the higher order structure of P2.1 RNA. This activation is unique among the known trans-activations that utilize native tertiary interactions or RNA chaperons.  (+info)

Aside from the obvious necessity of wobble, that our bodies have a limited amount of tRNAs and wobble allows for broad specificity, wobble base pairs have been shown to facilitate many biological functions, most clearly proven in the bacterium Escherichia coli. In fact, in a study of E. colis tRNA for alanine there is a wobble base pair that determines whether the tRNA will be aminoacylated. When a tRNA reaches an aminoacyl tRNA synthetase, the job of the synthetase is to join the t-shaped RNA with its amino acid. These aminoacylated tRNAs go on to the translation of an mRNA transcript, and are the fundamental elements that connect to the codon of the amino acid.[1] The necessity of the wobble base pair is illustrated through experimentation where the Guanine- Uracil pairing is changed to its natural Guanine- Cytosine pairing. Oligoribonucleotides were synthesized on a Gene Assembler Plus, and then spread across a DNA sequence known to code a tRNA for Alanine, 2D-NMRs are then run on the ...
On Tue, Jun 22, 2010 at 2:21 PM, Scott Classen ,sclassen at, wrote: , Hello friendly Phenix developers, , , According to the CHANGES for phenix.refine 1.6.2-432 there is a new , feature: , , hydrogen-bond restraints for Watson-Crick base pairs , , How do I use this? I couldnt find any documentation... or is it automagic? , Automagic, I hope. Start with main.secondary_structure_restraints=True, and it will attempt to find existing base pairs by analyzing hydrogen bonds. If your geometry is still a little screwy, the parameter syntax is like this: refinement.secondary_structure.nucleic_acids { base_pair { base1 = chain A and resseq 1 base2 = chain B and resseq 10 } } One piece of advice: make sure your structure has either all hydrogen atoms where they should be, or none at all - if youre missing any, the secondary structure restraints will probably break. The automatic mechanism will also restrain protein helices and sheets, but you can easily turn this off ...
Complementary base definition, either of the nucleotide bases linked by a hydrogen bond on opposite strands of DNA or double-stranded RNA: guanine is the complementary base of cytosine, and adenine is the complementary base of thymine in DNA and of uracil in RNA. See more.
xDNA molecule. Computer artwork of a molecule of expanded deoxyribonucleic acid (xDNA). Normal DNA is composed of two strands twisted into a double helix. Each strand consists of a sugar-phosphate backbone attached to the nucleotide bases guanine, cytosine, thymine and adenine. xDNA, which was created by Professor Eric Kool and colleagues at Stanford University, USA, has an extra benzene ring added to adenine (xA) and thymine (xT). This makes the molecule wider and more heat resistant. It is also fluorescent, making it useful for medical biopsies. Synthetic forms of DNA, such as xDNA, could be used to engineer novel cell types. - Stock Image G110/0895
2 -O-Methyl guanosine G is classified as a 2 -O-Methyl RNA monomer. 2 -O-Methyl nucleotides are most commonly used to confer nuclease resistance to an oligo designed for anti-sense, siRNA or aptamer-based research, diagnostic or therapeutic purposes, when specific 2 -OH is not required. Nuclease resistance can be further enhanced by phosphorothiolation of appropriate internucleotide linkages within the oligo.. The hydrogen bonding behavior of a 2 -O-Methyl RNA/RNA base pair is closer to that of an RNA/RNA base pair than a DNA/RNA base pair. Consequently, the presence of 2 -O-Methyl nucleotides improves duplex stability. Indeed, incorporation of a 2 -O-Methyl nucleotide into an anti-sense oligo (resulting in a 2 -O-Methyl RNA/DNA chimeric), lead to a increase in the Tm of its duplex with RNA, relative to that formed by an unmodified anti-sense DNA oligo, of 1.3 C per 2 -O-Methyl RNA residue added (2). Moreover, from a synthesis standpoint, the coupling efficiency of 2 -O-Methyl phosphoramidites ...
A synthetic DNA base pair expands the genetic alphabet to enable the creation and scale-up of novel and diverse protein therapeutics with improved safety and efficacy profiles. SAN DIEGO, November 29, 2017 - Synthorx Inc. announced today that scientists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) and the company, guided by Floyd Romesberg, Ph.D., have developed the first semi-synthetic organism that can store and retrieve increased genetic information. The semi-synthetic organism was made to maintain, replicate, transcribe, and translate a synthetic DNA base pair in order to incorporate various non-natural amino acids (nnAAs) into a full-length protein. This research, published today in Nature, breaks through technical barriers to creating more diverse proteins for improved drug characteristics as well as enabling cost-effective scale-up for drug development.. An expanded genetic alphabet allows for site-specific incorporation of different non-natural amino acids to create novel full-length and ...
Organisms are defined by the information encoded in their genomes, and since the origin of life this information has been encoded using a two-base-pair genetic alphabet (A-T and G-C). In vitro, the alphabet has been expanded to include several unnatural base pairs (UBPs)1, 2, 3. We have developed a class of UBPs formed between nucleotides bearing hydrophobic nucleobases, exemplified by the pair formed between d5SICS and dNaM (d5SICS-dNaM), which is efficiently PCR-amplified1 and transcribed4, 5 in vitro, and whose unique mechanism of replication has been characterized6, 7. However, expansion of an organisms genetic alphabet presents new and unprecedented challenges: the unnatural nucleoside triphosphates must be available inside the cell; endogenous polymerases must be able to use the unnatural triphosphates to faithfully replicate DNA containing the UBP within the complex cellular milieu; and finally, the UBP must be stable in the presence of pathways that maintain the integrity of DNA. Here ...
Return to Modified Bases Modifications 5-Nitroindole is currently the best universal base available. It does not favor any particular base-pairing (i.e., it does not support base-specific hydrogen bond formation), but does contribute to duplex stability through base-stacking interactions. Therefore, it is not as destabilizing to the duplex as mismatches between the standard bases. 5-Nitroindole directs random incorporation of any specific base when used as a template for DNA polymerase and partially blocks enzyme processivity.. ...
Complementary base pairing refers to the structural pairing of nucleotide bases in deoxyribonucleic acid, which is commonly known as DNA. DNA is made up of
Interactive 3D chemistry animations of reaction mechanisms and 3D models of chemical structures for students studying University courses and advanced school chemistry hosted by University of Liverpool
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the chemical compound that contains the instructions needed to develop and direct the activities of nearly all living organisms. DNA molecules are made of two twisting, paired strands, often referred to as a double helix.. Each DNA strand is made of four chemical units, called nucleotide bases, which comprise the genetic alphabet. The bases are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). Bases on opposite strands pair specifically: an A always pairs with a T; a C always pairs with a G. The order of the As, Ts, Cs, and Gs determines the meaning of the information encoded in that part of the DNA molecule just as the order of letters determines the meaning of a word.. An organisms complete set of DNA is called its genome. Virtually every single cell in the body contains a complete copy of the approximately 3 billion DNA base pairs, or letters, that make up the human genome.. With its four-letter language, DNA contains the information needed to build ...
A method for detecting disease-associated alleles in patient genetic material is provided whereby a first group of oligonucleotide molecules, synthesized to compliment base sequences of the disease associated alleles is immobilized on a predetermined position on a substrate, and then contacted with patient genetic material to form duplexes. The duplexes are then contacted with a second group of oligonucleotide molecules which are synthesized to extend the predetermined length of the oligonucleotide molecules of the first group, and where each of the oligonucleotide molecules of the second group are tagged and either incorporate universal bases or a mixture of guanine, cytosine, thymine, and adenine, or complementary nucleotide strands that are tagged with a different fluorochrome which radiates light at a predetermined wavelength. The treated substrate is then washed and the light patterns radiating therefrom are compared with predetermined light patterns of various diseases that were prepared on
TY - JOUR. T1 - Induced Fit In Synthetic Receptors. T2 - Nucleotide Base Recognition By A Molecular Hinge. AU - Hamilton, Andrew D.. AU - Engen, Donna Van. PY - 1987/8/1. Y1 - 1987/8/1. UR - UR - U2 - 10.1021/ja00250a052. DO - 10.1021/ja00250a052. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0001676488. VL - 109. SP - 5035. EP - 5036. JO - Journal of the American Chemical Society. JF - Journal of the American Chemical Society. SN - 0002-7863. IS - 16. ER - ...
1IXJ: Crystal Structure of d(GCGAAAGCT) Containing a Parallel-stranded Duplex with Homo Base Pairs and an Anti-Parallel Duplex with Watson-Crick Base pairs
Knotted2Nested :: DESCRIPTION Knotted2Nested removes pseudoknots from a list of RNA base pairs, using different algorithms. It produces in pseudoknot-free (dot-bracket) 2D structures. ::DEVELOPER The Centre for
LANGUAGE OverloadedStrings #-} {-# LANGUAGE RecordWildCards #-} -- , FR3D provides a very convenient library of explored RNA structures. We are -- mostly interested in the basepairs files. In contrast to the RNAstrand -- library or melting experiments, these data sets provide non-canonical RNA -- pairing. -- -- NOTE that FR3D entries contain basepairs both in (i,j) as well as (j,i) -- orientation (with i,j). module Biobase.FR3D where import Data.ByteString.Char8 as BS import Data.List as L import Biobase.Primary import Biobase.Secondary -- , Encapsulates all the basepairs information. data FR3D = FR3D { pdbid :: ByteString , chains :: [(ByteString,ByteString)] , basepairs :: [Basepair] } deriving (Show) -- , A single basepair in a basepair system. data Basepair = Basepair { interaction :: ExtPairAnnotation -- nucleotide 1 , nucleotide1 :: Char , pdbnumber1 :: Int , chain1 :: ByteString , seqpos1 :: Int -- nucleotide 2 , nucleotide2 :: Char , pdbnumber2 :: Int , chain2 :: ByteString , seqpos2 ...
The pairing of complementary nucleotide bases (adenine and thymine, guanine and cytosine) to each other via hydrogen bonds from opposite strands of a double stranded nucleic acid (such as DNA or RNA), thereby holding the double-stranded nucleic acid together ...
DNA is an amazing molecule which is the basic template for all genetics. It is the primary molecule for storing biological information, and has many applications in nanotechnology. Double-stranded DNA may contain mismatched base pairs beyond the Watson-Crick pairs guanine-cytosine and adenine-thymine. To date, no one has found ...
Efficient and sequence-independent replication of DNA containing a third base pair establishes a functional six-letter genetic alphabet, Malyshev, D. A., Dhami K., Quach H. T., Lavergne Thomas, Ordoukhanian P., Torkamani A., and Romesberg F. E. , Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, Volume 109, Number 30, p.12005-10, (2012) ...
Number of consecutive base pairs required in 3 end. How many consecutive 3 end base pairs in the primer that MUST be present for priming/mispriming to occur. This option is included since 3 terminal base pairs are known to be essential for priming to occur ...
div id=meth_popup4,,center,,h2,Polymerization and External Staples,/h2,,a id=meth_clickout4,Click Here to Close,/a,,/center, ,center,,div id=slider3, ,div,,p,The 96 polymerization staples need to be unique sequences. Additionally, the design incorporates 60 single-stranded scaffold components to form the connections between the rows within a trapezoid. In order to avoid difficulties with unwanted binding between polymerization staples or external staples, the 96 polymerization staples needed to each be different from the 60 single-stranded scaffold sequences and from the reverse complement of each of these 60 sequences. Moreover, each polymerization staple adds additional restrictions. The problem is further complicated by the fact that multiple complementary base pairs will weakly bind to each other locally even if the entire strand is not complementary. We therefore limited our strands to have less than 5 consecutive complementary base pairs out of 10 base pair external staples ...
div id=meth_popup4,,center,,h2,Polymerization and External Staples,/h2,,a id=meth_clickout4,Click Here to Close,/a,,/center, ,center,,div id=slider3, ,div,,p,The 96 polymerization staples need to be unique sequences. Additionally, the design incorporates 60 single-stranded scaffold components to form the connections between the rows within a trapezoid. In order to avoid difficulties with unwanted binding between polymerization staples or external staples, the 96 polymerization staples needed to each be different from the 60 single-stranded scaffold sequences and from the reverse complement of each of these 60 sequences. Moreover, each polymerization staple adds additional restrictions. The problem is further complicated by the fact that multiple complementary base pairs will weakly bind to each other locally even if the entire strand is not complementary. We therefore limited our strands to have less than 5 consecutive complementary base pairs out of 10 base pair external staples ...
Hi Imre, you need to define custom bonds between these pairs: see section Definition of custom bonds and angles. phenix.refine does not do it automatically. Pavel. On 4/6/09 4:42 AM, Imre Toeroe wrote: , Hi, , , Does anybody know an easy way to restrain nucleic acid base pairs (base , stacking+Watson-Crick base pairing) in phenix.refine? I am refining , against a 3.3 A dataset. , , Thanks, , , Imre , , , _______________________________________________ , phenixbb mailing list , phenixbb at , , ...
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Explore the composition and structure of DNA molecules. Learn how DNA molecules are composed of four different types of nucleotides that pair with...
If you are a society or association member and require assistance with obtaining online access instructions please contact our Journal Customer Services team ...
A newly created DNA base editor contains an atom-rearranging enzyme (red) that can change adenine into inosine (read and copied as guanine), guide RNA (green) which directs the molecule to the right spot, and Cas9 nickase (blue), which snips the opposing strand of DNA and tricks the cell into swapping the complementary base.
Next, they changed the molecule theyd originally used to make the Y base, and found that it could be more easily recognised by enzymes in the bacteria that synthesise DNA molecules during DNA replication. In the genome of living organisms, the natural bases A, T, C, and G are structured as two base pairs A-T and C-G on the DNA double helix. Back... Read more ...
NH3 is not a strong base. A weak base is defined as a base that does not completely dissociate into ions when in a solution. Weak bases are also known as weak electrolytes and reactions with them...
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Scientists have taken the first steps toward rewriting the blueprint of life using laboratory-made DNA base pairs not seen in nature.
Researchers from the University of Cambridge and the Babraham Institute have found that a naturally occurring modified DNA base appears to be stably
The stronger the acid, the weaker will be its conjugate base. We can, therefore, relate the strength of a base to the pKa of its conjugate acid.
This Part 1 from the series of notes for SPM Chemistry Form 4 on Acids and Bases will be on the introduction of acids and bases/alkalis.
In order to simplify the use and the removal of bases and their salts from reaction mixtures, SiliCycle has developed a range of silica bound bases
Chapter Students will be able to define an acid and base in terms of both the Arrhenius and the Bronsted-Lowry definitions and provide examples of each (including examples that follow the Bronsted-Lowry
Encode to Base64 format or decode from it with various advanced options. Our site has an easy to use online tool to convert your data.
Encode to Base64 format or decode from it with various advanced options. Our site has an easy to use online tool to convert your data.
Decode from Base64 format or encode into it with various advanced options. Our site has an easy to use online tool to convert your data.
Decode from Base64 format or encode into it with various advanced options. Our site has an easy to use online tool to convert your data.
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Though an acid and a base are both chemical compounds that change the pH of water theyre dissolved in, an acid has a lower pH...
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Her kan du indtaste dine søgeord og finde publikationer og Akademiske CVer. Søg eksempelvis på et emne, en teoretiker, eller en bestemt faglighed. Hvis du vælger at søge uden indtastning af søgeord, får du en komplet resultatliste med alle publikationer og Akademiske CVer på Braintrust Base.. ...
Free Notes - Introduction to Acids, Bases and Indicators | Properties of acids | Physical properties of acids | Chemical properties of acids
A Hoogsteen base pair is a variation of base-pairing in nucleic acids such as the A•T pair. In this manner, two nucleobases, one on each strand, can be held together by hydrogen bonds in the major groove. A Hoogsteen base pair applies the N7 position of the purine base (as a hydrogen bond acceptor) and C6 amino group (as a donor), which bind the Watson-Crick (N3-N4) face of the pyrimidine base. Ten years after James Watson and Francis Crick published their model of the DNA double helix, Karst Hoogsteen reported a crystal structure of a complex in which analogues of A and T formed a base pair that had a different geometry from that described by Watson and Crick. Similarly, an alternative base-pairing geometry can occur for G•C pairs. Hoogsteen pointed out that if the alternative hydrogen-bonding patterns were present in DNA, then the double helix would have to assume a quite different shape. Hoogsteen base pairs are, however, rarely observed. Hoogsteen pairs have quite different properties ...
Left: Watson-Crick base pair; Right: Hoogsteen base pair (A = Adenine, U = Uracil, found in RNA).. Were all familiar with the double helix form of DNA. However, thats not the only shape DNA ever takes. Hashim Al-Hashimi led a team from the University of Michigan in identifying and observing an alternate form of DNA.. Normally, the DNA bases adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G) and cytosine (C) pair up in a specific way to create whats known as a Watson-Crick double helix. By using modified nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), the team was able to observe a different kind of pairing called Hoogsteen base pairs. Although this structure had been observed before, Hoogsteen base pairs were thought to occur only in DNA that is damaged or bound to certain proteins or drugs. Al-Hashimi and his team showed that this is not the case, in fact, DNA can spontaneously, though briefly, flip into the alternative orientation. The changes were too ephemeral to have been seen by conventional NMR. Al-Hashimis ...
Proton/hydrogen-transfer processes have been broadly studied in the past 50 years to explain the photostability and the spontaneous tautomerism in the DNA base pairs. In the present study, the CASSCF/CASPT2 methodology is used to map the two-dimensional potential energy surfaces along the stretched NH reaction coordinates of the guanine-cytosine (GC) base pair. Concerted and stepwise pathways are explored initially in vacuo, and three mechanisms are studied: the stepwise double proton transfer, the stepwise double hydrogen transfer, and the concerted double proton transfer. The results are consistent with previous findings related to the photostability of the GC base pair, and a new contribution to tautomerism is provided. The C-based imino-oxo and imino-enol GC tautomers, which can be generated during the UV irradiation of the Watson-Crick base pair, have analogous radiationless energy-decay channels to those of the canonical base pair. In addition, the C-based imino-enol GC tautomer is ...
Hoogsteen (HG) base pairs (bps) provide an alternative pairing geometry to Watson-Crick (WC) bps and can play unique functional roles in duplex DNA. Here, we use structural features unique to HG bps (syn purine base, HG hydrogen bonds and constricted C1-C1 distance across the bp) to search for HG bps in X-ray structures of DNA duplexes in the Protein Data Bank. The survey identifies 106 A•T and 34 G•C HG bps in DNA duplexes, many of which are undocumented in the literature. It also uncovers HG-like bps with syn purines lacking HG hydrogen bonds or constricted C1-C1 distances that are analogous to conformations that have been proposed to populate the WC-to-HG transition pathway. The survey reveals HG preferences similar to those observed for transient HG bps in solution by nuclear magnetic resonance, including stronger preferences for A•T versus G•C bps, TA versus GG steps, and also suggests enrichment at terminal ends with a preference for 5-purine. HG bps induce small local ...
has been determined by two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy and restrained molecular dynamics. Under the appropriate experimental conditions, this molecule self-associates, forming a symmetric dimer stabilized by four intermolecular Watson-Crick base pairs. The resulting four-stranded structure consists of two G:C:A:T tetrads, formed by facing the minor groove side of the Watson-Crick base-pairs. Most probably, the association of the base-pairs is stabilized by coordinating a Na(+) cation. This is the first time that this novel G:C:A:T tetrad has been found in an oligonucleotide structure. This observation increases considerably the number of sequences that may adopt a four-stranded architecture. Overall, the three-dimensional structure is similar to those observed previously in other quadruplexes formed by minor groove alignment of Watson-Crick base pairs. This resemblance strongly suggests that we may be observing a general motif for DNA-DNA recognition ...
The expansion of the genetic alphabet with additional, unnatural base pairs (UBPs) is an important and long standing goal in synthetic biology. Nucleotides
Nature Chemical Biology, Published online: 17 June 2021; doi:10.1038/s41589-021-00817-3 Structural biology, computational biology and biochemical analysis revealed the...
Vidal E, Sayols S, Moran S, Guillaumet-Adkins A, Schroeder MP, Royo R, Orozco M, Gut M, Gut I, Lopez-Bigas N, Heyn H, Esteller M.. Oncogene. 2017 Oct 5;36(40):5648-5657. doi: 10.1038/onc.2017.176. Epub 2017 Jun 5. ...
Its been known that theres this phage that doesnt have adenine in its genome . . . and its been an unsolved mystery about how it does that, says Jef Boeke, a molecular biologist at New York University Grossman School of Medicine who was not involved in the work. These papers spell that out in glorious molecular detail, he tells The Scientist. Plus, the authors have done an amazingly comprehensive job of showing that this is not one crazy outlier, but theres a whole group of bacteriophages that have this kind of genetic material. …. There are a lot of questions that remain unanswered, says Kaminski. In a paper that came out earlier this month on which hes a coauthor, researchers shed light on one of those questions-how the S-2L genome is copied-by identifying the relevant polymerase. But Kaminski explains that one of the most difficult questions to answer will be when this mechanism evolved. Its supposed to be ancient because it roots deeply in the phylogenetic tree and because ...
Historically, the first universal base employed was 2-deoxyInosine (dI). DeoxyInosine is a naturally occurring base that, while not truly universal, is less destabilizing than mismatches involving the four standard bases. Hydrogen bond interactions between dI and dA, dG, dC and dT are weak and unequal, with the result that some base-pairing bias does exist with dI:dC , dI:dA , dI:dG , dI:dT. When present in a DNA template, deoxyInosine preferentially directs incorporation of dC in the growing nascent strand by DNA polymerase.. ...
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Jarvis began his project with collaborators by trying to piece together the genome regions with what are known as next-generation sequencers, which read chunks of 100 to 400 DNA base pairs at a time and then take a few days to assemble them into a draft genome. After doing the sequencing, the scientists discovered that the read lengths were not long enough to assemble the regulatory regions of some of the genes that control brain circuits for vocal learning.. University of Maryland computational biologists Adam Phillippy and Sergey Koren - experts at assembling genomes - heard about Jarviss sequencing struggles at a conference and approached him with a possible solution of modifying the algorithms that order the DNA base pairs. But the fix was still not sufficient.. Last year, 1000 base-pair reads by Roch 454 became available, as did the single molecule sequencer by Pacific Biosciences. The Pacbio technology generates strands of 2,250 to 23,000 base pairs at a time and can draft an entire ...
Basepairs involving Hoogsteen(H) edge of Adenine and WatsonCrick(W) edge of Guanine is shown. Highlighted examples are found from RNA crystal structures obtained from PDB. Base pairs stabilized by N-H...N/O type hydrogen bonds ...
Top sportspersons are turning from specific weight activities to more general activities such as gymnastic and conditioning exercises. The problem with weights and improvements not transferring to the sport is that exercising isolated muscle groups individually does not produce the same kind of specific stimulation as occurs in a whole-body activity. Thus, exercises which produce loading in several segments of the body while the rest of the body has to work to produce a stable base, have the potential to stimulate a general body function and awareness of how to create the bases for movement. This is important for young people who have a need for overall strength development to achieve a satisfactory level of function ...
What seemed like no time at all to Burgen was more than six hours of surgery performed by Dr. Baltzer and her team. They started by thoroughly cleaning his hand and wound, which was still greasy from the machinery he had been handling, then spent about an hour finding and tagging the tiny blood vessels in his thumb and hand they would need to reattach. We put a very fine suture - a little blue stitch - in each one at the start, so we could easily see them later when wed been in surgery for hours, says Dr. Baltzer.. Next was an hour of what she calls heavy work, or fixing the bones with wires, plates and screws, so they had a stable base on which to do the delicate repair of nerves, arteries and veins. After about 40 minutes of repairing tendons, which allowed the thumb to bend, they moved on to the nerves and arteries. Some of the blood vessels, which are only 0.5 millimetres in diameter, had parts that were crushed, so those parts needed to be removed to open up blood flow. They used ...
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No. Chemical: Phosphorous acid. H Br4(Ionic, molecular, acid, or base) 2). NO2 is a. molecular compound. is HClO4 an acid or base. PCl5 is a. note that this is dissociation ot ionisation because HCl does not have ions. (See Safer Choice Criteria). Synonym: Phosphorous acid tripyrrolidide, Tripyrrolidinophosphine, Tris(N,N-tetramethylene)phosphorous acid triamide Empirical Formula (Hill Notation): C 12 H 24 N 3 P Molecular Weight: 241.31 Classify each chemical compound listed in the table below COMPOUND ( select all that apply) 1). The ions themselves are covalent, not ionic. HCN - Acid NH2- - Base CN- - Base ... H3PO3(l), and H3PO4(l) shown here, determine the # of ionizable protons (acidic hydrogen atoms) per formula unit. in the same way some bases are not ionicv but can produce ions by dissociation e.g. Na2SO4 (sodium sulfate) is an ionic compound. is H2SO3 an acid or base. The post-transition metals often form borderline compounds as well, although the fluorides and oxides in low oxidation ...
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re base nomenculature... How do we remember what is what?... A, G, C, T, U are obvious For a base which is one of three, use the letter after the base concerned. ie B=NOT A D=NOT C H=NOT G V=NOT T (U is already Uridine) S=GC, W=AT...S stands for strong, W for weak, correspondong to 3 or 2 H bonds and the strength of the pairing in the link. R=purine...short name, large base ie A or G Y=Pyrimidine... long name, small base ie C or T That leaves K (keto) which is G or T M (which means methyl) and is A or C Personally, I find all of these easy to remember except K vs M. The mnemonic I use here is that since G can be methylated, it must start out Ketone (ie K), and from this all others can be derived :) so John Nash got it right, but I hope the reasoning helps you remember :) Mike kitkitkitkitkitkitkitkitkit Poidinger Dept Of Microbiology University of Reading UK ...
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A method for sequencing DNA based on detecting pyrophosphate that is released when the complementary base is incorporated on the strand being synthesized using the unknown DNA as a template. Pyrophosphate release is detected with luciferase. ...
Sequences Orthographe De Base Ce Ce can be very useful guide, and Sequences Orthographe De Base Ce Ce play an important role in your products. The problem is that once you have gotten your nifty new product, the Sequences Orthographe De Base Ce Ce gets a brief glance, maybe a once over, but it often tends to get discarded or lost with the original packaging. ...
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Thrusfield, M. V., 1986: Epidemiological studies using computerized data bases iii. examples of epidemiological studies using computerized data bases
View Notes - Organic_Acids_and_bases from CHEM CHEM266 at Waterloo. Organic Acids and Bases This document has been written to provide you with an overview of the fundamental concepts of organic
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All the interactions between nucleic acid molecules that help express genetic information involve base‐pairing between complementary sequences. Complementarity
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Why is NH3 (Ammonia) a base? The acid base theory proposed by the Bronsted-Lowry theory says that an acid is the molecule that donates hydrogen ion in water. A
The Biological Bases of Behavior chapter of this Intro to Psychology Help and Review course is the simplest way to master the biological bases of...
This short study notes from Berry Berry Easy is on the topic of Acids and Bases for SPM Form 4 Chemistry students - strengths of acids and bases.
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dlls/msvcirt/msvcirt.c , 81 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ dlls/msvcirt/msvcirt.spec , 36 ++++++++++---------- dlls/msvcrt20/msvcrt20.spec , 36 ++++++++++---------- dlls/msvcrt40/msvcrt40.spec , 36 ++++++++++---------- 4 files changed, 135 insertions(+), 54 deletions(-) diff --git a/dlls/msvcirt/msvcirt.c b/dlls/msvcirt/msvcirt.c index b320a82..7414e71 100644 --- a/dlls/msvcirt/msvcirt.c +++ b/dlls/msvcirt/msvcirt.c @@ -190,6 +190,24 @@ int __thiscall streambuf_allocate(streambuf *this) return CALL_VTBL_FUNC(this, 40, int, (streambuf*), (this)); } +/* ?base at [email protected]@IBEPADXZ */ +/* ?base at [email protected]@IEBAPEADXZ */ +DEFINE_THISCALL_WRAPPER(streambuf_base, 4) +char* __thiscall streambuf_base(const streambuf *this) +{ + TRACE((%p)\n, this); + return this-,base; +} + +/* ?blen at [email protected]@IBEHXZ */ +/* ?blen at [email protected]@IEBAHXZ */ +DEFINE_THISCALL_WRAPPER(streambuf_blen, 4) +int __thiscall streambuf_blen(const streambuf *this) +{ + TRACE((%p)\n, this); + return ...
Currently, only consecutive bases are allowed. Specifically, up to 18 consecutive N or K bases can be ordered, with a minimum of 125 bp of fixed, flanking sequence on either side of the variable bases. The maximum length for the entire sequence is currently 500 bp, including the variable bases ...
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The Abandoned Base - PvP Event 02/28/15 SWGEmu Event Team
File activerecord/lib/active_record/base.rb, line 1295 def ignore_default_scope=(ignore) #:nodoc: Thread.current[#{self}_ignore_default_scope] = ignore end ...
A Hoogsteen base pair is a rare variation of base-pairing.[27] As hydrogen bonds are not covalent, they can be broken and ... Base pairing. Further information: Base pair. In a DNA double helix, each type of nucleobase on one strand bonds with just one ... Adenine pairs with thymine and guanine pairs with cytosine, forming A-T and G-C base pairs.[18][19] ... Top, a GC base pair with three hydrogen bonds. Bottom, an AT base pair with two hydrogen bonds. Non-covalent hydrogen bonds ...
48-base pair VNTR [edit]. The 48-base pair variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) in exon 3 range from 2 to 11 repeats.[citation ... 13-base pair deletion of bases 235 to 247 in exon 1 ... The 48-base pair VNTR has been the subject of much speculation ... pyridine-based dopamine D4 receptor ligands: discovery of an inverse agonist radioligand for PET". Journal of Medicinal ...
Pairing-based non-interactive proofs[edit]. Pairing-based cryptography has led to several cryptographic advancements. One of ... Short Pairing-Based Non-interactive Zero-Knowledge Arguments. ASIACRYPT 2010: 321-340 ... Progression-Free Sets and Sublinear Pairing-Based Non-Interactive Zero-Knowledge Arguments. TCC 2012: 169-189 ... external Diffie-Hellman assumption that allow directly proving the pairing product equations that are common in pairing-based ...
Base pair synthesis[edit]. New nucleobase pairs can also be synthesized, A-T (adenine - thymine) and G-C (guanine - cytosine). ... A third base pair would expand the number of amino acids that can be encoded by DNA from the existing 20 amino acids to a ... Twist Bioscience developed a silicon-based manufacturing process to industrialize the production of synthetic DNA. By ...
Base pair. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g h Watson, James, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Tania A. Baker, Massachusetts ... The base complement A=T shares two hydrogen bonds, while the base pair G≡C has three hydrogen bonds. All other configurations ... A complementary strand of DNA or RNA may be constructed based on nucleobase complementarity.[2] Each base pair, A=T vs. G≡C, ... Furthermore, various DNA repair functions as well as regulatory functions are based on base pair complementarity. In ...
Pair: 2 (the base of the binary numeral system). *Dozen: 12 (the base of the duodecimal numeral system) ... 10, the number base for most modern counting systems.. *12, the number base for some ancient counting systems and the basis for ... 2, the base of the binary number system, used in almost all modern computers and information systems. Also notable as the only ... 142857, the smallest base 10 cyclic number.. *2147483647, 231 − 1, the maximum value of a 32-bit signed integer using two's ...
Position (base pair): 180. Total size (base pairs): 366. Forward 5′→ 3′: aactcttgataaaccgtgctg. Reverse 5′→ 3′: ... Based on the data above, the average frequency in the whole male population of Mesoamerica and South America is estimated to be ... In another study, Q is found in 4% of Mongols.[22] Based on these studies, the average frequency of Q-M242 in Mongols is ... 2012). "Admixture and population structure in Mexican-Mestizos based on paternal lineages". J. Hum. Genet. 57 (9): 568-74. doi: ...
The acceptor stem is a 7- to 9-base pair (bp) stem made by the base pairing of the 5'-terminal nucleotide with the 3'-terminal ... Some anticodons can pair with more than one codon due to a phenomenon known as wobble base pairing. Frequently, the first ... The anticodon forms three complementary base pairs with a codon in mRNA during protein biosynthesis. On the other end of the ... Each tRNA contains a distinct anticodon triplet sequence that can form 3 complementary base pairs to one or more codons for an ...
The similar structures of guanine:cytosine and adenine:thymine base pairs is illustrated. The base pairs are held together by ... They consulted Jerry Donohue who confirmed the most likely structures of the nucleotide bases.[45] The base pairs are held ... G pairs are structurally similar. In particular, the length of each base pair is the same. Chargaff had also pointed out to ... Identification of the correct base-pairing rules (A-T, G-C) was achieved by Watson "playing" with cardboard cut-out models of ...
number of base pairs. =. mass in pg. ×. 9.78. ×. 10. 8. {\displaystyle {\text{number of base pairs}}={\text{mass in pg}}\times ... or as the total number of nucleotide base pairs, usually in megabases (millions of base pairs, abbreviated Mb or Mbp). One ... Conversion from picograms (pg) to base pairs (bp)Edit. Main article: C-value ... The base question behind the process of genome miniaturization is whether is occur trough large steps or due to a constant ...
மனிதனில் உள்ள நிறப்புரிகளில் முதலாவது நிறப்புரி கிட்டத்தட்ட 220 மில்லியன் இணைதாங்கிகளைக் (base pairs) கொண்டது[8]. டி.என்.ஏ ... இணைதாங்கிகளுக்கு (Base pairs) க்கு அண்மையாக உள்ள இந்த பள்ளங்களே இணைப்புப் பகுதிகளாக (binding sites) இருக்கும். இழைகள் ... இவ்வாறாக நிரப்பு இணைதாங்கிகளுக்கிடையே (complementary base pairs) நிகழும் மீள்தகு இடைவினையானது உயிரினங்களில் டி.என்.ஏ யின் ... நியூக்கிளியோடைட்டுக்கள் (nucleotide) எசுத்தர் பிணைப்பால்
In eukaryotes, the processing of pre-mRNA and RNA editing take place at sites determined by the base pairing between the target ... However, certain sequences of base pairs have catalytic properties that lower the energy of their chain being created, enabling ... RNA-based evolution. References[edit]. *^ a b Neveu M, Kim HJ, Benner SA (Apr 2013). "The "strong" RNA world hypothesis: fifty ... This 189 base pair ribozyme could polymerize a template of at most 14 nucleotides in length, which is too short for self ...
Base-pair substitution or point mutation, a type of mutation. *Substitution reaction, where a functional group in a chemical ...
... and the base-pair formed is called a wobble base pair. The modified bases include inosine and the Non-Watson-Crick U-G basepair ... Degeneracy of codons is the redundancy of the genetic code, exhibited as the multiplicity of three-base pair codon combinations ... These variable codes for amino acids are allowed because of modified bases in the first base of the anticodon of the tRNA, ... "Degeneracy of the genetic code and stability of the base pair at the second position of the anticodon". RNA. 14 (7): 1264-9. ...
The photon causes two consecutive bases on one strand to bind together, destroying the normal base-pairing double-strand ... These premutagenic lesions alter the structure and possibly the base-pairing. Up to 50-100 such reactions per second might ... Such dimers interfere with base pairing during DNA replication, leading to mutations. ... Pyrimidine dimers are molecular lesions formed from thymine or cytosine bases in DNA via photochemical reactions.[1][2] ...
The DNA in the human Y chromosome is composed of about 59 million base pairs.[5] The Y chromosome is passed only from father to ... For example, the platypus relies on an XY sex-determination system based on five pairs of chromosomes.[11] Platypus sex ... They found that human Y chromosome is able to "recombine" with itself, using palindrome base pair sequences.[28] Such a " ... In humans, the Y chromosome spans about 58 million base pairs (the building blocks of DNA) and represents approximately 1% of ...
In order for an intercalator to fit between base pairs, the DNA must dynamically open a space between its base pairs by ... The base pairs transiently form such openings due to energy absorbed during collisions with solvent molecules. ... on the order of a base pair) was first proposed by Leonard Lerman in 1961.[3][4][5] One proposed mechanism of intercalation is ... This unwinding causes the base pairs to separate, or "rise", creating an opening of about 0.34 nm (3.4 Å). This unwinding ...
Lewis definition: Acids are electron-pair acceptors, bases are electron-pair donors; this includes the Brønsted-Lowry ... base. ↽. −. −. ⇀. A. −. conjugated. base. +. HB. +. conjugated. acid. {\displaystyle {\ce {{\underset {acid}{HA}}+{\underset { ... Acid-base reactions. In the Brønsted-Lowry acid-base theory, an acid-base reaction involves a transfer of protons (H+) from one ... and thus the acid/base and conjugated base/acid are always in equilibrium. The equilibrium is determined by the acid and base ...
Base pair. C. *Cellulose. *Central dogma of molecular biology. *Chaperone (protein). *Chlorophyll ...
CpG islands are generally 200 to 2000 base pairs long, have a C:G base pair content ,50%, and have regions of DNA where a ... On average, only 3 to 4 of the 6 base pairs in each consensus sequence are found in any given promoter. Few natural promoters ... ends of the genes in a bidirectional gene pair.[11] A "bidirectional gene pair" refers to two adjacent genes coded on opposite ... typically within 30 to 40 base pairs). Eukaryotic promoter regulatory sequences typically bind proteins called transcription ...
The program schedules pairs based on spaced repetition algorithms. Without a program, the user has to schedule physical ... Automatic generation of pairs (e.g. for vocabulary, it is useful to generate three question-pairs: written foreign word, its ... items to memorize are entered into the program as question-answer pairs. When a pair is due to be reviewed, the question is ... Pavlik, P. I. (2005). The Microeconomics of Learning: Optimizing Paired-Associate Memory. PhD, Carnegie Mellon. ...
Extension occurs when Taq polymerase is added to the sample and matches base pairs to turn the two single strands into two ... This results in samples having strands of DNA measuring around 100 base pairs in length. Contamination is another significant ... "Analysis of one million base pairs of Neanderthal DNA". Nature. 444 (7117): 330-336. Bibcode:2006Natur.444..330G. doi:10.1038/ ... The number of base differences between DNA of an ancient species and that of a closely related extant species can be used to ...
The edited adenosine is found in a 6-base pair duplex region. Mutation experiment in the region near the 6-base pair duplex ... The double stranded regions of RNA are formed by base-pairing between residues in the region close to the editing site with ... The region that base pairs with the editing region is known as an Editing Complementary Sequence (ECS). ... This region is composed of a 114 base pairs. Similar regions have been identified in mouse and rat. ...
COL7A1 is transcribed into an mRNA of 9,287 base pairs. In the skin, the type VII collagen protein is synthesized by ... The gene is approximately 31,000 base pairs in size and is remarkable for the extreme fragmentation of its coding sequence into ...
Genome size (base pairs) Note Virus, Bacteriophage MS2 3569 First sequenced RNA-genome[4] ...
Growth in GenBank base pairs, 1982 to 2018, on a semi-log scale ... the number of bases in GenBank has doubled approximately every ... Direct submissions are made to GenBank using BankIt, which is a Web-based form, or the stand-alone submission program, Sequin. ... Release 194, produced in February 2013, contained over 150 billion nucleotide bases in more than 162 million sequences.[4] ... 18 months".[4][8] As of 15 June 2019[update], GenBank release 232.0 has 213,383,758 loci, 329,835,282,370 bases, from ...
base pairs. 1,852,442. 2,211,488. 2,160,837. 2,030,921. ORFs. 1792. 2118. 2236. 1963. prophages. yes. no. no. no. ... The United Kingdom has chosen to adopt a risk factor-based protocol, rather than the culture-based protocol followed in the US ... Phylogenetic tree of Streptococcus species, based on data from PATRIC.[18] 16S groups are indicated by brackets and their key ... Species of Streptococcus are classified based on their hemolytic properties.[7] Alpha-hemolytic species cause oxidization of ...
As the T-DNA is bordered by 25-base-pair repeats on each end. Transfer is initiated at the right border and terminated at the ... The bacterial T-DNA is about 24,000 base pairs long and contains genes that code for enzymes synthesizing opines and ... Reverse genetics is usually followed as a functional genomics approach based on the dynamic of biological system that aims to ...
... spans about 90 million base pairs (the building material of DNA) and represents just under 3% of the total DNA in ... Band length in this diagram is proportional to base-pair length. This type of ideogram is generally used in genome browsers (e. ... a b These values (ISCN start/stop) are based on the length of bands/ideograms from the ISCN book, An International System for ... Chromosome 16 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. People normally have two copies of this chromosome. ...
Figure 3 shows a deletion of the second base pair in the second codon. Figure 4 shows an insertion in the third base pair of ... Each nucleotide in DNA preferentially pairs with its partner nucleotide on the opposite strand: A pairs with T, and C pairs ... Genes are arranged linearly along long chains of DNA base-pair sequences. In bacteria, each cell usually contains a single ... These DNA strands are often extremely long; the largest human chromosome, for example, is about 247 million base pairs in ...
The survivors were paired into two-legged knockout ties, with the winners advancing to another set of two-legged ties. The ... For this purpose, the clubs from countries participating in the ABA League qualify for the competition based on their ... Clubs qualify for the competition based on their performance in their domestic leagues competitions. ...
"In Feinglos MN, Bethel MA (eds.). Type 2 diabetes mellitus: an evidence-based approach to practical management. Contemporary ... "The Concordance and Heritability of Type 2 Diabetes in 34,166 Twin Pairs From International Twin Registers: The Discordant ... Sun T, Han X (2019). "Death versus dedifferentiation: The molecular bases of beta cell mass reduction in type 2 diabetes". ... Threshold for diagnosis of diabetes is based on the relationship between results of glucose tolerance tests, fasting glucose or ...
... which is the number of links connecting to the base. The base of the food chain (primary producers or detritivores) is set at ... between every species pair in a web is averaged to compute the mean distance between all nodes in a web (D)[66] and multiplied ... The base or basal species in a food web are those species without prey and can include autotrophs or saprophytic detritivores ( ... It is the case that the biomass of each trophic level decreases from the base of the chain to the top. This is because energy ...
In 1992, the academy acquired its largest campus-based training vessel, the T/V Kings Pointer. After 20 years at the academy, ... Midshipmen are typically assigned as pairs to a ship, an engineering cadet and a deck cadet, and operate as part of the crew, ...
Science Based Medicine *^ a b c d e f Barrett, Stephen; London, William M.; Kroger, Manfred; Hall, Harriet; Baratz, Robert S. ( ... In 2003, a project funded by the CDC identified 208 condition-treatment pairs, of which 58% had been studied by at least one ... "Science-Based Medicine. Archived from the original on 2013-09-28.. *^ a b Elsevier Science (2002). "Author interview (Edzard ... "Science-Based Medicine. 2016-04-04. Retrieved 2019-02-14.. *^ Atwood, K.C., IV (September-October 2003). "The Ongoing Problem ...
Rossini's opera La gazza ladra and The Adventures of Tintin comic The Castafiore Emerald are based on this theme. However, one ... The European population is estimated to be between 7.5 and 19 million breeding pairs. Allowing for the birds breeding in other ... and the pairs often remain together from one breeding season to the next. They generally occupy the same territory on ... Union decided to treat the black-billed magpie as a separate species based on studies of the vocalization and behaviour that ...
Digit pair method of divisibility by 7 This method uses 1, −3, 2 pattern on the digit pairs. That is, the divisibility of any ... For example, in base 10, the factors of 101 include 2, 5, and 10. Therefore, divisibility by 2, 5, and 10 only depend on ... First we separate the number into three digit pairs: 15, 75 and 14.. Then we apply the algorithm: 1 × 15 − 3 × 75 + 2 × 14 = ... Although there are divisibility tests for numbers in any radix, or base, and they are all different, this article presents ...
Yamada gets a new pair of jeans, but Chi prefers the old ones. ... Anime series based on manga. *Animated television series about ...
8 clave-based music is generated from cross-rhythm, it is possible to count or feel the 6. 8 clave in several different ways. ... The following afrobeat guitar part is a variant of the 2-3 onbeat/offbeat motif.[83] Even the melodic contour is guajeo-based. ... The standard bell is the key pattern used in bembé and so with compositions based on triple-pulse rhythms, it is the seven- ... The Congolese called this new music rumba, although it was based on the son. The Africans adapted guajeos to electric guitars ...
While based in Sacramento, his radio broadcasts over 50,000-watt KFBK were heard all over the West.[43] ... paired with Herman Arnspiger, that he made his first commercial (though unissued) recordings in November 1929 for Brunswick/ ... The Austin-based Western swing band Asleep at the Wheel have honored Wills' music since the band's inception, mostly notably ...
... a pair of thin-soled giveh, and a pair of linen trousers.[138] ... of Religion and Ethics notes that the Purim holiday is based on ...
Six brief manga one-shots, illustrated by Reine Hibiki and based on some scenes from the novels, were published by Shueisha in ... The fifth and tenth drama CDs by Shueisha were released in limited edition versions each with a slipcase and a pair of ... and Akira Matsushima based the character design used in the anime on Reine Hibiki's original designs. The art director for the ... The drama CDs are based on the stories in the novels. ... Anime and manga based on light novels. *Japanese LGBT-related ...
He was good friends with United and Northern Ireland star George Best, and the pair regularly socialised at the Clifton Grange ... He was known for his distinctive plectrum-based style on the bass, and for his imaginative lyrical contributions including ...
The genome of S. pneumoniae is a closed, circular DNA structure that contains between 2.0 and 2.1 million base pairs depending ... S. pneumoniae can also be distinguished based on its sensitivity to lysis by bile, the so-called "bile solubility test". The ... For instance, the Xisco gene was recently described as a biomarker for PCR-based detection of S. pneumoniae and differentiation ... Diagnosis is generally made based on clinical suspicion along with a positive culture from a sample from virtually any place in ...
Statistical, likelihood-based approaches: Statistical, likelihood-based [37][38] iterative expectation-maximization algorithms ... The system detects pairs of gamma rays emitted indirectly by a positron-emitting radioligand, most commonly fluorine-18, which ... based regularization in a wavelet or other domain), such as via Ulf Grenander's Sieve estimator[41][42] or via Bayes penalty ... Two major sources of noise in PET are scatter (a detected pair of photons, at least one of which was deflected from its ...
... attachments are paired at each node and decussate if, as typical, each successive pair is rotated 90° progressing along ... More than one main vein (nerve) at the base. Lateral secondary veins branching from a point above the base of the leaf. Usually ... The leaves on this plant are arranged in pairs opposite one another, with successive pairs at right angles to each other ( ... BaseEdit. Acuminate. Coming to a sharp, narrow, prolonged point.. Acute. Coming to a sharp, but not prolonged point.. ...
After linking RHA batteries in pairs, just C Battery with 4th Regiment, Royal Horse Artillery in Egypt and K Battery at St ... it has been based in England, initially at Aldershot but latterly at Colchester.[61] ... Rather than disband existing batteries, they were instead linked in pairs. As a result, on 11 May, H Battery (from 8th Field ... currently based in Merville Barracks in Colchester. ...
Ashford's pairing with Melissa Reeves' Jennifer was wildly popular (winning the 7th Soap Opera Digest award for favorite super ... In 2012, Ashford was recruited by the Outside the Box Musical Theatre Company for a new musical based on a Clint Eastwood movie ...
This belief was based on his misunderstanding of the chemical properties of lemon juice as an invisible ink.[3] ... The two papers employed paired, well-aligned instruments of known reliability to examine the evaluation of self-assessment ...
... s usually form pairs (in October and November in the Northern Hemisphere) until the female lays eggs at the start of the ... The mallard is omnivorous and very flexible in its choice of food.[61] Its diet may vary based on several factors, including ... The drakes that end up being left out after the others have paired off with mating partners sometimes target an isolated female ...
When paired with another mandala depicting the Five Wisdom Kings, this forms the Mandala of the Two Realms. ... The pattern of the dress was based on the Goloka Yantra mandala, shaped as a lotus with eight petals. Visitors were invited to ... The Taima mandala is based on the Contemplation Sutra, but other similar mandalas have been made subsequently. Unlike mandalas ... Mandalas have sometimes been used in Pure Land Buddhism to graphically represent Pure Lands, based on descriptions found in the ...
Nominal measures are based on sets and depend on categories, a la Aristotle: Chrisman, Nicholas (March 1995). "Beyond Stevens: ... Multiplying together the conjugate pairs of uncertainty limits mentioned, however, I found that they formed invariant products ... Such arguments would be based on the fact that such measures do not really meet the requirements of an interval scale, because ... L. L. Thurstone made progress toward developing a justification for obtaining the interval type, based on the law of ...
Hypoxanthine can bind to cytosine, and when the XC base pair is replicated, it becomes a GC (thus, an A → G base change).[20] ... Chloroplast DNAs are circular, and are typically 120,000-170,000 base pairs long.[4][7][8] They can have a contour length of ... The inverted repeats vary wildly in length, ranging from 4,000 to 25,000 base pairs long each.[6] Inverted repeats in plants ... During replication, the cytosine will pair with guanine, causing an A → G base change. ...
... a base-emitter junction and a base-collector junction, separated by a thin region of semiconductor known as the base region. ( ... A transistor can use a small signal applied between one pair of its terminals to control a much larger signal at another pair ... Also, as the base-emitter voltage (VBE) is increased the base-emitter current and hence the collector-emitter current (ICE) ... A bipolar transistor has terminals labeled base, collector, and emitter. A small current at the base terminal (that is, flowing ...
The horns have a broad base in mature males, and are flattened to form a protective shield. In females, the horns are both ... The pair usually separates after copulation, but the female occasionally follows her mate afterwards, touching his rump with ... Features necessary for defending a territory, such as the horns and broad-based skull of the modern black wildebeest, have been ... He based his description on an article written by natural philosopher Jean-Nicolas-Sébastien Allamand in 1776.[2] The generic ...
Free-living barnacles are attached to the substratum by cement glands that form the base of the first pair of antennae; in ... The eight pairs of thoracic limbs are referred to as "cirre", which are feathery and very long, being used to filter food, such ... The ovaries are located in the base or stalk, and may extend into the mantle, while the testes are towards the back of the head ... Larvae assess surfaces based upon their surface texture, chemistry, relative wettability, color, and the presence or absence ...
In addition, a genetic mismatch as small as a single DNA base pair is significant so perfect matches require knowledge of the ... One study based on a survey of medical teams covered approximately 24,000 peripheral blood HSCT cases between 1993 and 2005, ...
An ordered pair of vertices, such as an edge in a directed graph. An arrow (x, y) has a tail x, a head y, and a direction from ... based on vertex removals.. strong. 1. For strong connectivity and strongly connected components of directed graphs, see ... The line graph L(G) of a graph G is a graph with a vertex for each edge of G and an edge for each pair of edge that share an ... A non-edge or anti-edge is a pair of vertices that are not adjacent; the edges of the complement graph.. null graph. See empty ...
The arms can be described based on side and sequence position (such as L1, R1, L2, R2) and divided into four pairs.[23][22] The ... Two possible extant cephalopod phylogenies, based on genetics studies by Strugnell et al. 2007, are shown in the possible ... The incirrate octopuses (the majority of species) lack the cirri and paired swimming fins of the cirrates.[32] In addition, the ... that surround the mouth and are attached to each other near their base by a webbed structure.[22] ...
The Caulobacter CB15 genome has 4,016,942 base pairs in a single circular chromosome encoding 3,767 genes.[7] The genome ...
A wobble base pair is a pairing between two nucleotides in RNA molecules that does not follow Watson-Crick base pair rules.[1] ... The thermodynamic stability of a wobble base pair is comparable to that of a Watson-Crick base pair. Wobble base pairs are ... tRNA base pairing schemes[edit]. The original wobble pairing rules, as proposed by Crick. Watson-Crick base pairs are shown in ... base on the mRNA, was not as spatially confined as the other two bases, and could, thus, have non-standard base pairing.[4] ...
Identity-based cryptography is more efficient than certificate-based… ... The certificate-based cryptosystems is traditional way in providing the system parameters. ... Identity-based cryptography is more efficient than certificate-based cryptosystems. Each user in identity-based cryptography ... Identity-based cryptography is more efficient than certificate-based cryptosystems. Each user in identity-based cryptography ...
Create Biology Diagram examples like this template called DNA Base Pairing Diagram that you can easily edit and customize in ... DNA Base Pairing Diagram. Create Biology Diagram examples like this template called DNA Base Pairing Diagram that you can ...
... lives easier by letting them pair wireless devices just by bringing them together as well as filling out missing address book ... A pair of filings for US patents made by Apple would make users ... Apple seeks distance-based pairing, auto contact data patents. ... A pair of filings for US patents made by Apple would make users lives easier by letting them pair wireless devices just by ... A representational model of Apples proximity-based wireless pairing patent.. System and method for opportunistic image sharing ...
Pairing-based cryptography is the use of a pairing between elements of two cryptographic groups to a third group with a mapping ... A contemporary example of using bilinear pairings is exemplified in the Boneh-Lynn-Shacham signature scheme. Pairing-based ... Koblitz, Neal; Menezes, Alfred (2005). "Pairing-Based cryptography at high security levels". LNCS. 3796. Galbraith, Steven; ... Lecture on Pairing-Based Cryptography Ben Lynns PBC Library. ... such as identity based encryption or attribute based encryption ...
In particular, our techniques improve pairing evaluation speed by a factor of about 55 compared to... ... We describe fast new algorithms to implement recent cryptosystems based on the Tate pairing. ... N.P. Smart, "An Identity Based Authenticated Key Agreement Protocol Based on the Weil Pairing," Electronics Letters, to appear. ... F. Hess, "Exponent Group Signature Schemes and Efficient Identity Based Signature Schemes Based on Pairings," Cryptology ePrint ...
We describe fast new algorithms to implement recent cryptosystems based on the Tate pairing. In particular, our techniques ... the latter technique being also useful in contexts other than that of pairing-based cryptography. 1 ... improve pairing evaluation speed by a factor of about 55 compared to previously known methods in characteristic 3, and attain ... pairing-based cryptosystems efficient algorithm square root extraction evaluation speed tate pairing scalar multiplication ...
... to single base pairs, called base-pair substitutions. Many of these substitute an incorrect amino acid in the corresponding ... Some base-pair substitutions produce a stop codon. Normally, when a stop codon occurs at the end… ... Other articles where Base-pair substitution is discussed: mutation: … ... to single base pairs, called base-pair substitutions. Many of these substitute an incorrect amino acid in the corresponding ...
The A-U base pair is shown in Figure 5. In the G-C Watson-Crick base pair, like the A-T Hoogsteen base pair, the purine ( ... Wobble base pairing allows for the 5 anticodon to bond to a non-standard base pair. Examples of wobble base pairs are given in ... Hoogsteen base pair Wobble base pair Hermann T, Westhof E (December 1999). "Non-Watson-Crick base pairs in RNA-protein ... of bases in structured RNA participate in canonical Watson-Crick base pairs. Base pairing occurs when two bases form hydrogen ...
... to the respective base plus deprotonated base, and GPAs (G-C → anion + H+) for the G-C base pair ... the N-H bond that is cleaved in the isolated base pairs is at the same site as the glycosidic N-C bond between the base pair ... base pairs, as well as the closed shell (13, 27) and H-abstracted (7, 11-13) individual bases. Bera and Schaefer (1) ... The deprotonated guanine-cytosine base pair. Maria C. Lind, Partha P. Bera, Nancy A. Richardson, Steven E. Wheeler, Henry F. ...
... nounThe hydrogen bonding of complementary nitrogenous bases, one purine and one pyrimidine, in DNA and in hybrid molecules ... base-pairing. base-pair·ing. noun. The hydrogen bonding of complementary nitrogenous bases, one purine and one pyrimidine, in ... "base-pairing." YourDictionary, n.d. Web. 16 September 2018. ,,. ... base-pairing. (n.d.). Retrieved September 16th, 2018, from ...
... in an A-T pairing and cytosine (C) with guanine (G) in a C-G pairing. Conversely, thymine... ... The base pairing rules for DNA are governed by the complementary base pairs: adenine (A) with thymine (T) ... The base pairing rules for DNA are governed by the complementary base pairs: adenine (A) with thymine (T) in an A-T pairing and ... Tired of Endless Searching? Find Base Pairing Rules In Dna on DownloadSearch. ...
... nucleotides are specifically matched to their complementary base pair. According to PBS, DNA resembles a long spiraling ladder ... A: The four steps of DNA replication are the unwinding of two coiled strands of DNA, complementary pairing of nucleotide bases ... During DNA replication, nucleotides are specifically matched to their complementary base pair. According to PBS, DNA resembles ... Cytosine always pairs with guanine, and adenine always pairs with thymine. These two strands of DNA each contain one side of ...
Dynamics of mismatched base pairs in DNA.. Guest CR1, Hochstrasser RA, Sowers LC, Millar DP. ... The interactions are strongest with X = T or C. The ability to discern differences in the strength of base-pairing interactions ... The structural dynamics of mismatched base pairs in duplex DNA have been studied by time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy decay ... These differences are correlated with the strength of base-pairing interactions in the various AP.X mismatches. ...
The Pair Networks Account Control Center ("ACC") has a built-in way to view and set file permissions. To access your files and ... Your websites files are hosted on Pair Networks servers running either the FreeBSD or Ubuntu Linux operating systems. Both ...
You can email [email protected] to request a password reset.. Please do not email the Support team from an account that you will ... Your account username is listed in the Welcome Message you received from Pair Networks upon setting up a new hosting account. ... Your account password is listed in the Welcome Message you received from Pair Networks upon setting up a new hosting account. ... If you have completely forgotten your password, you can request a password reset from Pair Networks Support. Note that Support ...
Top, a G.C base pair with three hydrogen bonds. Bottom, an A.T base pair with two hydrogen bonds. Non-covalent hydrogen bonds ... published that his team designed an unnatural base pair (UBP).[12] The two new artificial nucleotides or Unnatural Base Pair ( ... "Highly specific unnatural base pair systems as a third base pair for PCR amplification". Nucleic Acids Research. 40 (6): 2793- ... "Highly specific unnatural base pair systems as a third base pair for PCR amplification". Nucleic Acids Research. 40 (6): 2793- ...
Many sRNAs regulate their target mRNAs through limited base-pairing interactions. Ongoing characterization of base-pairing ... Base pairing small RNAs and their roles in global regulatory networks.. Beisel CL1, Storz G. ... In this review, we describe the specific regulatory circuits that incorporate base-pairing sRNAs and the importance of each ... sRNA-based regulation buffers against signal fluctuations due to the time lag when sRNA production is shut off. All axes are ...
base pair synonyms, base pair pronunciation, base pair translation, English dictionary definition of base pair. n. A pair of ... nitrogenous bases, consisting of a purine linked by hydrogen bonds to a pyrimidine, that connects the complementary strands of ... Related to base pair: DNA, complementary base pairing. base pair. n.. A pair of nitrogenous bases, consisting of a purine ... US-based aptamer discovery and development company Base Pair Biotechnologies, Inc has completed a USD 3.. Base Pair ...
DNA base pairing). AT is defined as Adenine-Thymine (DNA base pairing) very frequently. ... DNA base pairing) abbreviated? AT stands for Adenine-Thymine ( ... DNA-base-pairing)-(AT).html,AT,/a,. Citations. *MLA style: "AT ... n.d.) Acronym Finder. (2020). Retrieved December 3 2020 from ... S.v. "AT." Retrieved December 3 2020 from ...
Base Pair Morphology Parameters. CSV Format. Model Number. Pair Number. Pair Name. Shear. Stretch. Stagger. Buckle. Propellor. ...
The structure of metallo-DNA with consecutive T-HgII-T base-pairs ex-plains positive reaction entropy for the metallo-base-pair ... and Co2+ ions on the guanine base in Watson-Crick and reverse Watson-Crick base pairs. Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 113(47 ... Marino, T. (2014). DFT investigation of the mismatched base pairs (T-Hg-T)3, (U-Hg-U)3, d(T-Hg-T)2, and d(U-Hg-U)2. Journal of ... Fortino, M., Marino, T., & Russo, N. (2015). Theoretical study of silver-ion-mediated base pairs: The case of C-Ag-C and C-Ag-A ...
Ethernet-Based xDSL Multi-Pair Bonding (G.Bond/Ethernet) MIB Abstract This document defines a Management Information Base (MIB ... use G.hs-based protocol (default) cpBACP(2) - use frame-based BACP Note that G.hs-based protocol support is mandatory, ... Introduction Ethernet-based xDSL Multi-Pair Bonding, a.k.a. G.Bond/Ethernet, is specified in ITU-T Recommendation G.998.2 [G. ... This document defines an extension to the GBOND-MIB module with a set of objects for managing Ethernet-based multi-pair bonded ...
Founder and currently Executive Editor of Science-Based Medicine Steven Novella, MD is an academic clinical neurologist at the ... although we cant conclude that based upon this study). One pain or sensory stimulation can certainly distract you from another ...
BP stands for Base Pair (nucleic acids). BP is defined as Base Pair (nucleic acids) very frequently. ... T base pair and a G:C base pair.. DNA and RNA structure: nucleic acids as genetic material. lindheimeri, 4 fragments, 202 base- ... We attempted to form a stable triplex DNA structure within an eight base pair bulged/mismatched region of a 32 base pair length ... but now what you have is no longer a Watson-Crick base pair; its something called a Hoogsteen base pair. ...
Implementation Notes (1) Unique base pairing means that a nucleotide can only form a base pair with a specific complementary ... Quasi-unique base pairing means that hybridisation between non-original complementary bases is only prevented over a limited ... Delete lines that dont apply The feature has been verified to work with the CMake based build system ... Summary The changes in this pull request comprise an enhancement in form of quasi-unique base pairing, minor restructuring in ...
Candle holders have a raised base with swirl pattern. This 2 piece candle holder is in great condition. Amber Diamond Point ... Details about Amber Diamond Point Peg Style Votive Cups & Swirl Base Candle Holders - Pair. ... Amber Diamond Point Peg Style Votive Cups & Swirl Base Candle Holders - Pair ... Amber Diamond Point Peg Style Votive Cups & Swirl Base Candle Holders - Pair ...
The bases on the ends of the tetraloop (G8, G11) stack on the closing A7⋅U12 base pair; G8 base stacks on A7 base and G11 base ... C base pairs were observed only for the base pair in the loop, not for the base pairs in the stem region. Therefore, only the G ... The stacking between the A9 base and the intermolecular G11⋅C10 base pair (Left). The hydrogen bonds in the G11⋅C10 base pairs ... Second, if G8 formed an intermolecular base pair with C10, it would place an A9⋅A9 mismatch between the two G8⋅C10 base pairs. ...
Matched Pair) at Musicians Friend. Get a low price and free shipping on thousands of... ... Get the guaranteed best price on Condenser Microphones like the Earthworks FlexWand FW430 with Cast-Iron Base ( ... Earthworks FlexWand FW430 with Cast-Iron Base (Matched Pair). #preHeaderPromoBar { background-color: #007ba9; min-height: 1.5em ... Dimensions: Stand 47³ (1.39m); Base 12³ (30.5cm) in diameter, 1.1³ (2.7cm) high. Weight: Stand 2 lbs (.9kg); Cast iron base ...
Base Par Biotecnologias, Inc., a empresa da descoberta de Aptamer™, anunciada hoje o recibo de um subsídio de investigação da ... Base Pair Biotechnologies, Inc.. Biotecnologias baixas dos pares para desenvolver testes do ponto--cuidado para opiáceo nos ... Base Pair Biotechnologies, Inc.. Biotecnologias baixas dos pares para desenvolver testes do ponto--cuidado para opiáceo nos ... Base Pair Biotechnologies, Inc.. 2019. Biotecnologias baixas dos pares para desenvolver testes do ponto--cuidado para opiáceo ...
  • The four nucleotide bases in DNA are guanine, cytosine, adenine and thymine. (
  • The guanine base is always paired with the complementary cytosine base, and the adenine base is always paired with the complementary thymine base. (
  • The guanine-cytosine base pair is represented as G-C, and the adenine-thymine base pair is represented as A-T. In a DNA molecule, the G-C base pair is linked by two hydrogen bonds, and the A-T base pair is linked by three hydrogen bonds. (
  • Non-canonical base pairing occurs when nucleobases hydrogen bond, or base pair, to one another in schemes other than the standard Watson-Crick base pairs (which are adenine (A) -- thymine (T) in DNA, adenine (A) -- uracil (U) in RNA, and guanine (G) -- cytosine (C) in both DNA and RNA). (
  • The base pairing rules for DNA are governed by the complementary base pairs: adenine (A) with thymine (T) in an A-T pairing and cytosine (C) with guanine (G) in a C-G pairing. (
  • Conversely, thymine only binds with adenine in a T-A pairing and guanine only binds with cytosine in a G-C pairing. (
  • Dictated by specific hydrogen bonding patterns, Watson-Crick base pairs ( guanine - cytosine and adenine - thymine ) allow the DNA helix to maintain a regular helical structure that is subtly dependent on its nucleotide sequence . (
  • The base pairs are adenine-thymine and guanine-cytosine in DNA, and adenine-uracil and guanine-cytosine in RNA. (
  • The term 'Base pair (bp)' as it applies to the area of gnome research can be defined as 'Two nitrogenous bases (adenine and thymine or guanine and cytosine) held together by weak bonds. (
  • In the canonical Watson-Crick base pairing , adenine (A) forms a base pair with thymine (T), as does guanine (G) with cytosine (C) in DNA. (
  • Computer artwork of an A-T (adenine-thymine) base pair. (
  • The pairing of complementary nucleotide bases (adenine and thymine, guanine and cytosine) to each other via hydrogen bonds from opposite strands of a double stranded nucleic acid (such as DNA or RNA), thereby holding the double-stranded nucleic acid together. (
  • DNA has four nitrogenous bases: (A) adenine, (T) thymine, (C) cytosine, and (G) guanine. (
  • A wobble base pair is a pairing between two nucleotides in RNA molecules that does not follow Watson-Crick base pair rules. (
  • The thermodynamic stability of a wobble base pair is comparable to that of a Watson-Crick base pair. (
  • If each tRNA molecule paired with its complementary mRNA codon using canonical Watson-Crick base pairing, then 64 types (species) of tRNA molecule would be required. (
  • It is, therefore, possible for non-Watson-Crick base pairing to occur at the third codon position, i.e., the 3' nucleotide of the mRNA codon and the 5' nucleotide of the tRNA anticodon. (
  • The first two bases in the codon create the coding specificity, for they form strong Watson-Crick base pairs and bond strongly to the anticodon of the tRNA. (
  • If the first nucleotide in the anticodon is a C or an A pairing is specific and acknowledges original Watson-Crick pairing, that is only one specific codon can be paired to that tRNA. (
  • James Watson and Francis Crick published the double helical structure of DNA and proposed the canonical Watson-Crick base pairs in 1953. (
  • Since the structures of the canonical Watson-Crick and non-canonical Hoogsteen base pairs were determined, many other types of non-canonical base pairs have been presented and described. (
  • An estimated 60% of bases in structured RNA participate in canonical Watson-Crick base pairs. (
  • Those are known as the Watson-Crick edge(WC), the Hoogsteen edge(H), and the Sugar edge(S). Pyrimidine bases also have three hydrogen-bonding edges. (
  • Like the puring, there is the Watson-Crick edge(WC) and the Sugar edge(S) but the third edge is referred to as the "C-H" edge(H) on the pyrimidine bases. (
  • Energetic properties and optimized geometries of 10 radicals and their respective anions derived through hydrogen abstraction from the Watson-Crick guanine-cytosine (G-C) base pair have been studied using reliable theoretical methods. (
  • This is particularly important in RNA molecules (e.g., transfer RNA ), where Watson-Crick base pairs (guanine-cytosine and adenine- uracil ) permit the formation of short double-stranded helices, and a wide variety of non-Watson-Crick interactions (e.g. (
  • The influence of Li+, Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, and Zn2+ ions on the hydrogen bonds of the Watson-Crick base pair. (
  • The sequence crystallises as a B-DNA helix with 10 Watson-Crick base-pairs (4 A.T. and 6 G.C) and 2 inosine.adenine (I.A) pairs. (
  • Both duplexes are standard A form, with Watson-Crick base pairing throughout. (
  • The C-based imino-oxo and imino-enol GC tautomers, which can be generated during the UV irradiation of the Watson-Crick base pair, have analogous radiationless energy-decay channels to those of the canonical base pair. (
  • stacking+Watson-Crick base pairing) in phenix.refine? (
  • The complementary Watson-Crick base pairs, A-T and G-C. (
  • In the present study, the CASSCF/CASPT2 methodology is used to map the two-dimensional potential energy surfaces along the stretched NH reaction coordinates of the guanine-cytosine (GC) base pair. (
  • Here, we study nuclear quantum effects (NQEs) using deuterium isotope-induced changes of nitrogen NMR chemical shifts in a model base pair consisting of two tautomers of isocytosine, which form hydrogen-bonded dimers in the same way as the guanine-cytosine base pair. (
  • The presence of an uncomplimentary base in double-stranded DNA caused by spontaneous deamination of cytosine or adenine, mismatching during homologous recombination, or errors in DNA replication. (
  • Density functional theory study of interaction, bonding and affinity of group IIb transition metal cations with nucleic acid bases. (
  • Binding of Pt(NH3)3 2+ to nucleic acid bases. (
  • We use a single molecule computational engine to track individual molecules interacting with and along nucleic acid polymers at single base resolution. (
  • All the interactions between nucleic acid molecules that help express genetic information involve base‐pairing between complementary sequences. (
  • The researchers found that the nucleic acid base pairs making up the steps of DNA's spiral staircase are continuously shape-shifting. (
  • These terminate translation by binding to release factors rather than tRNA molecules, so canonical pairing would require 61 species of tRNA. (
  • The hydrogen bonding of complementary nitrogenous bases, one purine and one pyrimidine, in DNA and in hybrid molecules joining DNA and RNA. (
  • purine-purine pairings are energetically unfavorable because the molecules are too close, leading to overlap repulsion. (
  • Paired DNA and RNA molecules are comparatively stable at room temperature, but the two nucleotide strands will separate above a melting point that is determined by the length of the molecules, the extent of mispairing (if any), and the GC content. (
  • A pair of nitrogenous bases, consisting of a purine linked by hydrogen bonds to a pyrimidine, that connects the complementary strands of DNA or of hybrid molecules joining DNA and RNA. (
  • Given our current understanding of gene expression, and the goals of biotechnology research, both scientists and engineers would benefit from detailed simulators that can explicitly compute genome-wide expression levels as a function of individual molecular events, including the activities and interactions of molecules on DNA at single base pair resolution. (
  • Pairing is also the mechanism by which codons on messenger RNA molecules are recognized by anticodons on transfer RNA during protein translation . (
  • If the bases don't pair before they are part of polymers, how would the bases have been selected out from the many molecules in the "prebiotic soup" so that RNA polymers could be formed? (
  • Researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology are exploring an alternate theory for the origin of RNA: they think the RNA bases may have evolved from a pair of molecules distinct from the bases we have today. (
  • This theory looks increasingly attractive, as the Georgia Tech group was able to achieve efficient, highly ordered self-assembly in water with small molecules that are similar to the bases of RNA. (
  • These "proto-RNA bases" spontaneously assemble into gene-length linear stacks, suggesting that the genes of life could have gotten started from these or similar molecules. (
  • Learn how DNA molecules are composed of four different types of nucleotides that pair with each other in a very specific, complementary manner. (
  • Complementary base pairing describes the manner in which the nitrogenous bases of the DNA molecules align with each other. (
  • This two-unnatural-base-pair system, combining the Ds - Px and Ds - Pa pairs with modified Pa substrates, provides a powerful tool for the site-specific labeling and modification of desired positions in large RNA molecules. (
  • Thus, several unnatural base pairs that function in polymerase reactions have rapidly been developed for site-specific labeling of RNA molecules [ 7 - 18 ]. (
  • There are three main types of non-canonical base pairs: those stabilized by polar hydrogen bonds, those having interactions among C−H and O/N groups, and those that have hydrogen bonds between the bases themselves. (
  • The actual number of base-pair combinations is lower because some combinations result in non-favorable interactions. (
  • These surroundings can consist of adjacent base pairs, adjacent loops, or third interactions (such as a base triple). (
  • The spatial interactions between the two bases can be classified in 6 rigid-body parameters or intra-base pair parameters (3 translational, 3 rotational) as shown in Figure 4. (
  • These differences are correlated with the strength of base-pairing interactions in the various AP.X mismatches. (
  • The interactions are strongest with X = T or C. The ability to discern differences in the strength of base-pairing interactions at a specific site in DNA by observing their effect on the dynamics of base motion is a novel aspect of the present study. (
  • Many sRNAs regulate their target mRNAs through limited base-pairing interactions. (
  • The first part focuses on the interactions of isolated bases with metal cations either in bare, hydrated, or ligated forms. (
  • Cross-strand interactions of the adenines adjacent to the intermolecular G⋅C base pairs, plus unusual strong electrostatic interactions around the base pairs, contribute to the unexpected stability. (
  • The pairing observed in this study is presented as a model for I.A base-pairs in RNA codon-anticodon interactions and may help explain the thermodynamic stability of inosine containing base-pairs. (
  • Conformational parameters and base stacking interactions are presented and where appropriate compared with those of the native compound, d(C-G-C-G-A-A-T-T-C-G-C-G) and with other studies of oligonucleotides containing purine.purine base-pairs. (
  • Base stacking interactions between the pi orbitals of the bases' aromatic rings also contribute to stability, and again GC stacking interactions with adjacent bases tend to be more favorable. (
  • The base pairs that hold together two pieces of RNA, the older cousin of DNA, are some of the most important molecular interactions in living cells. (
  • It is important to note that the presence of an incorrect tautomeric form in DNA would engender very different hydrogen bonding interactions, and the structural complementarity of base pairs would, in this instance, not exist. (
  • Therefore, various strategies were followed to identify candidate pairs, such as transcriptional analyses at cellular resolution, microscopic characterization of loss and gain-of-function plants, genetic interaction studies, and biochemical assays demonstrating direct physical interactions (see e.g. (
  • This novel approach represents a major leap forward regarding ligand-receptor pairing, but does not take the ligand-receptor interactions into account that rely on a protein complex status involving co-receptors and/or interacting proteins. (
  • The GU pairing, with two hydrogen bonds, does occur fairly often in RNA (see wobble base pair ). (
  • A wobble base pair is a G-U and I-U / I-A / I-C pair fundamental in RNA secondary structure . (
  • The G x U wobble base pair. (
  • Pairing-based cryptography is the use of a pairing between elements of two cryptographic groups to a third group with a mapping e : G 1 × G 2 → G T {\displaystyle e:G_{1}\times G_{2}\to G_{T}} to construct or analyze cryptographic systems. (
  • Pairing-based cryptography relies on hardness assumptions separate from e.g. the Elliptic Curve Discrete Logarithm Problem, which is older and has been studied for a longer time. (
  • Identity-based cryptography is more efficient than certificate-based cryptosystems. (
  • Each user in identity-based cryptography uses any arbitrary string that uniquely identifies him as his public key. (
  • 1. International Journal on Cryptography and Information Security (IJCIS), Vol.3, No. 4, December 2013 A PAIRING-FREE IDENTITY BASED TRIPARTITE SIGNCRYPTION SCHEME Hassan M. Elkamchouchi 1, Eman F. Abou Elkheir2 and Yasmine Abouelseoud3 1 2 Elec. (
  • In particular, our techniques improve pairing evaluation speed by a factor of about 55 compared to previously known methods in characteristic 3, and attain performance comparable to that of RSA in larger characteristics.We also propose faster algorithms for scalar multiplication in characteristic 3 and square root extraction over F p m , the latter technique being also useful in contexts other than that of pairing-based cryptography. (
  • We also propose faster algorithms for scalar multiplication in characteristic 3 and square root extraction over Fpm, the latter technique being also useful in contexts other than that of pairing-based cryptography. (
  • This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Pairing-Based Cryptography, Pairing 2013, held in Beijing, China, in November 2013. (
  • As in previous years, the focus of Pairing 2013 is on all aspects of pairing-based cryptography, including: cryptographic primitives and protocols, mathematical foundations, software and hardware implementation, as well as applied security. (
  • Complementary base pairing refers to the structural pairing of nucleotide bases in deoxyribonucleic acid, which is commonly known as DNA. (
  • DNA is made up of four nucleotide bases, each of which pairs with only one of the other bases. (
  • A DNA molecule is composed of two connected strands of nucleotide bases, which form a spiraling double helix structure. (
  • The two strands of nucleotide bases are arranged such that every base in the first strand is paired to its complementary base in the second strand. (
  • The presence of non-canonical base pairs in double stranded DNA results in a disrupted double helix. (
  • The size of an individual gene or an organism's entire genome is often measured in base pairs because DNA is usually double-stranded. (
  • The following DNA sequences illustrate pair double-stranded patterns. (
  • The correlation time and angular range of internal rotation of AP vary among the series of AP.X mismatches, showing that the native DNA bases differ in their ability to influence the motion of AP. (
  • these pairings are mismatches because the patterns of hydrogen donors and acceptors do not correspond. (
  • The first discovered non-canonical base pairs are Hoogsteen base pairs, which were first described by American biochemist Karst Hoogsteen. (
  • Non-canonical base pairings commonly occur in the secondary structure of RNA (e.g. pairing of G with U), and in tRNA recognition. (
  • A base pair ( bp ) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds . (
  • It has been hypothesised that proton tunnelling between paired nucleobases significantly enhances the formation of rare tautomeric forms and hence leads to errors in DNA replication. (
  • Many DNA-binding proteins can recognize specific base-pairing patterns that identify particular regulatory regions of genes. (
  • The haploid human genome (23 chromosomes ) is estimated to be about 3.2 billion bases long and to contain 20,000-25,000 distinct protein-coding genes. (
  • The sequencing results show that the Aspergillus oryzae genome has about 38 million base pairs and 12,000 genes. (
  • for reference, the 39,937 base pair T7 genome encodes 56 genes that are transcribed by two types of RNA polymerases active across 22 promoters. (
  • Some DNA- or RNA-binding enzymes can recognize specific base pairing patterns that identify particular regulatory regions of genes. (
  • Our analysis suggests that the per-base-pair mutation rates at two genes differ significantly (3.80 × 10 −10 at URA3 and 6.44 × 10 −10 at CAN1 ) and we propose a definition for the effective target size of genes (the probability that a mutation inactivates the gene) that acknowledges that the mutation rate is nonuniform across the genome. (
  • The identification of ligand-receptor pairs is technically very challenging, as the genes encoding them regularly belong to gene families with multiple members and are often low expressed, and this only in certain cell types or during specific developmental stages. (
  • However, our understanding of the mechanism of somatic homolog pairing remains unclear, as only a few genes have been implicated in this process. (
  • We identified both candidate "pairing promoting genes" and candidate "anti-pairing genes," providing evidence that pairing is a dynamic process that can be both enhanced and antagonized. (
  • Many of the genes found to be important for promoting pairing are highly enriched for functions associated with mitotic cell division, suggesting a genetic framework for a long-standing link between chromosome dynamics during mitosis and nuclear organization during interphase. (
  • In contrast, several of the candidate anti-pairing genes have known interphase functions associated with S-phase progression, DNA replication, and chromatin compaction, including several components of the condensin II complex. (
  • Consequently, the mechanisms of primary and secondary damage to purine-pyrimidine base pairs have been under intense investigation in recent years ( 1 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 15 ). (
  • Purine-pyrimidine base-pairing of AT or GC or UA (in RNA) results in proper duplex structure. (
  • When reading 5' to 3' the first nucleotide in the anticodon (which is on the tRNA and pairs with the last nucleotide of the codon on the mRNA) determines how many nucleotides the tRNA actually distinguishes. (
  • The regular structure and data redundancy provided by the DNA double helix make DNA well suited to the storage of genetic information, while base-pairing between DNA and incoming nucleotides provides the mechanism through which DNA polymerase replicates DNA and RNA polymerase transcribes DNA into RNA. (
  • Hence, the number of total base pairs is equal to the number of nucleotides in one of the strands (with the exception of non-coding single-stranded regions of telomeres ). (
  • In molecular biology , two nucleotides on opposite complementary DNA or RNA strands that are connected via hydrogen bonds are called a base pair (often abbreviated bp). (
  • In case of single stranded DNA/RNA we talk about nucleotides , abbreviated nt (or knt, Mnt, Gnt), rather than base pairs, as they are not paired. (
  • Students can assemble the nucleotides, feel the hydrogen bonding of the A-T and G-C base pairs, and discover the double helical structure of DNA. (
  • The certificate-based cryptosystems is traditional way in providing the system parameters. (
  • We describe fast new algorithms to implement recent cryptosystems based on the Tate pairing. (
  • Since every nucleotide base is always paired with its complement, you can always deduce the sequence of the second strand if you can identify the sequence of bases in the first strand. (
  • An oligodeoxynucleotide triplex is formed with a particular base sequence in a pH-dependent manner. (
  • In addition, base-pairing between transfer RNA (tRNA) and messenger RNA (mRNA) forms the basis for the molecular recognition events that result in the nucleotide sequence of mRNA becoming translated into the amino acid sequence of proteins via the genetic code . (
  • note that the two terminal G⋅C base pairs are different from the native sequence. (
  • The sequence alignment reinforced the high conservation of the trnL intron, and it showed a few random base pair substitutions. (
  • Sequence specific assembly of two PNA /peptide hybrids can be achieved by PNA base pairing. (
  • Formation of esters between phenols and benzoic acids has been used as a base-pairing strategy for sequence information transfer in template-directed synthesis of linear oligomers, but the copy strand produced by this process has the complementary sequence to the template strand. (
  • Although many ligands were predicted based on sequence signatures, ligands of shorter sequences have not been identified, together with many "orphan" receptors without known ligands. (
  • A DNA strand has the base sequence of ACGT. (
  • So if all of the bases we sequenced were from the same organism, in principle, we have collected enough data to sequence the virus genome 20,000 times over, the bacterial genome about 200 times over, and about a quarter of the mouse genome. (
  • The human genome is approximately three billion letters (or base pairs) long, and in a typical experiment we generate seven or eight billion base pairs of raw sequencing data. (
  • Each human cell contains approximately 3 billion base pairs. (
  • I [have a] genomics background, [so] I get really excited about that kind of stuff," Rubins said in a downlink shortly after reaching the one billion base pairs sequenced goal. (
  • 1) Unique base pairing means that a nucleotide can only form a base pair with a specific complementary nucleotide, usually the original hybridisation partner in a duplex during initialisation. (
  • We attempted to form a stable triplex DNA structure within an eight base pair bulged/mismatched region of a 32 base pair length DNA duplex using coralyne as a stabilizing intercalating molecule for the triplex. (
  • We confirm that single molecule, base-pair resolved simulation using TABASCO (Tabasco) can accurately compute gene expression dynamics and, moving beyond previous simulators, provide for the direct representation of intermolecular events such as polymerase collisions and promoter occlusion. (
  • Conclusion Tabasco enables genome-scale simulation of transcription and translation at individual molecule and single base-pair resolution. (
  • only some of the nitrogenous bases of DNA can interact to form a stable DNA molecule. (
  • Since most organisms have fewer than 45 species of tRNA, [3] some tRNA species must pair with more than one codon. (
  • Movement ("wobble") of the base in the 5' anticodon position is necessary for small conformational adjustments that affect the overall pairing geometry of anticodons of tRNA. (
  • If the first nucleotide is U or G, the pairing is less specific and in fact two bases can be interchangeably recognized by the tRNA. (
  • Inosine displays the true qualities of wobble, in that if that is the first nucleotide in the anticodon then any of three bases in the original codon can be matched with the tRNA. (
  • In the case of nucleic acids, complementarity generally involves base pairing. (
  • The G-C Hoogsteen base pair was first observed via X-ray crystallography years later, in 1986, by co-crystallizing DNA with triostin A (an antibiotic). (
  • it's something called a Hoogsteen base pair . (
  • common such patterns are Hoogsteen base pairs . (
  • Intramolecular base pairs can occur within single-stranded nucleic acids. (
  • It should be noted that the GU pairing, with two hydrogen bonds, does occur fairly often in RNA but rarely in DNA . (
  • What is the complementary RNA base pairing that would occur during transcription? (
  • RNA contains three of these bases - (A),(C), and (G) but not (T). Uracil (U) is found in its place and complements adenine (A) instead. (
  • Based on the conserved signaling among paralogous receptors and common knock-out phenotypes of ligand-receptor pairs, relationships between relaxin family peptides and leucine-rich repeat-containing, G protein-coupled receptors (LGR) were revealed. (
  • Future development of tools for predicting ligands and high throughput assays to identify ligand-receptor pairs based on ligand binding and/or signal transduction could advance hormone-based physiology and pathophysiology. (
  • They are typically less stable than standard base pairings. (
  • The most stable deprotonated base pair corresponds to the radical with the largest adiabatic electron affinity, 3.65 eV. (
  • Surprisingly, it forms a stable, homodimeric kissing complex through only two intermolecular G⋅C base pairs. (
  • as a consequence, the GC pair is more stable. (
  • In addition, the C-based imino-enol GC tautomer is thermally less stable. (
  • He postulated that the 5' base on the anticodon, which binds to the 3' base on the mRNA , was not as spatially confined as the other two bases, and could, thus, have non-standard base pairing. (
  • The resulting new strand of mRNA has complementary base pairs to the original DNA template. (
  • Aside from the obvious necessity of wobble, that our bodies have a limited amount of tRNAs and wobble allows for broad specificity, wobble base pairs have been shown to facilitate many biological functions, most clearly proven in the bacterium Escherichia coli . (
  • In particular, a modified Px base, 4-(4,5-dihydroxypent-1-yn-1-yl)-2-nitropyrrole (Diol1 -Px , Figure 1 ), has extremely high specificity as a pairing partner of Ds , and thus the misincorporation rates of Diol1 - d Px TP and d Ds TP opposite the natural bases in templates during PCR amplification are as low as 0.005% per base pair per replication [ 20 ]. (
  • These parameters describe the base pairs' three dimensional conformation. (
  • Two hydrogen bonds link the I.A. base-pair, one between N-1(I) and N-7(A), the other between O-6(I) and N-6(A). This bulky purine.purine base-pair is incorporated in the double helix at two positions with little distortion of either local or global conformation. (
  • Perhaps surprisingly, these crystals of the 18 base pair RNA exhibit a 36-fold static disorder, resulting in a structure with a single sugar-phosphate backbone conformation and an averaged base composition at each residue. (
  • While first used for cryptanalysis, pairings have also been used to construct many cryptographic systems for which no other efficient implementation is known, such as identity based encryption or attribute based encryption schemes. (
  • For example, in groups equipped with a bilinear mapping such as the Weil pairing or Tate pairing, generalizations of the computational Diffie-Hellman problem are believed to be infeasible while the simpler decisional Diffie-Hellman problem can be easily solved using the pairing function. (
  • S. Galbraith, K. Harrison and D. Soldera, "Implementing the Tate pairing," Algorithm Number Theory Symposium - ANTS V, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2369 , Springer-Verlag, to appear. (
  • Some base-pair substitution s produce a stop codon. (
  • The genetic code makes up for disparities in the number of amino acids (20) for codons (64), by using modified base pairs in the first base of the anti-codon . (
  • He postulated that the 5' base on the anti-codon was not as spatially confined as the other two bases, and could thus have non-standard base pairing. (
  • It is possible to form a base-pair between two benzoic acids by using a hydroquinone linker, which is eliminated when the product duplex is hydrolysed. (
  • duplexes showed only minor changes in the backbone structure and revealed a structural switch around the base-linker unit to be responsible for the generation of enantiomorphic duplex structures. (
  • This paper proposes a new identity-based tripartite signcryption scheme based on the elliptic curve discrete logarithm problem. (
  • Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) E. Beili Request for Comments: 6767 Actelis Networks Category: Standards Track M. Morgenstern ISSN: 2070-1721 ECI Telecom February 2013 Ethernet-Based xDSL Multi-Pair Bonding (G.Bond/Ethernet) MIB Abstract This document defines a Management Information Base (MIB) module for use with network management protocols in TCP/IP-based internets. (
  • Therefore, with the cis/trans forms and the 3 hydrogen bond edges, there are 12 basic types of base pairing geometries which can be found in RNA structures. (
  • Wobble base pairs are fundamental in RNA secondary structure and are critical for the proper translation of the genetic code . (
  • [1] The complementary nature of this based-paired structure provides a redundant copy of the genetic information encoded within each strand of DNA. (
  • The positioning of these base pairs along the DNA chain is what is known as the genetic code. (
  • His next goal is to determine whether the proto-RNA bases can be linked by a backbone to form a polymer that could have functioned as a genetic material. (
  • In the Human genome, it is about 1 million base pairs [2] [3] . (
  • Although mutation rates are a key determinant of the rate of evolution they are difficult to measure precisely and global mutations rates (mutations per genome per generation) are often extrapolated from the per-base-pair mutation rate assuming that mutation rate is uniform across the genome. (
  • Estimating this parameter is typically a three-step process: determining the mutation rate to a particular phenotype, converting this phenotypic rate into a per-base-pair mutation rate in a particular gene, and extrapolating this local rate to the entire genome. (
  • The block, known as a base pair , was used in the 33ft-high model which represents a chromosome, one of the human genome. (
  • To commemorate this anniversary in a fashion that showcases the rich history of the Human Genome Project and the field of genomics over the last quarter-century, the NHGRI History of Genomics Program is hosting a seminar series entitled "A Quarter Century after the Human Genome Project's Launch: Lessons Beyond the Base Pairs. (
  • For reference, the genome of the virus DNA we sent up is 48,000 bases, the genome of the E. Coli DNA we sent up is 4.6 million bases, and the length of the human genome is 3.2 billion bases," Burton said. (
  • In this study, we introduce a novel high-throughput fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technology that enabled us to conduct a genome-wide RNAi screen for factors involved in the robust somatic pairing observed in Drosophila. (
  • PUTJD115 'Asymmetric frustrated Lewis pair catalyzed hydrogenation using chiral Lewis bases (1.03.2015−29.02.2016)', Karl Kaupmees, University of Tartu, Faculty of Science and Technology, Institute of Chemistry. (
  • The various edges for the purine and pyrimidine bases are shown in Figure 2. (
  • The 20-angstrom (7.9 × 10 −8 -inch) diameter of the helix was consistent with the presence of two adjacent strands and supported the hypothesis that a purine base resided on one strand and a pyrimidine base on the equivalent (homologous) site of the complementary strand. (
  • In one of his experiments, Chargaff illustrated that the quantity of A is equal to that of T, while the quantity of C is equal to that of G. He then concluded that the complementary base of A must be T and the complementary base of C must be G. Chargaff's findings formed the basis for the base pairing principle of DNA. (
  • Erwin Chargaff's rules on DNA equivalence paved the way for the discovery of base pairing in DNA. (
  • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplification with a thermal cycler (MJ Research PTC--200-DNA Engine, San Francisco, CA) was used to obtain a 2,122 base pair gene fragment consisting of the carbapenemase structural gene nmcA and its regulatory gene nmcR (12,13). (
  • Unusually, the dimer interface, in which six unpaired adenosines break overall two-fold symmetry, lacks any intermolecular base pairs. (
  • Barreto, P.S.L.M., Naehrig, M.: Pairing-friendly elliptic curves of prime order. (
  • Start with 'main.secondary_structure_restraints=True', and it will attempt to find existing base pairs by analyzing hydrogen bonds. (
  • If your geometry is still a little screwy, the parameter syntax is like this: refinement.secondary_structure.nucleic_acids { base_pair { base1 = chain 'A' and resseq 1 base2 = chain 'B' and resseq 10 } } One piece of advice: make sure your structure has either all hydrogen atoms where they should be, or none at all - if you're missing any, the secondary structure restraints will probably break. (
  • In combination with a variety of secondary assays, these results provide insights into the mechanism and dynamics of somatic pairing. (
  • Replication, transcription, and translation all involve base‐pairing at several levels. (
  • The Purine bases have 3 edges which are able to hydrogen bond. (
  • Appropriate geometrical correspondence of hydrogen bond donors and acceptors allows only the "right" pairs to form stably. (
  • The present work shows that in the purine.purine base-pairs the adenine adopts syn orientation with respect to the furanose moiety while the inosine is in the trans (anti) orientation. (
  • A contemporary example of using bilinear pairings is exemplified in the Boneh-Lynn-Shacham signature scheme. (
  • The proposed id-based tripartite signcryption scheme does not use the bilinear pairings in both the Signcryption and unsigncryption phases. (
  • D. Boneh and M. Franklin, "Identity-based encryption from the Weil pairing," Advances in Cryptology - Crypto'2001, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2139 , pp. 213-229, Springer-Verlag, 2001. (
  • Nanowerk News ) By mapping uneven patterns of electrons in iron-based superconductors, RIKEN researchers have found evidence that electrons can pair up in two different ways, depending on the crystal structure ( Science Advances , 'Two distinct superconducting pairing states divided by the nematic end point in FeSe 1-x S x ' ). (