Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The inferior region of the skull consisting of an internal (cerebral), and an external (basilar) surface.
Condensation products of aromatic amines and aldehydes forming azomethines substituted on the N atom, containing the general formula R-N:CHR. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
Neoplasms of the base of the skull specifically, differentiated from neoplasms of unspecified sites or bones of the skull (SKULL NEOPLASMS).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The presence of an uncomplimentary base in double-stranded DNA caused by spontaneous deamination of cytosine or adenine, mismatching during homologous recombination, or errors in DNA replication. Multiple, sequential base pair mismatches lead to formation of heteroduplex DNA; (NUCLEIC ACID HETERODUPLEXES).
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The part of a denture that overlies the soft tissue and supports the supplied teeth and is supported in turn by abutment teeth or the residual alveolar ridge. It is usually made of resins or metal or their combination.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Collections of facts, assumptions, beliefs, and heuristics that are used in combination with databases to achieve desired results, such as a diagnosis, an interpretation, or a solution to a problem (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed).
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Ketonic amines prepared from the condensation of a ketone with formaldehyde and ammonia or a primary or secondary amine. A Mannich base can act as the equivalent of an alpha,beta unsaturated ketone in synthesis or can be reduced to form physiologically active amino alcohols.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
A family of DNA repair enzymes that recognize damaged nucleotide bases and remove them by hydrolyzing the N-glycosidic bond that attaches them to the sugar backbone of the DNA molecule. The process called BASE EXCISION REPAIR can be completed by a DNA-(APURINIC OR APYRIMIDINIC SITE) LYASE which excises the remaining RIBOSE sugar from the DNA.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Any chemical species which acts as an electron-pair donor in a chemical bonding reaction with a LEWIS ACID.
A purine that is an isomer of ADENINE (6-aminopurine).
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A DNA repair enzyme that catalyses the excision of ribose residues at apurinic and apyrimidinic DNA sites that can result from the action of DNA GLYCOSYLASES. The enzyme catalyzes a beta-elimination reaction in which the C-O-P bond 3' to the apurinic or apyrimidinic site in DNA is broken, leaving a 3'-terminal unsaturated sugar and a product with a terminal 5'-phosphate. This enzyme was previously listed under EC
A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
Double-stranded nucleic acid molecules (DNA-DNA or DNA-RNA) which contain regions of nucleotide mismatches (non-complementary). In vivo, these heteroduplexes can result from mutation or genetic recombination; in vitro, they are formed by nucleic acid hybridization. Electron microscopic analysis of the resulting heteroduplexes facilitates the mapping of regions of base sequence homology of nucleic acids.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A DNA repair enzyme that catalyzes DNA synthesis during base excision DNA repair. EC
A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The sequential set of three nucleotides in TRANSFER RNA that interacts with its complement in MESSENGER RNA, the CODON, during translation in the ribosome.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A DNA repair enzyme that is an N-glycosyl hydrolase with specificity for DNA-containing ring-opened N(7)-methylguanine residues.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
An enzyme which catalyzes an endonucleolytic cleavage near PYRIMIDINE DIMERS to produce a 5'-phosphate product. The enzyme acts on the damaged DNA strand, from the 5' side of the damaged site.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.
A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.
An enzyme that catalyzes the HYDROLYSIS of the N-glycosidic bond between sugar phosphate backbone and URACIL residue during DNA synthesis.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Agents that are capable of inserting themselves between the successive bases in DNA, thus kinking, uncoiling or otherwise deforming it and therefore preventing its proper functioning. They are used in the study of DNA.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A group of enzymes catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. They include members of EC 3.1.21.-, EC 3.1.22.-, EC 3.1.23.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), EC 3.1.24.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), and EC 3.1.25.-.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of single-stranded regions of DNA or RNA molecules while leaving the double-stranded regions intact. They are particularly useful in the laboratory for producing "blunt-ended" DNA molecules from DNA with single-stranded ends and for sensitive GENETIC TECHNIQUES such as NUCLEASE PROTECTION ASSAYS that involve the detection of single-stranded DNA and RNA.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
RNA that has catalytic activity. The catalytic RNA sequence folds to form a complex surface that can function as an enzyme in reactions with itself and other molecules. It may function even in the absence of protein. There are numerous examples of RNA species that are acted upon by catalytic RNA, however the scope of this enzyme class is not limited to a particular type of substrate.
The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
A type of mutation in which a number of NUCLEOTIDES deleted from or inserted into a protein coding sequence is not divisible by three, thereby causing an alteration in the READING FRAMES of the entire coding sequence downstream of the mutation. These mutations may be induced by certain types of MUTAGENS or may occur spontaneously.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Rhodopsins found in the PURPLE MEMBRANE of halophilic archaea such as HALOBACTERIUM HALOBIUM. Bacteriorhodopsins function as an energy transducers, converting light energy into electrochemical energy via PROTON PUMPS.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A class of membrane lipids that have a polar head and two nonpolar tails. They are composed of one molecule of the long-chain amino alcohol sphingosine (4-sphingenine) or one of its derivatives, one molecule of a long-chain acid, a polar head alcohol and sometimes phosphoric acid in diester linkage at the polar head group. (Lehninger et al, Principles of Biochemistry, 2nd ed)
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Various mixtures of fats, waxes, animal and plant oils and solid and liquid hydrocarbons; vehicles for medicinal substances intended for external application; there are four classes: hydrocarbon base, absorption base, water-removable base and water-soluble base; several are also emollients.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Polydeoxyribonucleotides made up of deoxyadenine nucleotides and thymine nucleotides. Present in DNA preparations isolated from crab species. Synthetic preparations have been used extensively in the study of DNA.
The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Disturbances in the ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIUM of the body.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-oxygen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.2.
An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.
The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).
(T-4)-Osmium oxide (OsO4). A highly toxic and volatile oxide of osmium used in industry as an oxidizing agent. It is also used as a histological fixative and stain and as a synovectomy agent in arthritic joints. Its vapor can cause eye, skin, and lung damage.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
High molecular weight polymers containing a mixture of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides chained together by ribose or deoxyribose linkages.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A purine and a reaction intermediate in the metabolism of adenosine and in the formation of nucleic acids by the salvage pathway.
5-Hydroxymethyl-6-methyl- 2,4-(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione. Uracil derivative used in combination with toxic antibiotics to lessen their toxicity; also to stimulate leukopoiesis and immunity. Synonyms: pentoksil; hydroxymethylmethyluracil.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
A pyrimidine nucleoside that is composed of the base CYTOSINE linked to the five-carbon sugar D-RIBOSE.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying alanine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A DNA-dependent DNA polymerase characterized in prokaryotes and may be present in higher organisms. It has both 3'-5' and 5'-3' exonuclease activity, but cannot use native double-stranded DNA as template-primer. It is not inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents and is active in both DNA synthesis and repair. EC
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Enzyme systems containing a single subunit and requiring only magnesium for endonucleolytic activity. The corresponding modification methylases are separate enzymes. The systems recognize specific short DNA sequences and cleave either within, or at a short specific distance from, the recognition sequence to give specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. Enzymes from different microorganisms with the same specificity are called isoschizomers. EC
A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to DEOXYRIBOSE.
Adenosine molecules which can be substituted in any position, but are lacking one hydroxyl group in the ribose part of the molecule.
An amino alcohol with a long unsaturated hydrocarbon chain. Sphingosine and its derivative sphinganine are the major bases of the sphingolipids in mammals. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A methylated nucleotide base found in eukaryotic DNA. In ANIMALS, the DNA METHYLATION of CYTOSINE to form 5-methylcytosine is found primarily in the palindromic sequence CpG. In PLANTS, the methylated sequence is CpNpGp, where N can be any base.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Poly(deoxyribonucleotide):poly(deoxyribonucleotide)ligases. Enzymes that catalyze the joining of preformed deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes during repair of a single-stranded break in duplex DNA. The class includes both EC (ATP) and EC (NAD).
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Purines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PURINE NUCLEOTIDES.
A malignant tumor arising from the embryonic remains of the notochord. It is also called chordocarcinoma, chordoepithelioma, and notochordoma. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.
A cytotoxic polypeptide quinoxaline antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces echinatus that binds to DNA and inhibits RNA synthesis.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
Interruptions in one of the strands of the sugar-phosphate backbone of double-stranded DNA.
A carotenoid constituent of visual pigments. It is the oxidized form of retinol which functions as the active component of the visual cycle. It is bound to the protein opsin forming the complex rhodopsin. When stimulated by visible light, the retinal component of the rhodopsin complex undergoes isomerization at the 11-position of the double bond to the cis-form; this is reversed in "dark" reactions to return to the native trans-configuration.
An enzyme which catalyzes the endonucleolytic cleavage of phosphodiester bonds at purinic or apyrimidinic sites (AP-sites) to produce 5'-Phosphooligonucleotide end products. The enzyme prefers single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and was formerly classified as EC
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
Cytosine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Highly reactive chemicals that introduce alkyl radicals into biologically active molecules and thereby prevent their proper functioning. Many are used as antineoplastic agents, but most are very toxic, with carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, and immunosuppressant actions. They have also been used as components in poison gases.
Enzymes that are involved in the reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule, which contained damaged regions.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC
Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE and phosphate attached that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.
The regulatory elements of an OPERON to which activators or repressors bind thereby effecting the transcription of GENES in the operon.

A computational screen for methylation guide snoRNAs in yeast. (1/2613)

Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are required for ribose 2'-O-methylation of eukaryotic ribosomal RNA. Many of the genes for this snoRNA family have remained unidentified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, despite the availability of a complete genome sequence. Probabilistic modeling methods akin to those used in speech recognition and computational linguistics were used to computationally screen the yeast genome and identify 22 methylation guide snoRNAs, snR50 to snR71. Gene disruptions and other experimental characterization confirmed their methylation guide function. In total, 51 of the 55 ribose methylated sites in yeast ribosomal RNA were assigned to 41 different guide snoRNAs.  (+info)

Base pairing of anhydrohexitol nucleosides with 2,6-diaminopurine, 5-methylcytosine and uracil asbase moiety. (2/2613)

Hexitol nucleic acids (HNAs) with modified bases (5-methylcytosine, 2,6-diaminopurine or uracil) were synthesized. The introduction of the 5-methylcytosine base demonstrates that N -benzoylated 5-methylcytosyl-hexitol occurs as the imino tautomer. The base pairing systems (G:CMe, U:D, T:D and U:A) obey Watson-Crick rules. Substituting hT for hU, hCMefor hC and hD for hA generally leads to increased duplex stability. In a single case, replacement of hC by hCMedid not result in duplex stabilization. This sequence-specific effect could be explained by the geometry of the model duplex used for carrying out the thermal stability study. Generally, polypurine HNA sequences give more stable duplexes with their RNA complement than polypyrimidine HNA sequences. This observation supports the hypothesis that, besides changes in stacking pattern, the difference in conformational stress between purine and pyrimidine nucleosides may contribute to duplex stability. Introduction of hCMeand hD in HNA sequences further increases the potential of HNA to function as a steric blocking agent.  (+info)

Smoothing of the thermal stability of DNA duplexes by using modified nucleosides and chaotropic agents. (3/2613)

The effect of alkyltrimethylammonium ions on the thermostability of natural and modified DNA duplexes has been investigated. We have shown that the use of tetramethylammonium ions TMA+along with the chemical modification of duplexes allow the fine adjustment of T m and the possibility of obtaining several duplex systems with varied isostabilizedtemperatures, some of which show greater stability than those of natural DNA. This approach could be very useful for DNA sequencing by hybridization.  (+info)

Complete sequence of a 184-kilobase catabolic plasmid from Sphingomonas aromaticivorans F199. (4/2613)

The complete 184,457-bp sequence of the aromatic catabolic plasmid, pNL1, from Sphingomonas aromaticivorans F199 has been determined. A total of 186 open reading frames (ORFs) are predicted to encode proteins, of which 79 are likely directly associated with catabolism or transport of aromatic compounds. Genes that encode enzymes associated with the degradation of biphenyl, naphthalene, m-xylene, and p-cresol are predicted to be distributed among 15 gene clusters. The unusual coclustering of genes associated with different pathways appears to have evolved in response to similarities in biochemical mechanisms required for the degradation of intermediates in different pathways. A putative efflux pump and several hypothetical membrane-associated proteins were identified and predicted to be involved in the transport of aromatic compounds and/or intermediates in catabolism across the cell wall. Several genes associated with integration and recombination, including two group II intron-associated maturases, were identified in the replication region, suggesting that pNL1 is able to undergo integration and excision events with the chromosome and/or other portions of the plasmid. Conjugative transfer of pNL1 to another Sphingomonas sp. was demonstrated, and genes associated with this function were found in two large clusters. Approximately one-third of the ORFs (59 of them) have no obvious homology to known genes.  (+info)

Mutated epithelial cadherin is associated with increased tumorigenicity and loss of adhesion and of responsiveness to the motogenic trefoil factor 2 in colon carcinoma cells. (5/2613)

Epithelial (E)-cadherin and its associated cytoplasmic proteins (alpha-, beta-, and gamma-catenins) are important mediators of epithelial cell-cell adhesion and intracellular signaling. Much evidence exists suggesting a tumor/invasion suppressor role for E-cadherin, and loss of expression, as well as mutations, has been described in a number of epithelial cancers. To investigate whether E-cadherin gene (CDH1) mutations occur in colorectal cancer, we screened 49 human colon carcinoma cell lines from 43 patients by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and direct sequencing. In addition to silent changes, polymorphisms, and intronic variants in a number of the cell lines, we detected frameshift single-base deletions in repeat regions of exon 3 (codons 120 and 126) causing premature truncations at codon 216 in four replication-error-positive (RER+) cell lines (LS174T, HCT116, GP2d, and GP5d) derived from 3 patients. In LS174T such a mutation inevitably contributes to its lack of E-cadherin protein expression and function. Transfection of full-length E-cadherin cDNA into LS174T cells enhanced intercellular adhesion, induced differentiation, retarded proliferation, inhibited tumorigenicity, and restored responsiveness to the migratory effects induced by the motogenic trefoil factor 2 (human spasmolytic polypeptide). These results indicate that, although inactivating E-cadherin mutations occur relatively infrequently in colorectal cancer cell lines overall (3/43 = 7%), they are more common in cells with an RER+ phenotype (3/10 = 30%) and may contribute to the dysfunction of the E-cadherin-catenin-mediated adhesion/signaling system commonly seen in these tumors. These results also indicate that normal E-cadherin-mediated cell adhesion can restore the ability of colonic tumor cells to respond to trefoil factor 2.  (+info)

High base pair opening rates in tracts of GC base pairs. (6/2613)

Sequence-dependent structural features of the DNA double helix have a strong influence on the base pair opening dynamics. Here we report a detailed study of the kinetics of base pair breathing in tracts of GC base pairs in DNA duplexes derived from 1H NMR measurements of the imino proton exchange rates upon titration with the exchange catalyst ammonia. In the limit of infinite exchange catalyst concentration, the exchange times of the guanine imino protons of the GC tracts extrapolate to much shorter base pair lifetimes than commonly observed for isolated GC base pairs. The base pair lifetimes in the GC tracts are below 5 ms for almost all of the base pairs. The unusually rapid base pair opening dynamics of GC tracts are in striking contrast to the behavior of AT tracts, where very long base pair lifetimes are observed. The implication of these findings for the structural principles governing spontaneous helix opening as well as the DNA-binding specificity of the cytosine-5-methyltransferases, where flipping of the cytosine base has been observed, are discussed.  (+info)

How translational accuracy influences reading frame maintenance. (7/2613)

Most missense errors have little effect on protein function, since they only exchange one amino acid for another. However, processivity errors, frameshifting or premature termination result in a synthesis of an incomplete peptide. There may be a connection between missense and processivity errors, since processivity errors now appear to result from a second error occurring after recruitment of an errant aminoacyl-tRNA, either spontaneous dissociation causing premature termination or translational frameshifting. This is clearest in programmed translational frameshifting where the mRNA programs errant reading by a near-cognate tRNA; this error promotes a second frameshifting error (a dual-error model of frameshifting). The same mechanism can explain frameshifting by suppressor tRNAs, even those with expanded anticodon loops. The previous model that suppressor tRNAs induce quadruplet translocation now appears incorrect for most, and perhaps for all of them. We suggest that the 'spontaneous' tRNA-induced frameshifting and 'programmed' mRNA-induced frameshifting use the same mechanism, although the frequency of frameshifting is very different. This new model of frameshifting suggests that the tRNA is not acting as the yardstick to measure out the length of the translocation step. Rather, the translocation of 3 nucleotides may be an inherent feature of the ribosome.  (+info)

Trans-activation of the Tetrahymena group I intron ribozyme via a non-native RNA-RNA interaction. (8/2613)

The peripheral P2.1 domain of the Tetrahymena group I intron ribozyme has been shown to be non-essential for splicing. We found, however, that separately prepared P2.1 RNA efficiently accelerates the 3' splice-site-specific hydrolysis reaction of a mutant ribozyme lacking both P2.1 and its upstream region in trans. We report here the unusual properties of this trans-activation. Compensatory mutational analysis revealed that non-native long-range base-pairings between the loop region of P2.1 RNA and L5c region of the mutant ribozyme are needed for the activation in spite of the fact that P2.1 forms base-pairings with P9.1 in the Tetrahymena ribozyme. The trans -activation depends on the non-native RNA-RNA interaction together with the higher order structure of P2.1 RNA. This activation is unique among the known trans-activations that utilize native tertiary interactions or RNA chaperons.  (+info)

Aside from the obvious necessity of wobble, that our bodies have a limited amount of tRNAs and wobble allows for broad specificity, wobble base pairs have been shown to facilitate many biological functions, most clearly proven in the bacterium Escherichia coli. In fact, in a study of E. colis tRNA for alanine there is a wobble base pair that determines whether the tRNA will be aminoacylated. When a tRNA reaches an aminoacyl tRNA synthetase, the job of the synthetase is to join the t-shaped RNA with its amino acid. These aminoacylated tRNAs go on to the translation of an mRNA transcript, and are the fundamental elements that connect to the codon of the amino acid.[1] The necessity of the wobble base pair is illustrated through experimentation where the Guanine- Uracil pairing is changed to its natural Guanine- Cytosine pairing. Oligoribonucleotides were synthesized on a Gene Assembler Plus, and then spread across a DNA sequence known to code a tRNA for Alanine, 2D-NMRs are then run on the ...
On Tue, Jun 22, 2010 at 2:21 PM, Scott Classen ,sclassen at, wrote: , Hello friendly Phenix developers, , , According to the CHANGES for phenix.refine 1.6.2-432 there is a new , feature: , , hydrogen-bond restraints for Watson-Crick base pairs , , How do I use this? I couldnt find any documentation... or is it automagic? , Automagic, I hope. Start with main.secondary_structure_restraints=True, and it will attempt to find existing base pairs by analyzing hydrogen bonds. If your geometry is still a little screwy, the parameter syntax is like this: refinement.secondary_structure.nucleic_acids { base_pair { base1 = chain A and resseq 1 base2 = chain B and resseq 10 } } One piece of advice: make sure your structure has either all hydrogen atoms where they should be, or none at all - if youre missing any, the secondary structure restraints will probably break. The automatic mechanism will also restrain protein helices and sheets, but you can easily turn this off ...
Complementary base definition, either of the nucleotide bases linked by a hydrogen bond on opposite strands of DNA or double-stranded RNA: guanine is the complementary base of cytosine, and adenine is the complementary base of thymine in DNA and of uracil in RNA. See more.
xDNA molecule. Computer artwork of a molecule of expanded deoxyribonucleic acid (xDNA). Normal DNA is composed of two strands twisted into a double helix. Each strand consists of a sugar-phosphate backbone attached to the nucleotide bases guanine, cytosine, thymine and adenine. xDNA, which was created by Professor Eric Kool and colleagues at Stanford University, USA, has an extra benzene ring added to adenine (xA) and thymine (xT). This makes the molecule wider and more heat resistant. It is also fluorescent, making it useful for medical biopsies. Synthetic forms of DNA, such as xDNA, could be used to engineer novel cell types. - Stock Image G110/0895
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2 -O-Methyl guanosine G is classified as a 2 -O-Methyl RNA monomer. 2 -O-Methyl nucleotides are most commonly used to confer nuclease resistance to an oligo designed for anti-sense, siRNA or aptamer-based research, diagnostic or therapeutic purposes, when specific 2 -OH is not required. Nuclease resistance can be further enhanced by phosphorothiolation of appropriate internucleotide linkages within the oligo.. The hydrogen bonding behavior of a 2 -O-Methyl RNA/RNA base pair is closer to that of an RNA/RNA base pair than a DNA/RNA base pair. Consequently, the presence of 2 -O-Methyl nucleotides improves duplex stability. Indeed, incorporation of a 2 -O-Methyl nucleotide into an anti-sense oligo (resulting in a 2 -O-Methyl RNA/DNA chimeric), lead to a increase in the Tm of its duplex with RNA, relative to that formed by an unmodified anti-sense DNA oligo, of 1.3 C per 2 -O-Methyl RNA residue added (2). Moreover, from a synthesis standpoint, the coupling efficiency of 2 -O-Methyl phosphoramidites ...
A synthetic DNA base pair expands the genetic alphabet to enable the creation and scale-up of novel and diverse protein therapeutics with improved safety and efficacy profiles. SAN DIEGO, November 29, 2017 - Synthorx Inc. announced today that scientists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) and the company, guided by Floyd Romesberg, Ph.D., have developed the first semi-synthetic organism that can store and retrieve increased genetic information. The semi-synthetic organism was made to maintain, replicate, transcribe, and translate a synthetic DNA base pair in order to incorporate various non-natural amino acids (nnAAs) into a full-length protein. This research, published today in Nature, breaks through technical barriers to creating more diverse proteins for improved drug characteristics as well as enabling cost-effective scale-up for drug development.. An expanded genetic alphabet allows for site-specific incorporation of different non-natural amino acids to create novel full-length and ...
Organisms are defined by the information encoded in their genomes, and since the origin of life this information has been encoded using a two-base-pair genetic alphabet (A-T and G-C). In vitro, the alphabet has been expanded to include several unnatural base pairs (UBPs)1, 2, 3. We have developed a class of UBPs formed between nucleotides bearing hydrophobic nucleobases, exemplified by the pair formed between d5SICS and dNaM (d5SICS-dNaM), which is efficiently PCR-amplified1 and transcribed4, 5 in vitro, and whose unique mechanism of replication has been characterized6, 7. However, expansion of an organisms genetic alphabet presents new and unprecedented challenges: the unnatural nucleoside triphosphates must be available inside the cell; endogenous polymerases must be able to use the unnatural triphosphates to faithfully replicate DNA containing the UBP within the complex cellular milieu; and finally, the UBP must be stable in the presence of pathways that maintain the integrity of DNA. Here ...
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Return to Modified Bases Modifications 5-Nitroindole is currently the best universal base available. It does not favor any particular base-pairing (i.e., it does not support base-specific hydrogen bond formation), but does contribute to duplex stability through base-stacking interactions. Therefore, it is not as destabilizing to the duplex as mismatches between the standard bases. 5-Nitroindole directs random incorporation of any specific base when used as a template for DNA polymerase and partially blocks enzyme processivity.. ...
Complementary base pairing refers to the structural pairing of nucleotide bases in deoxyribonucleic acid, which is commonly known as DNA. DNA is made up of
Interactive 3D chemistry animations of reaction mechanisms and 3D models of chemical structures for students studying University courses and advanced school chemistry hosted by University of Liverpool
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the chemical compound that contains the instructions needed to develop and direct the activities of nearly all living organisms. DNA molecules are made of two twisting, paired strands, often referred to as a double helix.. Each DNA strand is made of four chemical units, called nucleotide bases, which comprise the genetic alphabet. The bases are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). Bases on opposite strands pair specifically: an A always pairs with a T; a C always pairs with a G. The order of the As, Ts, Cs, and Gs determines the meaning of the information encoded in that part of the DNA molecule just as the order of letters determines the meaning of a word.. An organisms complete set of DNA is called its genome. Virtually every single cell in the body contains a complete copy of the approximately 3 billion DNA base pairs, or letters, that make up the human genome.. With its four-letter language, DNA contains the information needed to build ...
A method for detecting disease-associated alleles in patient genetic material is provided whereby a first group of oligonucleotide molecules, synthesized to compliment base sequences of the disease associated alleles is immobilized on a predetermined position on a substrate, and then contacted with patient genetic material to form duplexes. The duplexes are then contacted with a second group of oligonucleotide molecules which are synthesized to extend the predetermined length of the oligonucleotide molecules of the first group, and where each of the oligonucleotide molecules of the second group are tagged and either incorporate universal bases or a mixture of guanine, cytosine, thymine, and adenine, or complementary nucleotide strands that are tagged with a different fluorochrome which radiates light at a predetermined wavelength. The treated substrate is then washed and the light patterns radiating therefrom are compared with predetermined light patterns of various diseases that were prepared on
TY - JOUR. T1 - Induced Fit In Synthetic Receptors. T2 - Nucleotide Base Recognition By A Molecular Hinge. AU - Hamilton, Andrew D.. AU - Engen, Donna Van. PY - 1987/8/1. Y1 - 1987/8/1. UR - UR - U2 - 10.1021/ja00250a052. DO - 10.1021/ja00250a052. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0001676488. VL - 109. SP - 5035. EP - 5036. JO - Journal of the American Chemical Society. JF - Journal of the American Chemical Society. SN - 0002-7863. IS - 16. ER - ...
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1IXJ: Crystal Structure of d(GCGAAAGCT) Containing a Parallel-stranded Duplex with Homo Base Pairs and an Anti-Parallel Duplex with Watson-Crick Base pairs
Knotted2Nested :: DESCRIPTION Knotted2Nested removes pseudoknots from a list of RNA base pairs, using different algorithms. It produces in pseudoknot-free (dot-bracket) 2D structures. ::DEVELOPER The Centre for
LANGUAGE OverloadedStrings #-} {-# LANGUAGE RecordWildCards #-} -- , FR3D provides a very convenient library of explored RNA structures. We are -- mostly interested in the basepairs files. In contrast to the RNAstrand -- library or melting experiments, these data sets provide non-canonical RNA -- pairing. -- -- NOTE that FR3D entries contain basepairs both in (i,j) as well as (j,i) -- orientation (with i,j). module Biobase.FR3D where import Data.ByteString.Char8 as BS import Data.List as L import Biobase.Primary import Biobase.Secondary -- , Encapsulates all the basepairs information. data FR3D = FR3D { pdbid :: ByteString , chains :: [(ByteString,ByteString)] , basepairs :: [Basepair] } deriving (Show) -- , A single basepair in a basepair system. data Basepair = Basepair { interaction :: ExtPairAnnotation -- nucleotide 1 , nucleotide1 :: Char , pdbnumber1 :: Int , chain1 :: ByteString , seqpos1 :: Int -- nucleotide 2 , nucleotide2 :: Char , pdbnumber2 :: Int , chain2 :: ByteString , seqpos2 ...
The pairing of complementary nucleotide bases (adenine and thymine, guanine and cytosine) to each other via hydrogen bonds from opposite strands of a double stranded nucleic acid (such as DNA or RNA), thereby holding the double-stranded nucleic acid together ...
DNA is an amazing molecule which is the basic template for all genetics. It is the primary molecule for storing biological information, and has many applications in nanotechnology. Double-stranded DNA may contain mismatched base pairs beyond the Watson-Crick pairs guanine-cytosine and adenine-thymine. To date, no one has found ...
Efficient and sequence-independent replication of DNA containing a third base pair establishes a functional six-letter genetic alphabet, Malyshev, D. A., Dhami K., Quach H. T., Lavergne Thomas, Ordoukhanian P., Torkamani A., and Romesberg F. E. , Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, Volume 109, Number 30, p.12005-10, (2012) ...
Ellingtons lab is engineering a library of enzymes to read and write not just natural DNA and hachimoji, but any of the variety of alphabets he foresees in the future. Were starting to think of it as cryptogenetics, he says. The idea is to build the machinery necessary to read and write proprietary DNA languages. With cryptogenetics, IBM could have its own privileged genetic alphabet that no one else could translate. So could China. An expanded alphabet gives you the opportunity to make bigger, better, stronger, faster things in general ...
Number of consecutive base pairs required in 3 end. How many consecutive 3 end base pairs in the primer that MUST be present for priming/mispriming to occur. This option is included since 3 terminal base pairs are known to be essential for priming to occur ...
div id=meth_popup4,,center,,h2,Polymerization and External Staples,/h2,,a id=meth_clickout4,Click Here to Close,/a,,/center, ,center,,div id=slider3, ,div,,p,The 96 polymerization staples need to be unique sequences. Additionally, the design incorporates 60 single-stranded scaffold components to form the connections between the rows within a trapezoid. In order to avoid difficulties with unwanted binding between polymerization staples or external staples, the 96 polymerization staples needed to each be different from the 60 single-stranded scaffold sequences and from the reverse complement of each of these 60 sequences. Moreover, each polymerization staple adds additional restrictions. The problem is further complicated by the fact that multiple complementary base pairs will weakly bind to each other locally even if the entire strand is not complementary. We therefore limited our strands to have less than 5 consecutive complementary base pairs out of 10 base pair external staples ...
div id=meth_popup4,,center,,h2,Polymerization and External Staples,/h2,,a id=meth_clickout4,Click Here to Close,/a,,/center, ,center,,div id=slider3, ,div,,p,The 96 polymerization staples need to be unique sequences. Additionally, the design incorporates 60 single-stranded scaffold components to form the connections between the rows within a trapezoid. In order to avoid difficulties with unwanted binding between polymerization staples or external staples, the 96 polymerization staples needed to each be different from the 60 single-stranded scaffold sequences and from the reverse complement of each of these 60 sequences. Moreover, each polymerization staple adds additional restrictions. The problem is further complicated by the fact that multiple complementary base pairs will weakly bind to each other locally even if the entire strand is not complementary. We therefore limited our strands to have less than 5 consecutive complementary base pairs out of 10 base pair external staples ...
Hi Imre, you need to define custom bonds between these pairs: see section Definition of custom bonds and angles. phenix.refine does not do it automatically. Pavel. On 4/6/09 4:42 AM, Imre Toeroe wrote: , Hi, , , Does anybody know an easy way to restrain nucleic acid base pairs (base , stacking+Watson-Crick base pairing) in phenix.refine? I am refining , against a 3.3 A dataset. , , Thanks, , , Imre , , , _______________________________________________ , phenixbb mailing list , phenixbb at , , ...
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Explore the composition and structure of DNA molecules. Learn how DNA molecules are composed of four different types of nucleotides that pair with...
If you are a society or association member and require assistance with obtaining online access instructions please contact our Journal Customer Services team ...
A newly created DNA base editor contains an atom-rearranging enzyme (red) that can change adenine into inosine (read and copied as guanine), guide RNA (green) which directs the molecule to the right spot, and Cas9 nickase (blue), which snips the opposing strand of DNA and tricks the cell into swapping the complementary base.
Next, they changed the molecule theyd originally used to make the Y base, and found that it could be more easily recognised by enzymes in the bacteria that synthesise DNA molecules during DNA replication. In the genome of living organisms, the natural bases A, T, C, and G are structured as two base pairs A-T and C-G on the DNA double helix. Back... Read more ...
NH3 is not a strong base. A weak base is defined as a base that does not completely dissociate into ions when in a solution. Weak bases are also known as weak electrolytes and reactions with them...
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Scientists have taken the first steps toward rewriting the blueprint of life using laboratory-made DNA base pairs not seen in nature.
Researchers from the University of Cambridge and the Babraham Institute have found that a naturally occurring modified DNA base appears to be stably
The stronger the acid, the weaker will be its conjugate base. We can, therefore, relate the strength of a base to the pKa of its conjugate acid.
This Part 1 from the series of notes for SPM Chemistry Form 4 on Acids and Bases will be on the introduction of acids and bases/alkalis.
In order to simplify the use and the removal of bases and their salts from reaction mixtures, SiliCycle has developed a range of silica bound bases
Chapter Students will be able to define an acid and base in terms of both the Arrhenius and the Bronsted-Lowry definitions and provide examples of each (including examples that follow the Bronsted-Lowry
Base fittings are dovetail twistlocks, breech-base twistlocks, wide body manual and intermediate twistlocks, turn-foot twistlocks and base stacking cones.
Decode from Base64 format or encode into it with various advanced options. Our site has an easy to use online tool to convert your data.
Encode to Base64 format or decode from it with various advanced options. Our site has an easy to use online tool to convert your data.
Encode to Base64 format or decode from it with various advanced options. Our site has an easy to use online tool to convert your data.
Decode from Base64 format or encode into it with various advanced options. Our site has an easy to use online tool to convert your data.
Encode to Base64 format or decode from it with various advanced options. Our site has an easy to use online tool to convert your data.
Decode from Base64 format or encode into it with various advanced options. Our site has an easy to use online tool to convert your data.
Decode from Base64 format or encode into it with various advanced options. Our site has an easy to use online tool to convert your data.
A Hoogsteen base pair is a variation of base-pairing in nucleic acids such as the A•T pair. In this manner, two nucleobases, one on each strand, can be held together by hydrogen bonds in the major groove. A Hoogsteen base pair applies the N7 position of the purine base (as a hydrogen bond acceptor) and C6 amino group (as a donor), which bind the Watson-Crick (N3-N4) face of the pyrimidine base. Ten years after James Watson and Francis Crick published their model of the DNA double helix, Karst Hoogsteen reported a crystal structure of a complex in which analogues of A and T formed a base pair that had a different geometry from that described by Watson and Crick. Similarly, an alternative base-pairing geometry can occur for G•C pairs. Hoogsteen pointed out that if the alternative hydrogen-bonding patterns were present in DNA, then the double helix would have to assume a quite different shape. Hoogsteen base pairs are, however, rarely observed. Hoogsteen pairs have quite different properties ...
Left: Watson-Crick base pair; Right: Hoogsteen base pair (A = Adenine, U = Uracil, found in RNA).. Were all familiar with the double helix form of DNA. However, thats not the only shape DNA ever takes. Hashim Al-Hashimi led a team from the University of Michigan in identifying and observing an alternate form of DNA.. Normally, the DNA bases adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G) and cytosine (C) pair up in a specific way to create whats known as a Watson-Crick double helix. By using modified nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), the team was able to observe a different kind of pairing called Hoogsteen base pairs. Although this structure had been observed before, Hoogsteen base pairs were thought to occur only in DNA that is damaged or bound to certain proteins or drugs. Al-Hashimi and his team showed that this is not the case, in fact, DNA can spontaneously, though briefly, flip into the alternative orientation. The changes were too ephemeral to have been seen by conventional NMR. Al-Hashimis ...
Proton/hydrogen-transfer processes have been broadly studied in the past 50 years to explain the photostability and the spontaneous tautomerism in the DNA base pairs. In the present study, the CASSCF/CASPT2 methodology is used to map the two-dimensional potential energy surfaces along the stretched NH reaction coordinates of the guanine-cytosine (GC) base pair. Concerted and stepwise pathways are explored initially in vacuo, and three mechanisms are studied: the stepwise double proton transfer, the stepwise double hydrogen transfer, and the concerted double proton transfer. The results are consistent with previous findings related to the photostability of the GC base pair, and a new contribution to tautomerism is provided. The C-based imino-oxo and imino-enol GC tautomers, which can be generated during the UV irradiation of the Watson-Crick base pair, have analogous radiationless energy-decay channels to those of the canonical base pair. In addition, the C-based imino-enol GC tautomer is ...
Hoogsteen (HG) base pairs (bps) provide an alternative pairing geometry to Watson-Crick (WC) bps and can play unique functional roles in duplex DNA. Here, we use structural features unique to HG bps (syn purine base, HG hydrogen bonds and constricted C1-C1 distance across the bp) to search for HG bps in X-ray structures of DNA duplexes in the Protein Data Bank. The survey identifies 106 A•T and 34 G•C HG bps in DNA duplexes, many of which are undocumented in the literature. It also uncovers HG-like bps with syn purines lacking HG hydrogen bonds or constricted C1-C1 distances that are analogous to conformations that have been proposed to populate the WC-to-HG transition pathway. The survey reveals HG preferences similar to those observed for transient HG bps in solution by nuclear magnetic resonance, including stronger preferences for A•T versus G•C bps, TA versus GG steps, and also suggests enrichment at terminal ends with a preference for 5-purine. HG bps induce small local ...
has been determined by two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy and restrained molecular dynamics. Under the appropriate experimental conditions, this molecule self-associates, forming a symmetric dimer stabilized by four intermolecular Watson-Crick base pairs. The resulting four-stranded structure consists of two G:C:A:T tetrads, formed by facing the minor groove side of the Watson-Crick base-pairs. Most probably, the association of the base-pairs is stabilized by coordinating a Na(+) cation. This is the first time that this novel G:C:A:T tetrad has been found in an oligonucleotide structure. This observation increases considerably the number of sequences that may adopt a four-stranded architecture. Overall, the three-dimensional structure is similar to those observed previously in other quadruplexes formed by minor groove alignment of Watson-Crick base pairs. This resemblance strongly suggests that we may be observing a general motif for DNA-DNA recognition ...
The expansion of the genetic alphabet with additional, unnatural base pairs (UBPs) is an important and long standing goal in synthetic biology. Nucleotides
Nature Chemical Biology, Published online: 17 June 2021; doi:10.1038/s41589-021-00817-3 Structural biology, computational biology and biochemical analysis revealed the...
Vidal E, Sayols S, Moran S, Guillaumet-Adkins A, Schroeder MP, Royo R, Orozco M, Gut M, Gut I, Lopez-Bigas N, Heyn H, Esteller M.. Oncogene. 2017 Oct 5;36(40):5648-5657. doi: 10.1038/onc.2017.176. Epub 2017 Jun 5. ...
Its been known that theres this phage that doesnt have adenine in its genome . . . and its been an unsolved mystery about how it does that, says Jef Boeke, a molecular biologist at New York University Grossman School of Medicine who was not involved in the work. These papers spell that out in glorious molecular detail, he tells The Scientist. Plus, the authors have done an amazingly comprehensive job of showing that this is not one crazy outlier, but theres a whole group of bacteriophages that have this kind of genetic material. …. There are a lot of questions that remain unanswered, says Kaminski. In a paper that came out earlier this month on which hes a coauthor, researchers shed light on one of those questions-how the S-2L genome is copied-by identifying the relevant polymerase. But Kaminski explains that one of the most difficult questions to answer will be when this mechanism evolved. Its supposed to be ancient because it roots deeply in the phylogenetic tree and because ...
Historically, the first universal base employed was 2-deoxyInosine (dI). DeoxyInosine is a naturally occurring base that, while not truly universal, is less destabilizing than mismatches involving the four standard bases. Hydrogen bond interactions between dI and dA, dG, dC and dT are weak and unequal, with the result that some base-pairing bias does exist with dI:dC , dI:dA , dI:dG , dI:dT. When present in a DNA template, deoxyInosine preferentially directs incorporation of dC in the growing nascent strand by DNA polymerase.. ...
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Independently certified: the system is independently tested and certified by SATRA to fully comply with all current European standards: EN795:2012 class A & C; CEN/TS16415:2013 UNI11578 as well as Australian and New Zealand requirements: AS/NZS1891.2:2001.. Full-traversable continuous fall protection system: the user can move freely whilst connected to the line, without the need to disconnect from the system and compromise their safety in any way. Our unique CE-marked Slyder device is designed to pass freely over all brackets & corners, allowing access and egress anywhere along the system and avoiding the need for expensive entry/exit terminals.. Multi-purpose, multi-user: the system is designed to protect up to 4 users, and can be used for fall arrest, work restraint, and work positioning. Alternatively posts can be installed as single point anchors for centralised maintenance tasks within a specific area of interest.. Versatile applications: Modular post and universal base plate - covers ...
Jarvis began his project with collaborators by trying to piece together the genome regions with what are known as next-generation sequencers, which read chunks of 100 to 400 DNA base pairs at a time and then take a few days to assemble them into a draft genome. After doing the sequencing, the scientists discovered that the read lengths were not long enough to assemble the regulatory regions of some of the genes that control brain circuits for vocal learning.. University of Maryland computational biologists Adam Phillippy and Sergey Koren - experts at assembling genomes - heard about Jarviss sequencing struggles at a conference and approached him with a possible solution of modifying the algorithms that order the DNA base pairs. But the fix was still not sufficient.. Last year, 1000 base-pair reads by Roch 454 became available, as did the single molecule sequencer by Pacific Biosciences. The Pacbio technology generates strands of 2,250 to 23,000 base pairs at a time and can draft an entire ...
Basepairs involving Hoogsteen(H) edge of Adenine and WatsonCrick(W) edge of Guanine is shown. Highlighted examples are found from RNA crystal structures obtained from PDB. Base pairs stabilized by N-H...N/O type hydrogen bonds ...
Top sportspersons are turning from specific weight activities to more general activities such as gymnastic and conditioning exercises. The problem with weights and improvements not transferring to the sport is that exercising isolated muscle groups individually does not produce the same kind of specific stimulation as occurs in a whole-body activity. Thus, exercises which produce loading in several segments of the body while the rest of the body has to work to produce a stable base, have the potential to stimulate a general body function and awareness of how to create the bases for movement. This is important for young people who have a need for overall strength development to achieve a satisfactory level of function ...
What seemed like no time at all to Burgen was more than six hours of surgery performed by Dr. Baltzer and her team. They started by thoroughly cleaning his hand and wound, which was still greasy from the machinery he had been handling, then spent about an hour finding and tagging the tiny blood vessels in his thumb and hand they would need to reattach. We put a very fine suture - a little blue stitch - in each one at the start, so we could easily see them later when wed been in surgery for hours, says Dr. Baltzer.. Next was an hour of what she calls heavy work, or fixing the bones with wires, plates and screws, so they had a stable base on which to do the delicate repair of nerves, arteries and veins. After about 40 minutes of repairing tendons, which allowed the thumb to bend, they moved on to the nerves and arteries. Some of the blood vessels, which are only 0.5 millimetres in diameter, had parts that were crushed, so those parts needed to be removed to open up blood flow. They used ...
The Womens Echelon 7s Foundation Platform provides a wide, stable base for people needing all-around support and an accommodating fit. A roomy toe box p
No. Chemical: Phosphorous acid. H Br4(Ionic, molecular, acid, or base) 2). NO2 is a. molecular compound. is HClO4 an acid or base. PCl5 is a. note that this is dissociation ot ionisation because HCl does not have ions. (See Safer Choice Criteria). Synonym: Phosphorous acid tripyrrolidide, Tripyrrolidinophosphine, Tris(N,N-tetramethylene)phosphorous acid triamide Empirical Formula (Hill Notation): C 12 H 24 N 3 P Molecular Weight: 241.31 Classify each chemical compound listed in the table below COMPOUND ( select all that apply) 1). The ions themselves are covalent, not ionic. HCN - Acid NH2- - Base CN- - Base ... H3PO3(l), and H3PO4(l) shown here, determine the # of ionizable protons (acidic hydrogen atoms) per formula unit. in the same way some bases are not ionicv but can produce ions by dissociation e.g. Na2SO4 (sodium sulfate) is an ionic compound. is H2SO3 an acid or base. The post-transition metals often form borderline compounds as well, although the fluorides and oxides in low oxidation ...
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re base nomenculature... How do we remember what is what?... A, G, C, T, U are obvious For a base which is one of three, use the letter after the base concerned. ie B=NOT A D=NOT C H=NOT G V=NOT T (U is already Uridine) S=GC, W=AT...S stands for strong, W for weak, correspondong to 3 or 2 H bonds and the strength of the pairing in the link. R=purine...short name, large base ie A or G Y=Pyrimidine... long name, small base ie C or T That leaves K (keto) which is G or T M (which means methyl) and is A or C Personally, I find all of these easy to remember except K vs M. The mnemonic I use here is that since G can be methylated, it must start out Ketone (ie K), and from this all others can be derived :) so John Nash got it right, but I hope the reasoning helps you remember :) Mike kitkitkitkitkitkitkitkitkit Poidinger Dept Of Microbiology University of Reading UK ...
Base: rocks yum repository is clean from errors (automatic dependecies/provides detection has been disable on several packages, in particular: all the opt-perl-* rpms, foudation-git, etc.) Base: /opt/rocks/lib/mysql is not included in the loader path so system mysql uses system and not rocks mysql libs (several other useless entries were removed from the Base: JDK updated Base: grub boot timeout is now 10 seconds Base: improved script to fetch 441 private key after re-installation of a node Base: it is now possible to use a /etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts.local to insert static entries Base: rocks set host interface ip does not allow anymore invalid IP number Base, Ganglia, KVM: several fixes and improvement to the documentations Base: Bugfix. record in rocks data base partitioning information Base: rocks report host interface was failing with bonded interface Ganglia: rrd uses previous data retention policy (as in ganglia 3.2) to reduce disk usage (ganglia 3.3 policy was ...
A method for sequencing DNA based on detecting pyrophosphate that is released when the complementary base is incorporated on the strand being synthesized using the unknown DNA as a template. Pyrophosphate release is detected with luciferase. ...
Sequences Orthographe De Base Ce Ce can be very useful guide, and Sequences Orthographe De Base Ce Ce play an important role in your products. The problem is that once you have gotten your nifty new product, the Sequences Orthographe De Base Ce Ce gets a brief glance, maybe a once over, but it often tends to get discarded or lost with the original packaging. ...
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Thrusfield, M. V., 1986: Epidemiological studies using computerized data bases iii. examples of epidemiological studies using computerized data bases
View Notes - Organic_Acids_and_bases from CHEM CHEM266 at Waterloo. Organic Acids and Bases This document has been written to provide you with an overview of the fundamental concepts of organic
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All the interactions between nucleic acid molecules that help express genetic information involve base‐pairing between complementary sequences. Complementarity
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Why is NH3 (Ammonia) a base? The acid base theory proposed by the Bronsted-Lowry theory says that an acid is the molecule that donates hydrogen ion in water. A
The Biological Bases of Behavior chapter of this Intro to Psychology Help and Review course is the simplest way to master the biological bases of...
This short study notes from Berry Berry Easy is on the topic of Acids and Bases for SPM Form 4 Chemistry students - strengths of acids and bases.
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dlls/msvcirt/msvcirt.c , 81 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ dlls/msvcirt/msvcirt.spec , 36 ++++++++++---------- dlls/msvcrt20/msvcrt20.spec , 36 ++++++++++---------- dlls/msvcrt40/msvcrt40.spec , 36 ++++++++++---------- 4 files changed, 135 insertions(+), 54 deletions(-) diff --git a/dlls/msvcirt/msvcirt.c b/dlls/msvcirt/msvcirt.c index b320a82..7414e71 100644 --- a/dlls/msvcirt/msvcirt.c +++ b/dlls/msvcirt/msvcirt.c @@ -190,6 +190,24 @@ int __thiscall streambuf_allocate(streambuf *this) return CALL_VTBL_FUNC(this, 40, int, (streambuf*), (this)); } +/* ?base at [email protected]@IBEPADXZ */ +/* ?base at [email protected]@IEBAPEADXZ */ +DEFINE_THISCALL_WRAPPER(streambuf_base, 4) +char* __thiscall streambuf_base(const streambuf *this) +{ + TRACE((%p)\n, this); + return this-,base; +} + +/* ?blen at [email protected]@IBEHXZ */ +/* ?blen at [email protected]@IEBAHXZ */ +DEFINE_THISCALL_WRAPPER(streambuf_blen, 4) +int __thiscall streambuf_blen(const streambuf *this) +{ + TRACE((%p)\n, this); + return ...
Currently, only consecutive bases are allowed. Specifically, up to 18 consecutive N or K bases can be ordered, with a minimum of 125 bp of fixed, flanking sequence on either side of the variable bases. The maximum length for the entire sequence is currently 500 bp, including the variable bases ...
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RNA Base-Pairs, Stacking and other pairwise interactions. CSV Format. Nucleotide 1. Nucleotide 2. Base-Pairs. Base-Stacking. ...
Many candidate unnatural DNA base pairs have been developed, but some of the best-replicated pairs adopt intercalated ... A structural study shows that DNA polymerases enhance the efficiency of non-natural base pair replication by enforcing a ... code have relied on synthetic DNA nucleotides designed to have pairing properties orthogonal to those of natural base pairs. ... Here we present crystal structures of KlenTaq DNA polymerase at different stages of replication for one such pair, dNaM-d5SICS ...
Identity-based two-party key agreement protocols from pairings are also investigated. The Bellare-Rogaway key agreement model ... Only recently after some pioneering works, particularly the well-known Boneh-Franklin identity-based encryption (IBE), pairings ... Based on the Sakai-Kasahara key construction, an IBE scheme which is secure in the Boneh-Franklin IBE model is constructed, and ... In this thesis, several new cryptographic schemes with pairings are proposed, which are both efficient and secure with respect ...
Hide "Hosted by Pair". Your footer displays "Hosted by Pair Networks" by default. If you want to remove this text, select Yes ... Hide the "Hosted by Pair Networks" text. Logo. Add a logo to your websites header. Add or manage your logo by going to Layout ... If youre using the Pair Podcast IMG! theme, follow these steps to access the website customizer: *In the left sidebar, hover ...
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Figure 5 As the two strands of the double helix unwind, each pairs up with the appropriate bases to form a new double helix. ... Citation: Reynisson J. Molecular mechanism of base pairing infidelity during DNA duplication upon one-electron oxidation. World ... Reynisson J. Molecular mechanism of base pairing infidelity during DNA duplication upon one-electron oxidation. World J Clin ... which is promiscuous with regard to base pairing. ...
HUMAN DNA TOPOISOMERASE I IN COVALENT COMPLEX WITH A 22 BASE PAIR DNA DUPLEX ... HUMAN DNA TOPOISOMERASE I IN COVALENT COMPLEX WITH A 22 BASE PAIR DNA DUPLEX. *PDB DOI: 10.2210/pdb1K4S/pdb ... Topotecan mimics a DNA base pair and binds at the site of DNA cleavage by intercalating between the upstream (-1) and ... Topotecan mimics a DNA base pair and binds at the site of DNA cleavage by intercalating between the upstream (-1) and ...
ID-based public key systems allow the user to use his/her identity as the public key, which can simplify key management ... procedure compared with CA-based public key systems. However, there is an inherent disadvantage in such systems: the problem of ... New ID-Based Threshold Signature Scheme from Bilinear Pairings - ... New ID-Based Threshold Signature Scheme from Bilinear Pairings ... first proposed a novel ID-based signature scheme without trusted PKG from bilinear pairings [10], i.e., there is only one PKG ...
Sheedy, Caroline (2010) Privacy Enhancing Protocols using Pairing Based Cryptography. PhD thesis, Dublin City University. ... We present existing cryptographic constructions which use bilinear pairings, namely Identity-Based Encryption (IBE). We define ... Our constructions are based on a special type of algebraic group called bilinear groups. ...
Hidden Base Plate Pair replaces one standard mounting plate on FCF ... VintageView Hidden Base Plate Pair - Brushed Nickel Finish Model: FCF-HIDDEN-P. * ... The Floor-to-Ceiling Hidden Base Plate is a minimalist version of the standard base plate, removing the connecting steel ... This Brushed Nickel Hidden Base Plate replaces standard Base Plate Mounts on any Floor-to-Ceiling Frame installation ...
A PAIR OF CHINESE GREEN SOAPSTONE FIGURES of kylins seated on their haunches on waisted rectangular bases carved with drapery ( ... A PAIR OF CHINESE GREEN SOAPSTONE FIGURES of kylins seated on their haunches on waisted rectangular bases carved with drapery ( ...
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... Sarah Scully ... The pair were recently looking at commercial cooking spaces in Houston.. "Weve boot-strapped it ourselves to start," Copp said ... Acorns may have made up half of their diet in what is now California, Copp and Brown estimate, based on their research. ... Crackers were a good choice, Copp and Brown said, because theyre shelf products that dont go bad quickly and pair with cheese ...
... arene-based ion and ion-pair receptors. Chapter 1 describes an overview of sensitive ion selective chromogenic and fluoregenic ... This work serves to extend the fundamental chemistry of calix[4]arene-based cesium ion recognition to new research areas. ... In Chapter 4, graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs) are introduced for cesium ion sensing based on electrostatic ... pyrrole system gives rise to a colorimetric response when only exposed to simple ion pairs containing the cesium cation. ...
Beyond Base Pairs to Bedside: A Community Consultation on Closing the Gap between Genomic Discoveries and the Publics Health ... Beyond Base Pairs to Bedside: A Community Consultation on Closing the Gap between Genomic Discoveries and the Publics Health. ... "beyond base pairs to bedside".. As the field of genomics and related technologies continues to mature in the next decade, we ... Implement evidence-based genomic applications and discourage use of unvalidated applications through policy, educational and ...
HybridExchange will go live in early June 2018 and will be one of the first exchanges to list TUSD as a base pairing, also ... Initial base pairings with TUSD will include BTC/TUSD, ETH/TUSD, LTC/TUSD, XRP/TUSD, and HYB/TUSD. ... TrueUSD will be utilized on HybridExchange to serve as a base pairing to allow traders to hedge against market volatility, ... HybridBlock Partners with TrustToken to Bring TrueUSD Stablecoin to Exchange Base Pairings. Place/Date: Singapore - May 29th, ...
ocaml-base-compiler 4.12.1: Official release 4.12.1 ... Module Variable . Pair . Tbl include Hashtbl.S with type key = ...
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Following the massive commercial deployment of 10G BASE-T and the development of 40G BASE-T, twisted pair based copper cable ... OFDM Based Ethernet Transmission over Copper Twisted Pair Cables. Speaker Bio: Beier Li, Ph.D. Student , De Montfort University ... In this talk, the three copper-based communication systems are introduced, and the OFDM modulation is discussed as a candidate ... The other major copper cable-based access network, the Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification (DOCSIS), has also ...
... is the conjugate acid of this base.. 8.22: Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases: Conjugate Acid/Base Pairs is shared under a not ... Bases%2F8.22%253A_Brnsted-Lowry_Acids_and_Bases%253A_Conjugate_Acid_Base_Pairs ... 8.22: Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases: Conjugate Acid/Base Pairs *. Last updated. ... Identify the conjugate acid/base pairs in a Brønsted-Lowry acid/base equation. ...
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... as a base currency, expanding the stablecoins available trading pairs. ... Malta-based cryptocurrency exchange Binance has added TrustTokens TrueUSD (TUSD) ... TrueUSD Is Now a Base Pair on Binance. Malta-based cryptocurrency exchange Binance has added TrustTokens TrueUSD (TUSD) as a ... Paxos Standard (PAX) Is Now a Base Pair on Binance. By Jimmy Aki. Nov 27, 2018. ...
For the finale, we created five next-level wine-based beverages. ... Here are five next-level wine-based beverages perfectly paired ... As a special treat for The Bachelor Canada finale, we created five next-level wine-based beverages that pair perfectly with ... Home FOOD + DRINK, HOMEBachelor Canada: Five Wine-Based Beverages Perfectly Paired for the Finale ...
Erratum: "ABCNN: Attention-Based Convolutional Neural Network for Modeling Sentence Pairs" Wenpeng Yin, Wenpeng Yin ... ABCNN: Attention-Based Convolutional Neural Network for Modeling Sentence Pairs Transactions of the Association for ... This is a correction to: ABCNN: Attention-Based Convolutional Neural Network for Modeling Sentence Pairs ... Wenpeng Yin, Hinrich Schütze, Bing Xiang, Bowen Zhou; Erratum: "ABCNN: Attention-Based Convolutional Neural Network for ...
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Crystallization of a complex of cro repressor with a 17 base-pair operator. ... Crystallization of a complex of cro repressor with a 17 base-pair operator. Journal Article (Journal Article) ... Crystals of the lambda cro repressor complexed to a 17 base-pair synthetic binding site related to the OR3 operator have been ...
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  • Displays a graphical map based on nucleotide sequence data labeled with restriction enzymes, plasmid features, ORFs (theoretical open reading frames) and primers. (
  • Displays both strands of base paired nucleotide sequences with annotated enzymes, plasmid features, ORFs (theoretical open reading frames) and primers. (
  • Just like Velcro and magnets have complementary hooks or poles, the nucleotide bases of DNA pair up and bind in a predictable way. (
  • Beginning in 1990 and finishing in 2003, the Human Genome Project was an international research initiative that aimed to write the entire sequence of nucleotide base pairs that make up the human genome, including the mapping of all its genes that determine our physical and functional attributes. (
  • The basic-level eLearning course provides information on the fundamental characteristics of DNA and RNA, nucleotide base-pairing rules, and the basic techniques and workflow applied in molecular diagnostics. (
  • We believe that those three independent pairing events each provide an opportunity to reject off-target sequences," he adds. (
  • first proposed a novel ID-based signature scheme without trusted PKG from bilinear pairings [10], i.e., there is only one PKG who is not assumed to be honest in their scheme. (
  • In this paper we propose another ID-based signature scheme without trusted PKG from bilinear pairings. (
  • Our constructions are based on a special type of algebraic group called bilinear groups. (
  • We present existing cryptographic constructions which use bilinear pairings, namely Identity-Based Encryption (IBE). (
  • To determine contributions of previously incarcerated persons to tuberculosis (TB) transmission in the community, we performed a healthcare facility-based cohort study of TB patients in Thailand during 2017-2020. (
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a prospective hospital-based paired cohort study. (
  • Only recently after some pioneering works, particularly the well-known Boneh-Franklin identity-based encryption (IBE), pairings have quickly become an important tool to construct novel cryptographic schemes. (
  • In this thesis, several new cryptographic schemes with pairings are proposed, which are both efficient and secure with respect to a properly defined security model, and some relevant previous schemes are revisited. (
  • Figure 1: KlenTaq polymerase induces the dNaM-d5SICS unnatural base pair to adopt a natural, Watson-Crick-like structure. (
  • Hopton, SR & Thompson, AS 2011, ' Manipulative interplay of two adozelesin molecules with d(ATTAAT) 2 achieving ligand-stacked Watson-Crick and Hoogsteen base-paired duplex adducts ', Biochemistry , vol. 50, no. 19, pp. 4143-4154. (
  • Figure 5 As the two strands of the double helix unwind, each pairs up with the appropriate bases to form a new double helix. (
  • In this work , we tested a polybutylene terephthalate (PBT)-bonded silica -based stationary phase for the separation of generically synthesized Patisiran as siRNA (antisense and sense single strands as well as their annealed double strand) giving some unexpected selectivity without any presence of ion-pairing reagents . (
  • a ) Alignment results on sequence s a given by pairs p =〈 a , b 〉 and q =〈 a , c 〉. ( b ) The worst case that can be derived from the results. (
  • One of the adducts, formed with adozelesin and the d(ATTAAT)(2) sequence, also demonstrates the ability of these ligands to manipulate the DNA of the binding site, resulting in a Hoogsteen base-paired adduct. (
  • Primer location based on reference strain L 2 /434 16SrRNA sequence. (
  • Primer location based on position within intron 3 of the human β -actin sequence. (
  • Primer location based on position within exon 3 of the human β -actin sequence. (
  • Primer location based on intergenic region of reference strain L 2 /434 downstream of ompA sequence. (
  • It may now cost less to sequence the three billion DNA base pairs of a human genome than to do a brain scan. (
  • It uses the same Cas9 nuclease as frequently deployed in the CRISPR system but combines the enzyme with two new reagents: a guide RNA called pegRNA, which leads Cas9 to the desired spot in the genome, and a reverse transcriptase that initiates the addition of a new sequence or base into the genome. (
  • For a long time, pairings on elliptic curves have been considered to be destructive in elliptic curve cryptography. (
  • To achieve an overall high-quality result across all time steps in terms of stability and aspect ratio, SizePairs employs a new hierarchical size-based pairing algorithm that recursively pairs two nodes that complement their size changes over time and have similar sizes. (
  • Algorithm improvements will include the use of spectral FFT-based methods for implementing a variety of Neuman and Dirichlet boundary conditions, as well as mixed, nonlinear and implicit boundaries in an arbitrary number of dimensions. (
  • DNA duplex, coded with A=T and G≡C base pairs, is well suited for biological information storage. (
  • The interactions between two bases in a base pair contribute to the stability of DNA duplex, and are further related to gene replication and transcription. (
  • Free Energy Calculation for Base Pair Dissociation in a DNA Duplex[J].Acta Phys. (
  • In this study, we use all-atom Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations combined with Umbrella sampling (US) method to determine the free energy profiles and explore the molecular details for base pair dissociations. (
  • Reif's lab is also beginning to work on DNA-based devices that could detect molecular signatures of particular types of cancer cells, and release substances that spur the immune system to fight back. (
  • The publicly funded $3bn project was able to map 99% of the human genome with 99.99% accuracy, which included its 3.2bn Mega-base pairs, 20,000 genes and 23 chromosome pairs, and has led to advancements in bioinformatics, personalised medicine and a deeper understanding of human evolution. (
  • Identity-based two-party key agreement protocols from pairings are also investigated. (
  • A repeating unit of DNA consisting of one of four bases - adenine, guanine, cytosine, or thymine - attached to a phosphate-sugar group. (
  • This will require developing code to simulate the quantum computer, either using phase-space methods based on stochastic equations, or using more advanced algorithms. (
  • Article: Data pair selection for accurate classification based on information-theoretic metric learning Journal: Asian Journal of Management Science and Applications (AJMSA) 2017 Vol.3 No.1 pp.61 - 74 Abstract: Data classification is one of the main technique in data analysis which has become more and more important in various fields of business. (
  • abstract = "We determine the anisotropy of the spin-fluctuation-induced pairing gap on the Fermi surface of the FeAs-based superconductors as function of the exchange and Hund's coupling JH. (
  • HybridExchange will go live in early June 2018 and will be one of the first exchanges to list TUSD as a base pairing, also known as a quote currency. (
  • Malta-based cryptocurrency exchange Binance has added TrustToken's TrueUSD (TUSD) as a base currency, expanding the stablecoin's available trading pairs. (
  • Adding to TUSD's original BTC pair, Binance will add the following trading pairs: BNB/TUSD, ETH/TUSD, XRP/TUSD, EOS/TUSD and XLM/TUSD. (
  • For smaller values of Hund's coupling incommensurate magnetic fluctuations yield an s ± -pairing state with line nodes. (
  • Mesenteric fat, vessels and lymph nodes were resected en block with the ascending colon. (
  • The newly released strand can in turn pair up with other complementary DNA molecules downstream in the circuit, creating a domino effect. (
  • Last month, Binance added PAX token as a base currency on its trading platform. (
  • Dollar Based Currency Pairs US Dollar/Norw. (
  • currency pairs, based on market activity at the close of the 24 December 2013 U.S. session. (
  • A PAIR OF CHINESE GREEN SOAPSTONE FIGURES of kylins seated on their haunches on waisted rectangular bases carved with drapery (slight chips), late 19th Century -- 6¾in. (
  • segments 8-12 pairs, rectangular or subsquare, 3-5 × ca. 3.5 mm, entire, apices rounded or rounded-truncate and with 2-4 blunt angles. (
  • The PCR amplification efficiency (E) and correlation coefficient (R 2 ) were calculated based on the corresponding threshold cycle (C T ) of each dilution sample during 40 cycles of real-time PCR (95°C denaturation for 15 sec, 65°C anneal/extension for 60 sec). (
  • Using a reference station pair, we statistically isolate time windows within each group based on the correlation coefficient between each 5-min CCF and the monthly stacked CCF. (
  • One of the effective approaches for automatic classification is the k-nearest neighbour (kNN) method based on distances between data pairs, combining with the well-known distance metric learning. (
  • This paper considers a centroid-based classification method for paired data, which at the same time performs a supervised variable selection respecting the matched pairs design. (
  • We therefore studied the association of two polymorphisms--R353Q polymorphism at codon 353 involving the catalytic region and the 10 base pair [‎bp]‎ insertion polymorphism involving the promoter region--with FVllc levels in 176 healthy Tunisians. (
  • Base pair substitutions, insertions, deletions, and larger chromosomal changes may be included in mutational spectra. (
  • Evaluate impact of public health interventions to assess benefits and harms for subsets of the population based on genetic and genomic information. (
  • With data for more than 1,900 individuals affected by a range of genetic conditions, researchers compared facial phenotype-based diagnoses informed by 2D or 3D images in the European Journal of Human Genetics. (
  • To avoid confusion, this condition is usually called 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, a description based on its underlying genetic cause. (
  • In the smallest repeating unit of the packaged genetic material, or chromatin, ~150 DNA base pairs wrap around a core of histone proteins, forming the nucleosome. (
  • Although this type of base pairing has been previously observed with the bisfunctional CPI analogue bizelesin, this is the first time that such an observation has been made with a monoalkylating nondimeric analogue. (
  • Nowadays, ion-pairing reversed-phase liquid chromatography (IP-RPLC) is the dominating generic method for the analysis of nucleic acid related compounds, such as antisense- oligonucleotides (ASO), small-interfering ribonucleic acid ( siRNA ) or other DNA or RNA type molecules and their conjugates. (
  • My system at home is based around a pair of 1200's and a analogue dj type mixer. (
  • Another type of gene editing that doesn't rely on DNA breaks and was thought to minimize inaccuracy is base editing , in which an enzyme can trade one DNA nuclease for another, but this strategy offers limited options as it can only make four of the 12 possible base pair changes, and some recent work has suggested it's not as precise as scientists first thought. (
  • When sequencing bacteria, conventional machines can decode short segments of 1,000 DNA base pairs at a time. (
  • A region of a DNA molecule that contains short segments of three to seven repeating base pairs. (
  • But while it is comparatively easy to make changes to the strand of DNA that serves as the blueprint for a given protein, it remains challenging to determine which specific base pairs - rungs on the DNA ladder - are the keys to producing a desired effect. (
  • the switches are base pairs on the strand. (
  • A new gene editing technique called prime editing, tested in human and mouse cells, rewrites DNA by only cutting a single strand to add, remove, or replace base pairs. (
  • So building on what the two knew about base editing and CRISPR-Cas9, they began working on a new technique to cut just one strand of DNA, leaving the other intact. (
  • In the potential of mean force (PMF) profile for G≡C base pair dissociation (denoted as PMF-PGC), we observed three peaks, which correspond to the three moments G≡C base pair loses its three hydrogen bonds respectively. (
  • Differently, A=T base pair loses its two hydrogen bonds within a very short time. (
  • Together, these results provide a new model for the design of CPI-based antitumor antibiotics, which also has a significant bearing on other structurally related and structurally unrelated minor groove-binding ligands. (
  • The AIGA Orlando Mentorship Program pairs the most passionate design students with leading industry professionals to help refine their skills and prepare them for a career in a creative field. (
  • Design, Setting, and Participants: Population-based cross-sectional analysis of opioid prescriptions filled nationwide at US retail pharmacies between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2017. (
  • The specific pairing of base A with T and base C with G in double-stranded DNA. (
  • Applicants accepted into the program will be paired with professionals based on interest and qualifications. (
  • The large number of histone-DNA interactions within a nucleosome would make its DNA largely inaccessible, turning the nucleosome into a roadblock to DNA-based transactions. (
  • As a vegan pair, their uppers either come in high-shine Oxford Rub Off or shine-free Felix Rub Off. (
  • This robustness makes the method relevant for genomic, metabolomic or proteomic high-dimensional data (in matched case-control studies) or medical diagnostics based on images, as (excessive) noise and contamination are ubiquitous in biomedical measurements. (
  • In Chapter 4, graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs) are introduced for cesium ion sensing based on electrostatic measurements. (
  • ID-based public key systems allow the user to use his/her identity as the public key, which can simplify key management procedure compared with CA-based public key systems. (
  • In this study, we propose an improved procedure by choosing the data-pairs which affect clarifying the boundaries effectively. (
  • A procedure used to determine the order of the base pairs that constitute DNA. (
  • Tory Reiss, co-founder of TrustToken, told Bitcoin Magazine that Binance chose TrueUSD as a quote pair due to the liquidity and trust that it is able to bring to the market. (
  • The current study used DNA samples from 1978 participants 66 to 101 years of age (mean age, 78.3 years), from the Washington Heights-Inwood Community Aging Project (WHICAP), a population-based study of aging and dementia. (
  • Participants from 93 counties extracted data from multiple and diverse sources to quantify county demographics, health status, and resources and wrote problem statements based on the data examined. (
  • The objective of this analysis was to compare monthly trends in pharmacy-based dispensing rates of medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD) (buprenorphine and extended-release [ER] naltrexone) and naloxone in the United States during March 2019-December 2020 by age and sex. (
  • Here are five next-level wine-based beverages perfectly paired with the best in prime time. (
  • To reflect the stability of each method, we assign colors to each rectangle (based on its position) at the first time step and then apply the color scheme to the other time steps (we mark three data items using shpaes to facilitate the comparison). (
  • Maybe you were an au pair yourself at one time? (
  • Con su primer singles ' Nick of Time' y con apenas 4 minutos de duracion, Tom y Jamie han creado una excelente mezcla de todo lo que querian hacer musicalmente, con todas sus influencias musicales mezcladas en una cancion pop con elementos de shoegaze, noise y dance. (
  • The order of bases on all twenty-three pairs of human chromosomes. (
  • Contact Pair and work with a real human working locally in our Pittsburgh-based facilities. (
  • Basically, they want to take all 3 billion base pairs in the human genome, program them into a machine and have the machine piece it all together. (
  • Tom Lugo is also a well-established personality in the shoegaze indie pop world, as the founder of Patetico Recordings, a small Philadelphia-based indie record label, and from having founded and been involved in numerous musical projects related to shoegaze, noise and independent music in general. (
  • Tom Lugo es ya toda un personalidad en el mundo del shoegaze y el indie-pop, como fundador de Patetico Recordings, y por haber sido parte de de innumerables proyectos musicales relacionados con el shoegaze, el noise y la musica independiente en general. (
  • Syntax Creative is pleased to announce a new partnership with both Krosswerdz Recordings and Unleashed Music, a pair of record labels based in Australia. (
  • Different fragment lengths of base pairs that result from cutting a DNA molecule with restriction enzymes. (
  • Ace Base is made by a Brooklyn based company with designs combining rustic and modern styles - a country aesthetic for urban spaces - using reclaimed & plantation raised woods, created in a sustainable and environmentally responsible manner. (
  • This work serves to extend the fundamental chemistry of calix[4]arene-based cesium ion recognition to new research areas. (
  • Hire ASL Sign Language-Speaking Nanny, Babysitter, Au Pair or Tutor Seeking Jobs in Child Care or Service Work. (
  • Born as Android Wear, Wear OS is Google's Android-based operating system specifically designed to work on wearables and smartwatches . (
  • The SPOT Showcase is the culmination of the AIGA Orlando Mentorship Program, where students are paired with mentors and work on a project over the course of several months. (
  • This study evaluated the efficacy of an integrated Total Worker Health program, "All the Right Moves", designed to target the conditions of work and workers' health behaviors through an ergonomics program combined with a worksite-based health promotion HealthWeek intervention. (
  • Many candidate unnatural DNA base pairs have been developed, but some of the best-replicated pairs adopt intercalated structures in free DNA that are difficult to reconcile with known mechanisms of polymerase recognition. (
  • Here we present crystal structures of KlenTaq DNA polymerase at different stages of replication for one such pair, dNaM-d5SICS, and show that efficient replication results from the polymerase itself, inducing the required natural-like structure. (
  • Crystals of the lambda cro repressor complexed to a 17 base-pair synthetic binding site related to the OR3 operator have been obtained. (
  • The official Global Operations site sports a new pair of screenshots from this team-based tactical shooter in the works at Barking Dog. (
  • The Floor-to-Ceiling Hidden Base Plate is a minimalist version of the standard base plate, removing the connecting steel between supports. (
  • If any one of those three DNA pairing events fail, then prime editing can't proceed," says Liu. (
  • Moreover, we propose an ID-based threshold signature scheme without trusted PKG, which sim. (
  • In this study, we propose a new binding model for several of the CPI-based analogues, in which the aromatic secondary rings form pi-stacked complexes within the minor groove. (
  • In addition, we propose that DSB pairing will help develop more accurate alternatives to the linear cancer risk model (LNT) currently used for regulating exposure to very low levels of ionizing radiation. (
  • To put your headset in pair mode, slide and hold the Power switch away from the off position until you hear "pairing" and the headset LEDs flash red and blue. (
  • That fuse position in the circuit is definitely not where a general safety fuse would be placed, so it would be reasonable to think it has a special function based on the circuit topology. (
  • The chromosomes are arranged in pairs, and aligned using the position of each chromosome's centromere. (
  • Based on the Sakai-Kasahara key construction, an IBE scheme which is secure in the Boneh-Franklin IBE model is constructed, and two identity-based key encapsulation mechanisms are proposed. (
  • In ITML, the optimisation problem is formulated as learning metric matrix so that the distance between each pair of data belonging to the same class becomes smaller than a constant, while the distance between each pair of data belonging to different classes becomes larger than the other constant. (
  • The other major copper cable-based access network, the Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification (DOCSIS), has also adopted OFDM, where the extended frequency band causes degraded channel condition. (
  • Because of the sheer quantity of data involved, DNNs have been tasked with sorting through a sampling of data and predicting which base pairs need to be flipped. (
  • Research organizations are assembling cloud-based 'information commons' to standardize, store and share the data ( S16 ). (
  • Chapter 1 describes an overview of sensitive ion selective chromogenic and fluoregenic sensors based on calix[4]arene derivatives. (
  • Mentors and mentees will be thoughtfully paired by our chapter board members following the application submission period. (
  • We find that for sufficiently large JH, nearly commensurate magnetic fluctuations yield a fully gapped s±-pairing state with small anisotropy of the gap amplitude on each Fermi-surface sheet, but significant variations of the gap amplitude for different sheets of the Fermi surface. (
  • Polybutylene terephthalate-based stationary phase for ion-pair-free reversed-phase liquid chromatography of small interfering RNA. (
  • In September 2011 I somehow got the feeling that I just HAD to build a small Z80 based computer again. (
  • So I searched for useable parts in my hardware repository and found everything necessary to build a small (tiny, in fact) Z80 based computer. (
  • Completion of anti-TB therapy is based on the examination of sputum smear, culture, and chest radiographic results. (
  • Are you currently hosting an au pair on the Exchange Visitor Program from another agency? (
  • If you have never tried Au Pair in America, apply for free and receive up to $350 off your program fee. (
  • Our professional staff is on hand to explain the Au Pair in America program difference and provide unparalleled comprehensive support throughout the year. (
  • If so, you apply for free at Au Pair in America and benefit from a standing $500 program fee discount. (
  • If you or a member of your immediate family participated in another AIFS program you are entitled to receive a 5% program fee discount with Au Pair in America. (
  • If you are an Au Pair in America participant interested in another AIFS program you will receive a 5% special discount and any AIFS program you choose. (
  • In addition, should you and your au pair choose to stay together for a second year, your program fee is substantially reduced. (
  • Save $350 off your program fee if one of your former au pairs returns to your family. (
  • After controlling for matched intervention and control pairs as well as covariates, at one-month following the ergonomics program we observed a significant improvement in ergonomic practices (B = 0.20, p = 0.002), and a reduction in incidences of pain and injury (OR = 0.58, p = 0.012) in the intervention group. (