Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cytosine: A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.Base Pairing: Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.GuanineDNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Nucleic Acid Denaturation: Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.Isochores: Large regions of the GENOME that contain local similarities in BASE COMPOSITION.GC Rich Sequence: A nucleic acid sequence that contains an above average number of GUANINE and CYTOSINE bases.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Phosphorus Isotopes: Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.AT Rich Sequence: A nucleic acid sequence that contains an above average number of ADENINE and THYMINE bases.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Acetobacteraceae: A family of gram-negative aerobic bacteria consisting of ellipsoidal to rod-shaped cells that occur singly, in pairs, or in chains.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Nucleic Acid Renaturation: The reformation of all, or part of, the native conformation of a nucleic acid molecule after the molecule has undergone denaturation.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Genome Size: The amount of DNA (or RNA) in one copy of a genome.Genetic Code: The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Skull Base: The inferior region of the skull consisting of an internal (cerebral), and an external (basilar) surface.Micrococcus: A genus of gram-positive, spherical bacteria found in soils and fresh water, and frequently on the skin of man and other animals.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Chromosomes, Archaeal: Structures within the nucleus of archaeal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Cytophaga: A genus of gram-negative gliding bacteria found in SOIL; HUMUS; and FRESHWATER and marine habitats.Oligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)Schiff Bases: Condensation products of aromatic amines and aldehydes forming azomethines substituted on the N atom, containing the general formula R-N:CHR. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Proteus: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, as well as in manure, soil, and polluted waters. Its species are pathogenic, causing urinary tract infections and are also considered secondary invaders, causing septic lesions at other sites of the body.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.ThymineCarex Plant: A plant genus of the family CYPERACEAE. The seed contains oligostilbenes (STILBENES).Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Narcissus: A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members contain ungiminorine and LECTINS.Densitometry: The measurement of the density of a material by measuring the amount of light or radiation passing through (or absorbed by) the material.RNA, Transfer: The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.Hypotrichida: An order of ciliate protozoa. Characteristics include a dorsoventrally flattened, highly mobile body with a unique cursorial type of locomotion.RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.TritiumElectrophoresis, Paper: Electrophoresis in which paper is used as the diffusion medium. This technique is confined almost entirely to separations of small molecules such as amino acids, peptides, and nucleotides, and relatively high voltages are nearly always used.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.UracilSelection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Deoxyribonucleotides: A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.Prokaryotic Cells: Cells lacking a nuclear membrane so that the nuclear material is either scattered in the cytoplasm or collected in a nucleoid region.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Polydeoxyribonucleotides: A group of 13 or more deoxyribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Electrophoresis: An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cesium: A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.PolynucleotidesPhospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.UridineCattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Guanosine: A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Genome, Mitochondrial: The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.Alphaproteobacteria: A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised mostly of two major phenotypes: purple non-sulfur bacteria and aerobic bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacteria.Corynebacterium: A genus of asporogenous bacteria that is widely distributed in nature. Its organisms appear as straight to slightly curved rods and are known to be human and animal parasites and pathogens.Ultracentrifugation: Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Ribonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.Centrifugation, Zonal: Centrifugation using a rotating chamber of large capacity in which to separate cell organelles by density-gradient centrifugation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Ribonucleotides: Nucleotides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Genetics, Microbial: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Gram-Negative Anaerobic Bacteria: A large group of anaerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the Gram-staining method.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Gammaproteobacteria: A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Templates, Genetic: Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Pigments, Biological: Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.Phosphorus Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.DNA, Intergenic: Any of the DNA in between gene-coding DNA, including untranslated regions, 5' and 3' flanking regions, INTRONS, non-functional pseudogenes, and non-functional repetitive sequences. This DNA may or may not encode regulatory functions.Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Actinomycetales: An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.Skull Base Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the base of the skull specifically, differentiated from neoplasms of unspecified sites or bones of the skull (SKULL NEOPLASMS).Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Base Pair Mismatch: The presence of an uncomplimentary base in double-stranded DNA caused by spontaneous deamination of cytosine or adenine, mismatching during homologous recombination, or errors in DNA replication. Multiple, sequential base pair mismatches lead to formation of heteroduplex DNA; (NUCLEIC ACID HETERODUPLEXES).DNA, Single-Stranded: A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Deoxyribonucleases: Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Methylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Ribosomes: Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.Coliphages: Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.CpG Islands: Areas of increased density of the dinucleotide sequence cytosine--phosphate diester--guanine. They form stretches of DNA several hundred to several thousand base pairs long. In humans there are about 45,000 CpG islands, mostly found at the 5' ends of genes. They are unmethylated except for those on the inactive X chromosome and some associated with imprinted genes.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Likelihood Functions: Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Denture Bases: The part of a denture that overlies the soft tissue and supports the supplied teeth and is supported in turn by abutment teeth or the residual alveolar ridge. It is usually made of resins or metal or their combination.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Body Water: Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Fatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Oils, Volatile: Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Metagenome: A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.

Diversity of rhizobia associated with Amorpha fruticosa isolated from Chinese soils and description of Mesorhizobium amorphae sp. nov. (1/7084)

Fifty-five Chinese isolates from nodules of Amorpha fruticosa were characterized and compared with the type strains of the species and genera of bacteria which form nitrogen-fixing symbioses with leguminous host plants. A polyphasic approach, which included RFLP of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes, multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE), DNA-DNA hybridization, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, electrophoretic plasmid profiles, cross-nodulation and a phenotypic study, was used in the comparative analysis. The isolates originated from several different sites in China and they varied in their phenotypic and genetic characteristics. The majority of the isolates had moderate to slow growth rates, produced acid on YMA and harboured a 930 kb symbiotic plasmid (pSym). Five different RFLP patterns were identified among the 16S rRNA genes of all the isolates. Isolates grouped by PCR-RFLP of the 16S rRNA genes were also separated into groups by variation in MLEE profiles and by DNA-DNA hybridization. A representative isolate from each of these DNA homology groups had a separate position in a phylogenetic tree as determined from sequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA genes. A new species, Mesorhizobium amorphae, is proposed for the majority of the isolates, which belonged to a moderately slow- to slow-growing, acid-producing group based upon their distinct phylogenetic position, their unique electrophoretic type, their low DNA homology with reference strains representing the species within the genus Mesorhizobium and their distinct phenotypic features. Strain ACCC 19665 was chosen as the type strain for M. amorphae sp. nov.  (+info)

Taxonomic relationships of the [Pasteurella] haemolytica complex as evaluated by DNA-DNA hybridizations and 16S rRNA sequencing with proposal of Mannheimia haemolytica gen. nov., comb. nov., Mannheimia granulomatis comb. nov., Mannheimia glucosida sp. nov., Mannheimia ruminalis sp. nov. and Mannheimia varigena sp. nov. (2/7084)

The present paper presents the conclusions of a polyphasic investigation of the taxonomy of the trehalose-negative [Pasteurella] haemolytica complex. Clusters previously identified by ribotyping and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MEE) have been evaluated by 16S rRNA sequencing and DNA-DNA hybridizations. Results obtained by the different techniques were highly related and indicated that the [P.] haemolytica complex contains distinct genetic and phenotypic groups. At least seven species were outlined, five of which were named. We refrained in formal naming of more groups until additional strains are characterized. Five 16S rRNA clusters were identified corresponding to distinct lineages previously outlined by MEE. Within 16S rRNA cluster I two distinct genotypic groups have been outlined in addition to [P.] haemolytica sensu stricto (biogroup 1). Each of the clusters II, III, IV and V represent at least one new species. The investigations underline that [P.] haemolytica sensu stricto only contains strains that do not ferment L-arabinose even though they are referred to as 'biotype A' of [P.] haemolytica. The five 16S rRNA clusters identified had a common root relative to the other species within the family Pasteurellaceae, and the overall sequence similarity among these five clusters was higher than what is observed within the existing genera of the family. The allocation of the trehalose-negative [P.] haemolytica complex to a new genus seems to be indicated. Based on the polyphasic investigation performed a new genus Mannheimia is proposed for the trehalose-negative [P.] haemolytica complex. At the present stage two previously named species are transferred to this new genus and three new species are described. [P.] haemolytica is reclassified as Mannheimia haemolytica comb. nov., whereas Pasteurella granulomatis, Bisgaard taxon 20 and [P.] haemolytica biovar 3J are reclassified and combined in the species Mannheimia granulomatis comb. nov. Mannheimia glucosida sp. nov. corresponds to [P.] haemolytica biogroups 3A-3H and the beta-glucosidase and meso-inositol-positive strains of [P.] haemolytica biogroup 9. All typable strains within M. glucosida belong to serotype 11. Mannheimia ruminalis sp. nov. consists of strains previously classified as Bisgaard taxon 18 and [P.] haemolytica biogroup 8D. Finally, Mannheimia varigena sp. nov. includes [P.] haemolytica biogroup 6 as well as Bisgaard taxon 15 and Bisgaard taxon 36. The type strains are NCTC 9380T (M. haemolytica), ATCC 49244T (M. granulomatis), CCUG 38457T = P925T (M. glucosida), CCUG 38470T = HPA92T (M. ruminalis) and CCUG 38462T = 177T (M. varigena).  (+info)

Proposal to transfer Halococcus turkmenicus, Halobacterium trapanicum JCM 9743 and strain GSL-11 to Haloterrigena turkmenica gen. nov., comb. nov. (3/7084)

The 16S rRNA gene sequences of Halococcus saccharolyticus and Halococcus salifodinae were closely related (94.5-94.7% similarity) to that of Halococcus morrhuae, the type species of the genus Halococcus. However, Halococcus turkmenicus was distinct from the other members of this genus, with low 16S rRNA similarities when compared to Halococcus morrhuae (88.7%). On the basis of phylogenetic tree reconstruction, detection of signature bases and DNA-DNA hybridization data, it is proposed to transfer Halococcus turkmenicus to a novel genus, Haloterrigena, as Haloterrigena turkmenica gen. nov., comb. nov., and to accommodate Halobacterium trapanicum JCM 9743 and strain GSL-11 in the same species. On the basis of morphological, cultural and 16S rRNA sequence data, it is also proposed that the culture collection strains of Halobacterium trapanicum NCIMB 767, ATCC 43102 and JCM 8979 should be renamed as Halococcus sp.  (+info)

Actinobacillus succinogenes sp. nov., a novel succinic-acid-producing strain from the bovine rumen. (4/7084)

Strain 130ZT was isolated from the bovine rumen. It is a facultatively anaerobic, pleomorphic, Gram-negative rod. It exhibits a 'Morse code' form of morphology, which is characteristic of the genus Actinobacillus. Strain 130ZT is a capnophilic, osmotolerant succinogen that utilizes a broad range of sugars. It accumulates high concentrations of succinic acid (> 70 g l-1). Strain 130ZT is positive for catalase, oxidase, alkaline phosphatase and beta-galactosidase, but does not produce indole or urease. Acid but no gas is produced from D-glucose and D-fructose. 16S rRNA sequence analysis places strain 130ZT within the family Pasteurellaceae; the most closely related members of the family Pasteurellaceae have 16S rRNA similarities of 95.5% or less with strain 130ZT. Strain 130ZT was compared with Actinobacillus lignieresii and the related Bisgaard Taxa 6 and 10. Based upon morphological and biochemical properties, strain 130ZT is most similar to members of the genus Actinobacillus within the family Pasteurellaceae. It is proposed that strain 130ZT be classified as a new species, Actinobacillus succinogenes. The type strain of Actinobacillus succinogenes sp. nov. is ATCC 55618T.  (+info)

Anaerobic oxidation of o-xylene, m-xylene, and homologous alkylbenzenes by new types of sulfate-reducing bacteria. (5/7084)

Various alkylbenzenes were depleted during growth of an anaerobic, sulfate-reducing enrichment culture with crude oil as the only source of organic substrates. From this culture, two new types of mesophilic, rod-shaped sulfate-reducing bacteria, strains oXyS1 and mXyS1, were isolated with o-xylene and m-xylene, respectively, as organic substrates. Sequence analyses of 16S rRNA genes revealed that the isolates affiliated with known completely oxidizing sulfate-reducing bacteria of the delta subclass of the class Proteobacteria. Strain oXyS1 showed the highest similarities to Desulfobacterium cetonicum and Desulfosarcina variabilis (similarity values, 98.4 and 98.7%, respectively). Strain mXyS1 was less closely related to known species, the closest relative being Desulfococcus multivorans (similarity value, 86.9%). Complete mineralization of o-xylene and m-xylene was demonstrated in quantitative growth experiments. Strain oXyS1 was able to utilize toluene, o-ethyltoluene, benzoate, and o-methylbenzoate in addition to o-xylene. Strain mXyS1 oxidized toluene, m-ethyltoluene, m-isoproyltoluene, benzoate, and m-methylbenzoate in addition to m-xylene. Strain oXyS1 did not utilize m-alkyltoluenes, whereas strain mXyS1 did not utilize o-alkyltoluenes. Like the enrichment culture, both isolates grew anaerobically on crude oil with concomitant reduction of sulfate to sulfide.  (+info)

Comparison of flagellin genes from clinical and environmental Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. (6/7084)

Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an important opportunistic pathogen, was isolated from environmental samples and compared to clinically derived strains. While P. aeruginosa was isolated readily from an experimental mushroom-growing unit, it was found only rarely in other environmental samples. A flagellin gene PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the isolates revealed that environmental and clinical P. aeruginosa strains are not readily distinguishable. The variation in the central regions of the flagellin genes of seven of the isolates was investigated further. The strains used included two strains with type a genes (998 bp), four strains with type b genes (1,258 bp), and one strain, K979, with a novel flagellin gene (2,199 bp). The route by which flagellin gene variation has occurred in P. aeruginosa is discussed.  (+info)

A computer-driven approach to PCR-based differential screening, alternative to differential display. (7/7084)

MOTIVATION: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based RNA fingerprinting is a powerful tool for the isolation of differentially expressed genes in studies of neoplasia, differentiation or development. Arbitrarily primed RNA fingerprinting is capable of targeting coding regions of genes, as opposed to differential display techniques, which target 3' non-coding cDNA. In order to be of general use and to permit a systematic survey of differential gene expression, RNA fingerprinting has to be standardized and a number of highly efficient and selective arbitrary primers must be identified. RESULTS: We have applied a rational approach to generate a representative panel of high-efficiency oligonucleotides for RNA fingerprinting studies, which display marked affinity for coding portions of known genes and, as shown by preliminary results, of novel ones. The choice of oligonucleotides was driven by computer simulations of RNA fingerprinting reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR experiments, performed on two custom-generated, non-redundant nucleotide databases, each containing the complete collection of deposited human or murine cDNAs. The simulation approach and experimental protocol proposed here permit the efficient isolation of coding cDNA fragments from differentially expressed genes. AVAILABILITY: Freely available on request from the authors. CONTACT: [email protected]  (+info)

Hypermutation in Ig V genes from mice deficient in the MLH1 mismatch repair protein. (8/7084)

During somatic hypermutation of Ig V genes, mismatched nucleotide substitutions become candidates for removal by the DNA mismatch repair pathway. Previous studies have shown that V genes from mice deficient for the MSH2 and PMS2 mismatch repair proteins have frequencies of mutation that are comparable with those from wild-type (wt) mice; however, the pattern of mutation is altered. Because the absence of MSH2 and PMS2 produced different mutational spectra, we examined the role of another protein involved in mismatch repair, MLH1, on the frequency and pattern of hypermutation. MLH1-deficient mice were immunized with oxazolone Ag, and splenic B cells were analyzed for mutations in their V kappa Ox1 light chain genes. Although the frequency of mutation in MLH1-deficient mice was twofold lower than in wt mice, the pattern of mutation in Mlh1-/- clones was similar to wt clones. These findings suggest that the MLH1 protein has no direct effect on the mutational spectrum.  (+info)

*Composition-Based View

Coordination costs and difficulties of orchestration may undermine composition-based success. Composition-based strategies may ... The composition-based view (CBV) was recently developed by Luo and Child (2015). It is a new theory that explicates the growth ... Firms that follow the composition-based strategy are often led by executives who have sharp vision and who have adopted ... According to Luo and Child (2015), there exist several limitations of the composition-based strategy: It increases the ...

*Stuart Saunders Smith

... text-based compositions; trans-media systems for any kind of performing artist(s). At the core of each of these styles, there ... Clay Singing and twenty-six compositions of that genre (Welsh). Stuart Saunders Smith is widely recorded with compositions on ... This leads him to a view of artistic composition which is not tied either to ratiocination or to expression. It is not that his ... Stuart Saunders Smith was born in Portland Maine, and began his percussion and composition studies at the age of six with ...

*Diversity University

"The Internet-Based Composition Classroom: A Study in Pedagogy". Computers and Composition. 13 (3): 353-371. doi:10.1016/s8755- ... working as a composition instructor at the University of Wyoming) paired their English composition classes and held inter-class ... Because the text-based interface required minimal computing resources for people to access the MOO, Diversity University ... The group is currently based at the virtual campus of Diversity University, a cyberspace location that offers both real-time ...

*Crotamine

Studies on template activity and base composition. Biochem J. 1974 Apr;139(1):151-6. PMID 4463939 Ownby, C. L., Cameron, M. S ... The gene responsible for coding the crotamine protein is labeled as Crt-p1 and its base pair sequence length is about 1.1kbp or ... 2002) based on computational calculations that were supported with intensive molecular dynamics simulations and homology ... A proposed 3D structure for crotamine based on homology building, molecular simulations and circular ichroism. J. Mol. Graph. ...

*Bacteroides

The DNA base composition is 40-48% GC. Unusual in bacterial organisms, Bacteroides membranes contain sphingolipids. They also ... Studies indicate that long-term diet is strongly associated with the gut microbiome composition-those who eat plenty of protein ... "Development of Bacteroides 16S rRNA Gene TaqMan-Based Real-Time PCR Assays for Estimation of Total, Human, and Bovine Fecal ...

*Neutral theory of molecular evolution

Cambridge Freese, E. (1962). On the evolution of base composition of DNA. J THeor Biol, 3:82-101. Freese, E. and Yoshida, A. ( ... This view is based in part on the degenerate genetic code, in which sequences of three nucleotides (codons) may differ and yet ...

*Bacteroides ureolyticus

The DNA base composition is 40-48% GC. Unusual in bacterial organisms, Bacteroides membranes contain sphingolipids. They also ...

*Potyvirus

The base composition is: 21-23.51-26% G; 23-30.15-44% A; 14.9-22.41-28% C; 15.6-24.41-30.9% U. In the species with a single ... The genome is a linear positive sense ssRNA ranging in size from 9000-12000 bases/nucleotides. Most potyviruses have non- ...

*David Cope

"Experiments in Musical Intelligence (EMI): Non-Linear Linguistic-based Composition." Interface Vol. 18: 117-139. 1990. "Pattern ... all of his original compositions have been written in collaboration with the computer-based on an input of his earlier works. ... "Computer Analysis and Composition Using Atonal Voice-Leading Techniques." Perspectives of New Music 40/1 (Winter): 121-146. ... B008PYPDUK Algorithmic composition Computer-generated music Emily Howell List of music software Cockrell, Dale. 2001. "Cope, ...

*Ancestral reconstruction

Eyre-Walker, Adam (1998). "Problems with Parsimony in Sequences of Biased Base Composition". Journal of Molecular Evolution. 47 ... ML-based methods of ancestral reconstruction tend to provide greater accuracy than MP methods in the presence of variation in ... In general, a phylogeny is a tree-based hypothesis about the order in which populations (referred to as taxa) are related by ... Initially, we are determining the set of possible character states Si for the i-th ancestor based on the observed character ...

*Prosthecomicrobium pneumaticum

Staley, J. T.; Mandel, M. (1973). "Deoxyribonucleic Acid Base Composition of Prosthecomicrobium and Ancalomicrobium Strains". ...

*Ancalomicrobium adetum

1977, P. 716-718 Staley, J. T.; Mandel, M. (1973). "Deoxyribonucleic Acid Base Composition of Prosthecomicrobium and ...

*Thermoplasma acidophilum

Christiansen, C.; Freundt, E. A.; Black, F. T. (1975). "Genome Size and Deoxyribonucleic Acid Base Composition of Thermoplasma ...

*Julio Alberto Hernández

He specialized in folk-music based compositions. He was born in Santiago de los Caballeros and is the nephew of P.T. Camejo. In ... His works are based on Dominican folk music, usually merengue. The works which have met with the widest acclaim are vocal/piano ... His composition Caminito de Tu Casa was recorded by the Viva America Orchestra conducted by Alfredo Antonini with John Serry Sr ...

*Glass-ceramic

In most cases nucleation agents are added to the base composition of the glass-ceramic. These nucleation agents aid and control ... These properties can be tailored by controlling the base-glass composition and by controlled heat treatment/crystallization of ... doi:10.1111/j.1151-2916.1951.tb11646.x. Smoke, E. J. (1951). "Ceramic compositions having negative linear thermal expansion". ... "Transformation mechanism between high-quartz and keatite phases of LiAlSi2O6 composition". Acta Crystallographica. 27: 1132- ...

*Chewing gum

Gum base composition is considered proprietary information known by select individuals within each gum-manufacturing company. ... Table 3: Gum Base Ingredients Approved for Use by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (2016) First, gum base is previously ... used by some manufacturers in their gum bases. Currently, the ingredient can be hidden in the catch-all term "gum base". The ... The gum base mixture is heated during this mixing process in order to increase the entropy of the polymers to achieve a more ...

*Chargaff's rules

This describes only a global feature of the base composition in a single DNA strand. The second of Chargaff's rules (or " ... McLean MJ, Wolfe KH, Devine KM (1998). "Base composition skews, replication orientation, and gene orientation in 12 prokaryote ... listing the base composition of DNA from various organisms and support both of Chargaff's rules. An organism such as φX174 with ... a selective pressure on the third base to minimize the number of purine bases in the strand with the greater coding content; ...

*Schizosaccharomyces pombe

"Specification of DNA Replication Origins and Genomic Base Composition in Fission Yeasts". Journal of Molecular Biology. 425 (23 ... On the basis of this finding, it was proposed that base excision repair of either a uracil base, an abasic site, or a single- ... Supporting this view is the finding that single base lesions of the type dU:dG in the DNA of S. pombe stimulate meiotic ... Species of this genus also differ in mannan composition, which shows terminal d-galactose sugars in the side-chains of their ...

*Montuno

Or it may mean the final section of a song-based composition; in this sense it is simply part of a piece of music. Here it is ...

*Zonnon

Composition-Based Software Systems, 2008. ICCBSS 2008. Seventh International Conference on Composition-Based Software Systems ( ... Its conceptual model is based on objects, definitions, implementations and modules. Its computing model is concurrent, based on ... It is a unit of reuse and composition that is aggregated into the state space of an object (or module), either at compile time ... Zonnon uses a compositional inheritance model based on aggregation. Typically, an object (or module) is composed of a number of ...

*Sonja Siljak-Yakovlev

link) F Bogunic; E Muratovic; SC Brown; S Siljak-Yakovlev (August 2003). "Genome size and base composition of five Pinus ... February 2002). "Nuclear DNA content, base composition, heterochromatin and rDNA in Picea omorika and Picea abies". Theoretical ...

*Genomic island

Sequence based methods depend on the naturally occurring variation that exists between the genome sequence composition of ... These tools can be broadly grouped into sequence based methods and comparative genomics/phylogeny based methods. ... This can be determined by base composition analysis, as well as phylogeny estimations. Various genomic island predictions ... Comparative genomics based methods try to identify regions that show signs that they have been horizontally transferred using ...

*Julius Marmur

Marmur J, Doty P (1962). "Determination of the base composition of deoxyribonucleic acid from its thermal denaturation ...

*Delorean (band)

Delorean subsequently relocated to Barcelona, veering towards more computer-based composition and production. Tiring of the ... on the New York-based Simple Social Graces label. The Ayrton Senna EP was released in 2009 to positive reviews from critics. ...

*Hybrid grass

Because of this, the sub base composition for hybrid systems evolved over time. It now often combines the following elements: ... and GrassMaster, developed by Desso, obtained a patent on hybrid grass system based on injected fibres. National Stadium at ...

*List of food additives

Baking powder - leavening agent; includes acid and base Baking soda - food base Balm, lemon - Balm oil[disambiguation needed]- ... similar in composition and use to corn oil Quinoline Yellow WS - color (yellow and orange) (FDA: D&C Yellow #10) Ramtil oil - ... "Hibiscus seed oil compositions". AOCS. 95. Archived from the original on 2007-11-13. "Quinoa: A Potential New Oil Crop". Purdue ...
Background. Bacterial genomes possess varying GC content (total guanines (Gs) and cytosines (Cs) per total of the four bases within the genome) but within a given genome, GC content can vary locally along the chromosome, with some regions significantly more or less GC rich than on average. We have examined how the GC content varies within microbial genomes to assess whether this property can be associated with certain biological functions related to the organisms environment and phylogeny. We utilize a new quantity GCVAR, the intra-genomic GC content variability with respect to the average GC content of the total genome. A low GCVAR indicates intra-genomic GC homogeneity and high GCVAR heterogeneity.. Results. The regression analyses indicated that GCVAR was significantly associated with domain (i.e. archaea or bacteria), phylum, and oxygen requirement. GCVAR was significantly higher among anaerobes than both aerobic and facultative microbes. Although an association has previously been found ...
The transcription start site of a metazoan gene remains poorly understood, mostly because there is no clear signal present in all genes. Now that several sequenced metazoan genomes have been annotated, we have been able to compare the base composition around the transcription start site for all annotated genes across multiple genomes. The most prominent feature in the base compositions is a significant local variation in G+C content over a large region around the transcription start site. The change is present in all animal phyla but the extent of variation is different between distinct classes of vertebrates, and the shape of the variation is completely different between vertebrates and arthropods. Furthermore, the height of the variation correlates with CpG frequencies in vertebrates but not in invertebrates and it also correlates with gene expression, especially in mammals. We also detect GC and AT skews in all clades (where %G is not equal to %C or %A is not equal to %T respectively) but these occur
Your gene comprises long repeats, secondary structures or a really high or low GC content? With our specified protocol for complex genes we are able to synthesise also the intricates.
Codon usage pattern and relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) of mtDNA of Meloidogyne graminicola.Numbers on the Y-axis refer to the total number of codons (A)
BACKGROUND:The need to perform microarray experiments with small amounts of tissue has led to the development of several protocols for amplifying the target transcripts. The use of different amplification protocols could affect the comparability of microarray experiments.RESULTS:Here we compare expression data from Pinus taeda cDNA microarrays using transcripts amplified either exponentially by PCR or linearly by T7 transcription. The amplified transcripts vary significantly in estimated length, GC content and expression depending on amplification technique. Amplification by T7 RNA polymerase gives transcripts with a greater range of lengths, greater estimated mean length, and greater variation of expression levels, but lower average GC content, than those from PCR amplification. For genes with significantly higher expression after T7 transcription than after PCR, the transcripts were 27% longer and had about 2 percentage units lower GC content. The correlation of expression intensities between ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Protein elemental sparing and codon usage bias are correlated among bacteria. AU - Bragg, Jason G.. AU - Quigg, Antonietta. AU - Raven, John A.. AU - Wagner, Andreas. PY - 2012/5. Y1 - 2012/5. N2 - Highly expressed proteins can exhibit relatively small material costs, in terms of the quantities of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) or sulphur (S) atoms they contain. This elemental sparing probably reflects selection to reduce the quantities of potentially growth-limiting elements in abundant proteins, but the evolutionary mechanisms for adaptive elemental sparing are still poorly understood. Here, we predict that the extent of elemental sparing in highly expressed proteins will vary among organisms, according to the effectiveness of selection in determining the fate of mutations. We test this hypothesis in bacteria by asking whether elemental sparing is correlated with codon usage bias. Bacteria exhibit extraordinary variation in their life histories and demography and consequently in the ...
Results for QLV parameters A, B, and τ2, and typical stress relaxation curve fits for IM and EX. A was significantly decreased in injured groups relative to CTL. A was significantly increased in the IM group compared to the EX and CA groups. B was significantly decreased in injured groups relative to CTL. B was significantly increased in the IM group compared to the EX and CA groups. τ2 was significantly decreased in the CA and EX groups relative to CTL. τ2 was significantly increased in the IM group compared to the EX groups. The IM group had a higher peak stress, and maintained this stress for a longer period of time, than the EX group. (Mean +/− standard deviation, *: significant difference relative to CTL [p,0.05], # significant difference due to activity level [p,0.05 ...
Because of polymer complexity, property variability must be taken into consideration. In this section, we will discuss possible sources of polymer inconsistency and offer suggestions to recognize and reduce these errors. Chemical or compositional heterogeneity refers to the chemical or structural difference among chains of the same polymer. Thus a measured property of a chemically heterogeneous sample will be an averaged value dependent upon sample source. For chemically homogeneous samples, property variability will not be a concern. In a similar fashion, polymers that are polydisperse in molecular weight have averaged property values, while monodisperse samples will give accurate data. Obviously, samples that are both chemically homogeneous and monodisperse will give the most accurate and precise values. As compared to synthetic polymers, almost all nucleic acids and mammalian proteins are compositionally (chemically) homogeneous and monodisperse, if not there would be no life; biopolymers ...
Application of chemical engineering principles to the study of tumor formation and treatment is fertile new ground for research and is necessary for the advancement of cancer therapy. Over the last century, researchers have discovered many of the genetic causes of cancer and yet nearly 46,000 people will die this year from cancer in the United States alone. Standard cancer therapies often fail because of spatial heterogeneity of nutrients, wastes, and therapeutics. Transport barriers prevent therapeutic agents from reaching effective concentrations throughout tumors. Models based on mass balance, transport phenomena and reaction kinetics are powerful tools able clarify the connection between the genetic aberrations and the compositional heterogeneity of tumors. Therapeutic strategies designed using engineering principles will be able to overcome transport barriers and create more effective therapies.. Single treatments of radiation or chemotherapy often do not kill all cancer cells within a ...
The GC percent track shows the percentage of G (guanine) and C (cytosine) bases in 5-base windows. High GC content is typically associated with gene-rich areas. This track may be configured in a variety of ways to highlight different apsects of the displayed information. Click the Graph configuration help link for an explanation of the configuration options ...
The GC percent track shows the percentage of G (guanine) and C (cytosine) bases in 5-base windows. High GC content is typically associated with gene-rich areas. This track may be configured in a variety of ways to highlight different apsects of the displayed information. Click the Graph configuration help link for an explanation of the configuration options ...
Empirical studies have shown that human beings cannot normally perceive changes in numeric data (e.g. price movements) occurring more frequently than once every 200ms.. Consequently for applications that have a human as their primary user, a useful rule of thumb is that Stop-The-World (STW) pause of 200ms or under is usually of no concern. Some applications (e.g. streaming video) need lower GC jitter than this, but many GUI applications will not. ...
DNA - A double helix DNA stands for Deoxyribonucleic acid.It is a nucleic which is used for storing information for long term in all living beings and some viruses. Base composition in DNA varies from one species to other but in all the cases the amount of adenine is equal to thymine and the amount
The species page of Empusa sp. IRT-2002. Also know as (German: große Mantiden). Information about genome files, completeness, GC-content, size, N50-values, and sequencing methods are listed.
The species page of Magnaporthe sp. MG12. . Information about genome files, completeness, GC-content, size, N50-values, and sequencing methods are listed.
德者,內也;得者,外也。「上德不德」,言其神不淫於外也。 神不淫於外則身全,身全之謂德。德者,得身也。凡德者,以無為集,以無欲成; 以不思安,以不用固。為之欲之,則德無舍;德無舍則不全。用之思之則不固,不固則無功, 無功則生於德。德則無德,不德則(在)有德。故曰:「上德不德,是以有德。」 所以貴無為無思為虛者,謂其意無所制也。夫無術者,故以無為無思為虛也。 夫故以無為無思為虛者,其意常不忘虛,是制於為虛也。虛者,謂其意(所無)〔無所〕制也。 今制於為虛,是不虛也。虛者之無為也,不以無為為有常。不以無為為有常,則虛;虛,則德盛; 德盛之謂上德。故曰:「上德無為而無不為也。」 仁者,謂其中心欣然愛人也;其喜人之有福,而惡人之有禍也;生心之所不能已也, ...
Strain 10-1-101T, isolated from a sand sample collected from the desert of Xinjiang, China, was a Gram-negative, aerobic, motile, rod-shaped bacterium. Colonies grown on 0.1× trypticase soy broth agar were circular, convex and light-pink-coloured. The major cellular fatty acids of the novel strain were C18 : 1 ω7c (72.71 %) and C16 : 0 (7.05 %). The DNA G+C content of strain 10-1-101T was 68.8 mol% and Q-10 was the major respiratory quinone. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain 10-1-101T was related to type strains of the genus Skermanella, with sequence similarity values of 94.07 % with Skermanella aerolata DSM 18479T and 92.74 % with Skermanella parooensis DSM 9527T. On the basis of genotypic, phenotypic and phylogenetic data, this new strain represents a novel species of the genus Skermanella, for which the name Skermanella xinjiangensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 10-1-101T (=CCTCC AB 207153T=NRRL B-51273T).
A Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile and pink bacterial strain, designated strain GCM0142T, was isolated from the confined seawater in the Saemangeum Tide Embankment of South Korea, and characterized using a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of strain GCM0142T indicated that the isolate belonged to the phylum Bacteroidetes and exhibited similarity levels of 94.0-96.4 % to the type strains of recognized Pontibacter species. Strain GCM0142T was oxidase- and catalase-positive. The major cellular fatty acids of the novel strain were summed feature 4 (comprising iso-C17 : 1I and/or anteiso-C17 : 1B, 36.8 %), iso-C15 : 0 (22.3 %) and summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c, 6.2 %). The DNA G+C content of strain GCM0142T was 48.9 mol% and the major quinone was MK-7. The polar lipid profile consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, two unknown aminolipids (AL1-2), an unknown aminophospholipid, five unknown lipids (L1-5) and an unknown glycolipid. On the basis of the
Strain JC267T was isolated from pebbles collected from Pingleshwar beach, Gujarat, India. Cells are Gram-stain-positive, facultatively anaerobic, non-motile rods forming sub-terminal endospores in swollen ellipsoidal to oval sporangia. Strain JC267T contains anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, iso-C14 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, C16 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0 as major (|5 %) cellular fatty acids. Polar lipids include phosphatidylglycerol, phospholipids (PL1-3), glycolipids (GL1-2) and an unidentified lipid. Cell-wall amino acids are composed of diagnostic meso-diaminopimelic acid, dl-alanine and a small amount of d-glutamic acid. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain JC267T is 45.5 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain JC267T showed highest sequence similarities of | 98.41 % with all species of the genus Bacillus when subjected to EzTaxon-e blast analysis. The reassociation values based on DNA-DNA hybridization of strain JC267T with Bacillus halosaccharovorans IBRC-M 10095T and Bacillus niabensis JCM 16399T were 26
TY - JOUR. T1 - Preliminary aqnalysis of length and GC content variation in the ribosomal first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) of marine animals. AU - Chow, S.. AU - Ueno, Y.. AU - Toyokawa, M.. AU - Oohara, I.. AU - Takeyama, Haruko. PY - 2009/6. Y1 - 2009/6. N2 - Length and guanine-cytosine (GC) content of the ribosomal first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) were compared across a wide variety of marine animal species, and its phylogenetic utility was investigated. From a total of 773 individuals representing 599 species, we only failed to amplify the ITS1 sequence from 87 individuals by polymerase chain reaction with universal ITS1 primers. No species was found to have an ITS1 region shorter than 100 bp. In general, the ITS1 sequences of vertebrates were longer (318 to 2,318 bp) and richer in GC content (56.8% to 78%) than those of invertebrates (117 to 1,613 bp and 35.8% to 71.3%, respectively). Specifically, gelatinous animals (Cnidaria and Ctenophora) were observed to have short ITS1 ...
Redundancy of the genetic code implies that there are more codons than amino acids. Consequently, many amino acids are encoded by more than one codon, which are known as synonymous codons. As a result, some substitutions between these codons are silent and do not change the coded amino acid. For example, in the case of the codons known as fourfold degenerated (4FD), the third codon positions can be freely changed to any nucleotide, without consequences for the coded amino acid, and subsequently for protein composition and function. However, synonymous codons are not used uniformly in real protein coding sequences (e.g., Comeron 2004; Grantham et al. 1980; Ikemura 1985; Plotkin and Kudla 2011; Sharp and Li 1986). Such preference of one synonymous codon over others is commonly known as codon usage bias (Sharp and Li 1986). Usage can differ for various genomes and genes within one genome, and even within a single gene.. As far as the evolution of codon bias is concerned, two explanations, which are ...
(2017) B. Miller et al. Biomedical Genetics and Genomics. It is well-documented that codon usage biases affect gene translational efficiency; however, it is less known if viruses share their hosts codon usage motifs. We determined that human-infecting viruses share similar codon usage biases as ...
GENEWIZ is widely known for reliability and completion of projects with a wide range of complexity levels including repetitive and sequences with high or low GC content. Our 99.9% delivery rate makes us the partner of choice for top research institutions across the world. Our many years of synthetic gene assembly experience provide endless opportunities to create any custom synthetic DNA sequence for your synthetic biology research ...
What is DNA? A DNA sequence contains only the letters A, C, G and T. (Each letter represents a small molecule, and a DNA sequence is a ``macromolecular chain of them.) Each letter in a DNA sequence is called a base, basepair, or nucleotide. Normally, DNA occurs as a double strand where each A is paired with a T and vice versa, and each C is paired with a G and vice versa. The reverse complement of a DNA sequence is formed by reversing the letters, interchanging A and T and interchanging C and G. Thus the reverse complement of ACCTGAG is CTCAGGT. What is a genome? A genome is all of an organisms DNA sequence. Each nucleus in one of your cells contains its own copy of your genome, which is about 3 billion letters. (More accurately, each cell has two nearly identical copies of the genome, except that the X and Y chromosomes are even more complicated.) Replication is the process of duplicating the genome when a cell divides. DNA composition. The genome of a warm-blooded animal is divided into ...
A new high-alkaline protease (ALTP) was purified to homogeneity from a culture of the strictly anaerobic and extremely alkaliphilic Alkaliphilus transvaale
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In bacteria, one example of such a characteristic is called the "G+C content." Recall that DNA is made up of nucleotides: A, T, G and C. The A and T pair together (A+T) in the DNA double helix, as do the G and C (G+C). After a bacterias genome is sequenced, the G+C content is calculated simply by adding up all the Gs and Cs and dividing that number by the total number of nucleotides. The percentage, which can range from 13% to 75%, tends to be characteristic of the bacterial species. Why one species is, say, 47% and another is 58% is thought to be due solely to chance. Luck of the draw ...
The National Aquarium is excited to announce the addition of Living Seashore, an interactive exhibit opening in spring 2015 where guests can explore the shore and touch the animals that live between the tides.
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Parablechnum roraimense and P. paucipinna spp. nov. (Blechnaceae: Polypodiopsida), lectotypification of P. stuebelii , and citation corrections in the family
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... FIGURA 4-3 Vias de sinalização e funções do TLRs. Os TLRs 1, 2, 5 e 6 utilizam a proteína adaptadora MyD88 e
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A Gram-staining-positive, cocci, halotolerant bacterial strain, designated as SV-16T, was isolated from marine sediment and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. The strain exhibited phenotypic properties that included chemotaxonomic characteristics consistent with its classification in the genus Salinicoccus. Growth occurs at temperatures in the range between 25-37 °C (optimum 30 °C), pH 7.0-11.0 (optimum 8.0) and at NaCl concentrations up to 25 .0 % (optimum 15.0 %). The highest level of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity was with Salinicoccus carnicancri CrmT (98.6 %) followed by Salinicoccus halodurans W24T (96.6 %). The predominant polar lipids are diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG). The major cellular fatty acids are iso-C15: 0, anteiso-C15: 0, iso-C17: 0 and anteiso C17: 0. The draft genome of strain SV-16T consisted of 2,591,284 bp with G+C content of 48.7 mol %. On the basis of the phenotypic characteristics and genotypic ...
An obligately aerobic, chemoheterotrophic, mesophilic prosthecate bacterium, designated strain CGM1-3ENT, was isolated from the enrichment cultures of forest soil from Cheonggyesan Mountain, Republic of Korea. Cells were Gram-reaction-negative, motile rods (1.3–2.4 µm long by 0.30–0.75 µm wide) with single flagella. The strain grew at 10–37 °C (optimum 25–30 °C) and at pH 4.5–9.5 (optimum 5.0–7.0). The major cellular fatty acids were C16 : 0, C18 : 1ω7c 11-methyl, C12 : 1 3-OH and summed feature 8 (comprising C18 : 1ω7c/C18 : 1ω6c). The genomic DNA G+C content of strain CGM1-3ENT was 63.7 mol%. The closest phylogenetic neighbour to strain CGM1-3ENT was identified as Asticcacaulis biprosthecium DSM 4723T (97.2 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and the DNA–DNA hybridization value between strain CGM1-3ENT and A. biprosthecium DSM 4723T was less than 24.5 %. Strain ...
A bacterial strain, B5-2(T), was isolated from an ice core drilled from Muztagh Glacier, China. Strain B5-2(T) was a Gram-stainnegative, short rod-shaped, motile by polar flagella, aerobic bacterium. The major fatty acids of strain B5-2(T) were summed feature 8 (C-18 : 1 omega 7c and/ or C-18 : 1 omega 6c) and iso-C-13 : 0. The G+C content of the DNA from strain B5-2(T) was 69.3 mol%. The predominant isoprenoid quinone of strain B5-2(T) was Q-10. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, phosphatidyldimethylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, an unidentified phospholipid and sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the novel strain B5-2(T) shared highest similarity (96.7 %) with Aureimonas altamirensis S21B(T). On the basis of the results of this polyphasic study, strain B5-2(T) represents a novel species of the genus Aureimonas, for which the name Aureimonas glaciei sp. nov. is ...
The type species for the genus Skermanella is Skermanella parooens ACM 2042T, which was originally proposed as Conglomeromonas largomobilis subsp. parooensis by Skerman et al. in 1983 [1]. Later, it was transferred to the genus Skermanella (family Rhodospirillaceae) on the basis of phylogenetic evidence and phenotypic characteristics, especially the inability to fix nitrogen [2,3]. At present, this genus comprises four validly published species, Skermanella parooensis [3], Skermanella aerolata [4], Skermanella xinjiangensis [5] and Skermanella stibiiresistens [6], which were isolated from fresh water, air, sandy soil and a coal mine, respectively.. Skermanella was characterized as a Gram-negative, non-spore-forming bacterium with unicellular and multicellular phases of growth, an obligate chemo-organotroph and facultative anaerobe, unable to fix nitrogen, and with a high DNA G+C content. To the best of our knowledge, genome information for Skermanella members is still not available. In this ...
A bacterium previously isolated from a diseased colony of the scleractinian coral Dichocoenia stokesi (common name elliptical star coral) was subjected to a detailed polyphasic taxonomic characterization. The isolate, designated WP1T, was halophilic and strictly aerobic and formed golden-orange-pigmented colonies after prolonged incubation. Cells of WP1T were Gram-negative, rod-shaped and showed a characteristic branching rod morphology. Chemotaxonomically, WP1T was characterized by having Q-10 as the major respiratory lipoquinone and sym-homospermidine as the main component of the cellular polyamine content. The predominant constituent in the cellular fatty acid profile was C18 : 1 ω7c, along with C19 : 0 cyclo ω8c and C16 : 0. Other fatty acids present in smaller amounts were C17 : 0, C18 : 0, C16 : 1 ω7c, C20 : 1 ω7c and C18 : 1 2-OH. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine. Minor amounts of diphosphatidylglycerol,
Codon usage bias refers to differences in the frequency of occurrence of synonymous codons in coding DNA. A codon is a series of three nucleotides (a triplet) that encodes a specific amino acid residue in a polypeptide chain or for the termination of translation (stop codons). There are 64 different codons (61 codons encoding for amino acids plus 3 stop codons) but only 20 different translated amino acids. The overabundance in the number of codons allows many amino acids to be encoded by more than one codon. Because of such redundancy it is said that the genetic code is degenerate. The genetic codes of different organisms are often biased towards using one of the several codons that encode the same amino acid over the others-that is, a greater frequency of one will be found than expected by chance. How such biases arise is a much debated area of molecular evolution. Codon usage tables detailing genomic codon usage bias for most organisms in GenBank and RefSeq can be found in the HIVE-Codon Usage ...
An important unanswered question in evolutionary genomics is the source of considerable variation of genomic base composition (GC content) even among organisms that share one habitat. Evolution toward GC-poor genomes has been considered a major adaptive pathway in the oligotrophic ocean, but GC-rich bacteria are also prevalent and highly successful in this environment. We quantify the contribution of multiple factors to the change of genomic GC content of Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3, a representative and GC-rich member in the globally abundant Roseobacter clade, using an agent-based model ...
16. A method of stabilizing a spine with a spinal stabilization device comprising a rod-shaped implant comprising a continuous one-piece rod-shaped member having a first end and a second end opposite the first end along a longitudinal axis, the rod-shaped member being made from a plastic material exhibiting flexibility, a longitudinal bore provided in the rod-shaped member, a reinforcing rod accommodated in the bore and made from a more rigid material than the material of the rod-shaped member, the reinforcing rod having a first end and a second end, wherein the reinforcing rod is slidable in the bore; and wherein the reinforcing rod comprises a stop contacting the rod-shaped member to limit movement of the reinforcing rod relative to the rod-shaped member, and at least two bone anchoring elements, each bone anchoring element having a receiving part for receiving the rod-shaped member, the method comprising:attaching the first bone anchoring element to a bone or vertebra;attaching the second ...
Expression breadth and synonymous substitution patterns are most probably due to gene length effects: The above results are suggestive of selection possibly playing a role in codon usage bias in humans. However, as stated earlier, genes of different length are likely to have different MCB values owing to the nature of the method. Indeed, if we randomize our sequences and measure the mean MCB for 1000 simulants for each of our genes, we find that the MCB, on average, is higher for shorter genes. This is to be expected of any statistic that employs a multinomial distribution and applies equally to the method of Karlin and Mrazek.. Importantly, it so happens that in our data set longer genes have a slightly higher rate of synonymous substitutions and are not expressed in as broad a range of tissues. Therefore, plotting mean MCB for the randomized genes against breadth of expression for the real gene, we still find a weak positive correlation of the order of magnitude reported for the real genes (P ...
1. A comparison is made of several procedures for the extraction of tocopherols and isoprenoid quinones from plant tissues. 2. Gradient-elution column chromatography on acid-washed alumina efficiently separates the isoprenoid quinones and tocopherols into groups that can then be assayed spectrophotometrically or, with the tocopherols, separated into their individual components and determined by gas-liquid chromatography. 3. This improved analytical procedure was used to study the distribution of the tocopherols and of ubiquinone in the ungerminated wheat grain.. ...
4Dipartimento di Biochimica e Biologia Molecolare, Università di Bari, Italy. The AUG start codon context features have been investigated by analyzing eukaryotic mRNAs belonging to various taxonomic groups. The functional relevance of each specific position surrounding the AUG start codon has been established as a function of the measured shift between base composition observed at that particular position, and base composition averaged over all the 5 untranslated regions. A more detailed analysis carried out on human genes belonging to different isochores showed significant isochore-specific features that cannot be explained only by a mutational bias effect.. The most represented heptamers spanning from position -3 to +4 with respect to the initiator AUG have been determined for mRNAs belonging to different taxonomic groups and a web page utility has been set up (http://bigarea.area.ba.cnr.it:8000/BioWWW/ATG.html) to determine the relative abundance of a user submitted oligonucleotide context ...
PUZZLE VERSION 2.4 NOW AVAILABLE!! ==================================== Some *very* useful new features have been added to the PUZZLE program, partially due to requests of users of earlier versions: * AUTOMATIC RECOGNITION OF THE DATA TYPE. Depending on the input file PUZZLE switches automatically to the nucleotide or amino acid mode. * AUTOMATIC SELECTION OF THE MODEL OF SEQUENCE EVOLUTION. If the data set contains amino acids PUZZLE recogizes whether the amino acids are encoded on mtDNA or on nuclear DNA and selects accordingly one of the corresponding models of sequence evolution (Dayhoff, JTT, mtREV). If the data set consists of nucleotides the transition/transversion parameter is estimated by a maximum likelihood prodedure from the data. Thus, the Ts/Tv parameter needs not to be specified! * CHI^2 TEST ON BASE COMPOSITION. PUZZLE checks with the help of a 5% level chi^2 test whether the base composition of each taxon is identical with the average that serves as a basis for the maximum ...
Nov 01 11:58:15 * Lensman ([email protected]) has joined #knownspace Nov 01 12:52:54 * AgincourtDB ([email protected]) has joined #knownspace Nov 01 12:53:20 ,AgincourtDB, boo Nov 01 12:58:02 * AgincourtDB is now known as Agin-afk Nov 01 12:59:01 ,Lensman, Hi Aggie! Nov 01 13:01:55 ,Agin-afk, hey Nov 01 13:02:03 ,Agin-afk, went downstairs to get some coffee Nov 01 13:02:10 * Agin-afk is now known as AgincourtDB Nov 01 13:03:30 ,Lensman, I dont have you on my Niven chat "scorecard". Where do you live Aggie? (And is that the right nickname?) Nov 01 13:03:37 ,AgincourtDB, yup Nov 01 13:03:40 ,AgincourtDB, Gaithersburg MD Nov 01 13:03:55 ,Lensman, East coast, okay. Nov 01 13:04:12 ,Lensman, You said "coffee", I thought maybe it was morning where you live. Nov 01 13:04:22 ,AgincourtDB, no I just need coffee all day long hehe Nov 01 13:04:43 ,Lensman, I forgot to send out the Niven chat reminder yesterday, we may have some people who forgot about the chat today. Nov 01 13:05:03 ...
User:Neil R Gottel,Neil R Gottel]] 16:45, 28 February 2013 (EST): Different organisms will differ in the amount of each tRNA that corresponds to each codon. Certain codons are rare in some species, while common in others. So, if youre putting a jellyfish gene into E. coli, then the codon usage is likely not optimized. Then production of that genes product will be slower/lower (because it takes longer to produce a peptide if the ribosome is waiting around for a rare tRNA to come by). However, according to this OWW page on [[Codon usage optimization]], and specifically [http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0007002 this paper], the most important factor to consider is which tRNAs are charged (that is, get amino acids attached to them) when the cell is starving, and to favor using the corresponding codons when optimizing your gene. I havent actually done this sort of optimization though, so hopefully someone else more experienced can chime in ...
Sea salt is the natural form of salt and is said to be a lot healthier than iodized salt. Many people favor the use of iodized salt over sea salt due to their lack of understanding of its benefits. If you look around in the grocery store, you will find all sorts of foods already seasoned with iodized salt. It is best to either cook your own food with sea salt or find special products made with natural sea salt.
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An illustrative embodiment of a computer-implemented method to identify expertise using interaction metrics receives a user identity to form an identified user, receives usage information associated with the identified user to form received information and identifies usage patterns in the received information to form identified usage patterns. The computer-implemented method further applies assessment factors to the identified usage patterns and received information, calculates a ranking for the identified user to form a calculated ranking and assigns the calculated ranking to the identified user.
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Genetic information is written by a variation in sequence on the one hand, and the physical stability of the double-stranded structure is determined by the base composition on the other hand. … DNA...
Thermobaculum terrenum ATCC ® BAA-798D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Thermobaculum terrenum strain YNP1 (ATCC ® BAA-798™) TypeStrain=False Application:
channel name="displays" version="1.0", ,property name="Default" type="empty", ,property name="VGA-1" type="string" value="Idek Iiyama 23", ,property name="Active" type="bool" value="true"/, ,property name="Resolution" type="string" value="1920x1080"/, ,property name="RefreshRate" type="double" value="60.000000"/, ,property name="Rotation" type="int" value="90"/, ,property name="Reflection" type="string" value="0"/, ,property name="Primary" type="bool" value="false"/, ,property name="Position" type="empty", ,property name="X" type="int" value="0"/, ,property name="Y" type="int" value="0"/, ,/property, ,/property, ,property name="DVI-0" type="string" value="Digital display", ,property name="Active" type="bool" value="true"/, ,property name="Resolution" type="string" value="1920x1080"/, ,property name="RefreshRate" type="double" value="60.000000"/, ,property name="Rotation" type="int" value="90"/, ,property name="Reflection" type="string" value="0"/, ,property name="Primary" type="bool" ...
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is supplied, session_name() modifies the HTTP cookie (and output content when session.transid is enabled). Once the HTTP cookie is sent, session_name() raises error. session_name() must be called before session_start() for the session to work properly. The session name is reset to the default value stored in session.name at request startup time. Thus, you need to call session_name() for every request (and before session_start() is called). ...
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When you see such an error message, check whether the script incorrectly changed a method name. If you find the method name in the second column of the table below, look in the first column to see the methods original name. You can then edit the program by hand, changing the error-causing line to use the original name. For example, to correct the error above, you should change ...
I think its about 80,000 names so we go to number 10 with a list of names so we can start the ball rolling in the political world so please more names !!!!!!!!!!!!!.Thanks mark
I am having a hard time coming up with a cool yet not cliche Adbenture Group Name. You know the name you call your D&D party group...its official company name. Any ideas?
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Is there a special name for the stress mark itself (sometimes in the phonetic explanation there are forward-slashes and back-slashes)? Do they have names? I thought the rule was: one word, one stress? Please Help.
Like people, not all animals are the same. Some have gone on to make a name for themselves in this world, and considering the name of this list you can
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We have come up with two facts. One. the band name will include the word Rust. Two, Im still wondering about two. What do you like better. I dont...
The third letter (surely "v") is partly legible; the first two are not. The number of irrecoverable letters must be limited by the chicane which precedes the name.. ...
A Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, non-spore-forming, atrichous and short rod-shaped endophytic actinomycete, designated strain BGMRC 2075 , was isolated from the leaves of Kandelia candel, and was subjected to polyphasic characterization to unravel its taxonomic position. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain BGMRC 2075 belongs to the genus Nocardioides ,showing the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Nocardioides aestuarii JC2056 (96.1 %), Nocardioides agariphilus MSL-28 (95.1 %) andNocardioides islandiensis MSL-26 (95.1 %). The predominant cellular fatty acids of strain BGMRC 2075 were iso-C16 : 0, C17 : 1ω8c and C17 : 0. The major menaquinone was MK-8(H4). The diagnostic diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan was ll-2,6-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant cell-wall sugars were composed of ribose and glucose. The polar lipid pattern contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, ...
A novel halophilic actinomycete, strain H32T,was isolated froma Saharan soil sample collected in El-Oued province, south Algeria. The isolate was characterized by means of polyphasic taxonomy. Optimal growth was determined to occur at 28-32°C, pH 6.0-7.0 and in the presence of 15-25 %(w/v) NaCl. The strain was observed to produce abundant aerial mycelium, which formed long chains of rod-shaped spores at maturity, and fragmented substrate mycelium. The cell wall was determined to contain meso-diaminopimelic acid and the characteristic whole-cell sugars were arabinose and galactose. The predominant menaquinoneswere found to beMK-10(H4) andMK-9(H4). The predominant cellular fatty acids were determined to be anteiso C17:0, iso-C15:0 and iso-C16:0. The diagnostic phospholipid detected was phosphatidylcholine. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that this strain formed a distinct phyletic line within the radiation of the genus Actinopolyspora. The 16S rRNAgene sequence ...
The base composition of DNA was determined for individual chromosomes from the dipteran Chironomus tentans and for each one of six different segments of one of the chromosomes. The isolations were carried out by micromanipulation and the DNA purines were first extracted from the isolated components and afterwards separated by means of microelectrophoresis on a cellulose fiber. It was found that DNA from this material has an unusual composition corresponding to a guanine + cytosine content of about 30%. This composition was not a function of the polytenic condition but was also found for DNA from testis tissue. Furthermore Drosophila has a more traditional base composition for the bulk of DNA. Statistically significant variations in base data were found between whole chromosomes as well as between the segments from one of the chromosomes.. ...
Widdel 1981) Kuever 2006 may be the type and only species of the genus and the order GEBAproject. class represents a separate lineage within the which is only distantly related to most other members of this class. The closest relatives based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values are the type strains of (87.6% sequence identity) and (87.2%) both belonging to the family within the order [9]. The most similar cloned 16S rRNA gene EUB-42 [10] shared only 95.5% sequence similarity with and was retrieved from anaerobic sludge. Strain 2st14T WYE-354 represents the only stress of this varieties obtainable from a tradition collection so far. Available data from cultivation 3rd party studies (environmental testing and genomic studies) didnt surpass 86% series similarity indicating that people of this varieties are limited to specific habitats which are undersampled generally in most conditions or are in low great quantity (status Oct 2010). The solitary genomic 16S rRNA series of stress 2st14T was ...
In molecular biology and genetics, GC-content (or guanine-cytosine content) is the percentage of nitrogenous bases on a DNA molecule that are either guanine or cytosine (from a possibility of four different ones, also including adenine and thymine).[1] This may refer to a specific fragment of DNA or RNA, or that of the whole genome. When it refers to a fragment of the genetic material, it may denote the GC-content of part of a gene (domain), single gene, group of genes (or gene clusters), or even a non-coding region. G (guanine) and C (cytosine) undergo a specific hydrogen bonding, whereas A (adenine) bonds specifically with T (thymine). The GC pair is bound by three hydrogen bonds, while AT pairs are bound by two hydrogen bonds. DNA with high GC-content is more stable than DNA with low GC-content; however, the hydrogen bonds do not stabilize the DNA significantly, and stabilization is due mainly to stacking interactions.[2] In spite of the higher thermostability conferred to the genetic ...
An obligately anaerobic bacterial strain designated T-1-35(T) was isolated as a dominant cultivable cellulose-degrading bacterium from soil of a Japanese rice field as an anaerobic filter-paper degrader. Cells of strain T-1-35(T) stained Gram-positive and were non-spore-forming rods with rounded ends, 0.8-1.0 3.5-15.0 m, and motile by means of two to four polar flagella. Cells of strain T-1-35(T) exhibited pleomorphism: in aged cultures (over 90 days of incubation), almost all cells were irregularly shaped. Although no spore formation was observed, cells tolerated high temperatures, up to 90 C for 10 min. The temperature range for growth was 15-40 C, with an optimum at 35 C. The pH range for growth was 5.5-9.0, with an optimum at pH 8.0-8.5 (slightly alkaliphilic). Strain T-1-35(T) fermented some carbohydrates to produce ethanol and lactate as the major products. Major cellular fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0 and iso-C13 : 0 3-OH. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed ...
An industrial approach to protein production demands maximization of cloned gene expression, balanced with the recombinant hosts viability. Expression of toxic genes from thermophiles poses particular difficulties due to high GC content, mRNA secondary structures, rare codon usage and impairing the hosts coding plasmid replication. TaqII belongs to a family of bifunctional enzymes, which are a fusion of the restriction endonuclease (REase) and methyltransferase (MTase) activities in a single polypeptide. The family contains thermostable REases with distinct specificities: TspGWI, TaqII, Tth111II/TthHB27I, TspDTI and TsoI and a few enzymes found in mesophiles. While not being isoschizomers, the enzymes exhibit amino acid (aa) sequence homologies, having molecular sizes of ~120 kDa share common modular architecture, resemble Type-I enzymes, cleave DNA 11/9 nt from the recognition sites, their activity is affected by S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). We describe the taqIIRM gene design, cloning and expression
The genus Lysobacter belongs to the family Xanthomonadaceae within the Gammaproteobacteria and includes 13 named species: Lysobacter enzymogenes, L. antibioticus, L. gummosus, L. brunescens, L. defluvii, L. niabensis, L. niastensis, L. daejeonensis, L. yangpyeongensis, L. koreensis, L. concretionis, L. spongiicola, and L. capsici. Lysobacter spp. were originally grouped with myxobacteria because they shared the distinctive trait of gliding motility, but they uniquely display a number of traits that distinguish them from other taxonomically and ecologically related microbes including high genomic G+C content (typically ranging between 65 and 72%) and the lack of flagella. The feature of gliding motility alone has piqued the interest of many, since the role of gliding bacteria in soil ecology is poorly understood. In addition, while a number of different mechanisms have been proposed for gliding motility among a wide range of bacterial species, the genetic mechanism in Lysobacter remains unknown. ...
There are two main forces that affect usage of synonymous codons: directional mutational pressure and selection. The effectiveness of protein translation is usually considered as the main selectional factor. However, the biased codon usage can be also a by-product of a general selection at the amino acid level interacting with nucleotide replacements. To evaluate the validity and strength of such effect, we superimposed more than 3.5 billion unrestricted mutational processes on the selection of non-synonymous substitutions based on the differences in physicochemical properties of the coded amino acids. Using a modified evolutionary optimization algorithm, we determined the conditions in which the effect on the relative codon usage is maximized. We found that the effect is enhanced by mutational processes generating more adenine and thymine than guanine and cytosine as well as more purines than pyrimidines. Interestingly, this effect is observed only under an unrestricted model of nucleotide ...
Bacteroides is a genus of Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria. Bacteroides species are non-endospore-forming, anaerobes, and may either be motile or non-motile, depending on the species.[1] The DNA base composition is 40-48% GC. Unusual in bacterial organisms, Bacteroides membranes contain sphingolipids. They also contain meso-diaminopimelic acid in their peptidoglycan layer. Bacteroides are normally commensal, making up the most substantial portion of the mammalian gastrointestinal flora,[2] where they play a fundamental role in processing of complex molecules to simpler ones in the host intestine. As many as 1010-1011 cells per gram of human feces have been reported.[3] They can use simple sugars when available, but the main source of energy is polysaccharides from plant sources. ...
king interactions (hydrogen bonding merely provides specificity of the pairing, not stability). As a result, it is both the percentage of GC base pairs and the overall length of a DNA double helix that determine the strength of the association between the two strands of DNA. Long DNA helices with a high GC content have stronger-interacting strands, while short helices with high AT content have weaker-interacting strands. In biology, parts of the DNA double helix that need to separate easily, such as the TATAAT Pribnow box in some promoters, tend to have a high AT content, making the strands easier to pull apart. In the laboratory, the strength of this interaction can be measured by finding the temperature required to break the hydrogen bonds, their melting temperature (also called Tm value). When all the base pairs in a DNA double helix melt, the strands separate and exist in solution as two entirely independent molecules. These single-stranded DNA molecules have no single common shape, but some ...
The instruments acquired by the Surface Science Group are a Thermo Fisher ESCALAB 250 imaging X-ray Photoelectron Spectrometer (XPS) and a Thermo Fisher MICROLAB 350 imaging Auger Electron Spectrometer (AES). Prof Sullivan explained: Surface analysis is concerned with the study and measurement of the physical, chemical and compositional properties of the first one to ten atomic layers. It is the surface which forms the boundary between the environment and/or other materials in contact with that solid. Thus the composition and structure of these outermost layers have a profound effect on the properties and performance of materials and systems in an increasingly wide range of technological and nano-technological applications. Instruments such as these have proved invaluable in the examination, characterisation and understanding of the surface properties of metals, glasses, ceramics, polymers and biological materials and in the study of processes such as adhesion, corrosion, oxidation, biological ...
BBOCUS (BackTranslation Based On Codon Usage Strategy) is a re-implementation of the algorithm in Graziano Pesoles BACKTR. Its based on cluster analysis (Complete Linkage algorithm), that requires a similarity matrix D containing distance between each pair of sequences of mRNA. After cluster analysis, backtranslation is performed on sequences of homogeneous pool. Unlike in Graziano Pesoles method, where the choose of homogeneous pool was made by a biologist, the choose of cluster in BBOCUS is fully automatic. A Codon Usage Table (CUT) is created through sequences of homogeneuos pool. Generally, to backtranslate an amino acid in a protein the codon chosen it is the one has maximum frequency ...
Tabrizicola aquatica gen. nov. sp. nov., a novel alphaproteobacterium isolated from Qurugöl Lake nearby Tabriz city, Iran.: A novel Gram-negative, aerobic, non-
printf("declared a: %g\n",name_declared("a")) // -, declared a: 0 printf("name_declared(a)!=5 %g\n",name_declared("a")!=5) // -, name_declared(a)!=5 1 type=name_declared("a") if(type!=5){ printf("in if a\n") //-, prints a = 10 printf("value: %g\n",a) //-, prints } printf("declared a: %g, value: %g\n",name_declared("a"),a) //-, declared a: 5, value: 10 printf("declared b: %g\n",name_declared("b")) //-, declared b: 1 printf("name_declared(b)!=5 %g\n",name_declared("b")!=5) // -, name_declared(b)!=5 1 if(name_declared("b")!=5){ printf("in if b\n") // doesnt print b = 10 printf("value: %g\n",b) // doesnt print } printf("declared b: %g, value: %g\n",name_declared("b"),b) //-, declared b: 5, value: 0 if(name_declared("c")!=5){ printf("in if c\n") //doesnt print c = 10 printf("declared c: %g, value: %g\n",name_declared("c"),c) //doesnt print } proc testProc(){ printf("name_declare\n") printf("declared d: %g\n",name_declared("d")) // -, declared d: 5 printf("name_declared(d)!=5 ...
Prázdniny skončili! Je tu čas na formovanie postavy a budovanie kondície!. Od 17. septembra štartujeme vo všetkých našich prevádzkach skupinové cvičenia podľa nových jesenných rozvrhov. Vyskúšajte novinky podľa Vašej chuti, a vyberte si z množstva cvičení, ktoré Vám zaručene spríjemnia nadchádzajúce chladné dni! Čaká vás výborná atmosféra, profesionálny prístup, ale aj tie správne posilňovačky, makačky, naťahovačky i tancovačky!. Teší sa na Vás tím inštruktorov Golem Clubu!. Nový rozvrh v Eurovei nájdete tu,. Nový rozvrh v Auparku nájdete tu,. Nový rozvrh v Avione nájdete tu,. Nový rozvrh v Toweri nájdete tu,. OTVÁRACIE HODINY OD 17.9.2012 DO 15.6.2013. Golem club Aupark. Pondelok - Piatok: 6:00 - 22:00. Sobota - Nedeľa: 8:00 - 22:00. Počas sviatkov: 8:00 - 22:00. Zodpovedný vedúci: Ing. Zuzana Polanská. Kontakt:0917 571 100 Golem club Avion. Pondelok - Piatok: 6:00 - 22:00. Sobota - Nedeľa: 8:00 - 22:00. Počas sviatkov: 8:00 - ...
Pictures of the Chimney Rock Trail, Point Reyes National Seashore, California: Narrow, inaccessible beach on the south side of the point
Streptosporangium cinnabarinum GE82832 peptide: a secondary metabolite produced by Streptosporangium cinnabarinum (strain GE82832) that is a translational inhibitor
List of words make out of Aesculin. All anagrams of Aesculin. Words made after unscrambling Aesculin. Scrabble Points. Puzzle Solver. Word Creation.
Tool: bedtools nuc (aka nucBed) Version: v2.16.2 Summary: Profiles the nucleotide content of intervals in a fasta file. Usage: bedtools nuc [OPTIONS] -fi ,fasta, -bed ,bed/gff/vcf, Options: -fi Input FASTA file -bed BED/GFF/VCF file of ranges to extract from -fi -s Profile the sequence according to strand. -seq Print the extracted sequence -pattern Report the number of times a user-defined sequence is observed (case-sensitive). -C Igore case when matching -pattern. By defaulty, case matters. Output format: The following information will be reported after each BED entry: 1) %AT content 2) %GC content 3) Number of As observed 4) Number of Cs observed 5) Number of Gs observed 6) Number of Ts observed 7) Number of Ns observed 8) Number of other bases observed 9) The length of the explored sequence/interval. 10) The seq. extracted from the FASTA file. (opt., if -seq is used) 11) The number of times a users pattern was observed. (opt., if -pattern is used ...
Many foodies like sea salt because of its unique texture and flavor -- and because its a natural form of salt found in the ocean. Although sea salt may...
Shop Bacon Smoked Sea Salt. Savory and smoky, with a hint of sweetness. Sprinkle on eggs, potatoes, grilled meats, veggies, fish, etc.
Sea Salts helps to Get rid of Cellulite Naturally,& good to improve blood pressure, heart rate and muscle tension. Additionally, sea salts help to regulate
DSM criteria - MedHelps DSM criteria Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for DSM criteria. Find DSM criteria information, treatments for DSM criteria and DSM criteria symptoms.
Cosmo Laboratory Equipment, Ambala Cantt, India - Flat Base Model with Two Sliding, Flat Base Model with Two Sliding Indian, Flat Base Model with Two Sliding Exporters, Flat Base Model with Two Sliding Manufacturers, Flat Base Model with Two Sliding Supplies, Flat Base Model with Two Sliding Ambala, Flat Base Model with Two Sliding India,
A novel Gram-negative, slightly halophilic, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, obligately aerobic, non-sporulating rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain JSM 078169(T), was isolated from a sea urchin (Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus) collected from the South China Sea. Growth occurred with 1-20 % (w/v) total salts (optimum, 3-5 %), at pH 6.0-10.5 (optimum, pH 7.5) and at 4-40 degrees C (optimum, 25-30 degrees C). The major cellular fatty acids were C-18: 1 omega 7c, C-16:0 and C-12:0 3-OH. The predominant respiratory quinone was Q-9 and the genomic DNA G + C content was 55.8 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain JSM 078169(T) should be assigned to the genus Halomonas. The sequence similarities between the isolate and the type strains of members of the genus Halomonas were in the range 92.4-97.0%. The combination of phylogenetic analysis, DNA-DNA relatedness, phenotypic characteristics and chemotaxonomic data supported the view that strain JSM 078169(T) ...
Obtaining full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences is important for generating accurate taxonomy assignments of bacteria, which normally is realized via clone library construction. However, the application of clone library has been hindered due to its limitations in sample throughput and in capturing minor populations (<1 % of total microorganisms). To overcome these limitations, a new strategy, two-step denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (2S-DGGE), is developed to obtain full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences. 2S-DGGE can compare microbial communities based on its first-round DGGE profiles and generate partial 16S rRNA gene sequences (8-534 bp, Escherichia coli numbering). Then, strain-specific primers can be designed based on sequence information of bacteria of interest to PCR amplify their remaining 16S rRNA gene sequences (515-1541 bps, E. coli numbering). The second-round DGGE can confirm DNA sequence purity of these PCR products. Finally, the full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences can be ...
article{7225551, abstract = {A Gram-stain-positive, ovoid, lactic acid bacterium, strain LMG 27676(T), was isolated from a spoiled sous-vide-cooked rutabaga. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the novel strain belongs to the genus Leuconostoc, with Leuconostoc kimchii and Leuconostoc miyukkimchii as the nearest neighbours (99.1 and 98.8\% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity towards the type strain, respectively). Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene, multilocus sequence analysis of the pheS, rpoA and atpA genes, and biochemical and genotypic characteristics allowed differentiation of strain LMG 27676(T) from all established species of the genus Leuconostoc. Strain LMG 27676(T) (=R-50029(T)=MHB 277(T)=DSM 27776(T)) therefore represents the type strain of a novel species, for which the name Leuconostoc rapi sp. nov. is proposed.}, author = {Lyhs, Ulrike and Snauwaert, Isabel and Pihlajaviita, Seija and De Vuyst, Luc and Vandamme, Peter}, issn = {1466-5026}, journal = {INTERNATIONAL ...
Four novel strains of saprophytic bacteria were isolated from the soil samples collected in the moist subtropics region (the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus) and studied using methods of polyphasic taxonomic analysis. Microorganisms were Gram-negative, oxidase positive, aerobic, rod-shaped motile bacteria that produced antibiotic named batumin with high and selective activity against staphylococci; its total formula was С 30Н48N2O7. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences (1376 bp, accession number in Genbank - JF306642) indicated that the isolates belonged to the γ-Proteobacteria, formed a separate branch within the genus Pseudomonas and had 98% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Pseudomonas gingeri. The latter essentially differed from the studied strains in its phenotypic characteristics ...
Looking for online definition of DNA-DNA Reassociation in the Medical Dictionary? DNA-DNA Reassociation explanation free. What is DNA-DNA Reassociation? Meaning of DNA-DNA Reassociation medical term. What does DNA-DNA Reassociation mean?

Genome size and base composition variation in natural and experimental Narcissus (Amaryllidaceae) hybrids : Annals of Botany -...Genome size and base composition variation in natural and experimental Narcissus (Amaryllidaceae) hybrids : Annals of Botany -...

Keywords: Amaryllidaceae; base composition; DAPI; flow cytometry; genome size; interspecific hybrids; Narcissus; polyploidy; ... Flow cytometry measurements with two staining techniques, PI and DAPI, were used to estimate 2C values and base composition (AT ... allow us to study how DNA content and composition varies in such hybrids. ... allow us to study how DNA content and composition varies in such hybrids. ...
more infohttp://oxfordindex.oup.com/view/10.1093/aob/mcr282

Base Composition Characteristics of Mammalian miRNAsBase Composition Characteristics of Mammalian miRNAs

... Bin Wang Department of Chemistry, Robert C. Byrd Biotechnology Science ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/jna/2013/951570/ref/

Patent US5916518 - Cobalt-base composition - Google PatentsPatent US5916518 - Cobalt-base composition - Google Patents

This composition may also include aluminum, and the composition may be combined with one or more powdered base metal superalloy ... The improved cobalt-base braze alloy composition includes nickel; at least one element selected from the group of rhenium, ... The mixture is then heated to melt the cobalt-base braze alloy, thereby joining the base metal superalloy powder particles ... compositions to form an improved diffusion braze alloy mixture. In the improved method for repairing superalloy articles, the ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US5916518?dq=%235,519,867

Starch-based composition - Solvay (Societe Anonyme)Starch-based composition - Solvay (Societe Anonyme)

The composition contains a starch, which is preferably plasticised, and a polymer which acts as c ... The invention relates to an alloy composition possessing improved properties of mechanical resistance. ... Polymer base blend compositions containing destructurized starch.. WO1991002025A1. 1991-02-21. A POLYMER COMPOSITION INCLUDING ... The invention is intended to provide a composition based on a starch modified by the addition of a so-called polymer coupling ...
more infohttp://www.freepatentsonline.com/5510401.html

Patent US4593048 - Base composition for external preparations, pharmaceutical composition for ... - Google PatentsPatent US4593048 - Base composition for external preparations, pharmaceutical composition for ... - Google Patents

... and an external preparation containing the above composition as a base. ... A composition capable of promoting the skin permeation or percutaneous absorption of a drug, which comprises a lower alcohol ... 2) A pharmaceutical composition for external use which comprises a drug and the above-mentioned base composition; and ... Base composition for external preparations, pharmaceutical composition for external use and method of promoting percutaneous ...
more infohttp://www.google.com.au/patents/US4593048

MASSIVE VOODOO: Basing Composition - IntroductionMASSIVE VOODOO: Basing Composition - Introduction

Now comes the interesting part what basing is about mainly. Choosing the cutaway you want to show.. Composition thoughts: Same ... It talks about composition. It talks about how you can achieve a harmonic look on your base instead of only one stone and a ... There are 9 Kommentare for Basing Composition - Introduction Chris Blackwood says... Here probably only helps the holy grenade ... Composition thoughts: Nothing to fency here with composition, but a little contrast in size. Big to small. Statue to Soldier.. ...
more infohttp://massivevoodoo.blogspot.com/2014/03/basing-composition-introduction.html?widgetType=BlogArchive&widgetId=BlogArchive1&action=toggle&dir=open&toggle=MONTHLY-1480546800000&toggleopen=MONTHLY-1393628400000

Patent US7964574 - Microsphere-based composition for preventing and/or reversing new-onset ... - Google PatentsPatent US7964574 - Microsphere-based composition for preventing and/or reversing new-onset ... - Google Patents

Microsphere-based composition for preventing and/or reversing new-onset autoimmune diabetes. US 7964574 B2 ... Thus, a microsphere-based therapeutic composition can modulate dendritic cell activity and mobilize regulatory networks for ... Such compositions typically may comprise a ratio in the microsphere composition of antisense CD40:antisense CD80: antisense ... Preparation process of sustained release compositions and the compositions thus obtained. US5300464. Dec 16, 1992. Apr 5, 1994 ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US7964574?dq=3984803

Agreement Between Deoxyribonucleic Acid Base Composition and Taxometric Classification of Gram-Positive Cocci | Journal of...Agreement Between Deoxyribonucleic Acid Base Composition and Taxometric Classification of Gram-Positive Cocci | Journal of...

... base composition, determined from melting temperatures. Per cent GC (guanine + cytosine/total bases) values fell into two ... Agreement Between Deoxyribonucleic Acid Base Composition and Taxometric Classification of Gram-Positive Cocci. L. G. Silvestri ... Agreement between deoxyribonucleic acid base composition and taxometric classification of gram-positive cocci. J. Bacteriol. 90 ... Agreement Between Deoxyribonucleic Acid Base Composition and Taxometric Classification of Gram-Positive Cocci ...
more infohttps://jb.asm.org/content/90/1/136?ijkey=4feb99f4e40f09dc2cf6dd6a09ddf8ab91fa4154&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

US5708094A - Polybutadiene-based compositions for contact lenses 
        - Google PatentsUS5708094A - Polybutadiene-based compositions for contact lenses - Google Patents

Contact lenses are made from the polymerization product of a monomer mixture comprising a polybutadiene-based compound as ... US5708094A - Polybutadiene-based compositions for contact lenses - Google Patents. Polybutadiene-based compositions for contact ... Polybutadiene-based compositions for contact lenses CA 2274762 CA2274762C (en) 1996-12-17. 1997-11-25. Polybutadiene-based ... Polybutadiene-based compositions for contact lenses Applications Claiming Priority (3). Application Number. Priority Date. ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/US5708094A/en

Honey-based composition for relief of occasional heartburn and digestive disorders - Triticum Holding BVHoney-based composition for relief of occasional heartburn and digestive disorders - Triticum Holding BV

... a composition is provided including honey and raw food fibers. The compositions primary use is to relieve occasional heartburn ... based on the total weight of the composition. 4. The composition of claim 3, wherein said composition further comprises 20-40 ... based on the total weight of the composition. 5. The composition of claim 4, wherein said composition further comprises 20-60 ... based on the total weight of the composition. 6. The composition of claim 5, wherein said honey is a non-denatured honey. 7. ...
more infohttp://www.freepatentsonline.com/y2004/0170696.html

THE DNA BASE COMPOSITION OF INDIVIDUAL CHROMOSOMES AND CHROMOSOME SEGMENTS FROM CHIRONOMUS TENTANS | JCBTHE DNA BASE COMPOSITION OF INDIVIDUAL CHROMOSOMES AND CHROMOSOME SEGMENTS FROM CHIRONOMUS TENTANS | JCB

THE DNA BASE COMPOSITION OF INDIVIDUAL CHROMOSOMES AND CHROMOSOME SEGMENTS FROM CHIRONOMUS TENTANS. B. Daneholt, J.-E. Edström ... The base composition of DNA was determined for individual chromosomes from the dipteran Chironomus tentans and for each one of ... THE DNA BASE COMPOSITION OF INDIVIDUAL CHROMOSOMES AND CHROMOSOME SEGMENTS FROM CHIRONOMUS TENTANS ... Furthermore Drosophila has a more traditional base composition for the bulk of DNA. Statistically significant variations in ...
more infohttp://jcb.rupress.org/content/41/2/620

Texture-Based Composition of Holograms Using Triangular ElementsTexture-Based Composition of Holograms Using Triangular Elements

... M. König, O. Deussen, T. Strothotte. ... Texture-Based Composition of Holograms Using Triangular Elements}, year = {1999}, url = {http://graphics.uni-konstanz.de/ ...
more infohttp://graphics.uni-konstanz.de/publikationen/Koenig1999TextureBasedComposition/index.html

WO2001070270A2 - Base compositions for preparing surfactant free topical compositions 
        - Google PatentsWO2001070270A2 - Base compositions for preparing surfactant free topical compositions - Google Patents

... the base composition is premanufactured. Since the composition is simple and quick to prepare, custom cosmetic compositions may ... The base composition comprises (a) a phosphorylated starch derivative; (b) one or more co-thickening agents, such as carbomer ... The method comprises mixing (a) the base composition of the present invention, and (b) at least one dispersion comprising ... or vaginal application comprising the base composition of the present invention and at least one dispersion comprising ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/WO2001070270A2/en

Composition-Based View - WikipediaComposition-Based View - Wikipedia

Coordination costs and difficulties of orchestration may undermine composition-based success. Composition-based strategies may ... The composition-based view (CBV) was recently developed by Luo and Child (2015). It is a new theory that explicates the growth ... Firms that follow the composition-based strategy are often led by executives who have sharp vision and who have adopted ... According to Luo and Child (2015), there exist several limitations of the composition-based strategy: It increases the ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Composition-Based_View

Quantitative analysis of mutation and selection pressures on base composition skews in bacterial chromosomes | BMC Genomics |...Quantitative analysis of mutation and selection pressures on base composition skews in bacterial chromosomes | BMC Genomics |...

The base composition skews in the coding sequences were used to derive quantitatively the effect of replication-driven mutation ... Some closely relative species with distinct base composition parameters are uncovered in this study, which also provides ... The selection pressure at the translation level is evident in all bacteria based on the analysis of the skews at the three ... with replication and transcription in various groups of bacteria that shape the distinct patterns of base composition skews in ...
more infohttps://bmcgenomics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2164-8-286

Effects of Genic Base Composition on Growth Rate in G+C-rich Genomes | G3: Genes | Genomes | GeneticsEffects of Genic Base Composition on Growth Rate in G+C-rich Genomes | G3: Genes | Genomes | Genetics

... base composition of GFP genes and doubling times in hosts expressing GFP gene variants having different base composition at ... has a base composition of 91% G+C at four-fold degenerate sites (GC4) but an expected GC4 of only 71% based on its mutational ... Effects of Genic Base Composition on Growth Rate in G+C-rich Genomes. View ORCID ProfileYogeshwar D. Kelkar, Daniel S. Phillips ... Effects of Genic Base Composition on Growth Rate in G+C-rich Genomes. View ORCID ProfileYogeshwar D. Kelkar, Daniel S. Phillips ...
more infohttps://www.g3journal.org/content/5/6/1247

Comparison of responses by bacteriophage and bacteria to pressures on the
base composition of open reading framesComparison of responses by bacteriophage and bacteria to pressures on the base composition of open reading frames

... to analyze differential responses of bacterial viruses and bacteria to pressures acting at the level of nucleic acid bases, ... DNA base compositions were determined chemically long before sequencing technologies permitted direct counting of bases. Some ... Chargaff noted other regularities in base composition (GC% rule, cluster rule, second parity rule), and Szybalski related base ... 2) and a long natural sequence, each of the same length and base composition, may differ in the presence (+) or absence (-) of ...
more infohttps://qspace.library.queensu.ca/jspui/bitstream/handle/1974/136/bioinfo5.htm?sequence=23&isAllowed=y

Evolution of codon usage and base compositionEvolution of codon usage and base composition

As much of the variation in codon usage is determined by variation in base composition, this aspect of base composition is ... factors affecting genomic base composition can eventually lead to changes in optimal codons if the change in base composition ... Evolution of codon usage and base composition. Download. Perry2015.pdf (6.543Mb) ... Secondly, base composition is modelled under Brownian motion and as an extension, the Ornstein- Uhlenbeck process, which allows ...
more infohttps://www.era.lib.ed.ac.uk/handle/1842/17870

A Composition-Based Model for Particulate Matter Emission of Direct Injection Diesel EnginesA Composition-Based Model for Particulate Matter Emission of Direct Injection Diesel Engines

The PM model is based on formation mechanisms of main compositions of PM: soot and soluble organic fraction (SOF). Firstly, two ... a composition-based particulate matter (PM) model of direct injection diesel engines has been formulated and developed to ... Citation: TAN, P., DENG, k., LU, J., LOU, D. et al., "A Composition-Based Model for Particulate Matter Emission of Direct ... A Composition-Based Model for Particulate Matter Emission of Direct Injection Diesel Engines 2005-01-3463. ...
more infohttps://www.sae.org/publications/technical-papers/content/2005-01-3463/

Comprehensive analysis of the base composition around the transcription start site in Metazoa | BMC Genomics | Full TextComprehensive analysis of the base composition around the transcription start site in Metazoa | BMC Genomics | Full Text

The most prominent feature in the base compositions is a significant local variation in G+C content over a large region around ... Now that several sequenced metazoan genomes have been annotated, we have been able to compare the base composition around the ... The dramatic changes in nucleotide composition in humans are a consequence of CpG nucleotide frequencies and of gene expression ... To see the effect of the CpG concentration on the overall nucleotide composition we have plotted the base composition profiles ...
more infohttps://bmcgenomics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2164-5-34

Applications filed at Feb 23 2017 | BIOERODIBLE SILICON-BASED COMPOSITIONS FOR DELIVERY OF THERAPEUTIC AGENTS | Patents.comApplications filed at Feb 23 2017 | BIOERODIBLE SILICON-BASED COMPOSITIONS FOR DELIVERY OF THERAPEUTIC AGENTS | Patents.com

SALICYLIC ACID COMPOSITION , Fluoropolymer Emulsions with Branched Semifluorinated Block Copolymer or Phospholipid Surfactant ... SALICYLIC ACID COMPOSITION. Provided, among other things, is a delivery module for water-based salicylic acid composition ... Water-Gel Emulsion Compositions and Methods. A water-based composition containing oil soluble components may include an ... NAIL POLISH COMPOSITION BASED ON SOLVENT-FREE AQUEOUS POLYURETHANE DISPERSIONS. A nail polish composition, in particular nail ...
more infohttp://patents.com/ap-20170223-p36.html

Loop-based Music Composition With Linux, Pt. 1 | Linux JournalLoop-based Music Composition With Linux, Pt. 1 | Linux Journal

Loop-based music composition is the practice of sequencing audio samples to create the various parts of a musical work. A ... but it quickly became obvious that sampled sounds could provide the base material for an entire composition. Now, loop-based ... Loop-based music composition is the practice of sequencing audio samples to create the various parts of a musical work. A ... Loop-based composition does have its own difficulties. If you build your own sample sets you may discover that audio ...
more infohttp://www.linuxjournal.com/node/1000304?quicktabs_1=1

Patent US3937751 - Curable compositions based on epoxide resins and polyester-tricarboxylic ... - Google PatentsPatent US3937751 - Curable compositions based on epoxide resins and polyester-tricarboxylic ... - Google Patents

Curable epoxide resin mixtures based on adducts, containing epoxide groups, which are obtained by reaction of certain long- ... Curable compositions based on epoxide resins and polyester-tricarboxylic acids or -tetracarboxylic acids. US 3937751 A ... 1. A curable epoxide resin composition based on adducts containing epoxide groups and polyester-tricarboxylic acids and/or - ... Cross-linkable saturated powderous compositions and powderous painting and coating compositions containing same. ...
more infohttp://www.google.com.au/patents/US3937751

Linux Today - Loop-based Music Composition With Linux, Pt. 1Linux Today - Loop-based Music Composition With Linux, Pt. 1

Loop-based music composition is the practice of sequencing audio samples to create the various parts of a musical work... ... Loop-based Music Composition With Linux, Pt. 1. Sep 17, 2007, 00:00 (0 Talkback[s]) (Other stories by Dave Phillips) ul. ... "Loop-based music composition is the practice of sequencing audio samples to create the various parts of a musical work. A ...
more infohttps://www.linuxtoday.com/infrastructure/2007091700126NWHL
  • 3. The composition according to claim 1, wherein the starch is plasticised with a plasticiser selected from the group consisting of glycerine, diglycerine, polyglycerine, sorbitol, a polyol and mixtures thereof. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 1. A method for reversing Type 1 diabetes in a mammal comprising administering a microsphere composition directly to the mammal, wherein microspheres in said composition comprise oligonucleotides that are antisense to and targeted to bind to primary transcripts selected from the group consisting of CD40, CD80 and CD86 primary transcripts, and combinations thereof, and wherein administration of the microsphere composition promotes autoimmune hyporesponsiveness in the mammal. (google.com)
  • Here, we examine if selection acts on G+C contents in Caulobacter crescentus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa , which both have very G+C-rich genomes, by testing whether the expression of gene variants that differ only in their base compositions at synonymous sites affects cellular growth rates. (g3journal.org)
  • Given the evidence from sequence comparisons that selection serves to increase G+C contents in G+C-rich genomes, we adopted an experimental approach to test the effects of altering base compositions by assaying E. coli strains expressing genes of different G+C contents. (g3journal.org)
  • Now that several sequenced metazoan genomes have been annotated, we have been able to compare the base composition around the transcription start site for all annotated genes across multiple genomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The invention also relates to the process for preparing this composition and the use of these compositions for the manufacture of films intended for the paper market and for packages made from biodegradable plastic. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • This invention relates to a base composition capable of increasing the percutaneous absorption of drugs, to a pharmaceutical composition for external use in which said base composition is used, and to a method of promoting the percutaneous absorption of drugs. (google.com.au)
  • This invention relates to novel contact lens materials, including hydrogel or rigid gas permeable (RGP) materials, which are made from the polymerization product of a monomer mixture including a polybutadiene-based compound endcapped with a polymerizable ethylenically unsaturated group. (google.com)
  • The present application relates to a freeze-dried polymer composition containing chitosan and at least one lyoprotectant, a process for preparing a. (patents.com)
  • The present invention relates to an electrical conductive cement-based composite composition capable of exhibiting stable electrical performance since carbon nanotubes and carbon fibers are mixed in cement at a proper weight ratio so as to lower sensitivity to a specific resistance change caused by a change in a water/cement ratio (w/c). (wipo.int)
  • Per cent GC (guanine + cytosine/total bases) values fell into two groups: 30.8 to 36.5% GC and 69 to 75% GC. (asm.org)
  • Existing hydrogel soft contact lens materials are formed of copolymers based primarily on 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (Hema), N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (NVP) or other hydrophilic monomers, crosslinked with a crosslinking agent. (google.com)
  • Generally, RGP materials are formed of copolymers based on silicon or fluorosilicon (meth)acrylates or itaconates, crosslinked with a crosslinking monomer. (google.com)
  • Binding competition assays show that DNA affinities depend only weakly on base composition or secondary structure, although in general G+C- rich sequences are bound with greater affinity than are A+T-rich ones and single-stranded DNA is bound with greater affinity than duplex forms. (elsevier.com)
  • Curable epoxide resin mixtures based on adducts, containing epoxide groups, which are obtained by reaction of certain long-chain aliphatic polyesters with an excess of diepoxide compounds, and linear or slightly branched polyesters, containing carbocyclic or heterocyclic rings and possessing 3 or 4 terminal. (google.com.au)
  • From the extraordinary shapes of the composition profiles calculated using the gene start annotations of Ensembl (Figure 1B and Figure 2 ) it can already be postulated that a significant degree of correct start annotation must be present in Ensembl to get such high resolution. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It can be seen from Figure 1 that the Ensembl data (using 5000 randomly selected genes with at least 100 bp 5'UTR) is noisier but that most of the composition characteristics (as discussed below) are also present in the profiles generated from the Ensembl data. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The mixture is then heated to melt the cobalt-base braze alloy, thereby joining the base metal superalloy powder particles together, and joining the entire mixture to the region being repaired. (google.com)
  • The base composition skews in the coding sequences were used to derive quantitatively the effect of replication-driven mutation plus subsequent selection ('replication-associated pressure', RAP), and the effect of transcription-driven mutation plus subsequent selection at translation level ('transcription-associate pressure', TAP). (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study we re-evaluate the average base composition around the transcription start site (TSS) of animal genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • S trands of DNA duplexes that have the same base sequences as the corresponding transcripts ( i.e. (queensu.ca)
  • The view cautions though that composition-generated advantages are temporary in nature and that composition itself mandates special skills in distinctively identifying, leveraging, and combining open or existing resources inside and outside the firm. (wikipedia.org)
  • The composition contains a starch, which is preferably plasticised, and a polymer which acts as coupling agent which is chosen from the group consisting of polyolefins modified by chemical functional groups which are active towards the hydroxyl functional groups of starch. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Preferably, a silicone-based gel may be provided as a base composition and may have a non-zero percentage of silicone or silicone variant. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • This composition may also include aluminum, and the composition may be combined with one or more powdered base metal superalloy compositions to form an improved diffusion braze alloy mixture. (google.com)
  • This paper is an introductory study that should demonstrate a unifying theoretical framework and introduce that the properties typically valid for fuzzy relational compositions are valid also for the generalized ones, yet sometimes in a weaken form. (springer.com)
  • Milton Babbitt - quoted in Welsh, "The Music of Stuart Saunders Smith") Stuart Saunders Smith has done very important and unique work in the fields of open-form composition and jazz. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fast-paced life style, along with the expansion of middle-class consumers and digitization-based new consumerism, prompts the need for compositional offering. (wikipedia.org)
  • The above three elements reinforce one another, reflecting the faces of composition at the product level (compositional offering), market level (compositional competition), and organizational level (compositional capability). (wikipedia.org)
  • We already got a bunch of articles about basing in the jungle library , but honestly most of them show you information about material you can use and how you can use it. (blogspot.com)
  • Sequencing loops is likewise not a novel concept, at least not since Vivaldi's time, nor is the use of existing sound recordings as base material for a new musical work. (linuxjournal.com)
  • Early use of sampled sound was usually momentary, providing snippets for "hits" or other incidental sounds, but it quickly became obvious that sampled sounds could provide the base material for an entire composition. (linuxjournal.com)
  • The hypothetical nature of any classification is emphasized, and, in the present work, the hypothesis derived from taxometric analyses of division into two subgroups is confirmed by the study of DNA base ratios. (asm.org)
  • According to the present invention, a composition is provided including honey and raw food fibers. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Especially, we would like to highlight initial studies of the fuzzy relational compositions motivated by their applications to medical diagnosis by Willis Bandler and Ladislav Kohout. (springer.com)
  • As music technology advanced the tape recorder was eventually displaced by the hard-disk recording system, extending the possibilities inherited from tape-based systems and giving birth to exciting new techniques unique to the computer. (linuxjournal.com)
  • showing that selection on base composition is occurring at the level of the gene. (g3journal.org)