The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
Large regions of the GENOME that contain local similarities in BASE COMPOSITION.
A nucleic acid sequence that contains an above average number of GUANINE and CYTOSINE bases.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A nucleic acid sequence that contains an above average number of ADENINE and THYMINE bases.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
A family of gram-negative aerobic bacteria consisting of ellipsoidal to rod-shaped cells that occur singly, in pairs, or in chains.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The reformation of all, or part of, the native conformation of a nucleic acid molecule after the molecule has undergone denaturation.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The amount of DNA (or RNA) in one copy of a genome.
The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The inferior region of the skull consisting of an internal (cerebral), and an external (basilar) surface.
A genus of gram-positive, spherical bacteria found in soils and fresh water, and frequently on the skin of man and other animals.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Structures within the nucleus of archaeal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A genus of gram-negative gliding bacteria found in SOIL; HUMUS; and FRESHWATER and marine habitats.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
Condensation products of aromatic amines and aldehydes forming azomethines substituted on the N atom, containing the general formula R-N:CHR. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, as well as in manure, soil, and polluted waters. Its species are pathogenic, causing urinary tract infections and are also considered secondary invaders, causing septic lesions at other sites of the body.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
A plant genus of the family CYPERACEAE. The seed contains oligostilbenes (STILBENES).
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members contain ungiminorine and LECTINS.
The measurement of the density of a material by measuring the amount of light or radiation passing through (or absorbed by) the material.
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
An order of ciliate protozoa. Characteristics include a dorsoventrally flattened, highly mobile body with a unique cursorial type of locomotion.
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Electrophoresis in which paper is used as the diffusion medium. This technique is confined almost entirely to separations of small molecules such as amino acids, peptides, and nucleotides, and relatively high voltages are nearly always used.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.
Cells lacking a nuclear membrane so that the nuclear material is either scattered in the cytoplasm or collected in a nucleoid region.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A group of 13 or more deoxyribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.
A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised mostly of two major phenotypes: purple non-sulfur bacteria and aerobic bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacteria.
A genus of asporogenous bacteria that is widely distributed in nature. Its organisms appear as straight to slightly curved rods and are known to be human and animal parasites and pathogens.
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.
Centrifugation using a rotating chamber of large capacity in which to separate cell organelles by density-gradient centrifugation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
Nucleotides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
A large group of anaerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the Gram-staining method.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.
Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Any of the DNA in between gene-coding DNA, including untranslated regions, 5' and 3' flanking regions, INTRONS, non-functional pseudogenes, and non-functional repetitive sequences. This DNA may or may not encode regulatory functions.
A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.
Neoplasms of the base of the skull specifically, differentiated from neoplasms of unspecified sites or bones of the skull (SKULL NEOPLASMS).
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
The presence of an uncomplimentary base in double-stranded DNA caused by spontaneous deamination of cytosine or adenine, mismatching during homologous recombination, or errors in DNA replication. Multiple, sequential base pair mismatches lead to formation of heteroduplex DNA; (NUCLEIC ACID HETERODUPLEXES).
A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Areas of increased density of the dinucleotide sequence cytosine--phosphate diester--guanine. They form stretches of DNA several hundred to several thousand base pairs long. In humans there are about 45,000 CpG islands, mostly found at the 5' ends of genes. They are unmethylated except for those on the inactive X chromosome and some associated with imprinted genes.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The part of a denture that overlies the soft tissue and supports the supplied teeth and is supported in turn by abutment teeth or the residual alveolar ridge. It is usually made of resins or metal or their combination.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Oils derived from plants or plant products.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.

Diversity of rhizobia associated with Amorpha fruticosa isolated from Chinese soils and description of Mesorhizobium amorphae sp. nov. (1/7084)

Fifty-five Chinese isolates from nodules of Amorpha fruticosa were characterized and compared with the type strains of the species and genera of bacteria which form nitrogen-fixing symbioses with leguminous host plants. A polyphasic approach, which included RFLP of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes, multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE), DNA-DNA hybridization, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, electrophoretic plasmid profiles, cross-nodulation and a phenotypic study, was used in the comparative analysis. The isolates originated from several different sites in China and they varied in their phenotypic and genetic characteristics. The majority of the isolates had moderate to slow growth rates, produced acid on YMA and harboured a 930 kb symbiotic plasmid (pSym). Five different RFLP patterns were identified among the 16S rRNA genes of all the isolates. Isolates grouped by PCR-RFLP of the 16S rRNA genes were also separated into groups by variation in MLEE profiles and by DNA-DNA hybridization. A representative isolate from each of these DNA homology groups had a separate position in a phylogenetic tree as determined from sequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA genes. A new species, Mesorhizobium amorphae, is proposed for the majority of the isolates, which belonged to a moderately slow- to slow-growing, acid-producing group based upon their distinct phylogenetic position, their unique electrophoretic type, their low DNA homology with reference strains representing the species within the genus Mesorhizobium and their distinct phenotypic features. Strain ACCC 19665 was chosen as the type strain for M. amorphae sp. nov.  (+info)

Taxonomic relationships of the [Pasteurella] haemolytica complex as evaluated by DNA-DNA hybridizations and 16S rRNA sequencing with proposal of Mannheimia haemolytica gen. nov., comb. nov., Mannheimia granulomatis comb. nov., Mannheimia glucosida sp. nov., Mannheimia ruminalis sp. nov. and Mannheimia varigena sp. nov. (2/7084)

The present paper presents the conclusions of a polyphasic investigation of the taxonomy of the trehalose-negative [Pasteurella] haemolytica complex. Clusters previously identified by ribotyping and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MEE) have been evaluated by 16S rRNA sequencing and DNA-DNA hybridizations. Results obtained by the different techniques were highly related and indicated that the [P.] haemolytica complex contains distinct genetic and phenotypic groups. At least seven species were outlined, five of which were named. We refrained in formal naming of more groups until additional strains are characterized. Five 16S rRNA clusters were identified corresponding to distinct lineages previously outlined by MEE. Within 16S rRNA cluster I two distinct genotypic groups have been outlined in addition to [P.] haemolytica sensu stricto (biogroup 1). Each of the clusters II, III, IV and V represent at least one new species. The investigations underline that [P.] haemolytica sensu stricto only contains strains that do not ferment L-arabinose even though they are referred to as 'biotype A' of [P.] haemolytica. The five 16S rRNA clusters identified had a common root relative to the other species within the family Pasteurellaceae, and the overall sequence similarity among these five clusters was higher than what is observed within the existing genera of the family. The allocation of the trehalose-negative [P.] haemolytica complex to a new genus seems to be indicated. Based on the polyphasic investigation performed a new genus Mannheimia is proposed for the trehalose-negative [P.] haemolytica complex. At the present stage two previously named species are transferred to this new genus and three new species are described. [P.] haemolytica is reclassified as Mannheimia haemolytica comb. nov., whereas Pasteurella granulomatis, Bisgaard taxon 20 and [P.] haemolytica biovar 3J are reclassified and combined in the species Mannheimia granulomatis comb. nov. Mannheimia glucosida sp. nov. corresponds to [P.] haemolytica biogroups 3A-3H and the beta-glucosidase and meso-inositol-positive strains of [P.] haemolytica biogroup 9. All typable strains within M. glucosida belong to serotype 11. Mannheimia ruminalis sp. nov. consists of strains previously classified as Bisgaard taxon 18 and [P.] haemolytica biogroup 8D. Finally, Mannheimia varigena sp. nov. includes [P.] haemolytica biogroup 6 as well as Bisgaard taxon 15 and Bisgaard taxon 36. The type strains are NCTC 9380T (M. haemolytica), ATCC 49244T (M. granulomatis), CCUG 38457T = P925T (M. glucosida), CCUG 38470T = HPA92T (M. ruminalis) and CCUG 38462T = 177T (M. varigena).  (+info)

Proposal to transfer Halococcus turkmenicus, Halobacterium trapanicum JCM 9743 and strain GSL-11 to Haloterrigena turkmenica gen. nov., comb. nov. (3/7084)

The 16S rRNA gene sequences of Halococcus saccharolyticus and Halococcus salifodinae were closely related (94.5-94.7% similarity) to that of Halococcus morrhuae, the type species of the genus Halococcus. However, Halococcus turkmenicus was distinct from the other members of this genus, with low 16S rRNA similarities when compared to Halococcus morrhuae (88.7%). On the basis of phylogenetic tree reconstruction, detection of signature bases and DNA-DNA hybridization data, it is proposed to transfer Halococcus turkmenicus to a novel genus, Haloterrigena, as Haloterrigena turkmenica gen. nov., comb. nov., and to accommodate Halobacterium trapanicum JCM 9743 and strain GSL-11 in the same species. On the basis of morphological, cultural and 16S rRNA sequence data, it is also proposed that the culture collection strains of Halobacterium trapanicum NCIMB 767, ATCC 43102 and JCM 8979 should be renamed as Halococcus sp.  (+info)

Actinobacillus succinogenes sp. nov., a novel succinic-acid-producing strain from the bovine rumen. (4/7084)

Strain 130ZT was isolated from the bovine rumen. It is a facultatively anaerobic, pleomorphic, Gram-negative rod. It exhibits a 'Morse code' form of morphology, which is characteristic of the genus Actinobacillus. Strain 130ZT is a capnophilic, osmotolerant succinogen that utilizes a broad range of sugars. It accumulates high concentrations of succinic acid (> 70 g l-1). Strain 130ZT is positive for catalase, oxidase, alkaline phosphatase and beta-galactosidase, but does not produce indole or urease. Acid but no gas is produced from D-glucose and D-fructose. 16S rRNA sequence analysis places strain 130ZT within the family Pasteurellaceae; the most closely related members of the family Pasteurellaceae have 16S rRNA similarities of 95.5% or less with strain 130ZT. Strain 130ZT was compared with Actinobacillus lignieresii and the related Bisgaard Taxa 6 and 10. Based upon morphological and biochemical properties, strain 130ZT is most similar to members of the genus Actinobacillus within the family Pasteurellaceae. It is proposed that strain 130ZT be classified as a new species, Actinobacillus succinogenes. The type strain of Actinobacillus succinogenes sp. nov. is ATCC 55618T.  (+info)

Anaerobic oxidation of o-xylene, m-xylene, and homologous alkylbenzenes by new types of sulfate-reducing bacteria. (5/7084)

Various alkylbenzenes were depleted during growth of an anaerobic, sulfate-reducing enrichment culture with crude oil as the only source of organic substrates. From this culture, two new types of mesophilic, rod-shaped sulfate-reducing bacteria, strains oXyS1 and mXyS1, were isolated with o-xylene and m-xylene, respectively, as organic substrates. Sequence analyses of 16S rRNA genes revealed that the isolates affiliated with known completely oxidizing sulfate-reducing bacteria of the delta subclass of the class Proteobacteria. Strain oXyS1 showed the highest similarities to Desulfobacterium cetonicum and Desulfosarcina variabilis (similarity values, 98.4 and 98.7%, respectively). Strain mXyS1 was less closely related to known species, the closest relative being Desulfococcus multivorans (similarity value, 86.9%). Complete mineralization of o-xylene and m-xylene was demonstrated in quantitative growth experiments. Strain oXyS1 was able to utilize toluene, o-ethyltoluene, benzoate, and o-methylbenzoate in addition to o-xylene. Strain mXyS1 oxidized toluene, m-ethyltoluene, m-isoproyltoluene, benzoate, and m-methylbenzoate in addition to m-xylene. Strain oXyS1 did not utilize m-alkyltoluenes, whereas strain mXyS1 did not utilize o-alkyltoluenes. Like the enrichment culture, both isolates grew anaerobically on crude oil with concomitant reduction of sulfate to sulfide.  (+info)

Comparison of flagellin genes from clinical and environmental Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. (6/7084)

Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an important opportunistic pathogen, was isolated from environmental samples and compared to clinically derived strains. While P. aeruginosa was isolated readily from an experimental mushroom-growing unit, it was found only rarely in other environmental samples. A flagellin gene PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the isolates revealed that environmental and clinical P. aeruginosa strains are not readily distinguishable. The variation in the central regions of the flagellin genes of seven of the isolates was investigated further. The strains used included two strains with type a genes (998 bp), four strains with type b genes (1,258 bp), and one strain, K979, with a novel flagellin gene (2,199 bp). The route by which flagellin gene variation has occurred in P. aeruginosa is discussed.  (+info)

A computer-driven approach to PCR-based differential screening, alternative to differential display. (7/7084)

MOTIVATION: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based RNA fingerprinting is a powerful tool for the isolation of differentially expressed genes in studies of neoplasia, differentiation or development. Arbitrarily primed RNA fingerprinting is capable of targeting coding regions of genes, as opposed to differential display techniques, which target 3' non-coding cDNA. In order to be of general use and to permit a systematic survey of differential gene expression, RNA fingerprinting has to be standardized and a number of highly efficient and selective arbitrary primers must be identified. RESULTS: We have applied a rational approach to generate a representative panel of high-efficiency oligonucleotides for RNA fingerprinting studies, which display marked affinity for coding portions of known genes and, as shown by preliminary results, of novel ones. The choice of oligonucleotides was driven by computer simulations of RNA fingerprinting reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR experiments, performed on two custom-generated, non-redundant nucleotide databases, each containing the complete collection of deposited human or murine cDNAs. The simulation approach and experimental protocol proposed here permit the efficient isolation of coding cDNA fragments from differentially expressed genes. AVAILABILITY: Freely available on request from the authors. CONTACT: [email protected]  (+info)

Hypermutation in Ig V genes from mice deficient in the MLH1 mismatch repair protein. (8/7084)

During somatic hypermutation of Ig V genes, mismatched nucleotide substitutions become candidates for removal by the DNA mismatch repair pathway. Previous studies have shown that V genes from mice deficient for the MSH2 and PMS2 mismatch repair proteins have frequencies of mutation that are comparable with those from wild-type (wt) mice; however, the pattern of mutation is altered. Because the absence of MSH2 and PMS2 produced different mutational spectra, we examined the role of another protein involved in mismatch repair, MLH1, on the frequency and pattern of hypermutation. MLH1-deficient mice were immunized with oxazolone Ag, and splenic B cells were analyzed for mutations in their V kappa Ox1 light chain genes. Although the frequency of mutation in MLH1-deficient mice was twofold lower than in wt mice, the pattern of mutation in Mlh1-/- clones was similar to wt clones. These findings suggest that the MLH1 protein has no direct effect on the mutational spectrum.  (+info)

Background. Bacterial genomes possess varying GC content (total guanines (Gs) and cytosines (Cs) per total of the four bases within the genome) but within a given genome, GC content can vary locally along the chromosome, with some regions significantly more or less GC rich than on average. We have examined how the GC content varies within microbial genomes to assess whether this property can be associated with certain biological functions related to the organisms environment and phylogeny. We utilize a new quantity GCVAR, the intra-genomic GC content variability with respect to the average GC content of the total genome. A low GCVAR indicates intra-genomic GC homogeneity and high GCVAR heterogeneity.. Results. The regression analyses indicated that GCVAR was significantly associated with domain (i.e. archaea or bacteria), phylum, and oxygen requirement. GCVAR was significantly higher among anaerobes than both aerobic and facultative microbes. Although an association has previously been found ...
Iowa State University. Macromolecular interactions that dictate biological processes are often highly dynamic and transient, leading to conformational and compositional heterogeneity of functionally relevant complexes. Single-particle electron microscopy (EM) facilitates the structural determination of distinct species present within complex mixtures, enabling the identification of multiple biologically important conformations from a single sample. In collaboration with NRAMM, we have used automated negative-stain EM data collection and single-particle analysis to characterize the structures of particle sub-populations from highly heterogeneous samples. Automation was key to our previous studies, in which we determined the composition and conformation of in vivo ribosome assembly intermediates from Escherichia coli. Similarly, automation has been crucial for our current work, which focuses on determining the structure and oligomeric state of heterogeneous Tec kinase complexes. Tec kinases play ...
The transcription start site of a metazoan gene remains poorly understood, mostly because there is no clear signal present in all genes. Now that several sequenced metazoan genomes have been annotated, we have been able to compare the base composition around the transcription start site for all annotated genes across multiple genomes. The most prominent feature in the base compositions is a significant local variation in G+C content over a large region around the transcription start site. The change is present in all animal phyla but the extent of variation is different between distinct classes of vertebrates, and the shape of the variation is completely different between vertebrates and arthropods. Furthermore, the height of the variation correlates with CpG frequencies in vertebrates but not in invertebrates and it also correlates with gene expression, especially in mammals. We also detect GC and AT skews in all clades (where %G is not equal to %C or %A is not equal to %T respectively) but these occur
Your gene comprises long repeats, secondary structures or a really high or low GC content? With our specified protocol for complex genes we are able to synthesise also the intricates.
Test functional and compositional properties of wheat so you know what to buy, how best to mill it and how the flour will perform at that bakery.. ...
A Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, fine rod or short filament shaped, jacinth pigmented bacterium, designated strain WDS2C27T, was isolated from a marine solar saltern in Wendeng, Weihai, PR China (37°31′5″ N, 122°1′47″ E). Growth of WDS2C27T occurred at 20-42 °C (optimum 37 °C) and pH 6.5-8.5 (optimal pH 7.0-8.0). Optimal growth occurred in modified marine broth containing 6 % (w/v) NaCl. The major polar lipids in WDS2C27T were phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified aminolipids and one unidentified lipid. The major respiratory quinone of WDS2C27T was MK-6. The dominant fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0. The DNA G+C content was 35.0 mol%. The nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that the most closely related strain was Psychroflexus planctonicus X15M-8T (92.0 % over 1452 bp). WDS2C27T showed 60.7 % average amino acid identity, 55.6 % percentage of conserved proteins, 75.0 % average nucleotide identity and 13.1 % digital DNA-DNA hybridization identity with
Codon usage pattern and relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) of mtDNA of Meloidogyne graminicola.Numbers on the Y-axis refer to the total number of codons (A)
Polyomaviruses (PyVs) have a wide range of hosts, from humans to fish, and their effects on hosts vary. The differences in the infection characteristics of PyV with respect to the host are assumed to be influenced by the biochemical function of the LT-Ag protein, which is related to the cytopathic effect and tumorigenesis mechanism via interaction with the host protein. We carried out a comparative analysis of codon usage patterns of large T-antigens (LT-Ags) of PyVs isolated from various host species and their functional domains and sequence motifs. Parity rule 2 (PR2) and neutrality analysis were applied to evaluate the effects of mutation and selection pressure on codon usage bias. To investigate evolutionary relationships among PyVs, we carried out a phylogenetic analysis, and a correspondence analysis of relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) values was performed. Nucleotide composition analysis using LT-Ag gene sequences showed that the GC and GC3 values of avian PyVs were higher than those of
When there are no strand-specific biases in mutation and selection rates (that is, in the substitution rates) between the two strands of DNA, the average nucleotide composition is theoretically expected to be A = T and G = C within each strand. Deviations from these equalities are therefore evidence for an asymmetry in selection and/or mutation between the two strands. By focusing on weakly selected regions that could be oriented with respect to replication in 43 out of 51 completely sequenced bacterial chromosomes, we have been able to detect asymmetric directional mutation pressures. Most of the 43 chromosomes were found to be relatively enriched in G over C and T over A, and slightly depleted in G+C, in their weakly selected positions (intergenic regions and third codon positions) in the leading strand compared with the lagging strand. Deviations from A = T and G = C were highly correlated between third codon positions and intergenic regions, with a lower degree of deviation in intergenic regions,
BACKGROUND:The need to perform microarray experiments with small amounts of tissue has led to the development of several protocols for amplifying the target transcripts. The use of different amplification protocols could affect the comparability of microarray experiments.RESULTS:Here we compare expression data from Pinus taeda cDNA microarrays using transcripts amplified either exponentially by PCR or linearly by T7 transcription. The amplified transcripts vary significantly in estimated length, GC content and expression depending on amplification technique. Amplification by T7 RNA polymerase gives transcripts with a greater range of lengths, greater estimated mean length, and greater variation of expression levels, but lower average GC content, than those from PCR amplification. For genes with significantly higher expression after T7 transcription than after PCR, the transcripts were 27% longer and had about 2 percentage units lower GC content. The correlation of expression intensities between ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Protein elemental sparing and codon usage bias are correlated among bacteria. AU - Bragg, Jason G.. AU - Quigg, Antonietta. AU - Raven, John A.. AU - Wagner, Andreas. PY - 2012/5. Y1 - 2012/5. N2 - Highly expressed proteins can exhibit relatively small material costs, in terms of the quantities of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) or sulphur (S) atoms they contain. This elemental sparing probably reflects selection to reduce the quantities of potentially growth-limiting elements in abundant proteins, but the evolutionary mechanisms for adaptive elemental sparing are still poorly understood. Here, we predict that the extent of elemental sparing in highly expressed proteins will vary among organisms, according to the effectiveness of selection in determining the fate of mutations. We test this hypothesis in bacteria by asking whether elemental sparing is correlated with codon usage bias. Bacteria exhibit extraordinary variation in their life histories and demography and consequently in the ...
Results for QLV parameters A, B, and τ2, and typical stress relaxation curve fits for IM and EX. A was significantly decreased in injured groups relative to CTL. A was significantly increased in the IM group compared to the EX and CA groups. B was significantly decreased in injured groups relative to CTL. B was significantly increased in the IM group compared to the EX and CA groups. τ2 was significantly decreased in the CA and EX groups relative to CTL. τ2 was significantly increased in the IM group compared to the EX groups. The IM group had a higher peak stress, and maintained this stress for a longer period of time, than the EX group. (Mean +/− standard deviation, *: significant difference relative to CTL [p,0.05], # significant difference due to activity level [p,0.05 ...
General Information: Environment: Soil; Isolation: Coal-cleaning residues; Temp: Mesophile; Temp: 30C. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. Known opportunistic toxin-producing pathogens in animals and humans. Some species are capable of producing organic solvents (acetone, ethanol, etc,), molecular hydrogen and ...
General Information: Environment: Soil; Isolation: Coal-cleaning residues; Temp: Mesophile; Temp: 30C. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. Known opportunistic toxin-producing pathogens in animals and humans. Some species are capable of producing organic solvents (acetone, ethanol, etc,), molecular hydrogen and ...
Because of polymer complexity, property variability must be taken into consideration. In this section, we will discuss possible sources of polymer inconsistency and offer suggestions to recognize and reduce these errors. Chemical or compositional heterogeneity refers to the chemical or structural difference among chains of the same polymer. Thus a measured property of a chemically heterogeneous sample will be an averaged value dependent upon sample source. For chemically homogeneous samples, property variability will not be a concern. In a similar fashion, polymers that are polydisperse in molecular weight have averaged property values, while monodisperse samples will give accurate data. Obviously, samples that are both chemically homogeneous and monodisperse will give the most accurate and precise values. As compared to synthetic polymers, almost all nucleic acids and mammalian proteins are compositionally (chemically) homogeneous and monodisperse, if not there would be no life; biopolymers ...
Application of chemical engineering principles to the study of tumor formation and treatment is fertile new ground for research and is necessary for the advancement of cancer therapy. Over the last century, researchers have discovered many of the genetic causes of cancer and yet nearly 46,000 people will die this year from cancer in the United States alone. Standard cancer therapies often fail because of spatial heterogeneity of nutrients, wastes, and therapeutics. Transport barriers prevent therapeutic agents from reaching effective concentrations throughout tumors. Models based on mass balance, transport phenomena and reaction kinetics are powerful tools able clarify the connection between the genetic aberrations and the compositional heterogeneity of tumors. Therapeutic strategies designed using engineering principles will be able to overcome transport barriers and create more effective therapies.. Single treatments of radiation or chemotherapy often do not kill all cancer cells within a ...
The GC percent track shows the percentage of G (guanine) and C (cytosine) bases in 5-base windows. High GC content is typically associated with gene-rich areas. This track may be configured in a variety of ways to highlight different apsects of the displayed information. Click the Graph configuration help link for an explanation of the configuration options ...
The GC percent track shows the percentage of G (guanine) and C (cytosine) bases in 5-base windows. High GC content is typically associated with gene-rich areas. This track may be configured in a variety of ways to highlight different apsects of the displayed information. Click the Graph configuration help link for an explanation of the configuration options ...
The GC percent track shows the percentage of G (guanine) and C (cytosine) bases in 5-base windows. High GC content is typically associated with gene-rich areas. This track may be configured in a variety of ways to highlight different apsects of the displayed information. Click the Graph configuration help link for an explanation of the configuration options ...
Empirical studies have shown that human beings cannot normally perceive changes in numeric data (e.g. price movements) occurring more frequently than once every 200ms.. Consequently for applications that have a human as their primary user, a useful rule of thumb is that Stop-The-World (STW) pause of 200ms or under is usually of no concern. Some applications (e.g. streaming video) need lower GC jitter than this, but many GUI applications will not. ...
DNA - A double helix DNA stands for Deoxyribonucleic acid.It is a nucleic which is used for storing information for long term in all living beings and some viruses. Base composition in DNA varies from one species to other but in all the cases the amount of adenine is equal to thymine and the amount
The species page of Empusa sp. IRT-2002. Also know as (German: große Mantiden). Information about genome files, completeness, GC-content, size, N50-values, and sequencing methods are listed.
The species page of Magnaporthe sp. MG12. . Information about genome files, completeness, GC-content, size, N50-values, and sequencing methods are listed.
德者,內也;得者,外也。「上德不德」,言其神不淫於外也。 神不淫於外則身全,身全之謂德。德者,得身也。凡德者,以無為集,以無欲成; 以不思安,以不用固。為之欲之,則德無舍;德無舍則不全。用之思之則不固,不固則無功, 無功則生於德。德則無德,不德則(在)有德。故曰:「上德不德,是以有德。」 所以貴無為無思為虛者,謂其意無所制也。夫無術者,故以無為無思為虛也。 夫故以無為無思為虛者,其意常不忘虛,是制於為虛也。虛者,謂其意(所無)〔無所〕制也。 今制於為虛,是不虛也。虛者之無為也,不以無為為有常。不以無為為有常,則虛;虛,則德盛; 德盛之謂上德。故曰:「上德無為而無不為也。」 仁者,謂其中心欣然愛人也;其喜人之有福,而惡人之有禍也;生心之所不能已也, ...
A Gram-positive, motile, round to ellipsoidal, endospore-forming, rod-shaped bacterial strain, SF-57T, was isolated from a marine solar saltern in Korea. This organism grew between 4 and 39 °C, with optimum growth at 30 °C. Strain SF-57T grew in the presence of 0·5-15·0 % NaCl, with optimum growth at 2-3 % NaCl. The peptidoglycan type of strain SF-57T was A1α linked directly through l-Lys. In strain SF-57T, menaquinone-7 (MK-7) was the predominant isoprenoid quinone and anteiso-C15 : 0 was the major fatty acid. The DNA G+C content was 41·8 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain SF-57T formed a coherent cluster with Marinibacillus marinus, with a bootstrap resampling value of 100 %. The level of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain SF-57T and M. marinus DSM 1297T was 98·9 %. The mean DNA-DNA relatedness level between strain SF-57T and the type strain of M. marinus was 20·6 %. Based on phenotypic properties, phylogenetic analyses and genomic
Strain JC267T was isolated from pebbles collected from Pingleshwar beach, Gujarat, India. Cells are Gram-stain-positive, facultatively anaerobic, non-motile rods forming sub-terminal endospores in swollen ellipsoidal to oval sporangia. Strain JC267T contains anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, iso-C14 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, C16 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0 as major (|5 %) cellular fatty acids. Polar lipids include phosphatidylglycerol, phospholipids (PL1-3), glycolipids (GL1-2) and an unidentified lipid. Cell-wall amino acids are composed of diagnostic meso-diaminopimelic acid, dl-alanine and a small amount of d-glutamic acid. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain JC267T is 45.5 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain JC267T showed highest sequence similarities of | 98.41 % with all species of the genus Bacillus when subjected to EzTaxon-e blast analysis. The reassociation values based on DNA-DNA hybridization of strain JC267T with Bacillus halosaccharovorans IBRC-M 10095T and Bacillus niabensis JCM 16399T were 26
Most RNA viruses infecting mammals and other vertebrates show profound suppression of CpG and UpA dinucleotide frequencies. To investigate this functionally, mutants of the picornavirus, echovirus 7 (E7), were constructed with altered CpG and UpA compositions in two 1.1-1.3 Kbase regions. Those with increased frequencies of CpG and UpA showed impaired replication kinetics and higher RNA/infectivity ratios compared with wild-type virus. Remarkably, mutants with CpGs and UpAs removed showed enhanced replication, larger plaques and rapidly outcompeted wild-type virus on co-infections. Luciferase-expressing E7 sub-genomic replicons with CpGs and UpAs removed from the reporter gene showed 100-fold greater luminescence. E7 and mutants were equivalently sensitive to exogenously added interferon-β, showed no evidence for differential recognition by ADAR1 or pattern recognition receptors RIG-I, MDA5 or PKR. However, kinase inhibitors roscovitine and C16 partially or entirely reversed the attenuated phenotype of
The relationship between the overall G+C content of the genome (GC) and the GC content at the third codon positions (GC3) of genes, which we refer to as a GC3-plot, was examined using 15 currently available complete genome sequences. A remarkably linear relationship was found between these two quantities, confirming previous observations of a strong positive correlation in the GC3-plot.. In order to conduct a more detailed analysis of the GC3-plot, we examined the GC3 content by separating orthologous codons into three categories: synonymously different codons (namely identical amino acids, IA), different amino acids (DA), and identical codons (IC), for a pairwise comparison of two closely related species. When we took pairwise species comparisons between Mycoplasma genitalium (Mg) and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) and between Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mt) and Mycobacterium leprae (Ml) as examples, we found that for Mp and Ml, the GC3 for IA deviated the most from the linear expectation in the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An AT mutational bias in the tiny GC-rich endosymbiont genome of Hodgkinia. AU - Van Leuven, James T.. AU - McCutcheon, John P.. PY - 2012/1/1. Y1 - 2012/1/1. N2 - The fractional guanine p cytosine (GC) contents of sequenced bacterial genomes range from 13% to 75%. Despite several decades of research aimed at understanding this wide variation, the forces controlling GC content are not well understood. Recent work has suggested that a universal adenine + thymine (AT) mutational bias exists in all bacteria and that the elevated GC contents found in some bacterial genomes is due to genome-wide selection for increased GC content. These results are generally consistent with the low GC contents observed in most strict endosymbiotic bacterial genomes, where the loss of DNA repair mechanisms combined with the population genetic effects of small effective population sizes and decreased recombination should lower the efficacy of selection and shift the equilibrium GC content in the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Preliminary aqnalysis of length and GC content variation in the ribosomal first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) of marine animals. AU - Chow, S.. AU - Ueno, Y.. AU - Toyokawa, M.. AU - Oohara, I.. AU - Takeyama, Haruko. PY - 2009/6. Y1 - 2009/6. N2 - Length and guanine-cytosine (GC) content of the ribosomal first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) were compared across a wide variety of marine animal species, and its phylogenetic utility was investigated. From a total of 773 individuals representing 599 species, we only failed to amplify the ITS1 sequence from 87 individuals by polymerase chain reaction with universal ITS1 primers. No species was found to have an ITS1 region shorter than 100 bp. In general, the ITS1 sequences of vertebrates were longer (318 to 2,318 bp) and richer in GC content (56.8% to 78%) than those of invertebrates (117 to 1,613 bp and 35.8% to 71.3%, respectively). Specifically, gelatinous animals (Cnidaria and Ctenophora) were observed to have short ITS1 ...
Redundancy of the genetic code implies that there are more codons than amino acids. Consequently, many amino acids are encoded by more than one codon, which are known as synonymous codons. As a result, some substitutions between these codons are silent and do not change the coded amino acid. For example, in the case of the codons known as fourfold degenerated (4FD), the third codon positions can be freely changed to any nucleotide, without consequences for the coded amino acid, and subsequently for protein composition and function. However, synonymous codons are not used uniformly in real protein coding sequences (e.g., Comeron 2004; Grantham et al. 1980; Ikemura 1985; Plotkin and Kudla 2011; Sharp and Li 1986). Such preference of one synonymous codon over others is commonly known as codon usage bias (Sharp and Li 1986). Usage can differ for various genomes and genes within one genome, and even within a single gene.. As far as the evolution of codon bias is concerned, two explanations, which are ...
Argos, P., Rossmann, M.G., Grau, U.M., Zuber, A., Frank, G. and Tratschin, J.D. (1979). «Thermal stability and protein structure». Biochemistry 18: pp. 5698-5703. • Dobzhansky, T. (1951). Genetics and the Origin of Species, 2ª ed.. Columbia University Press, New-York • Galtier, N. and Lobry, J.R. (1997). «Relationships between genomic G+C content, RNA secondary structure, and optimal growth temperature in prokaryotes». Journal of Molecular Evolution 44: pp. 632-636. • Gu, X., Hewett-Emmett, D. and Li, W-H. (1998). «Directional mutational pressure affects the amino acid composition and hydrophobicity of proteins in bacteria». Genetica 102/103: pp. 383-391. [1] • Graur, D. y [Wen-Hsiung Li (2000). Fundamentals of Molecular Evolution (second edition). Sinauer Associates. ISBN 0-87893-266-6. • Muto, A. and Osawa, S. (1987). «The guanine and cytosine content of genomic DNA and bacterial evolution». Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 84: pp. 166-169. [2] • Nei, M. ...
Codon usage bias is an essential feature of all genomes. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Codon optimization, a process where less-frequent codons in the coding sequence are replaced by more frequent synonymous codons, has long been used to address this issue (Burgess-Brown et al., 2008; Welch et al., 2009; Maertens et al., 2010). Codon Usage (deut. Moreover, the usage of some codons appears nonlinear, as a function of GC bias. CodonW is a programme designed to simplify the Multivariate analysis (correspondence analysis) of codon and amino acid usage. Start codons, stop codons, reading frame. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. INTRODUCTION:- One of the main characteristics of the genetic code is that it is degenerate, i.e., multiple synonymous codons specify the same amino acid. Here, we ...
Synonymous codon usage is based and the bias seems to be different in different organisms. Factors with proposed roles in causing codon bias include degree and timing of gene expression, codon-anticodon interactions, transcription and translation rate and fidelity, codon context, and global and loca …
(2017) B. Miller et al. Biomedical Genetics and Genomics. It is well-documented that codon usage biases affect gene translational efficiency; however, it is less known if viruses share their hosts codon usage motifs. We determined that human-infecting viruses share similar codon usage biases as ...
GENEWIZ is widely known for reliability and completion of projects with a wide range of complexity levels including repetitive and sequences with high or low GC content. Our 99.9% delivery rate makes us the partner of choice for top research institutions across the world. Our many years of synthetic gene assembly experience provide endless opportunities to create any custom synthetic DNA sequence for your synthetic biology research ...
The four bases found in DNA are adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G) and thymine (T). In genetics, GC-content is the percentage of Guanine (G) and Cytosine (C) bases on a DNA molecule that are ...
What is DNA? A DNA sequence contains only the letters A, C, G and T. (Each letter represents a small molecule, and a DNA sequence is a ``macromolecular chain of them.) Each letter in a DNA sequence is called a base, basepair, or nucleotide. Normally, DNA occurs as a double strand where each A is paired with a T and vice versa, and each C is paired with a G and vice versa. The reverse complement of a DNA sequence is formed by reversing the letters, interchanging A and T and interchanging C and G. Thus the reverse complement of ACCTGAG is CTCAGGT. What is a genome? A genome is all of an organisms DNA sequence. Each nucleus in one of your cells contains its own copy of your genome, which is about 3 billion letters. (More accurately, each cell has two nearly identical copies of the genome, except that the X and Y chromosomes are even more complicated.) Replication is the process of duplicating the genome when a cell divides. DNA composition. The genome of a warm-blooded animal is divided into ...
A new high-alkaline protease (ALTP) was purified to homogeneity from a culture of the strictly anaerobic and extremely alkaliphilic Alkaliphilus transvaale
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In bacteria, one example of such a characteristic is called the G+C content. Recall that DNA is made up of nucleotides: A, T, G and C. The A and T pair together (A+T) in the DNA double helix, as do the G and C (G+C). After a bacterias genome is sequenced, the G+C content is calculated simply by adding up all the Gs and Cs and dividing that number by the total number of nucleotides. The percentage, which can range from 13% to 75%, tends to be characteristic of the bacterial species. Why one species is, say, 47% and another is 58% is thought to be due solely to chance. Luck of the draw ...
The National Aquarium is excited to announce the addition of Living Seashore, an interactive exhibit opening in spring 2015 where guests can explore the shore and touch the animals that live between the tides.
[KCTC]한국생명공학연구원 생물자원센터 홈페이지 입니다. 생물 자원 기탁 분양, 특허 기탁 분양, 생물자원 연구성과 기탁 분양
[KCTC]한국생명공학연구원 생물자원센터 홈페이지 입니다. 생물 자원 기탁 분양, 특허 기탁 분양, 생물자원 연구성과 기탁 분양
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V banskobystrickej Fakultnej nemocnici s poliklinikou (FNsP) F. D. Roosevelta otvorili v minulých dňoch nové hepatologicko-gastroenterologické oddelenie II. Internej kliniky Slovenskej zdravotníckej univerzity
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Parablechnum roraimense and P. paucipinna spp. nov. (Blechnaceae: Polypodiopsida), lectotypification of P. stuebelii , and citation corrections in the family
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다음은 2011년 렐리아르트(Leliaert) 등이 제안하고,[4] 2016년 실라(Silar)가 수정했으며[5] 2016년 렐리아르트[6]와 2017년 로페스 도스 산토스(Lopes dos Santos) 등의 녹조식물 분류군 연구,[7] 2015년 노비코프(Novíkov)와 바라바스-크라스니(Barabaš-Krasni) 연구,[8] 산체스-바라칼도(Sánchez-Baracaldo) 연구에 기초한 녹조식물 계통 분류이다.[9][10][11] ...
Compliance with risk-based net worth requirements; Composition of capital; Interest and dividend policies and practices; ... A 4 rating may be appropriate for a credit union that does not have sufficient capital based on its capital level compared with ... Credit unions in this category may fail to meet their risk-based net worth requirements. A capital adequacy rating of 4 is ... The ratings are assigned based on a ratio analysis of the financial statements, combined with on-site examinations made by a ...
In her article Game-based Pedagogy in the Writing Classroom, Rebekah Schultz Colby, outlines how "games" can essentially be ... Procedural rhetoric focuses on the composition of gameplay, more specifically how simulation games are constructed to make ... Procedural rhetoric analyzes the art of persuasion by rule based representations and interactions rather than spoken or written ... Bogost defines procedural rhetoric as "the art of persuasion through rule-based representations and interactions, rather than ...
Gathany, Nancy; Stehr-Green, Jeanette (April 4, 2003). "Scenario-Based E-Learning Model: A CDC Case Study" (PDF). Learning ... Computers and Composition. Elsevier. 24 (2): 179-197. doi:10.1016/j.compcom.2006.06.004. ... EBSCOhost Connection Fisher, David (2007). "CMS-based simulations in the writing classroom: Evoking genre through game play". ...
The ruling was based on the finding that the company and its agents engaged in labor trafficking, fraud, racketeering and ... Literacy in Composition Studies. 3 (1): 60-70-70. doi:10.21623/ ISSN 2326-5620. Priya Deshingkar & Sven Grimm (2005). ... In 2015, scholar Gabriela Raquel Ríos published "Cultivating Land-Based Literacies and Rhetorics," in which she theorizes the ... Taran, Patrick (2011). "Globalization, Migration and Labour: Imperatives for a Rights Based Policy". Journal of Globalization ...
Steve Winter, who was the judge, opinioned that the prize winning photograph "... is a classic composition." Chandni (1 ... November 2011). "Mumbai based Photographer Wins Nat Geo Moment Awards". Better Photography. Retrieved 12 October 2012. Sharma, ...
The composition of air. Combustion. Water and solution. Acids and bases. Silicon compounds and calcium compounds. Reactions of ... The composition must have contained more than 180 words, and carried the most number of marks. For the fourth and final section ... Based on the results and individual interests, students would have been streamed into Science, Arts, IT[citation needed], or ... For the second section, the candidates were expected to write an essay of not more than 120 words based on visual aids (such as ...
Odiham closed as a fighter base in 1959. After a short period in "care and maintenance" status the base was reopened as part of ... "JSFAW - Responsibilities and Composition". Royal Air Force. Archived from the original on 27 February 2014. "Kestrel Gliding ... "RAF Odiham - Who's Based Here". Royal Air Force. Retrieved 17 July 2018. "Chinook". Royal Air Force. Retrieved 9 April 2019. " ... Following the end of the War RAF Fighter Command assumed control of the base. No. 247 Squadron was re-equipped with Vampires in ...
... communication equipment repair base, storage and repair base for military equipment. Liaison formations of operational commands ... By the end of the war, the Red Army had in its composition a large number of communication formations, the largest type of ... Based on the results of these studies, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the Council of ... Based on the results of these studies, by a special resolution of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet ...
"Table 3. Composition of Ringer's Solution". Research Gate. Retrieved 10 June 2018. DailyMed Result Archived 2012-02-25 at the ... Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) Acid-base abnormalities in the intensive care unit. "COMPENDIA NOTES, PART B: RINGER'S ... Careful monitoring of blood acid-base balance is essential during the administration of sodium lactate. Williams EL, Hildebrand ... There are slight variations for the composition for Ringer's as supplied by different manufacturers. As such, the term Ringer's ...
... is loosely used for both class-based and prototype-based programming, but in narrow use the term is reserved for class-based ... see composition over inheritance. Composition implements a has-a relationship, in contrast to the is-a relationship of ... In object-oriented programming, inheritance is the mechanism of basing an object or class upon another object (prototype-based ... The class A serves as a base class for the derived class B, which in turn serves as a base class for the derived class C. The ...
This jury asked to judge each contestant based on: vocal capacity; the stage performance; the song's composition and ...
This jury judged each entry based on: vocal capacity; the stage performance; the song's composition and originality; and the ... Each juror on the committee rated each song between 1 (lowest) and 10 (highest) based on criteria such as the melodic harmony ... The European Broadcasting Union (EBU) split up the competing countries into six different pots based on voting patterns from ... and structure of the song, the orchestral arrangement, originality and stylistic diversity of the composition and sound and ...
This jury judged each entry based on: vocal capacity; the stage performance; the song's composition and originality; and the ... The European Broadcasting Union (EBU) split up the competing countries into six different pots based on voting patterns from ...
This jury was asked to judge each contestant based on: vocal capacity; the stage performance; the song's composition and ... However, exceptions would be made for minor collaborations with foreign songwriters as long as two-thirds of the composition ... The European Broadcasting Union (EBU) split up the competing countries into five different pots based on voting patterns from ... "The stage performance is based on what Maria is singing about followed by Nordic lights in the background. As you have already ...
This jury judged each entry based on: vocal capacity; the stage performance; the song's composition and originality; and the ...
This jury judged each entry based on: vocal capacity; the stage performance; the song's composition and originality; and the ... In the first round of voting the top three advanced to a superfinal based on the votes of a five-member jury (50%) and a public ... In the first round, the top three songs based on the combination of votes from a public vote and a five-member jury panel ... The European Broadcasting Union (EBU) split up the competing countries into six different pots based on voting patterns from ...
This jury judged each entry based on: vocal capacity; the stage performance; the song's composition and originality; and the ... However, exceptions would be made for minor collaborations with foreign songwriters as long as two-thirds of the composition ... The European Broadcasting Union (EBU) split up the competing countries into six different pots based on voting patterns from ...
The jury judges each entry based on: vocal capacity; the stage performance; the song's composition and originality; and the ... The viewer vote was based on the percentage of votes each song achieved through the following voting methods: telephone, SMS ... The European Broadcasting Union (EBU) split up the competing countries into six different pots based on voting patterns from ...
This jury judged each entry based on: vocal capacity; the stage performance; the song's composition and originality; and the ... Sixteen songs competed and the winner was selected based on the combination of a public televote and the votes of an expert ... Entries were assessed on criteria such as voice quality, stage presence and strength of the composition. The panel selected 16 ... The European Broadcasting Union (EBU) split up the competing countries into six different pots based on voting patterns from ...
Most base metals in acidic solution precipitate in contact with free sulfide, e.g. from H2S or NaHS. Solid-liquid separation ... and Modelling of material composition. In the United Kingdom, many discharges from abandoned mines are exempt from regulatory ... Calcium Silicon-Based Mineral CSA. Harsco Minerals. Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Philip L. Sibrell; Harvey E. Belkin. " ... Generally, the wetlands receive near-neutral water, after it has been neutralized by (typically) a limestone-based treatment ...
This jury judged each entry based on: vocal capacity; the stage performance; the song's composition and originality; and the ... The tenth act was chosen through a Facebook-based online wildcard selection. For the wildcard selection, ORF invited all ... The European Broadcasting Union (EBU) split up the competing countries into six different pots based on voting patterns from ... ORF shortlisted five entries from these submissions based on editorial considerations and viewer response. The shortlisted ...
This jury was asked to judge each contestant based on: vocal capacity; the stage performance; the song's composition and ...
Analysing chemicals to determine their composition. *Observing the reaction of living cells to drugs ... LIGA based microfabrication. *Drug discovery and research. *X-ray lithography. * ...
based on its composition.. Host star[edit]. The planet orbits a (M-type) red dwarf star named Gliese 667 C, orbited by a total ... Based on its host star's bolometric luminosity, GJ 667 Cc would receive 90% of the light Earth does; however, a good part of ... Based on black body temperature calculation, GJ 667 Cc should absorb similar but slightly more overall electromagnetic ...
The DNA base composition is 40-48% GC. Unusual in bacterial organisms, Bacteroides membranes contain sphingolipids. They also ... Studies indicate that long-term diet is strongly associated with the gut microbiome composition-those who eat plenty of protein ... "Development of Bacteroides 16S rRNA gene TaqMan-based real-time PCR assays for estimation of total, human, and bovine fecal ...
Creatinine height ratio, estimating protein in body composition. Places[edit]. *An abbreviation for the U.S. city of Chicago, ... Child Health International, UK-based charity. *Commission for Health Improvement, former UK body ...
"Elemental composition determination based on MSn". Bioinformatics. 27 (17): 2376-2383. doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btr409. PMID ... to provide a common code base, on 27-29 September 2000 at the University of Notre Dame. The first source code release was made ...
CompositionEdit. Base stockEdit. The original hydraulics fluid, dating back to the time of ancient Egypt, was water. Beginning ... Most are mineral oil or silicone based fluids, while some use automatic transmission fluid, made from synthetic base oil.[6][7] ... Mineral oil base: *Mil-PRF-5606 (originally Mil-H-5606): Mineral base, flammable, fairly low flashpoint, usable from −65 °F (− ... Today most hydraulic fluids are based on mineral oil base stocks. Natural oils such as rapeseed (also called canola oil) are ...
Rees, William A.; Yager, Thomas D.; Korte, John; Von Hippel, Peter H. (1993). "Betaine can eliminate the base pair composition ... betaine has been reported to enhance the specificity of the polymerase chain reaction by eliminating the base pair composition ...
Main articles: Acid-base homeostasis and Acid-base imbalance. The plasma pH can be altered by respiratory changes in the ... The best known homeostatic mechanisms in humans and other mammals are regulators that keep the composition of the extracellular ... A change in the plasma pH gives an acid-base imbalance. In acid-base homeostasis there are two mechanisms that can help ... Process control systems in a chemical plant or oil refinery maintain fluid levels, pressures, temperature, chemical composition ...
One estimate based on the frontiers of Germany in 1870 gives a population of some 15-17 million around 1600, declined to 10-13 ... The Imperial Chamber court's composition was determined by both the Holy Roman Emperor and the subject states of the Empire. ... German demographic historians have traditionally worked on estimates of the population of the Holy Roman Empire based on ... whose composition and procedures were set forth in the Golden Bull of 1356, which remained valid until 1806. This development ...
Base load (large scale, ,1 MTPA) LNG projects require natural gas reserves,[31] buyers[32] and financing. Using proven ... The density of LNG is roughly 0.41 kg/litre to 0.5 kg/litre, depending on temperature, pressure, and composition,[3] compared ... Based on the LNG SPAs, LNG is destined for pre-agreed destinations, and diversion of that LNG is not allowed. However, if ... The (volume-based) energy density of LNG is approximately 2.4 times that of CNG which makes it economical to transport natural ...
... which is the number of links connecting to the base. The base of the food chain (primary producers or detritivores) is set at ... species composition (type of species), richness (number of species), biomass (the dry weight of plants and animals), ... The base or basal species in a food web are those species without prey and can include autotrophs or saprophytic detritivores ( ... It is the case that the biomass of each trophic level decreases from the base of the chain to the top. This is because energy ...
Clastic sediments or sedimentary rocks are classified based on grain size, clast and cementing material (matrix) composition, ... CompositionEdit. The composition of siliciclastic sedimentary rocks includes the chemical and mineralogical components of the ... The two major types, are silicate based and carbonate based. The majority of silica cements are composed of quartz but can ... Composition includes the chemical and mineralogic make-up of the single or varied fragments and the cementing material (matrix ...
... composition, and conformation. Samples are centrifuged with a high-density solution such as sucrose, caesium chloride, or ... has particles in order of density based on height. The object or particle of interest will reside in the position within the ...
The standard bell is the key pattern used in bembé and so with compositions based on triple-pulse rhythms, it is the seven- ... Another clave-based composition that has "gone global" is the snare drum suite "Cross" by Eugene D. Novotney. ... One of the most difficult applications of the clave is in the realm of composition and arrangement of Cuban and Cuban-based ... 8 clave-based music is generated from cross-rhythm, it is possible to count or feel the 6. 8 clave in several different ways. ...
Standard Galician is usually based on Central Galician characteristics, but it also incorporates western and eastern traits and ... developing a rich lyric tradition of which some 2000 compositions (cantigas, meaning 'songs') have been preserved-a few hundred ... or those based on the war of Troy, usually paid and commissioned by noblemen who desired to read those romances in their own ... based on a report by the ILG. It remains a source of contention, however; a minority of citizens would rather have the ...
Composition of group 3Edit. It is disputed whether lanthanum and actinium should be included in group 3, rather than lutetium ... Pyykkö, Pekka (2011). "A suggested periodic table up to Z ≤ 172, based on Dirac-Fock calculations on atoms and ions". Physical ... In 2015, IUPAC initiated a project to make a recommendation on the composition of group 3 as either: the elements Sc, Y, Lu and ... Exclusion of all elements is based on properties of earlier actinides, which show a much wider variety of chemistry (for ...
"Kodak HCF Film/ESTAR Base" (PDF). Eastman Kodak Company. April 2015. Retrieved 2018-08-24.. ... Chemical composition is more conducive to the metals coins are made of i.e. Silver & Copper (Coins used to be stored in PVC ... In 1955 Eastman Kodak used Mylar as a support for photographic film and called it "ESTAR Base".[4] The very thin and tough film ...
Marquardt T, Denecke J (June 2003). "Congenital disorders of glycosylation: review of their molecular bases, clinical ... OST in mammals is known to have a similar composition.[9][10] ...
Similarly, if a child lives with someone other than a parent, he may still be eligible based on its individual status.[74] ... Partisan composition of state governments is the most significant factor, with states led primarily by Democrats tending to ... Unlike Medicare, Medicaid is a means-tested, needs-based social welfare or social protection program rather than a social ... The Low-Income Wage Rate: State welfare programs base the level of assistance they provide on some concept of what is minimally ...
With basic Earth-surface based telescope and some technique, the size of the coma can be calculated.[12] Called the drift ... Composition[edit]. C/2006 W3 (Chistensen) - emitting carbon gas (infrared image). The Rosetta mission found carbon monoxide, ...
It may be a two- or three-dimensional geometric composition used in sadhanas, puja or meditative rituals, and may incorporate a ... The pattern of the dress was based on the Goloka Yantra mandala, shaped as a lotus with eight petals. Visitors were invited to ... The Taima mandala is based on the Contemplation Sutra, but other similar mandalas have been made subsequently. Unlike mandalas ... Mandalas have sometimes been used in Pure Land Buddhism to graphically represent Pure Lands, based on descriptions found in the ...
The horns have a broad base in mature males, and are flattened to form a protective shield. In females, the horns are both ... "Effect of season and gender on the physical and chemical composition of black wildebeest meat". South African Journal of ... Features necessary for defending a territory, such as the horns and broad-based skull of the modern black wildebeest, have been ... He based his description on an article written by natural philosopher Jean-Nicolas-Sébastien Allamand in 1776.[2] The generic ...
C. acnes also provokes skin inflammation by altering the fatty composition of oily sebum.[45] Oxidation of the lipid squalene ... Acne vulgaris is diagnosed based on a medical professional's clinical judgment.[15] The evaluation of a person with suspected ... June 2012). "Topical antimicrobial treatment of acne vulgaris: an evidence-based review". American Journal of Clinical ... Levy LL, Zeichner JA (October 2012). "Management of acne scarring, part II: a comparative review of non-laser-based, minimally ...
E. Bourget (1987). Barnacle shells: composition, structure, and growth. pp. 267-285.. In A. J. Southward (ed.), 1987. ... The ovaries are located in the base or stalk, and may extend into the mantle, while the testes are towards the back of the head ... Free-living barnacles are attached to the substratum by cement glands that form the base of the first pair of antennae; in ... Larvae assess surfaces based upon their surface texture, chemistry, relative wettability, color, and the presence or absence ...
... -based planning is what was used to build the US industrial giants before WWII (e.g., Dow, DuPont, GM) and it is what ... "The significance of the composition of excavated iron fragments taken from Stratum III at the site of Kaman-Kalehöyük, Turkey ... Theories of technology often attempt to predict the future of technology based on the high technology and science of the time. ... Opportunities for Transforming Expert Identities Through Community-Based Projects". In Ottinger, Gwen; Cohen, Benjamin. ...
Feedstock Composition Glossary [online]. U.S. Department of Energy: Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Biomass Program, [ ... On the ground, wind is often unreliable - the biggest problem for ground-based wind turbines.. " Windmills in the Sky (URL ... Flex-fuel vehicles are assisting in this transition because they allow drivers to choose different fuels based on price and ...
The Caulobacter CB15 genome has 4,016,942 base pairs in a single circular chromosome encoding 3,767 genes.[7] The genome ... However, they can adapt, somewhat independently of the cell cycle control logic, to changing composition and levels of the ...
Unlike the other anime series in the Dragon Ball franchise, Dragon Ball GT is not based on the manga series written by Akira ... Instead, Funimation created a composition episode entitled "A Grand Problem," which used scenes from the skipped episodes to ... Goku reverts to his base state, and Syn grabs his unconscious body and drops him, intending to have him impaled on a statue of ... To make matters even worse, Vegeta loses power, including Super Saiyan 4 as well, and reverts back to his base state, and is ...
In Abies grandis (grand fir), and many other species with spirally arranged leaves, leaf bases are twisted to flatten their ... Form of nitrogen affected both the total amount and relative composition of the soluble nitrogen in white spruce tissues ( ... A new classification and linear sequence based on molecular data can be found in an article by Christenhusz et al.[7] ... Phylogeny of the Pinophyta based on cladistic analysis of molecular data.[5] ...
A kinetic model based on experimental data can capture most of the essential transformation in diagenesis,[9] and a ... beginning with elemental and mineralogical composition of bone and enveloping soil, as well as the local burial environment ( ... Diagenesis has been divided, based on hydrocarbon and coal genesis into: eodiagenesis (early), mesodiagenesis (middle) and ... Nicholson, R. A. (1996). "Bone Degradation, Burial Medium and Species Representation: Debunking the Myths, and Experiment-based ...
Cases have been reported as far east as the island of Newfoundland.[105][214][215][216] A model-based prediction by Leighton et ... "The ecology of infectious disease: effects of host diversity and community composition on Lyme disease risk". Proceedings of ... Based on symptoms, tick exposure, blood tests[3]. Prevention. Prevention of tick bites (clothing the limbs, DEET), doxycycline[ ... Therefore, it is recommended that testing not be performed and diagnosis be based on the presence of the EM rash.[30] Up to 30 ...
An iodine-based contrast is injected into the bloodstream and watched as it travels around. Since liquid blood and the vessels ... dependent on the object's density and structural composition. The X-rays that pass through the object are captured behind the ... Yu SB, Watson AD (September 1999). "Metal-Based X-ray Contrast Media". Chemical Reviews. 99 (9): 2353-78. doi:10.1021/cr980441p ...
"Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 38: 106-111. doi:10.1016/j.jfca.2014.10.008.. ... A combination of gravity, screens and air flow is used to clean and sort lentils based on shape and density. After destoning, ... Composition[edit]. Lentils, raw (dry weight). Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz). ... The composition of lentils leads to a high emulsifying capacity which can be even increased by dough fermentation in bread ...
... organolithium compounds are extremely powerful bases and nucleophiles. For use as bases, butyllithiums are often used and are ... "Chemical composition of everyday products. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-32579-3. .. ... Gottschlich, Michele M. (2001). The Science and Practice of Nutrition Support: A Case-based Core Curriculum. Kendall Hunt. p. ... Potassium hydroxide is a very strong base, and is used to control the pH of various substances.[203][204] Potassium nitrate and ...
The World Factbook states that Baháʼís make up 0.12% of the world based on a 2007 estimate,[34] corresponding to 7.9 million ... "Chapter II, Population Composition, 2002 Census" (PDF). Statistics Bureau. 2002. Retrieved April 23, 2017.. ... In 2010, Encyclopædia Britannica estimated a total of 7.3 million Baháʼís residing in 221 countries,[1] based partly on the ... In 2000, Encyclopædia Britannica estimated a total of 7.1 million Baháʼís residing in 218 countries,[40] based partly on the ...
One set of Rilke's poems (Himmelfahrt Mariae I.II., 1913) was based directly on El Greco's Immaculate Conception.[104] Greek ... By 1943, Pollock had completed sixty drawing compositions after El Greco and owned three books on the Cretan master.[102] ... e. ^ The arguments of these Catholic sources are based on the lack of Orthodox archival baptismal records on Crete and on a ... This doubtful attribution is based on the testimony of Pacheco (he saw in El Greco's studio a series of figurines, but these ...
For air, n − 1 is proportional to the density of the gas as long as the chemical composition does not change.[42] This means ... The method is based on the distinct refractive indices of different minerals. ... "The Index of Refraction of Some Soda-Lime-Silica Glasses as a Function of the Composition" (.pdf). National Institute of ...
The leaves at the base of the plant are simple, 3⁄8-2 in (1-5 cm) long and shallowly lobed, while leaves higher on the stems ... As with all spices, the composition of anise varies considerably with origin and cultivation method. These are typical values ... and Composition Data". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 51 (6): 1518-1523. doi:10.1021/jf0257493. PMID 12617576.. ...
Coordination costs and difficulties of orchestration may undermine composition-based success. Composition-based strategies may ... The composition-based view (CBV) was recently developed by Luo and Child (2015). It is a new theory that explicates the growth ... Firms that follow the composition-based strategy are often led by executives who have sharp vision and who have adopted ... According to Luo and Child (2015), there exist several limitations of the composition-based strategy: It increases the ...
This composition may also include aluminum, and the composition may be combined with one or more powdered base metal superalloy ... The improved cobalt-base braze alloy composition includes nickel; at least one element selected from the group of rhenium, ... The mixture is then heated to melt the cobalt-base braze alloy, thereby joining the base metal superalloy powder particles ... compositions to form an improved diffusion braze alloy mixture. In the improved method for repairing superalloy articles, the ...
This report takes an in-depth look at the economic base for each of these areas over the 1958-1984 period. Each of the regions ... The purpose of this report is to identify the components of the economic base at substate levels and to show the changes in ... relative composition for these activities. Price and production data are presented to support and explain the changes that have ... has a unique composition of basic activities that have been responsible for its growth. Natural resource related activities, ...
Base cases. * In. In such a case, A=in(x).P, B=P{ M / x }. We have that A′=in(x).P′ and P′{ h(c,w)/ w }= E P. Let B′=P′{ M′/ x ... Base case: max(,M,,,N,)≤(1,1). This means that M (resp. N) do not contain any occurrence of w, or M (resp. N) is equal to w. *1 ... Base case: max(,M,,,N,)=1 *1.. If M is a name (note that M≠w) or a variable such that \({M \notin \operatorname {dom}(\phi_{2 ... Appendix C: Composition. In this section we will use the following notations. Given terms t 1,…,t k and distinct names c 1,…,c ...
The composition contains a starch, which is preferably plasticised, and a polymer which acts as c ... The invention relates to an alloy composition possessing improved properties of mechanical resistance. ... Polymer base blend compositions containing destructurized starch.. WO1991002025A1. 1991-02-21. A POLYMER COMPOSITION INCLUDING ... The invention is intended to provide a composition based on a starch modified by the addition of a so-called polymer coupling ...
The invention relates to a conducting composition comprising, (by weight): ,ul id=ul0001 list-style=none,,li id=ul0001- ... Application US 2003/0022997 describes a composition based on a fluoroelastomer based on VDF, HFP and TFE (FKM) and on a PVDF. ... 8. Composition according to claim 1, wherein the conducting composition has a melt viscosity at 230° C. of less than 106 Pa·s. ... 3. Composition according to claim 1, wherein the fluid PVDF is a homopolymer. 4. Composition according to claim 1, wherein the ...
It is important to ensure that a service composition complies with the requirements for the application.... ... Service composition is becoming the dominant paradigm for developing Web service applications. ... Yu, J., Phan, M.T., Han, J., Jin, Y.: Pattern based Property Specification and Verification for Service Composition. Technical ... and use it to verify BPEL service composition schemas. PROPOLS is easy to understand and use, yet is formally based. It builds ...
Loop-based music composition is the practice of sequencing audio samples to create the various parts of a musical work. A ... but it quickly became obvious that sampled sounds could provide the base material for an entire composition. Now, loop-based ... Loop-based music composition is the practice of sequencing audio samples to create the various parts of a musical work. A ... Loop-based composition does have its own difficulties. If you build your own sample sets you may discover that audio ...
Abstract-This paper presents a novel approach to the design of self-adaptive service-oriented applications based on a new model ... tile-based approach self-assembling service composition application context change self-adaptive service-oriented application ... MISC{Cavallaro_atile-based,. author = {Luca Cavallaro and Elisabetta Di Nitto and Carlo A. Furia and Matteo Pradella},. title ... Abstract-This paper presents a novel approach to the design of self-adaptive service-oriented applications based on a new model ...
This article explains how to improve your body composition. ... Body composition refers to more than weight, since it accounts ... This article will explain what your body composition is and how to improve it, based on science. ... However, it isnt clear if good sleep improves your body composition or if having a better body composition improves your sleep ... Since body composition can be improved by decreasing fat mass or increasing muscle mass, this is an important point. ...
Composition/ Acid Base Physiolog? Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do and compare your score to others. ... Science Quiz / Alveolar Ventilation & Composition/ Acid Base Physiolog. Random Science Quiz Can you name the Alveolar ... What factor is most important in determining alveolar gas composition? (Tidal Volume or Respiratory Rate). ...
The water-based binder is obtained by saponifying an ester methacrylate polymer that has an acid value and a glass transition ... the brazing composition, in which this binder and flux and the like are mixed, does not have the risk of catching on fire or ... the room temperature adhesion of the brazing composition onto the aluminum materials is further improved, and thickening of ... The present invention is a water-based binder used when manufacturing aluminum brazed products such as engine radiators, ...
... and an external preparation containing the above composition as a base. ... A composition capable of promoting the skin permeation or percutaneous absorption of a drug, which comprises a lower alcohol ... 2) A pharmaceutical composition for external use which comprises a drug and the above-mentioned base composition; and ... Base composition for external preparations, pharmaceutical composition for external use and method of promoting percutaneous ...
FAQs on the "Knowledgebase" - Tool-based Security Policy composition faq_knowledgebase_tool_20080327[1].pdf - PDF document, 79 ...
Composition based on ἀνακαθίζειν.. This forum is for practicing composition based on ancient texts. ... By "for composition" do you mean "In what scenarios might a person use such a word?" Hearing a noise outside, he sat up in bed ... This forum is for discussing how to do Greek composition and practicing writing in Greek.. If you post in this forum, you are ...
Loop-based music composition is the practice of sequencing audio samples to create the various parts of a musical work... ... Loop-based Music Composition With Linux, Pt. 1. Sep 17, 2007, 00:00 (0 Talkback[s]) (Other stories by Dave Phillips) ul. ... "Loop-based music composition is the practice of sequencing audio samples to create the various parts of a musical work. A ...
Alkoxide-based magnesium electrolyte compositions for magnesium batteries. Title: Alkoxide-based magnesium electrolyte ... Zinc-based electrolyte compositions, and related electrochemical processes and articles Patent Kniajanski, Sergei ; Soloveichik ... An aqueous electrolyte composition is described, including a zinc salt based on zinc acetate or zinc glocolate. The saturation ... as well as an anolyte based on the aqueous electrolyte composition, with a membrane between the catholyte and the anolyte.« ...
The PM model is based on formation mechanisms of main compositions of PM: soot and soluble organic fraction (SOF). Firstly, two ... a composition-based particulate matter (PM) model of direct injection diesel engines has been formulated and developed to ... Citation: TAN, P., DENG, k., LU, J., LOU, D. et al., "A Composition-Based Model for Particulate Matter Emission of Direct ... A Composition-Based Model for Particulate Matter Emission of Direct Injection Diesel Engines 2005-01-3463. ...
Composition based on ancient texts. This forum is for practicing composition based on ancient texts. ... Composition based on Mark 6:39,40 and Luke 22:55 Last post by Stephen Hughes « May 3rd, 2017, 1:12 pm. ... Compositions based on the verb ἀρέσκειν. Last post by Wes Wood « November 15th, 2016, 8:20 pm. ... Composition based on ἀνακαθίζειν. Last post by Stephen Hughes « February 2nd, 2017, 10:21 pm. ...
... Author(s). Liu, Hongye, 1970- ... This thesis presents a parametric and feature-based methodology for the design of solids with local composition control (LCC). ... The designer can use them singly or in combination, to specify the composition of complex components. Each material composition ... The material composition functions include functions parametrized with respect to distance or distances to user-defined ...
Figures updated based on the results from the register of shareholders and the latest communications received. ... that the Intesa Sanpaolo Groups employees received under the 2018-2021 LECOIP 2.0 Long-term Incentive Plan based on financial ...
... and further polishing the polished semiconductor substrate with a second polishing composition including abrasive particles, a ... polishing the positioned semiconductor substrate with a first polishing composition including abrasive particles, an ammonium ... A copper-based metal polishing composition includes abrasive particles, a borate, an oxidizing agent, and water. A process for ... copper-based metal polishing compositions and copper-based metal polishing processes are provided. Polishing compositions and ...
Compositions based on the verb ἀρέσκειν.. This forum is for practicing composition based on ancient texts. ... Would anyone like to join me in doing some compositions based on the New Testament constructions using ἀρέσκειν.. ... This forum is for discussing how to do Greek composition and practicing writing in Greek.. If you post in this forum, you are ... Would anybody like to add observations on how this construction is used idiomatically before we begin composition, or would ...
Semantics and Planning Based Workflow Composition for Video Processing ... Semantics and Planning Based Workflow Composition for Video Processing (0) by G Nadarajan, Y H Chen-Burger, R B Fisher ...
To understand the fragile base class problem and why it doesnt apply to composition, first you have to understand how it ... Why Composition is Immune to Fragile Base Class Problem. To understand the fragile base class problem and why it doesnt apply ... you refactor everything that depends on the existing taxonomy to adapt the taxonomy to the new use case due to the fragile base ...
We present a goal-driven approach to model a choreographer for realizing composite Web services. In this framework, the users start with an abstract, and p
... aware service composition in distributed systems with real-time and fault-tolerance requirements. ...
Curable epoxide resin mixtures based on adducts, containing epoxide groups, which are obtained by reaction of certain long- ... Curable compositions based on epoxide resins and polyester-tricarboxylic acids or -tetracarboxylic acids. US 3937751 A ... 1. A curable epoxide resin composition based on adducts containing epoxide groups and polyester-tricarboxylic acids and/or - ... Cross-linkable saturated powderous compositions and powderous painting and coating compositions containing same. ...
Evolution of base composition in land plants (GCobsah) Kód projektu GAP506/11/0890 Období řešení 1/2011 - 12/2014 Investor / ... Measurements of DNA base composition with flow cytometry and DNA temperature melting ŠMERDA Jakub BUREŠ Petr ŠMARDA Petr HOROVÁ ... Genome size and DNA base composition of geophytes: the mirror of phenology and ecology? VESELÝ Pavel BUREŠ Petr ŠMARDA Petr ... The variation of base composition in plant genomes ŠMARDA Petr BUREŠ Petr ...
Technical Report: Structure-Composition-Property Relationships of Complex Bismuth Oxide Based Photocatalysts ... Development of a new family of up- and down-conversion materials based on oxtfluorides that can potentially increase ... photocatalytic activities of photocatalysts such as bismuth oxides and can also be used as phosphors in Al 1-xGa xN-based ...
  • Abstract-This paper presents a novel approach to the design of self-adaptive service-oriented applications based on a new model called service tiles. (
  • Especially if you are exercising, your body composition may be improving. (
  • This article will explain what your body composition is and how to improve it, based on science. (
  • What Is Body Composition? (
  • Body composition refers to everything in your body, split up into different compartments. (
  • This is one example of why knowing your body composition is much more useful than knowing your body weight. (
  • Knowing your body composition is more informative than focusing on your body weight, since you can measure both fat mass and fat-free mass. (
  • There are many methods to assess your body composition. (
  • However, there are some simple methods you can use at home to give you an idea about whether your body composition is improving. (
  • Progress pictures are another popular way to get a big picture look at your body composition. (
  • In addition to these simple methods, there are devices you can buy that measure body composition. (
  • There are various ways to measure your body composition. (
  • Your body composition is made up of fat mass and fat-free mass. (
  • Any of these changes will lead to a decrease in your body fat percentage, which is viewed as a single number that describes your body composition. (
  • At the same time, body composition can be tailored to an extent through training for the specific sport. (
  • Below, I will share some insight related to the martial arts and how the sport karate competitor can utilize their body composition in order to achieve the most success inside the ring. (
  • Current body weight-based protein recommendations are ignoring the large variability in body composition, particularly lean mass (LM), which drives protein requirements. (
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of circuit-based exercise on the body composition in obese older women by focusing on physical exercise and body weight (BW) gain control in older people. (
  • This study shows that regular intake of 15 mg/day of HT changed body composition parameters and modulated the antioxidant profile and the expression of inflammation and oxidative stress-related genes. (
  • Metabolic abnormalities and body composition of HIV-infected children on Lopinavir or Nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy. (
  • Few studies have assessed metabolic and body composition alterations in perinatally HIV-infected African children on antiretroviral therapy (ART). (
  • This study evaluated metabolic and body composition outcomes in 156 HIV-infected children completing a randomised trial that assessed the continued use of lopinavir/ritonavir-based ART or switch to nevirapine-based ART in Johannesburg, South Africa (2005-2010). (
  • Should calculation of chemotherapy dosage for bowel cancer be based on body composition? (
  • The invention relates to an alloy composition possessing improved properties of mechanical resistance. (
  • The invention also relates to the process for preparing this composition and the use of these compositions for the manufacture of films intended for the paper market and for packages made from biodegradable plastic. (
  • The invention also relates to multilayer structures combining the conducting composition with a thermoplastic polymer or a metal. (
  • This invention relates to a base composition capable of increasing the percutaneous absorption of drugs, to a pharmaceutical composition for external use in which said base composition is used, and to a method of promoting the percutaneous absorption of drugs. (
  • Each material composition design feature relates directly to the geometry of the design, often relying on user interaction to specify critical aspects of the geometry. (
  • The present invention relates to a curable epoxy resin composition, a curing agent and a curing composition. (
  • The present invention relates to an ink jet ink composition in general, and to an ethanol-based ink composition in particular. (
  • The present invention relates to an electrical conductive cement-based composite composition capable of exhibiting stable electrical performance since carbon nanotubes and carbon fibers are mixed in cement at a proper weight ratio so as to lower sensitivity to a specific resistance change caused by a change in a water/cement ratio (w/c). (
  • The invention relates to a glue composition which has a proportion of water, starch and/or starch derivatives, glycerin and at least one fatty acid and/or a. (
  • P.482 2nd paragraph: 'Genes from a given species also have characteristic codon usage patterns which reflects, in part, the overall base composition of the organism (Muto and Osawa, 1987, Wada et al. (
  • Foster, H.: A Rigorous Approach to Engineering Web Services Compositions. (
  • This approach allows the designer to simultaneously edit geometry and composition by varying parameters until a satisfactory result is attained. (
  • Collaboration-Based Model-Driven Approach for Business Service Composition. (
  • Semantics-based model composition is an approach for generating complex biosimulation models from existing components that relies on capturing the biological meaning of model elements in a machine-readable fashion. (
  • This approach allows the user to work at the biological rather than computational level of abstraction and helps minimize the amount of manual effort required for model composition. (
  • To support this compositional approach, we have developed the SemGen software, and here report on SemGen's semantics-based merging capabilities using real-world modeling use cases. (
  • We describe our approach for annotating the three component models used in the PHN composition and for merging them at the biological level of abstraction within SemGen. (
  • This paper proposes an interactive approach that guides users in the step-by-step composition of services by providing safe suggestions based on type convertibility. (
  • In this paper, we propose an approach based on the notion of skyline to effectively and efficiently select services for composition, reducing the number of candidate services to be considered. (
  • Our approach offers a reasonably fast community composition estimation method which is shown to be more robust to input data variation than a recently introduced related method. (
  • Model-driven architecture is a recent approach to developing software systems based on the idea of making models the central artifacts for design representation, analysis, and code generation. (
  • We propose an ontology-based composition and transformation approach for model-driven service architecting. (
  • Based on UML-style visual modelling of service architectures and their mapping into an ontology representation, our approach enables ontology-based semantic modelling based on representation, analysis, and code-generation techniques for Web services. (
  • 2005) An Approach for QoS-Ware Service Composition Based on Genetic Algorithms. (
  • Therefore, my approach is to analyze Anlun Huang's works from a faith-based perspective emphasizing Huang's use of musical symbolism to achieve this end. (
  • In this paper, a service composition approach based on association rules is proposed in the sense of knowledge discovery. (
  • This approach includes two steps: firstly, frequent web services will be enumerated in the dataset of history service composition transactions. (
  • Given the evidence from sequence comparisons that selection serves to increase G+C contents in G+C-rich genomes, we adopted an experimental approach to test the effects of altering base compositions by assaying E. coli strains expressing genes of different G+C contents. (
  • The main contributions of the research are: the abstraction language for design composition using the Sol-Traces representation and the process model for design composition using this approach. (
  • Growth of heterojunctions in Si-Ge alloy nanowires by altering AuGeSi eutectic composition using an approach based on thermal oxidation. (
  • Generally, the composition also contains a thermoplastic polymer. (
  • The present invention is a thermoplastic polymer composition which contains 10-120 parts by mass of a polar group-containing polypropylene resin (B) per 100. (
  • The present invention is a water-based binder used when manufacturing aluminum brazed products such as engine radiators, condensers for car air conditioners, and the like. (
  • is a boron-containing anion of the following formula: ##STR00001## The invention is also directed to electrolyte compositions in which the boron-containing ionic liquid Y.sup. (
  • An object of the present invention is to provide a curable epoxy resin composition which is lowly odoriferous and therefore easy of handling, is excellent in low-temperature curing characteristics, and can give a cured product having excellentresistances to water, chemicals and amine blushing and excellent physical properties. (
  • Another object of the present invention is to provide a curing agent and a curing agent composition which are suitable for curing, at ordinary temperatures including low temperatures, epoxy resins in aqueous system as well as in solvent systems. (
  • A first aspect of the present invention is an adhesive composition comprising one or more polyisocyanates and one or more phosphate-functional polyols. (
  • DNA base composition (GC content) is an important genomic and systematic character describing the proportion of nucleotides in the genome. (
  • Genome size and DNA base composition of geophytes: the mirror of phenology and ecology? (
  • For this reason, we developed genomic tools based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) discovered in the American bison ( Bison bison ) for parentage verification and genome composition estimation. (
  • On top of these is the subtle global tendency of a genome to move toward a preferred nucleotide composition and distribution that are characteristic for each clade. (
  • Although the variation was originally attributed to a strictly neutral process, i.e. , species-specific differences in mutational patterns, recent genomic comparisons have shown that bacteria with G+C-rich genomes experience a mutational bias toward A+T. This difference between the mutational input to a genome and its overall base composition suggests the action of natural selection. (
  • In C. crescentus , expression of the more A+T-rich gene variants decelerated growth, indicating that selection on genic base composition is, in part, responsible for the high G+C content of this genome. (
  • shapes the nucleotide compositions of bacterial genomes-specifically, that there is preference for increased G+C content in the majority of the sequenced bacterial genomes. (
  • Fast-paced life style, along with the expansion of middle-class consumers and digitization-based new consumerism, prompts the need for compositional offering. (
  • The above three elements reinforce one another, reflecting the faces of composition at the product level (compositional offering), market level (compositional competition), and organizational level (compositional capability). (
  • It's a synthesis of the latest Western compositional techniques and classically-based Chinese ideas. (
  • To date, virtually every study that has searched for the underlying basis of the compositional variation among bacteria has been retrospective, based chiefly on the relationship between genomic G+C contents and some environmental variable or molecular feature ( Rocha and Feil 2010 ). (
  • The questions explore conditions which allow for a reconsidered understanding of choreography, one which can accommodate the mutations taking place in work based on real-time processes, where digital technology has become a crucial component. (
  • Terpene-based spotting fluid compositions and processes for freeing differentially stuck pipe are provided. (
  • composite processes of Web services based on CPN is applied to a case of naval vessel command and control system. (
  • Base Composition and Hybridization Studies of the Three Double-Strande" by James L. Van Etten, A. K. Vidaver et al. (
  • Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes was used to investigate the phylogenetic composition of bacterioplankton communities in several freshwater and marine samples. (
  • The main goal of this project is to detect differences and major trends in base composition among and within the five major evolutionary lineages of land plants (i.e., mosses, club mosses, ferns s.l., gymnosperms, angiosperms). (
  • By comparing the composition of large number of comets, we can probe composition differences between comets coming from different reservoirs, which may have formed at different distances from the Sun. This is the objective of the TRAPPIST comet survey. (
  • Are composition differences between comets of pristine of evolutionary nature? (
  • A contrasting interpretation, posited more than 50 years ago by both Sueoka (1962) and Freese (1962) , explained the diversity in genomic base compositions among bacteria in terms of a neutral model in which the variation was attributed to the inherent differences among species in their patterns of mutations. (
  • Our observations highlight the differences in Arctic aerosol chemistry observed at surface-based sites and the aerosol transported throughout the depth of the Arctic troposphere in spring. (
  • Consequently, it was the aim of this study to test the general applicability of this improved protocol to bacterioplankton and to gain the first insights into differences in the community compositions of marine and freshwater systems with domain- and group-specific oligonucleotide probes. (
  • The current project aimed to develop genomic resources for the Canadian bison industry, specifically a parentage verification tool and a subspecies composition tool. (
  • As the first SNP-based genomic toolkit designed for the Canadian bison industry, our results may provide a new opportunity in improving the competitiveness and profitability of the industry in a sustainable manner. (
  • However, an initial investment is required to identify and validate suitable SNPs for the development of the SNP-based genomic tools. (
  • The source and significance of the wide variation in the genomic base composition of bacteria have been a matter of continued debate. (
  • In summary, circuit-based exercise is an effective method for promoting reduction in anthropometrics parameters in obese older women. (
  • Some closely relative species with distinct base composition parameters are uncovered in this study, which also provides opportunities for comparative bioinformatic and genetic investigations to uncover the underlying principles for mutation and selection. (
  • Several rounds of fixed composition optimization of the 56-residue β1 domain of protein G yielded force field parameters with significantly greater predictive power: Optimized sequences exhibited higher wild-type sequence identity in critical regions of the structure, and the wild-type sequence showed an improved Z-score. (
  • Physiologically based pharmacokinetic models can be used to predict the fetal exposure as time-varying parameters can easily be incorporated. (
  • The objective of this study was to collate, analyse and integrate the available time-varying parameters needed for the physiologically based pharmacokinetic modelling of xenobiotic kinetics in a fetal population. (
  • Despite the limitations identified in the availability of some values, the data presented in this article provide a unique resource for age-dependent organ size and composition parameters needed for fetal physiologically based pharmacokinetic modelling. (
  • MOTIVATION: Estimation of bacterial community composition from a high-throughput sequenced sample is an important task in metagenomics applications. (
  • Most bacterial chromosomes exhibit asymmetry of base composition with respect to leading vs . lagging strands (GC and AT skews). (
  • A Finite State Automata based framework for verifying BPEL schemas against PROPOLS properties is also discussed. (
  • To the best of our knowledge, our work is the first attempt to provide a provably correct technique for the automatic synthesis of e-Service composition, in a framework where the behavior of e-Services is explicitly specified. (
  • A framework to support the development and composition of such business services is the main focus of this chapter. (
  • This paper is an introductory study that should demonstrate a unifying theoretical framework and introduce that the properties typically valid for fuzzy relational compositions are valid also for the generalized ones, yet sometimes in a weaken form. (
  • Ontology technology as a logic-based knowledge representation and reasoning framework can provide answers to the needs of sharable and reusable models and descriptions needed for service engineering. (
  • ing algebra is defined to obtain a framework which enable s declarative composition of web services. (
  • Our Concept-Based Sequencer (CBS) aims to use semantic markup of temporal media in combination with Genetic Algorithms to generate music that can fit scripted content such as film and radio. (
  • How good is your Greek based on ancient texts? (
  • 3. The composition according to claim 1, wherein the starch is plasticised with a plasticiser selected from the group consisting of glycerine, diglycerine, polyglycerine, sorbitol, a polyol and mixtures thereof. (
  • The base composition skews in the coding sequences were used to derive quantitatively the effect of replication-driven mutation plus subsequent selection ('replication-associated pressure', RAP), and the effect of transcription-driven mutation plus subsequent selection at translation level ('transcription-associate pressure', TAP). (
  • S trands of DNA duplexes that have the same base sequences as the corresponding transcripts ( i.e. (
  • Here, we evaluate and optimize a protein design force field by constraining the amino acid composition of the designed sequences to that of a well behaved model protein. (
  • Therefore, energy discrepancies between computational predictions and experimental results, for sequences of identical composition, can be directly attributed to flaws in the force field's ability to properly account for folded state sequence energies. (
  • In recent years, molecular methods based on the comparative analysis of 16S rRNA sequences have yielded new insights into the diversity of marine and freshwater bacterioplankton communities (see, e.g., references 4 , 17 , 25 , 35 , 37 , and 49 ). (
  • Four types of kale-based snacks were investigated on the basis of polyphenol content and composition, glucosinolates amount, and antioxidant activity. (
  • Whether the spatial variation in FA content at the base of these food webs significantly influences the production of economically important species higher in the food web should be a focus of future research. (
  • InfoSci®-OnDemand Plus, a subscription-based service, provides researchers the ability to access full-text content from over 100,000+ peer-reviewed book chapters and 25,000+ scholarly journal articles that spans across 350+ topics in 11 core subjects. (
  • In content based image retrieval similarity measurement is one of the most important aspects in a large image database for efficient search and retrieval to find the best answer for a user query. (
  • The proposed matching method is considered to be a more efficient image content-based retrieval than EHD and SCD. (
  • Foods which contain more than a single ingredient (sometimes called recipe foods or mixed dishes) require procedures for estimation of the nutrient content of the dish or final product based on the composition of the ingredients. (
  • An ethylene based polymer composition comprising the following component (A), the following component (B) and the following component (C) wherein the content of the component (A) is 120 to 1700 parts by weight per 100 parts by weight of the component (B) and the content of the component (C) is 3 to 20 parts by weight per 100 parts by weight of the component (B): Component (A): an ethylene-.alpha. (
  • s property pattern system and extends it with the logical composition of patterns to accommodate the specification of complex requirements. (
  • The similarity calculations are based on visual correspondence (both from text and images/graphics) as well as slide (re-)composition patterns. (
  • The study reveals the diverse mutation and selection forces associated with replication and transcription in various groups of bacteria that shape the distinct patterns of base composition skews in the chromosomes during evolution. (
  • An improved cobalt-base braze alloy composition and method for diffusion brazing are provided for use in repairing superalloy articles, such as gas turbine engines, power generation turbines, refinery equipment, and heat exchangers. (
  • This composition may also include aluminum, and the composition may be combined with one or more powdered base metal superalloy compositions to form an improved diffusion braze alloy mixture. (
  • The mixture is then heated to melt the cobalt-base braze alloy, thereby joining the base metal superalloy powder particles together, and joining the entire mixture to the region being repaired. (
  • said braze alloy composition is a eutectic alloy. (
  • Understanding the composition dependence of these properties so as to design the alloy as desired is one of the main research topics in this area. (
  • RESULTS: Using sparsity enforcing methods from the general sparse signal processing field (such as compressed sensing), we derive a solution to the community composition estimation problem by a simultaneous assignment of all sample reads to a pre-processed reference database. (
  • A general statistical model based on kernel density estimation techniques is introduced for the assignment task and the model solution is obtained using convex optimization tools. (
  • Per cent GC (guanine + cytosine/total bases) values fell into two groups: 30.8 to 36.5% GC and 69 to 75% GC. (
  • In this paper, the authors model multiple web service interaction with a Petri net called Composition net (C-net). (
  • Thirteen strains, representative of both subgroups, were examined for deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) base composition, determined from melting temperatures. (
  • The three double-stranded ribonucleic acid (dsRNA) segments of the bacteriophage φ6 were isolated and shown to have similar melting temperatures and base compositions. (
  • The model relies on a geometric representation of design compositions. (
  • In this study, a composition-based particulate matter (PM) model of direct injection diesel engines has been formulated and developed to simulate PM emission. (
  • A Composition-Based Model for Particulate Matter Emission of Direct Injection Diesel Engines," SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-3463, 2005, . (
  • Cu Based Alumina Particulate Reinforced Composites," SAE Technical Paper 980700, 1998, . (
  • Loop-based Music Composition With Linux, Pt. (
  • Loop-based music composition is the practice of sequencing audio samples to create the various parts of a musical work. (
  • Existing methods of music composition vary from probability-based techniques to grammatical generation methods, yet the majority focus on the creation of independent pieces with no ties to other media. (
  • In addition, frequent services mining algorithm is put forward based on a structure of Adjacent-Lattice, and experiments are given to show the effectiveness of the mining algorithm. (
  • 1992). For example, the gene encoding N-acetylglutamyl-γ-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (argC) from E. coli has a base composition of 53.5% G + C while the homologous sequence from Bacillus subtilis is only 46.1 % G + C, and 73.1% G + C in Streptomyces clavuligerus. (
  • The selection pressure at the translation level is evident in all bacteria based on the analysis of the skews at the three codon positions. (
  • Effect of Composition, Particle Size, and Heat Treatment on the Mechanical Properties of Al-4.5 wt. (
  • Curable epoxide resin mixtures based on adducts, containing epoxide groups, which are obtained by reaction of certain long-chain aliphatic polyesters with an excess of diepoxide compounds, and linear or slightly branched polyesters, containing carbocyclic or heterocyclic rings and possessing 3 or 4 terminal. (
  • These disadvantages have become problematic also towater-based curable epoxy resin compositions which have recently been noted as substitutes for solvent-based curable epoxy resin compositions. (
  • Under these circumstances, it has been expected to develop a curable epoxy resin composition which is reduced in odor, is easy of handling, exhibits excellent low-temperature curing characteristics, can cure under severe conditions, e.g., inwater, and can give a cured product having excellent resistances to water, amine blushing and chemicals and excellent physical properties, and a curing agent therefor. (
  • Can geographical location affect the chemical composition of plant-based essential oils? (
  • In a recent study, researchers at the State Research Institute Center for Physical Sciences and Technology in Lithuania analyzed the chemical composition of essential oils obtained from the inflorescences and leaves of a local plant called dwarf everlast ( Helichrysum arenarium ). (
  • In particular, season, time of harvest and geographical location all play a part in determining the chemical composition of essential oils. (
  • Other environmental factors that were found to influence the chemical composition of essential oils include altitude, latitude and soil-related factors, such as nutrients and pH. (
  • Chemical composition of acid-base fractions separated from biooil derived by fast pyrolysis of chicken manure. (
  • Our earlier investigations on the chemical composition of biooils derived by the fast pyrolysis of chicken manure revealed the presence of more than 500 compounds. (
  • 2004) QoS-Aware Middleware for Web Services Composition. (
  • Whereas microbial diversity can be readily studied by 16S rRNA gene libraries, it is difficult, if not impossible, to deduce the community composition from them ( 3 ), especially when they are PCR based ( 59 ). (
  • Generating analytic data for use in a food composition data base consists of several logically distinct steps: sampling foods representative of the population of foods of interest, preparing the samples and performing the analyses, and recording and preparing the final data. (
  • Polymer base blend compositions containing destructurized starch. (
  • and functions that use Laplace's equation to blend smoothly various boundary conditions including values and gradients of the material composition on the boundaries. (
  • The base began to blend into its surroundings, seeming to be a flat piece of land covered in snow. (
  • We already got a bunch of articles about basing in the jungle library , but honestly most of them show you information about material you can use and how you can use it. (
  • This is achieved by exploiting the most advanced analytically techniques and by developing & validating portable instrumentation based on selective composition markers' detection and characterization of technological fingerprints. (
  • Furthermore, when a binder in which polyoxirane or polyoxazoline is added as a sub component to this ester methacrylate polymer, which is the main component, the room temperature adhesion of the brazing composition onto the aluminum materials is further improved, and thickening of this composition during coating or storage is also prevented. (
  • The PM model is based on formation mechanisms of main compositions of PM: soot and soluble organic fraction (SOF). (
  • Secondly, execution path, the basic unit of composite service, will be generated based on concepts extracted from SOA domain and association rules implied in frequent services. (
  • Can you name the Alveolar Ventilation & Composition/ Acid Base Physiolog? (
  • Given unlimited resources, direct analysis of foods is the preferred method of obtaining food composition data for specific foods of interest. (
  • Xia, Liping, "Exploring Faith-Based Chinese Piano Compositions: An Analysis of Selected Piano Solo Works of Anlun Huang" (2020). (
  • The novel GPG scoring algorithm scores potential candidate compositions of the same nominal mass against MS/MS data through evaluation of the Y1 ion and other peptide-containing product ions, across multiple charge states, when applicable. (
  • Statistically significant variations in base data were found between whole chromosomes as well as between the segments from one of the chromosomes. (
  • This study is designed to assess the effect of a diet-controlled nutrition program utilizing an egg-based higher protein diet on muscle composition and size, and indices of metabolic health and markers of systemic inflammation in older men and women who are slightly overweight. (
  • An ink jet ink composition includes ethanol, a binder, a conductive agent, and a colorant. (
  • In one aspect, an ink jet ink composition includes ethanol, a binder, a conductive agent, and a colorant. (
  • The water-based binder is obtained by saponifying an ester methacrylate polymer that has an acid value and a glass transition temperature. (
  • In the presence of an alcohol that is water soluble and volatile and has a flash point higher than a specified temperature, the brazing composition, in which this binder and flux and the like are mixed, does not have the risk of catching on fire or exploding and also has excellent wettability and can be uniformly coated onto an aluminum material. (
  • The properties of these alloys (e.g., the martensitic transformation temperature T (M) ) sensitively depend on the composition. (
  • These vertical changes in sources and chemistry lead to systematic variation in aerosol composition as a function of potential temperature. (
  • The object is to provide a subterranean formation processing composition which has a highly stable viscosity against change in temperature and a high water. (
  • A set of 19,954 SNPs (2,928 for parentage verification and 17,026 for subspecies composition) were then selected for inclusion on an Axiom myDesign custom array. (
  • Development of a novel maternal-fetal physiologically based pharmacokinetic model II: verification of the model for passive placental permeability drugs. (
  • Service composition is becoming the dominant paradigm for developing Web service applications. (
  • It is important to ensure that a service composition complies with the requirements for the application. (
  • In this paper, we propose a property pattern based specification language, named PROPOLS, and use it to verify BPEL service composition schemas. (
  • This paper addresses the issue of automatic e-Service composition. (
  • Finally, we present an open source prototype tool, called ESC (E-Service Composer), that implements our composition technique. (
  • Web service composition enables seamless and dynamic integration of business applications on the web. (
  • Therefore, non-functional, quality of service (QoS) aspects (e.g. response time, availability, etc.) are crucial for selecting the web services to take part in the composition. (
  • Protocol-level mismatch is one of the most important problems in service composition. (
  • Service composition mismatches can be divided into interface and protocol-level ones (Nezhad, 2007). (
  • Table 1 gives a detailed taxonomy of already known service composition mismatches. (
  • Building service-based architectures has become a major area of interest since the advent of Web services. (
  • Before providing services to the user, user preference considerations are the key conditions to achieve the self-adaptive decision-making about service selection and composition process, which is the flexible concerned aspect provided by massive cloud computing environment data. (
  • Meanwhile, during the whole services' providing process, achieving the capturing and forming of service aggregation units' topology logic, building the context environment's process-aware of service composition, ensuring the trust and adaptation among service aggregation units, which are the important reasons to express timely requirement preference. (
  • This paper designs SCP-Trust Reasoning strategy about the integration of user preference and trust, with process algebra, it is to achieve the context process-aware logic for service composition process, in order to improve the autonomous optimization and evolution of service implementation system. (
  • Xia, X. , Yu, J. and Cao, B. (2014) SCP-Trust Reasoning Strategy Based on Preference and Its Service Composition Process of Context-Aware Process. (
  • 2010) Dynamic Web Service Selection Based on Discrete Particle Swarm Optimization. (
  • Method for Web Service Composition Discovery Based on Association Rule" by Fuzan Chen, Minqiang Li et al. (
  • With the increased number of web services advertised in public repository, it is becoming vital to provide an efficient web service composition mechanism with respect to user's requirement. (
  • CPN model for web service composition is proposed [9]. (
  • 1582 words - 7 pages Composition II 29 May 2016 All My Sons Research Paper We live a life full of contradiction. (
  • The composition contains a starch, which is preferably plasticised, and a polymer which acts as coupling agent which is chosen from the group consisting of polyolefins modified by chemical functional groups which are active towards the hydroxyl functional groups of starch. (
  • 16. A composition, comprising a starch and a polymer acting as coupling agent, selected from the group consisting of polyethylene modified by grafting maleic anhydride, and terpolymers containing units derived from maleic anhydride, the ratio of the dynamic modulus of elasticity G' of said composition to the dissipative modulus G" of said composition being greater than 1.6. (
  • Sequencing loops is likewise not a novel concept, at least not since Vivaldi's time, nor is the use of existing sound recordings as base material for a new musical work. (
  • Early use of sampled sound was usually momentary, providing snippets for "hits" or other incidental sounds, but it quickly became obvious that sampled sounds could provide the base material for an entire composition. (
  • The study examines the impact of molecular composition (namely, the total peptide concentration and the relative tripeptide concentration) on the morphology of the self-assembled hybrid biological material. (
  • An adhesive arrangement includes an adhesive formed from an adhesive composition, the adhesive composition having a fluoropolymeric material, a functionalized. (
  • The strategic objective of the research is the innovative integration of non-invasive techniques for objective authentication of metal artifacts (utilitarian and ornamental), based on material composition & description of manufacturing techniques. (
  • Preferably, the conducting composition has a melt viscosity at 230° C. of less than 10 6 Pa·s, preferably between 10 2 and 10 6 Pa·s. (
  • Ni2MnGa based ferromagnetic alloys are ideal candidates for applications such as actuators, magnetic refrigerators or magnetostrictive transducers due to their attractive properties such as magnetic field induced shape memory effect and large magnetocaloric effect. (
  • In recent years, we have investigated the composition dependent elastic modulus and phase stability of Ni2MnGa-based alloys by using a first-principles method, in hope of clarifying their connection to the properties of these alloys. (