A group of nerve cells in the SUBSTANTIA INNOMINATA that has wide projections to the NEOCORTEX and is rich in ACETYLCHOLINE and CHOLINE ACETYLTRANSFERASE. In PARKINSON DISEASE and ALZHEIMER DISEASE the nucleus undergoes degeneration.
Tissue in the BASAL FOREBRAIN inferior to the anterior perforated substance, and anterior to the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and ansa lenticularis. It contains the BASAL NUCLEUS OF MEYNERT.
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.
Lectin purified from peanuts (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA). It binds to poorly differentiated cells and terminally differentiated cells and is used in cell separation techniques.
Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC 2.3.1.6.
A subfield of psychiatry that emphasizes the somatic substructure on which mental operations and emotions are based, and the functional or organic disturbances of the central nervous system that give rise to, contribute to, or are associated with mental and emotional disorders. (From Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)
Nerve fibers liberating acetylcholine at the synapse after an impulse.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC 3.1.1.7.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.
Several groups of nuclei in the thalamus that serve as the major relay centers for sensory impulses in the brain.
GRAY MATTER located in the dorsomedial part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA associated with the solitary tract. The solitary nucleus receives inputs from most organ systems including the terminations of the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves. It is a major coordinator of AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM regulation of cardiovascular, respiratory, gustatory, gastrointestinal, and chemoreceptive aspects of HOMEOSTASIS. The solitary nucleus is also notable for the large number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS which are found therein.
The brain stem nucleus that receives the central input from the cochlear nerve. The cochlear nucleus is located lateral and dorsolateral to the inferior cerebellar peduncles and is functionally divided into dorsal and ventral parts. It is tonotopically organized, performs the first stage of central auditory processing, and projects (directly or indirectly) to higher auditory areas including the superior olivary nuclei, the medial geniculi, the inferior colliculi, and the auditory cortex.
Collections of small neurons centrally scattered among many fibers from the level of the TROCHLEAR NUCLEUS in the midbrain to the hypoglossal area in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
Four clusters of neurons located deep within the WHITE MATTER of the CEREBELLUM, which are the nucleus dentatus, nucleus emboliformis, nucleus globosus, and nucleus fastigii.
Neural nuclei situated in the septal region. They have afferent and cholinergic efferent connections with a variety of FOREBRAIN and BRAIN STEM areas including the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the LATERAL HYPOTHALAMUS, the tegmentum, and the AMYGDALA. Included are the dorsal, lateral, medial, and triangular septal nuclei, septofimbrial nucleus, nucleus of diagonal band, nucleus of anterior commissure, and the nucleus of stria terminalis.
Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the third ventricle near the entrance of the infundibular recess. Its small cells are in close contact with the ependyma.
Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.
Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.
An ovoid densely packed collection of small cells of the anterior hypothalamus lying close to the midline in a shallow impression of the OPTIC CHIASM.
A pinkish-yellow portion of the midbrain situated in the rostral mesencephalic tegmentum. It receives a large projection from the contralateral half of the CEREBELLUM via the superior cerebellar peduncle and a projection from the ipsilateral MOTOR CORTEX.
Nuclei of the trigeminal nerve situated in the brain stem. They include the nucleus of the spinal trigeminal tract (TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS, SPINAL), the principal sensory nucleus, the mesencephalic nucleus, and the motor nucleus.
Lens-shaped structure on the inner aspect of the INTERNAL CAPSULE. The SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS and pathways traversing this region are concerned with the integration of somatic motor function.
Hypothalamic nucleus overlying the beginning of the OPTIC TRACT.
A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.
Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.
An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.
The part of the face above the eyes.
Collections of illustrative plates, charts, etc., usually with explanatory captions.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A water-soluble, enzyme co-factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. It occurs mainly bound to proteins or polypeptides and is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
Use of a device for the purpose of controlling movement of all or part of the body. Splinting and casting are FRACTURE FIXATION.
Methods or programs of physical activities which can be used to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.
Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.
The region of the upper limb in animals, extending from the deltoid region to the HAND, and including the ARM; AXILLA; and SHOULDER.
Severe or complete loss of motor function on one side of the body. This condition is usually caused by BRAIN DISEASES that are localized to the cerebral hemisphere opposite to the side of weakness. Less frequently, BRAIN STEM lesions; cervical SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and other conditions may manifest as hemiplegia. The term hemiparesis (see PARESIS) refers to mild to moderate weakness involving one side of the body.
A general term referring to a mild to moderate degree of muscular weakness, occasionally used as a synonym for PARALYSIS (severe or complete loss of motor function). In the older literature, paresis often referred specifically to paretic neurosyphilis (see NEUROSYPHILIS). "General paresis" and "general paralysis" may still carry that connotation. Bilateral lower extremity paresis is referred to as PARAPARESIS.
A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc.washington.edu/neuronames/index.html (September 2, 1998)).
Analog or digital communications device in which the user has a wireless connection from a telephone to a nearby transmitter. It is termed cellular because the service area is divided into multiple "cells." As the user moves from one cell area to another, the call is transferred to the local transmitter.
Computer programs or software installed on mobile electronic devices which support a wide range of functions and uses which include television, telephone, video, music, word processing, and Internet service.
A type of MICROCOMPUTER, sometimes called a personal digital assistant, that is very small and portable and fitting in a hand. They are convenient to use in clinical and other field situations for quick data management. They usually require docking with MICROCOMPUTERS for updates.
A pair of nuclei and associated gray matter in the interpeduncular space rostral to the posterior perforated substance in the posterior hypothalamus.
Complete or severe loss of the subjective sense of taste, frequently accompanied by OLFACTION DISORDERS.

Absence of a common functional denominator of visual disturbances in cerebellar disease. (1/111)

Several studies have demonstrated disturbances of visual perception in patients suffering from cerebellar disease. In an attempt to determine the cause of these visual disturbances and thereby the cerebellar contribution to vision, we designed two sets of experiments in which we tested (i) the possibility of a general magnocellular deficit in cerebellar disease and (ii) the alternative possibility of impaired spatial attention underlying visual disturbances in cerebellar patients. The first set of experiments consisted of a test of position discrimination, a parvocellular function and tests tapping different aspects of motion perception including speed discrimination, direction discrimination and the ability to extract a coherent motion signal embedded in noise. The second set of experiments compared the performance on two different classes of texture discrimination. The first one required fast and precise shifts of focal spatial attention ('serial search'), the second one, testing preattentive texture discrimination ('pop-out'), did not. In the first set of experiments cerebellar patients were impaired on the position discrimination task as well as several, albeit not all, tests of motion perception. The pattern of disturbances obtained was neither compatible with the notion of a selective magnocellular deficit nor the idea, originally put forward by Ivry and Diener (J Cogn Neurosci 1991; 3: 355-66) that visual deficits are secondary to an impaired measurement of time. In the second set of experiments, cerebellar patients showed normal performance on pop-out tasks and normal performance on all variants of the serial search task except for the one requiring comparison of a single element presented with a sample of the target in short-term memory. In summary, our results support the existence of visual disturbances in cerebellar disease, but provide evidence against a common, simple denominator such as a timing deficit, deficient cerebellar modulation of magnocellular circuitry, deficits of spatial attention or visual working memory.  (+info)

Stimulation of NMDA and AMPA receptors in the rat nucleus basalis of Meynert affects sleep. (2/111)

The nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM), a heterogeneous area in the basal forebrain involved in the modulation of sleep and wakefulness, is rich in glutamate receptors, and glutamatergic fibers represent an important part of the input to this nucleus. With the use of unilateral infusions in the NBM, the effects of two different glutamatergic subtype agonists, namely N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) hydrobromide, on sleep and wakefulness parameters were determined in freely moving rats by means of polygraphic recordings. NMDA (5 nmol) and AMPA (0.4 nmol) induced an increase in wakefulness and an inhibition of slow-wave sleep. AMPA, but not NMDA, also caused a decrease in desynchronized sleep. These AMPA- and NMDA-mediated effects were counteracted by a pretreatment with the specific NMDA antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (20 nmol) and the specific AMPA antagonist 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (2 nmol), respectively. The results reported here indicate that 1) the NBM activation of both NMDA and AMPA glutamate receptors exert a modulatory influence on sleep and wakefulness, and 2) AMPA, but not NMDA receptors, are involved in the modulation of desynchronized sleep, suggesting a different role for NBM NMDA and non-NMDA receptors in sleep modulation.  (+info)

Effects of the novel NMDA receptor antagonist gacyclidine on recovery from medial frontal cortex contusion injury in rats. (3/111)

Gacyclidine, a novel, noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, was injected (i.v.) into rats at three different doses to determine if the drug could promote behavioral recovery and reduce the behavioral and anatomical impairments that occur after bilateral contusions of the medial frontal cortex (MFC). In the Morris water maze, contused rats treated with gacyclidine at a dosage of 0.1 mg/kg performed better than their vehicle-treated conspecifics. Rats given gacyclidine at either 0.3 or 0.03 mg/kg performed better than brain-injured controls, but not as well as those treated with 0.1 mg/kg. Counts of surviving neurons in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) and the medial dorsal nucleus (MDN) of the thalamus were used to determine whether gacyclidine treatment attenuated secondary cell death. In both the NBM and the MDN, the counts revealed fewer surviving neurons in untreated contused rats than in gacyclidine-treated rats. Increases in the size and number of microglia and astrocytes were observed in the striatum of gacyclidine-treated contused brains. Although most consequences of MFC contusions were attenuated, we still observed increases in ventricle dilation and thinning of the cortex. In fact, the ventricles of rats treated with 0.1 mg/kg of gacyclidine were larger than those of their vehicle treated counterparts, although we observed no behavioral impairment.  (+info)

Developmental changes in the subcellular localization of calretinin. (4/111)

Brainstem auditory neurons in the chick nucleus magnocellularis (NM) express high levels of the neuron-specific calcium-binding protein calretinin (CR). CR has heretofore been considered a diffusible calcium buffer that is dispersed uniformly throughout the cytosol. Using high-resolution confocal microscopy and complementary biochemical analyses, we have found that during the development of NM neurons, CR changes from being expressed diffusely at low concentrations to being highly concentrated beneath the plasma membrane. This shift in CR localization occurs at the same time as the onset of spontaneous activity, synaptic transmission, and synapse refinement in NM. In the chick brainstem auditory pathway, this subcellular localization appears to occur only in NM neurons and only with respect to CR, because calmodulin remains diffusely expressed in NM. Biochemical analyses show the association of calretinin with the membrane is detergent-soluble and calcium-independent. Because these are highly active neurons with a large number of Ca2+-permeable synaptic AMPA receptors, we hypothesize that localization of CR beneath the plasma membrane is an adaptation to spatially restrict the calcium influxes.  (+info)

GABAergic inhibition in nucleus magnocellularis: implications for phase locking in the avian auditory brainstem. (5/111)

In the avian auditory brainstem, nucleus magnocellularis (NM) functions to relay phase-locked signals to nucleus laminaris for binaural coincidence detection. Although many studies have revealed that NM neurons exhibit intrinsic physiological and anatomical specializations for this purpose, the role of inhibition has not been fully explored. The present study characterizes the organization of GABAergic feedback to NM. Anterograde and retrograde labeling methods showed that NM receives a prominent projection from the ipsilateral superior olivary nucleus (SON). The functional features of this projection were explored in a brain slice preparation. Stimulating fibers from the SON evoked long-lasting, depolarizing responses in NM neurons that were blockable by bicuculline, a GABA(A) receptor antagonist. The slow time course of these responses allowed them to undergo temporal summation during repetitive stimulation. The summed GABAergic response was capable of blocking spikes generated in NM neurons by suprathreshold current injection. This inhibitory effect was attributable to a large reduction in input resistance caused by a combination of the opening of a GABAergic Cl(-) conductance and the recruitment of a low-voltage activated K(+) conductance. This large reduction of input resistance increased the amount of current necessary to drive NM neurons to threshold. The results lead us to propose that GABAergic inhibition enhances phase-locking fidelity of NM neurons, which is essential to binaural coincidence detection in nucleus laminaris.  (+info)

Electrophysiological properties of cholinergic and noncholinergic neurons in the ventral pallidal region of the nucleus basalis in rat brain slices. (6/111)

The ventral pallidum is a major source of output for ventral corticobasal ganglia circuits that function in translating motivationally relevant stimuli into adaptive behavioral responses. In this study, whole cell patch-clamp recordings were made from ventral pallidal neurons in brain slices from 6- to 18-day-old rats. Intracellular filling with biocytin was used to correlate the electrophysiological and morphological properties of cholinergic and noncholinergic neurons identified by choline acetyltransferase immunohistochemistry. Most cholinergic neurons had a large whole cell conductance and exhibited marked fast (i.e., anomalous) inward rectification. These cells typically did not fire spontaneously, had a hyperpolarized resting membrane potential, and also exhibited a prominent spike afterhyperpolarization (AHP) and strong spike accommodation. Noncholinergic neurons had a smaller whole cell conductance, and the majority of these cells exhibited marked time-dependent inward rectification that was due to an h-current. This current activated slowly over several hundred milliseconds at potentials more negative than -80 mV. Noncholinergic neurons fired tonically in regular or intermittent patterns, and two-thirds of the cells fired spontaneously. Depolarizing current injection in current clamp did not cause spike accommodation but markedly increased the firing frequency and in some cells also altered the pattern of firing. Spontaneous tetrodotoxin-sensitive GABA(A)-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) were frequently recorded in noncholinergic neurons. These results show that cholinergic pallidal neurons have similar properties to magnocellular cholinergic neurons in other parts of the forebrain, except that they exhibit strong spike accommodation. Noncholinergic ventral pallidal neurons have large h-currents that could have a physiological role in determining the rate or pattern of firing of these cells.  (+info)

Pathological characteristic of Alzheimer's disease produced by lesion in nucleus basalis of Meynert in rats. (7/111)

OBJECTIVE: To find out if the lesion in nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM) can induce some morphological changes characteristic of Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: Kainic acid was injected into nbM of the rats, and the behavioral deficiency and the morphological changes in the cortex and hippocampus were observed by methenamine silver staining and electron microscopical examination. RESULTS: After 9-15 months of breeding following nbM-lesion, we observed many pathological changes in this animal model, which were characteristic of Alzheimer's disease in human, and especially we could find for the first time the formation of senile plagues after 15-month breeding. CONCLUSION: It is proposed that the degeneration of nbM neurons might be primary and responsible for the pathological changes in other brain tissues in sporadic Alzheimer's disease.  (+info)

DNA replication precedes neuronal cell death in Alzheimer's disease. (8/111)

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating dementia of late life that is correlated with a region-specific neuronal cell loss. Despite progress in uncovering many of the factors that contribute to the etiology of the disease, the cause of the nerve cell death remains unknown. One promising theory is that the neurons degenerate because they reenter a lethal cell cycle. This theory receives support from immunocytochemical evidence for the reexpression of several cell cycle-related proteins. Direct proof for DNA replication, however, has been lacking. We report here the use of fluorescent in situ hybridization to examine the chromosomal complement of interphase neuronal nuclei in the adult human brain. We demonstrate that a significant fraction of the hippocampal pyramidal and basal forebrain neurons in AD have fully or partially replicated four separate genetic loci on three different chromosomes. Cells in unaffected regions of the AD brain or in the hippocampus of nondemented age-matched controls show no such anomalies. We conclude that the AD neurons complete a nearly full S phase, but because mitosis is not initiated, the cells remain tetraploid. Quantitative analysis indicates that the genetic imbalance persists for many months before the cells die, and we propose that this imbalance is the direct cause of the neuronal loss in Alzheimer's disease.  (+info)

Abstract It has been well established that neuronal loss within the cholinergic nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM) correlates with cognitive decline in dementing disorders such as Alzheimers disease (AD). Friedrich Lewy first observed his eponymous inclusion bodies in the nbM of postmortem brain tissue from patients with Parkinsons disease (PD) and cell loss in this area can b...
A unilateral ibotenic acid lesion was placed in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis of 3- and 18-month-old rats. In the lesioned aging rats, the number of choline acetyltransferase-immunoreactive neurons of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis was markedly reduced in the ipsilateral side and to a lesser extent in the contralateral side. Twenty-one days after the lesion, the activity of choline acetyltransferase in the ipsilateral cortex was reduced by 40% in both groups of rats and by 24% in the contralateral frontal cortex of the aging rats. Intracerebroventricular administration of nerve growth factor (10 micrograms twice a week) to aging lesioned rats for 3 weeks after surgery resulted in a complete recovery in the number of choline acetyltransferase-immunoreactive neurons in the nucleus basalis of both sides, and choline acetyltransferase activity in the contralateral cortex, with little effect on the ipsilateral cortex. No potentiation was seen after the concurrent administration of GM1 ...
This chapter presents evidence that (a) the dentate gyrus (DG) has at least three major functions, including conjunctive encoding of multiple sensory inputs, spatial pattern separation, and facilitation of encoding of spatial information; (b) the CA3 has at least three major functions, including short-term memory and rapid encoding, arbitrary associations, and pattern completion; and (c) the CA1 has at least four major functions, including temporal processing of information (temporal order memory), association across time, intermediate memory, and consolidation of new information. It presents additional evidence demonstrating that there are dissociations and associations between the DG and CA3. The dominant view of the relationship between CA3 and CA1 and short-term and intermediate-term memory is that they operate as a feed-forward sequential processing system. The more recent data, however, suggest that, for certain tasks, there are dissociations between short-term and intermediate-term memory ...
Introduction. Alzheimers disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia. It represents more than half the prevalence of dementia in the Brazilian elderly population1. The main characteristic of this type of neurodegenerative process is cognitive impairment that can lead to the onset of neuropsychiatric symptoms2. This neuropathological process indicates a specific loss of cholinergic neurons in the nucleus basalis of Meynert at the ventral surface of the basal forebrain. This neuropathological process indicates a specific loss of cholinergic neurons in the nucleus basalis of Meynert at the ventral surface of the basal forebrain. The reduction on cholinergic activity could affects and impairs cognitive function and behavior. A reduction in signal intensity in the area corresponding to the anterior lateral nucleus basalis has been significantly correlated with a reduced concentration of grey matter in the bilateral prefrontal cortex, inferior parietal lobule, and cingulate gyrus3.. Most studies ...
Background: Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that is diagnosed with a lack of memory and perception. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of donepezil and folic acid on reference and working memory disorders caused by electrical lesion of nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM). Methods: In this experimental ...
These transgenic mice overexpress mutant human APP at levels approximately 5-fold higher than endogenous murine APP. As the mouse ages, levels of human Aβ40 and Aβ42 increase, with Aβ42 being the more prevalent species (Chishti et al., 2001). These mice develop early plaque formation with thioflavin S-positive amyloid deposits observed at three months and dense-cored plaques with neuritic pathology by five months, becoming more extensive with advanced age. Activated microglia appear concurrently with plaques and GFAP-positive astrocytes follow later, starting about 13-14 weeks (Dudal et al., 2004). Dystrophic neurites are also observed (Dudal et al., 2004; Woodhouse et al., 2009). There is a decrease in the number of cholinergic neurons in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis as measured by ChAT immunoreactivity (Bellucci et al., 2006) and loss of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)-immunoreactive GABAergic neurons (Krantic et al., 2012).. Behaviorally, these mice show a variety of ...
This is a Phase I clinical study to assess the safety, tolerability and biologic activity of in vivo AAV-mediated delivery of CERE-110. Up to 12 subjects will receive open label CERE-110 in dose-escalating fashion. All subjects will receive bilateral, stereotactic injections of CERE-110 for a total of four (Dose A and B) and six (Dose C) injections to target the basal forebrain region of the brain containing the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM). All study participants will be observed for a 24-month period and then followed annually ...
Die pathologische Anatomie des erblichen manisch-depressiven Irreseins ist unbekannt Mannigfache Theorien bezüglich des Wesens der zirkulären Psychose sind erörtert worden. So hat Meynert1889 die...
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Looking for online definition of fountain decussation of Meynert in the Medical Dictionary? fountain decussation of Meynert explanation free. What is fountain decussation of Meynert? Meaning of fountain decussation of Meynert medical term. What does fountain decussation of Meynert mean?
Abell F, Krams M, Ashburner J, Passingham R, Friston K, Frackowiak R, Happe F, Frith C, Frith U (1999). The neuroanatomy of autism A voxel based whole brain analysis of structural scans. Neuroreport 10 1647-1651. Abitbol M, Menini C, Delezoide AL, Rhyner T, Vekemans M, Mallet J (1993). Nucleus basalis magnocellularis and hippocampus are the major sites of FMR-1 expression in the human fetal brain. Nat Genet 4 147-153. Alaghband-Rad J, McKenna K, Gordon CT, Albus KE, Hamburger SD, Rumsey JM,.... ...
Note: Neurolex imports many terms and their ids from existing community ontologies, e.g., the Gene Ontology. Neurolex, however, is a dynamic site and any content beyond the identifier should not be presumed to reflect the content or views of the source ontology. Users should consult with the authoritative source for each ontology for current information ...
only Disease Surveillance maschinenteile teil 1 1986; Response( CSR): statistical Acute Respiratory Syndrome( SARS). Zambon M: different initial basic maschinenteile was. Chan-Yeung M, Yu maschinenteile teil 1 1986: evaluation of selected sexual behavioral memory in Hong Kong pulmonary Administrative Region: learning mengungkapkan.
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Lesions of nucleus basalis alter ChAT activity and EEG in rat frontal neocortex. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Cognitive impairments in humans and animals have been linked to dysfunction of neurons in the basal forebrain cholinergic system (BFCS). Degeneration of these cells may be, in part, responsible for some of the cognitive deficits observed in Alzheimers disease (AD). Although memory deficits are associated with lesions of the BFCS in rats, impairments in memory have been more subtle following similar lesions in monkeys. To evaluate the effects of BFCS lesions on cognitive processes in monkeys, we have systematically investigated the behavioral effects of ibotenic acid injections in the medial septum, nucleus of the diagonal band of Broca, and nucleus basalis of Meynert in cynomolgus monkeys, using a large series of cognitive tasks that examined different mnemonic and attentional abilities. These lesions did not impair accuracy in delayed nonmatching-to-sample, delayed response, simple or concurrent visual discriminations, spatial discriminations, or discrimination reversals. However, these ...
A behavioral memorys lifetime represents multiple molecular lifetimes, suggesting the necessity for a self-perpetuating signal. One candidate is DNA methylation, a transcriptional repression mechanism that maintains cellular memory throughout development. We found that persistent, gene-specific cortical hypermethylation was induced in rats by a single, hippocampus-dependent associative learning experience and pharmacologic inhibition of methylation 1 month after learning disrupted remote memory. We propose that the adult brain utilizes DNA methylation to preserve long-lasting memories ...
Substantia Innominata, part of the limbic system, is the tissue in the base of the forebrain which contains the basal nucleus of meynert
Ultrafast and temporally precise action potentials (APs) are biophysical specializations of auditory brainstem neurons; properties necessary for encoding sound localization and communication cues. Fundamental to these specializations are voltage dependent potassium (KV) and sodium (NaV) ion channels. Here we characterized the functional development of these ion channels and quantified how they shape AP properties in the avian cochlear nucleus magnocellularis (NM). We report that late developing NM neurons (embryonic [E] days 19-21) generate fast APs that reliably phase lock to sinusoidal inputs at 75 Hz. In contrast, early developing neurons (E19) contained NaV channels that inactivate at more negative voltages, suggesting alterations in NaV channel subtypes. Taken together, our results indicate that the refinement of passive and active ion channel properties operate differentially in order to develop fast and reliable APs in the avian NM.
Cholinergic neurons degenerate at devastating rates in Alzheimers disease, but Dr. Mark Tuszynski and his team at the University of California, San Diego may have found a way to slow the decline. Their study, published in JAMA Neurology, reports that nerve growth factor gene therapy increased the size, axonal sprouting, and signaling of cholinergic neurons in 10 Alzheimers disease patients.. The patients were enrolled in a clinical trial between 2001 and 2012. Ex vivo and in vivo methods of gene therapy were used to deliver nerve growth factor - a protein that protects neurons and stimulates growth - to the patients. Eight received an implant of their own skin cells that were genetically modified to express nerve growth factor (ex vivo ) and two patients received injections that induced neurons already in the brain to express nerve growth factor (in vivo). In all 10 patients, gene therapy was delivered to the nucleus basalis of Meynert - part of the basal forebrain rich in cholinergic neurons ...
Rationale The reasoned action approach (RAA) is a social cognitive model that outlines the determinants of intentional behavior. Primary and meta-analytic studies support RAA predictions for multiple health behaviors. However, including past behavior as a predictor in the RAA may attenuate model effects. Direct effects of past behavior on behavior may reflect non-conscious processes whereas indirect effects of past behavior through social cognitive variables may represent reasoned processes. Objective The present study extended a previous meta-analysis of the RAA by including effects of past behavior. The analysis also tested effects of candidate moderators of model predictions: behavioral frequency, behavior type, and measurement lag. Method We augmented a previous meta-analytic data set with correlations between model constructs and past behavior. We tested RAA models that included and excluded past behavior using meta-analytic structural equation modeling and compared the effects. Separate ...
Mark Tuszynski, at the University of California, San Diego, explores the potential of delivering nerve growth factor specifically to cholinergic neurons of the forebrains nucleus basalis to protect neurons against degeneration in Alzheimer disease. Tuszynski has for years persisted against skeptics who maintain that his method of choice-gene therapy in the brain-is not ready for prime time, too dangerous, too expensive, and too high-tech. All of that might be so, except the approach looks like it might just work. That, at least, is where things stand currently.. Tuszynski noted that prior work on models ranging from aging to injury, excitotoxicity, and amyloid overexpression all substantiate the rationale of using nerve growth factor in an effort to stem neuronal death and support repair. The leap to success in humans, Tuszynski believes, hinges on delivering this potent agent to its designated area but nowhere else. Last year, Alzforum covered formal publication of phase 1 results, to 22 ...
Note: Neurolex imports many terms and their ids from existing community ontologies, e.g., the Gene Ontology. Neurolex, however, is a dynamic site and any content beyond the identifier should not be presumed to reflect the content or views of the source ontology. Users should consult with the authoritative source for each ontology for current information ...
Looking for online definition of basal nuclei in the Medical Dictionary? basal nuclei explanation free. What is basal nuclei? Meaning of basal nuclei medical term. What does basal nuclei mean?
Use of the selective immunotoxin; 192 IgG-saporin, is helping to elucidate the role of the cholinergic system in cognition by overcoming the problems of interpretation associated with the use of non-specific lesioning agents. In separate studies, we have compared the long- and short-term effects of …
Hair - Meynert's fibers lie parallel to the posterior arc of the chiasm, are not incorporated in the nerve proper, and arc not anatomically considered a part of the chiasm.
www.MOLUNA.de Molecular Neurosurgery with Targeted Toxins [4221446] - Introduction to Molecular NeurosurgerynRonald G. Wiley and Douglas A. LappinRibosome-Inactivating ProteinsnFiorenzo StirpenBiochemical, Physiological, and Behavioral Characterizations of the Cholinergic Basal Forebrain Lesion Produced by 192 IgG-SaporinnJerene J. WaitenBasal Forebrain Cholinergic Lesion by 192 IgG-Saporin: A Tool to Assess the Consequences of Cortical Cholinergic Dysfunction in Alzheimer s DiseasenReinhard Schliebsn192 IgG-Saporin-Induced
Across all angular separations, the selective impairment in conjunction discrimination at 5 Hz reveals a transition in the way that binding occurred; main effect of temporal frequency: linear trend, F(1, 5) = 43.79, p = 0.001, and cubic trend, F(1, 5) = 17.19, p = 0.009. An increase in alternation frequency from 1.25 to 5 Hz corresponded with a decrease in conjunction discrimination. At very low alternation frequencies, feature binding can (in principle) occur within a single presentation of a conjunction stimulus. An increase in frequency necessitates a shorter grating presentation that should thereby increase task difficulty due to the limited time by which a single conjunction stimulus can be sampled by the visual system. However, we found that conjunction discrimination improved from 5 to 10 Hz-the range of frequencies facilitating temporal transparency (Holcombe, 2001). In this range, the attributes of each grating are temporally integrated at the level of surface representations across the ...
chains in the Genus database with same CATH superfamily 4JD6 A; 4PDX A; 2KSI A; 3R1K A; 4UEI A; 5EC4 A; 1PZ4 A; 1IKT A; 2QZT A; 1C44 A; 2CG3 A; 2CFZ A; 2HV2 A; 5AIJ A; 2NBN A; 5EBV A; 3BDQ A; 3UY5 A; 2CFU A; 2OZG A; 3BN8 A; 2C0L B; 3BKR A; 4NUR A; 4QB9 A; 4JGX A; 3RYO A; 4MY0 A; 3SXN A; 2CX7 A; 5AJL A; 3BKS A; 2YHE A; 4AXH A; 2KSH A; 2I00 A; 2NBM A; 3CNU A; 3N7Z A; 5IV0 A; 4MY3 A; 1WFR A; 3SXO A; 5A23 A; 1QND A; 2CG2 A; 4AV7 A; #chains in the Genus database with same CATH topology 4JD6 A; 4PDX A; 2KSI A; 3R1K A; 4UEI A; 5EC4 A; 1PZ4 A; 1IKT A; 2QZT A; 1C44 A; 2CG3 A; 2CFZ A; 3SSO A; 2HV2 A; 5AIJ A; 2NBN A; 5EBV A; 3BDQ A; 3UY5 A; 2CFU A; 2OZG A; 3SSM A; 3BN8 A; 2C0L B; 2NSG A; 3BKR A; 4NUR A; 4JGX A; 4QB9 A; 4MY0 A; 3RYO A; 3SXN A; 2CX7 A; 4NSS A; 3BKS A; 2YHE A; 5AJL A; 4AXH A; 2KSH A; 2I00 A; 2NBM A; 3CNU A; 3N7Z A; 3SSN A; 5IV0 A; 4MY3 A; 1WFR A; 3SXO A; 5A23 A; 2NSF A; 1QND A; 2CG2 A; 4ZY7 A; 4AV7 A; #chains in the Genus database with same CATH homology 4JD6 A; 4PDX A; 2KSI A; 3R1K A; 4UEI ...
Woolf, N.J. (1996) The critical role of cholinergic basal forebrain neurons in morphological change and memory encoding A hypothesis. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 66, 258-266.
AD is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of cholinergic neurons in the nucleus basalis of Meynert, which is the basement of the cholinergic hypothesis and results in the subsequent development of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors in AD treatment [9]. AChE inhibitors are used to treat the patients with mild to moderate AD [10]. Since Donepezil can upregulate AChE activities significantly and increase the protein level of CSF in the patients with AD [11], it has been widely used in the symptomatic treatments of AD [12]. Many clinical trials have demonstrated that donepezil improves the patients cognition and some of the BPSD. These improvements of the patients can also reduce caregivers burden [13]. In this research, after patients with mild to moderate AD took donepezil 5-10 mg/d for 20 weeks, marked improvements were found in the daily activities, abnormal behaviors and psychiatric symptoms. Although the cognition of the patients was improved shortly at the ...
A more direct method than the usual ones for obtaining inhibitory gradients requires that the dimension of the nonreinforced stimulus selected for testing be orthogonal to the dimensions of the reinforced stimulus. In that case, the test points along
Downloadable (with restrictions)! Information is often embedded in memorable contexts, which may cue the asymmetric recall of similar past news through associative memory. We design a theory-driven experiment, in which participants observe signals about hypothetical companies. Here, identical signal realizations are communicated with identical contexts: stories and images. Because participants asymmetrically remember those past signals that get cued by the current context, beliefs systematically overreact. This overreaction depends in predictable ways on the signal history; the correlation between signals and contexts; and the scope for forgetting and associative memory. We quantify these results by structurally estimating a model of associative recall.
Rats were submitted to intra-structures injection of 192 IgG-saporin and then behaviorally tested 1 month and 1 year post-lesion in a nonmatching-to-position task. After achieving a complete objective response, how does cialis work the patient received consolidation with high dose BEAM ...
Gericke, CA, Lang, UE, Steckler, T, Schulze, G, Bajbouj, M and Hellweg, R (2003) Nerve growth factor response to excitotoxic lesion of the cholinergic basal forebrain is slightly impaired in aged rats. Journal of Neural Transmission, 110 6: 627-639. doi:10.1007/s00702-002-0819-z ...
Discover Lifes page about the biology, natural history, ecology, identification and distribution of Scoparia basalis, Many-spotted Scoparia Moth, maybe image
MS/nDB - Medial Septum/Nucleus of the Diagonal Band. Looking for abbreviations of MS/nDB? It is Medial Septum/Nucleus of the Diagonal Band. Medial Septum/Nucleus of the Diagonal Band listed as MS/nDB
The cholinergic system in the brain plays crucial roles in regulating sensory and motor functions as well as cognitive behaviors by modulating neuronal activity. Understanding the organization of the cholinergic system requires a complete map of cholinergic neurons and their axon arborizations throughout the entire brain at the level of single neurons. Here, we report a comprehensive whole-brain atlas of the cholinergic system originating from various cortical and subcortical regions of the mouse brain. Using genetically labeled cholinergic neurons together with whole-brain reconstruction of optical images at 2-μm resolution, we obtained quantification of the number and soma volume of cholinergic neurons in 22 brain areas. Furthermore, by reconstructing the complete axonal arbors of fluorescently labeled single neurons from a subregion of the basal forebrain at 1-μm resolution, we found that their projections to the forebrain and midbrain showed neuronal subgroups with distinct projection ...
A plurality of devices for processing IF-THEN JOIN operation of IF-THEN rules are provided to process the JOIN operation in a pipe-line manner. A JOIN operation processing facility has an input buffer for latching status data corresponding to one condition in a certain rule; an associative memory for latching status data corresponding to another condition; an output buffer for latching the result of a JOIN operation; and a data combining arrangement for replacing an item value from the two data by a meaningful value to generate one data so that a series of operations of picking up the data one by one from the input buffer, retrieving associatively the data of the associative memory by using the data picked up as a retrieval data and the common item as a retrieval key, and storing in the output buffer the combined result of the data picked up and the retrieval data.
Marginal division of the neostriatum that links the limbic system to the basal nucleus of Meynert". Journal of Neuroscience ... protein associated with the limbic system is said to concentrate in related structures and to travel towards the basal nuclei. ... This area and the brain circuits closely interacting with it from the basal ganglia are affected both structurally and at a ... Smith, Y.; Raju, D. V.; Pare, J. F.; Sidibe, M. (2004). "The thalamostriatal system: a highly specific network of the basal ...
... the substantia innominata and the basal nucleus of Meynert, the thalamus (including the anterior nuclear complex, the ... the raphe nuclei (the nucleus centralis superior and the dorsal raphe nucleus), the nucleus reticularis tegementi pontis, the ... laterodorsal nucleus, the paraventricular and parataenial nuclei, the nucleus reuniens, and the nucleus centralis medialis), ... The basal dendrites of Pyramidal neurons are also found here, where they receive input from other Pyramidal cells, septal ...
basal optic nucleus of Meynert. (mainly) M1 receptors in: *neocortex. medial septal nucleus. (mainly) M1 receptors in: * ... laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, and basal forebrain and interneurons from the striatum and nucleus accumbens. It is not yet ... Pedunculopontine nucleus and dorsolateral tegmental nuclei (pontomesencephalotegmental complex). (mainly) M1 receptors in: * ... Projections from the pontomesencephalic tegmentum to the thalamus, tectum, basal ganglia, and basal forebrain". Brain Res. Bull ...
Marginal division of the neostriatum that links the limbic system to the basal nucleus of Meynert". Journal of Neuroscience ... Striatum and basal gangliaEdit. Further information on the Striatum: Striatum. Further information on the Basal Ganglia: Basal ... 1999). "MRI study of basal ganglia volumes in drug-naive first-episode patients with schizophrenia". Schizophr Res. 36: 202.. ... Parent, A (1990). "Extrinsic connections of the basal ganglia". Trends Neurosci. 13: 254-258. doi:10.1016/0166-2236(90)90105-j. ...
In the basal forebrain, it originates from the basal nucleus of Meynert and medial septal nucleus:. *The ... An example of a central cholinergic area is the nucleus basalis of Meynert in the basal forebrain.[16][17] ... Basal nucleus of Meynert acts mainly on M1 receptors in the neocortex. ... lateral reticular nucleus and inferior olive.[9] It also projects to the thalamus, tectum, basal ganglia and basal forebrain.[8 ...
The basal forebrain cholinergic nuclei are comprised the medial septal nucleus (Ch1), the vertical nucleus of the diagonal band ... Forebrain cholinergic nuclei (FCN):. Nucleus basalis of Meynert, medial septal nucleus, and diagonal band ... and the nucleus basalis of Meynert (Ch4). Brainstem cholinergic nuclei include the pedunculopontine nucleus (Ch5), the ... The rostral nuclei, which include the nucleus linearis, dorsal raphe, medial raphe, and raphe pontis, innervate most of the ...
Basal ganglia[edit]. The Vogts greatly contributed to the analysis of what is known today as the basal ganglia system. Their ... This was including the caudate nucleus, the putamen and the fundus. Eponym[edit]. The Vogt-Vogt syndrome is an extrapyramidal ... Based on their cytoarchitectonic studies, they promoted a six-layer pattern (there were 5 for Meynert and 7 for Cajal). ... She distinguished from back to front the lemnical radiation and a particular nucleus, in front of it the cerebellar ( ...
In 1887 he traveled to Vienna in order to work with Theodor Meynert (1833-1892), who was to become an important influence to ... In his research of chorea, he identified scars in the lenticular nuclei. Iron Cross, 2nd class Red Cross Medal, 3rd class ... He is primarily remembered for his studies of psychiatric conditions arising from damage to the cerebral cortex and the basal ...
There are several neural circuits in the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop. These circuits carry information between ... French, IT; Muthusamy, KA (2018). "A Review of the Pedunculopontine Nucleus in Parkinson's Disease". Frontiers in Aging ... Theodor Meynert's Psychiatry (1884), William James' Principles of Psychology (1890), and Sigmund Freud's Project for a ... The largest structure within the basal ganglia, the striatum, is seen as having its own internal microcircuitry. Neural ...
... the substantia innominata and the basal nucleus of Meynert, the thalamus (including the anterior nuclear complex, the ... the raphe nuclei (the nucleus centralis superior and the dorsal raphe nucleus), the nucleus reticularis tegementi pontis, the ... laterodorsal nucleus, the paraventricular and parataenial nuclei, the nucleus reuniens, and the nucleus centralis medialis), ... The basal dendrites of Pyramidal neurons are also found here, where they receive input from other Pyramidal cells, septal ...
... process indicates a specific loss of cholinergic neurons in the nucleus basalis of Meynert at the ventral surface of the basal ... process indicates a specific loss of cholinergic neurons in the nucleus basalis of Meynert at the ventral surface of the basal ... Measurement of basal forebrain atrophy in Alzheimers disease using MRI. Brain. 2005;128(Pt 11):2626-44. [ Links ]. ... A reduction in signal intensity in the area corresponding to the anterior lateral nucleus basalis has been significantly ...
It has been well established that neuronal loss within the cholinergic nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM) correlates with ... There has been confusion with regard to the terminology and exact localisation of the nbM within the human basal forebrain for ... Nucleus basalis of Meynert revisited: anatomy, history and differential involvement in Alzheimers and Parkinsons disease. *. ... Abstract It has been well established that neuronal loss within the cholinergic nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM) correlates ...
... the effect of donepezil and folic acid on reference and working memory disorders caused by electrical lesion of nucleus basalis ... The nucleus basalis of Meynert: a new target for deep brain stimulation in dementia? Neurosci Behav Rev 2013; 37(10 Pt 2): 2676 ... The basal forebrain cholinergic system in aging and dementia rescuing cholinergic neurons from neurotoxic amyloid βA-42 with ... Keywords: Alzheimers disease, Nucleus basalis magnocellularis, Donepezil, Folic acid, Memory. Full-Text [PDF 208 kb] (521 ...
Marginal division of the neostriatum that links the limbic system to the basal nucleus of Meynert". Journal of Neuroscience ... protein associated with the limbic system is said to concentrate in related structures and to travel towards the basal nuclei. ... This area and the brain circuits closely interacting with it from the basal ganglia are affected both structurally and at a ... Smith, Y.; Raju, D. V.; Pare, J. F.; Sidibe, M. (2004). "The thalamostriatal system: a highly specific network of the basal ...
... the substantia innominata and the basal nucleus of Meynert, the thalamus (including the anterior nuclear complex, the ... the raphe nuclei (the nucleus centralis superior and the dorsal raphe nucleus), the nucleus reticularis tegementi pontis, the ... laterodorsal nucleus, the paraventricular and parataenial nuclei, the nucleus reuniens, and the nucleus centralis medialis), ... The basal dendrites of Pyramidal neurons are also found here, where they receive input from other Pyramidal cells, septal ...
Multiple targets including entorhinal cortex, fornix, nucleus basalis of Meynert, basal ganglia, and pedunculopontine nucleus ...
The cortical cholinergic system, originating in the nucleus basalis of Meynert of the basal forebrain, has been implicated. ... Specifically, smaller nucleus basalis of Meynert volume predicted increasing step time variability (p=0.019) and shortening ... However, nucleus basalis of Meynert volumes predicted longitudinal gait changes unique to Parkinsons disease. ... Cholinergic Basal Forebrain Volumes Predict Gait Decline in Parkinsons Disease. Lookup NU author(s): Joanna Wilson, Dr Alison ...
Chapter 72 Large Neurons in the Neostriatum and Basal Nucleus of Meynert: Simultaneous Decrease in Alzheimers Disease ... Chapter 124 Nerve Growth Factor Promotes Survival of Cultured Cholinergic Neurons from Nucleus Basalis of Meynert of 2-Week-Old ... Chapter 148 Effects of Destruction of Nucleus Basalis Meynert on Operant Study and Neurotransmitters in Rats ... of Learning Deficit Induced by Ibotenic Acid Lesion of the Frontal Cortex Related with the Nucleus Basalis of Meynert in Rats ...
The key role of the basal nucleus of the Meynert network in temporal lobe epilepsy. ... The key role of the basal nucleus of the Meynert network in temporal lobe epilepsy ...
The key role of the basal nucleus of the Meynert network in temporal lobe epilepsy. ... The key role of the basal nucleus of the Meynert network in temporal lobe epilepsy ...
The key role of the basal nucleus of the Meynert network in temporal lobe epilepsy. ... The key role of the basal nucleus of the Meynert network in temporal lobe epilepsy ...
The key role of the basal nucleus of the Meynert network in temporal lobe epilepsy. ... The key role of the basal nucleus of the Meynert network in temporal lobe epilepsy ...
The key role of the basal nucleus of the Meynert network in temporal lobe epilepsy. ... The key role of the basal nucleus of the Meynert network in temporal lobe epilepsy ...
Chapter 343 Nucleus Accumbens * Altmetric Badge. Chapter 344 Nucleus Basalis of Meynert ...
Chapter 343 Nucleus Accumbens * Altmetric Badge. Chapter 344 Nucleus Basalis of Meynert ...
Chapter 343 Nucleus Accumbens * Altmetric Badge. Chapter 344 Nucleus Basalis of Meynert ...
Chapter 343 Nucleus Accumbens * Altmetric Badge. Chapter 344 Nucleus Basalis of Meynert ...
Chapter 343 Nucleus Accumbens * Altmetric Badge. Chapter 344 Nucleus Basalis of Meynert ...
Chapter 343 Nucleus Accumbens * Altmetric Badge. Chapter 344 Nucleus Basalis of Meynert ...
Chapter 343 Nucleus Accumbens * Altmetric Badge. Chapter 344 Nucleus Basalis of Meynert ...
Chapter 343 Nucleus Accumbens * Altmetric Badge. Chapter 344 Nucleus Basalis of Meynert ...
... on the unique biological circumstance in AD of loss of presynaptic cholinergic cells in the nucleus basalis of Meynert with ... Alzheimers disease and senile dementia: loss of neurons in the basal forebrain. Science. 1982;215(4537):1237-9. ... ISWRD is thought to be produced by degeneration of neurons of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus, decreased ... Cholinergic circuitry of the human nucleus basalis and its fate in Alzheimers disease. J Comp Neurol. 2013;521(18):4124-44. ...
The role of the nucleus basalis of Meynert in dementia: review and reconsideration. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 1987; 1: 128-55. ... PCA was set up to enable a bolus shot (1 ml) with a 15-min lock-out time and a 1-ml/h basal rate. ...
  • Abstract It has been well established that neuronal loss within the cholinergic nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM) correlates with cognitive decline in dementing disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). (medworm.com)
  • The cerebellum, hippocampus, neostriatum, and basal ganglia were identified as being involved in memory acquisition tasks. (wikipedia.org)
  • ChAT staining of Human brain, basal ganglia. (neuromics.com)
  • Called also basal ganglia . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Secondary parkinsonism is brain dysfunction that is characterized by basal ganglia dopaminergic blockade and that is similar to Parkinson disease, but it is caused by something other than Parkinson disease (eg, drugs, cerebrovascular disease, trauma, postencephalitic changes). (msdmanuals.com)
  • However, synuclein can accumulate in many other parts of the nervous system, including the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve, basal nucleus of Meynert, hypothalamus, neocortex, olfactory bulb, sympathetic ganglia, and myenteric plexus of the gastrointestinal tract. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Loss of substantia nigra neurons results in depletion of dopamine in the dorsal aspect of the putamen (part of the basal ganglia) and causes many of the motor manifestations of Parkinson disease (see figure Basal ganglia ). (msdmanuals.com)
  • One location of acetylcholine is in the Basal Nucleus of Meynert and the loss of acetylcholine at this locus is associated with Alzheimer's Disease. (boardprep.net)
  • Nucleus basalis of Meynert. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 1971). The source of cholinergic afferents to cerebral cortex has recently been found to lie primarily in the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) (Lehman et al . (springer.com)
  • More recently, neural origins of the global signal were indicated by inactivation of a neuromodulatory region of the basal forebrain, the nucleus basalis of Meynert. (nature.com)
  • There are 2 primary DBS targets for AD: the fornix (an axonal output tract of the Papez circuit that connects the hippocampus to the mammillary bodies) and the nucleus basalis of Meynert (cholinergic neurons within the basal forebrain projecting to the neocortex). (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • The basal forebrain consists of the medial septal nucleus, diagonal band nucleus, and the nucleus basalis of Meynert. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • This neuropathological process indicates a specific loss of cholinergic neurons in the nucleus basalis of Meynert at the ventral surface of the basal forebrain. (scielo.br)
  • These results suggest large differences in the density of innervation in different regions of primate neocortex by the nucleus basalis of Meynert. (elsevier.com)
  • Note cytoplasmic staining of neurons of the nucleus basalis of Meynert. (neuromics.com)
  • These projections arise predominantly within the nucleus basalis of Meynert, also known as the Ch4 cell group. (northwestern.edu)
  • Abstract It has been well established that neuronal loss within the cholinergic nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM) correlates with cognitive decline in dementing disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). (medworm.com)
  • The impairment in acquisition of the water maze following ibotenate-induced basal forebrain lesions therefore appears unrelated to damage to cholinergic neurons of the nucleus basalis of Meynert and to depend instead on damage to pallidal and other neurons in this area. (cf.ac.uk)
  • 2016 ). The cholinergic neurons originating in the nucleus basalis of Meynert, substantia innominata, and the diagonal band (basal forebrain) project to virtually all cerebral cortical areas and layers (Sarter et al. (veteriankey.com)
  • Still, this concept has been challenged recently suggesting a potential origin of degeneration in nonthalamic subcortical nuclei giving rise to cortical innervation such as locus coeruleus (LC) and nucleus basalis of Meynert (NbM). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Of note, formation of abnormally phosphorylated tau frequently was observed in individuals under 30 years of age and, in addition to the transentorhinal cortex, first became detectable in subcortical nuclei with projection to the cerebral cortex, i.e. locus coeruleus (LC) and nucleus basalis of Meynert (NbM). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Deterioration of nucleus basalis of Meynert implicated in memory dysfunction. (brainaacn.org)
  • Appendix epididymis lined with hobnail cells with stereocilia, and basal forebrain nucleus basalis of meynert. (teleroo.com)
  • In a 71-year-old man with slowly progressive Parkinson-dementia syndrome, 2 electrodes were inserted into the nucleus basalis of Meynert in addition to electrodes in the subthalamic nucleus. (operativeneurosurgery.com)
  • Turning on electrical stimulation of the nucleus basalis of Meynert resulted in markedly improved cognitive functions. (operativeneurosurgery.com)
  • Such a broad effect on cognition is consistent with ample experimental evidence revealing that the nucleus basalis of Meynert provides cholinergic innervation to the cortical mantle, complemented by glutaminergic and gamma-aminobutyric acid-transmitting projections from the basal forebrain. (operativeneurosurgery.com)
  • Furthermore, nucleus basalis of Meynert stimulation paired with sensory stimuli can accomplish persistent reorganization of specific processing modules. (operativeneurosurgery.com)
  • The improvements in cognitive and behavioral performance in our patient are likely to be related to the effects of stimulating residual cholinergic projections and cell bodies in the nucleus basalis of Meynert 2) . (operativeneurosurgery.com)
  • Simultaneous Stimulation of the Globus Pallidus Interna and the Nucleus Basalis of Meynert in the Parkinson-Dementia Syndrome. (operativeneurosurgery.com)
  • Among the histologic features found in AD, Alzheimer's neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) are present in great profusion in the cerebral cortex with relative sparing of the occipital lobe and paracentral gyri, and are present in the basal nucleus of Meynert (bnM), hypothalamus, and tegmental nuclei of the rostral brain stem. (springer.com)
  • TDP-43 pathology was present in 11 patients (33.3%), including components in both basal forebrain (n= 10) and hypothalamus (n= 7). (biomedcentral.com)
  • This is the first systematic demonstration of pathologic involvement of the basal forebrain and hypothalamus in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, the findings suggest that involvement of the basal forebrain and hypothalamus has significant phenotypic associations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, including site of symptom onset, as well as deficits in energy metabolism with loss of body mass index. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus and the locus coeruleus. (boardprep.net)
  • One location for norepinephrine is in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, and it controls satiety. (boardprep.net)
  • Parkinson's disease is at least in part related to dropping out of dopaminergic cells in deep-brain nuclei , primarily the melanin-pigmented neurons in the substantia nigra but secondarily the noradrenergic neurons of the locus coeruleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The results show that many regions affected by tau pathology in AD, such as the basal nucleus of Meynert, the dorsal thalamus, hypothalamic nuclei, raphe nuclei, and the locus coeruleus were devoid of a characteristic aggrecan-based extracellular matrix. (nih.gov)
  • El nucleo parabraquial y el nucleo del tracto solitario envian proyecciones a la region rostral ventrolateral del bulbo, la sustancia gris periacueductal, locus coeruleus , los nucleos del rafe magno, con lo cual se integran las vias del dolor en diferentes areas [11,14]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Basal optic nucleus of Meynert acts mainly on M1 receptors in the neocortex . (bionity.com)
  • Medial septal nucleus acts mainly on M1 receptors in the hippocampus and neocortex . (bionity.com)
  • Degeneration of the basal forebrain, and more specifically the nucleus of Meynert, results in decreased cholinergic projections to the neocortex and a reduction in long-term potentiation. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • The hippocampus and cerebral neocortex receive massive cholinergic projections from the basal forebrain. (northwestern.edu)
  • This nucleus receives axons from the mammillary body via the mammillothalamic tract, from the hippocampus via the fornix, and from cholinergic nuclei in the basal forebrain. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • During cooperative interactions, both OT and AVP increased brain activity in men within areas rich in OT and AVP receptors and in areas playing a key role in reward, social bonding, arousal and memory (e.g., the striatum, basal forebrain, insula, amygdala and hippocampus), whereas OT and AVP either had no effect or in some cases actually decreased brain activity in these regions in women. (nih.gov)
  • Stereological neuronal counts are underway in the basal nucleus of Meynert and hippocampus in aged vervets. (alzforum.org)
  • In the CNS, cholinergic projections from the basal forebrain to the cerebral cortex and hippocampus support the cognitive functions of those target areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • and (iv) the basal forebrain nuclei, which collectively serve as the major sources of cholinergic projection neurons to the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala (Ballinger et al. (veteriankey.com)
  • The lesion-induced atrophy in posterior thalamus with its major sensorimotor cortex relay nuclei was significantly reduced in grafted enriched rats compared with nongrafted enriched rats. (ahajournals.org)
  • 4 5 Grafts in the infarcted area receive afferent connections from ipsilateral and contralateral cortex, the thalamus, and several other host brain subcortical nuclei. (ahajournals.org)
  • The nucleus basalis gives rise to the principal cholinergic as well as GABAergic projections to the cortex. (nature.com)
  • Host to transplant projections were revealed by Fluoro-Gold-labeled cells found in the ipsilateral host sensorimotor cortex, the basal nucleus of Meynert, the thalamic ventrobasal, ventrolateral and posterior nuclei, and in the dorsal raphe nuclei. (lu.se)
  • f) The amygdaloid nuclei are included under the limbic cortex. (brainkart.com)
  • This may appear strange as these nuclei are not part of the cerebral cortex. (brainkart.com)
  • However, it has been found that the connections of these nuclei are similar to those of the cortex). (brainkart.com)
  • Identify the lateral , medial , basal and central nuclei, and the periamygdaloid cortex . (brainkart.com)
  • What abnormal protein deposits are found in the cortex, basal ganglion, & substantia nigra--in what disease? (cram.com)
  • Alzheimer's disease pathology was advanced with PSP-like neurofibrillary tangles distribution, and Lewy bodies were abundant in limbic lobe, while scarce in lower brainstem nuclei. (iospress.com)
  • Although decreased myocardial uptake of MIBG is a rule in patients harboring Lewy bodies, its normal uptake may be related to their absence in lower … brainstem nuclei. (iospress.com)
  • basal nuclei ( nu´clei basa´les ) specific interconnected subcortical masses of gray matter embedded in each cerebral hemisphere and in the upper brainstem , comprising the corpus striatum (caudate and lentiform nuclei), amygdaloid body , claustrum , and external, extreme, and internal capsules . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In both AD and Parkinson dementia, there is basal forebrain degeneration. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • Progressive neurofibrillary degeneration in the nucleus basalis can be seen throughout the continuum that leads from normal aging to mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. (northwestern.edu)
  • A limbic nucleus that sits at the ventral head of the striatum, contiguous with the caudate and putamen and adjacent to the olfactory tubercle. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • With its interconnected neighbor, the putamen, the caudate forms a single functional nucleus called the striatum. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • caudate nucleus ( nucleus cauda´tus ) an elongated, arched gray mass closely related to the lateral ventricle throughout its entire extent, which, together with the putamen, forms the neostriatum. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The intracerebral course of the recurrent artery of Heubner is uni-vectorial, thereby heading towards the head of the caudate nucleus. (statpearls.com)
  • It lies just below the anterior end of the tail of the caudate nucleus. (brainkart.com)
  • In the CNS, ChAT is expressed in motor neurons and pre-ganglionic autonomic neurons of the spinal cord, a subset of neurons in the neostriatum, and in the basal forebrain. (neuromics.com)
  • Histological analysis revealed that AMPA infusions destroyed more choline acetyltransferase-immunoreactive neurons than did ibotenate infusions but, unlike ibotenate, spared the overlying dorsal palhdum and also parvocellular, non-choline acetyltransferase-immunoreactive neurons in the ventral pallidal/substantia innominata region of the basal forebrain. (cf.ac.uk)
  • The most rostral of the thalamic nuclei. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Quantification in the rostral interstitial nucleus of the longitudinal fascicle potentially affected by tau pathology in AD revealed that tau pathology was not accompanied by loss of aggrecan-based PNs. (nih.gov)
  • The rostral, subcommissural part of the SI is primarily occupied by the ventral extensions of the globus pallidus and striatum, i.e. the VP and the core/ shell subdivisions of the nucleus accumbens (ventral striatum). (studyres.com)
  • To investigate the effects of EI injection on learning and memory ability and brain energy of two-way Meynert basal injection of Ibotenic acid (IBO) dementia model rats. (bvsalud.org)
  • A rat model of dementia wasestablished by bilateral meynert basal injection of IBO. (bvsalud.org)
  • Turnbull IM, McGeer PL, Beattie L, Calne D, Pate B. Stimulation of the basal nucleus of Meynert in senile dementia of Alzheimer's type. (operativeneurosurgery.com)
  • The anterior olfactory nucleus, which is distinct in most mammals, is sparse in primates. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 1984) or the basal nucleus of Meynert (NBM) in primates (Koelliker, 1896). (studyres.com)
  • The anterior thalamic nucleus sends axons to medial cerebral cortices: the cingulate gyrus, the anterior limbic area, and the parahippocampal gyrus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Tau and TDP-43 accumulation of the basal nucleus of Meynert in individuals with cerebral lobar infarcts or hemorrhage. (nih.gov)
  • The basal forebrain is located close to the medial and ventral surfaces of the cerebral hemispheres that develop from the subpallium. (studyres.com)
  • The bed nuclei lie lateral to the columns of the fornix and dorsal to the anterior commissure. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • dentate nucleus ( nucleus denta´tus ) the largest of the deep cerebellar nuclei, lying in the white matter of the cerebellum just lateral to the emboliform nucleus . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The basal and lateral nuclei are collectively referred to as the basolateralnucleus . (brainkart.com)
  • Such an activation of the activity of dorsal and ventral lateral nucleus (figure 7-6). (haverford.edu)
  • Regions composed of nuclei with clearly different intensity of tau pathology, such as the amygdala, the thalamus and the oculomotor complex, showed largely complementary distribution patterns of neurofibrillary tangles and PNs. (nih.gov)
  • We demonstrate that a significant fraction of the hippocampal pyramidal and basal forebrain neurons in AD have fully or partially replicated four separate genetic loci on three different chromosomes. (jneurosci.org)
  • Other basal forebrain neurons utilize a number of different neuroactive substances, including GABA, glutamate and neuropeptides (Duque et al. (studyres.com)
  • caudal olivary nucleus a folded band of gray substance enclosing a white core, which produces the elevation on the medulla oblongata known as the olive. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • To study the influence of DBS in the progress of AD, to compare the effects of DBS on the brain metabolism neural connectivity and hubs using MEG, and to compare the effects between two different groups: fornix and Basal nucleus of Meynert (BNM). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Braak H, Del Tredici K, Rub U, de Vos RA, Jansen Steur EN, Braak E (2003) Staging of brain pathology related to sporadic Parkinson's disease. (springer.com)
  • The neurons that transmit it are found in the Meynert basal nucleus, a small area located at the front of the brain. (vancouversun.com)
  • nucleus an´sae lenticula´ris ( nucleus of ansa lenticularis ) a collection of neurons in the ansa lenticularis as it curves around the medial edge of the globus pallidus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In the region between the amygdaloid complex and the lentiform nucleus there is a region of substriatal grey matter within which there is a collection of cholinergic neurons. (brainkart.com)
  • The amygdaloid complex is divided into a number of nuclei that have a complex terminology. (brainkart.com)
  • Using the LacZ reporter as a marker, we show that in LHX7-deficient mice FCN progenitors survive but fail to generate cholinergic interneurons in the striatum and cholinergic projection neurons in the basal forebrain. (nih.gov)
  • What transmitter is located in the raphe nucleus? (boardprep.net)
  • Serotonin is located in the raphe nucleus, and it facilitates motor activity. (boardprep.net)
  • The arcuate nucleus produces inhibiting and releasing factors (adrenocorticotrophic hormone, beta-lipotrophic hormone, and beta-endorphin) for pituitary hormones. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • emboliform nucleus ( nucleus embolifor´mis ) a small cerebellar nucleus lying between the dentate nucleus and the globose nucleus and contributing to the superior cerebellar peduncles . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • intracerebellar nuclei four accumulations of gray matter embedded in the white matter of the cerebellum, comprising the dentate nucleus , emboliform nucleus , nucleus fastigii , and globose nucleus . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A hypothalamic nucleus in the ventral wall of the third ventricle near the pituitary stalk. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The first experiments recorded single unit spikes continuously during ICP・variations using tungsten-microelectrode in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH) of the cats. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Superiorly, the complex is related to the anterior part of the lentiform nucleus. (brainkart.com)