Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.

Bioelectrical impedance plethysmographic analysis of body composition in critically injured and healthy subjects. (1/1143)

BACKGROUND: Determination of body composition during critical illness is complex because of various patient-related and technical factors. Bioelectrical impedance is a promising technique for the analysis of body composition; however, its clinical utility in critically injured patients is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare bioelectrical impedance with metabolic activity in healthy and critically injured patients. If bioelectrical impedance accurately determines body composition during critical illness, the slope between body-composition variables and oxygen consumption would be the same in critically injured and healthy subjects. DESIGN: There is a strong linear relation between body composition and metabolic activity. In the present study, body composition (fat-free mass and body cell mass) was determined by using bioelectrical impedance and resting metabolic activity (metabolic rate and oxygen consumption) by using gas exchange analysis in a group of healthy and critically injured subjects. The relation between these variables was compared by using linear regression to a similar relation established by hydrostatic weighing in a large historical control group. RESULTS: The slope of the line relating fat-free mass to resting metabolic rate was the same in the healthy and critically ill groups (P = 0.62) and each was similar to the slope of the line for the control group. However, in 37% of the critically injured group, overhydration contributed to an increase in fat-free mass, disturbing the relation with resting metabolic rate. The slope of the line relating body cell mass to oxygen consumption in our healthy and critically ill groups was almost identical. CONCLUSION: These results support the use of bioelectrical impedance to determine body cell mass in healthy and critically ill subjects.  (+info)

Comparison of indirect calorimetry, the Fick method, and prediction equations in estimating the energy requirements of critically ill patients. (2/1143)

BACKGROUND: Accurate measurement of resting energy expenditure (REE) is helpful in determining the energy needs of critically ill patients requiring nutritional support. Currently, the most accurate clinical tool used to measure REE is indirect calorimetry, which is expensive, requires trained personnel, and has significant error at higher inspired oxygen concentrations. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare REE measured by indirect calorimetry with REE calculated by using the Fick method and prediction equations by Harris-Benedict, Ireton-Jones, Fusco, and Frankenfield. DESIGN: REEs of 36 patients [12 men and 24 women, mean age 58+/-22 y and mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score 22+/-8] in a hospital intensive care unit and receiving mechanical ventilation and total parenteral nutrition (TPN) were measured for > or = 15 min by using indirect calorimetry and compared with REEs calculated from a mean of 2 sets of hemodynamic measurements taken during the metabolic testing period with an oximetric pulmonary artery catheter. RESULTS: Mean REE by indirect calorimetry was 8381+/-1940 kJ/d and correlated poorly with the other methods tested (r = 0.057-0.154). This correlation did not improve after adjusting for changes in respiratory quotient (r2 = 0.28). CONCLUSIONS: These data do not support previous findings showing a strong correlation between REE determined by the Fick method and other prediction equations and indirect calorimetry. In critically ill patients receiving TPN, indirect calorimetry, if available, remains the most appropriate clinical tool for accurate measurement of REE.  (+info)

Anthropometric, lifestyle and metabolic determinants of resting heart rate. A population study. (3/1143)

AIM: To clarify the determinants of resting heart rate at the population level in a random sample of the Belgian population. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data of 5027 men and 4150 women aged 25-74 years obtained from a Belgian nationwide survey were analysed. In multivariate analysis, blood pressure strongly correlated with heart rate in men (t = 12.4 for systolic; t = 8.8 for diastolic) and women (t = 12.0 for systolic; t = 7.7 for diastolic). Age (t = -3.4 in men; t = -8.1 in women) and height (t = -3.7 in men; t = -3.1 in women) correlated negatively with heart rate. Smoking raised heart rate in men (1-19 cigarettes.day-1, t = 6.1; > or = 20 cigarettes.day-1, t = 10.3) and women (> or = 20 cigarettes.day-1, t = 3.5). Serum phosphorus correlated negatively with heart rate (t = -3.5 in men; t = -8.3 in women). Serum log alkaline phosphatase (t = 6.7 in men; t = 7.2 in women) and serum protein (t = 5.3 in men; t = 4.4 in women) correlated positively with heart rate. CONCLUSION: At the population level, blood pressure, cigarette smoking, serum alkaline phosphatase and serum protein correlate independently, significantly and positively with heart rate, and age, height and serum phosphorus negatively.  (+info)

Longitudinal assessment of energy balance in well-nourished, pregnant women. (4/1143)

BACKGROUND: Clinicians often recommend an additional energy intake of 1250 kJ/d to their pregnant patients. Previous studies have shown considerable variation in the metabolic response to pregnancy and thus in the additional energy required to support a pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess how well-nourished women meet the energy demands of pregnancy and to identify factors that predict an individual's metabolic response. DESIGN: Resting metabolic rate (RMR), diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT), total energy expenditure (TEE), activity energy expenditure (AEE), energy intake (EI), and body fat mass (FM) were measured longitudinally in 10 women preconception; at 8-10, 24-26, and 34-36 wk of gestation; and 4-6 wk postpartum. RESULTS: Compared with preconception values, individual RMRs increased from 456 to 3389 kJ/d by late pregnancy. DIT varied from -266 to 110 kJ/meal, TEE from -105 to 3421 kJ/d, AEE from -2301 to 2929 kJ/d, EI from -259 to 2176 kJ/d, and FM from a 0.6-kg loss to a 10.6-kg gain. The only prepregnant factor that predicted FM gain was RMR (r = 0.65, P < 0.05). Women with the largest cumulative increase in RMR deposited the least FM (r = -0.64, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Well-nourished women use different strategies to meet the energy demands of pregnancy, including reductions in DIT or AEE, increases in EI, and deposition of less FM than anticipated. The combination of strategies used by individual women is not wholly predictable from prepregnant indexes. The use of a single recommendation for increased energy intake in all pregnant women is not justified.  (+info)

Energy and substrate metabolism in patients with active Crohn's disease. (5/1143)

The aim of the study was to evaluate the possible contribution of changes in energy metabolism and substrate oxidation rates to malnutrition in Crohn's disease and to assess the effect of enteral nutrition on these parameters. Energy metabolism was evaluated by indirect calorimetry in 32 patients with active Crohn's disease and 19 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals. Measurements were done in the postabsorptive state. Seven out of 32 patients received enteral nutrition via a nasogastric tube. In these patients, resting energy metabolism was determined at d 0 (postabsorptive), 7, 14 (during full enteral nutrition) and 15 (postabsorptive). Resting energy expenditure was not significantly different between patients and controls, whereas the respiratory quotient (RQ) was lower in patients (0.78 +/- 0.05 vs. 0.86 +/- 0.05; P < 0.05). During enteral nutrition in 7 patients with Crohn's disease, the RQ increased on d 7 compared with d 0 and remained high even after cessation of enteral nutrition (d 0, 0.78 +/- 0.03; d 7, 0.91 +/- 0.04; d 15, 0. 84 +/- 0.05; P < 0.05; d 7 and 15 vs. d 0). No effects of enteral nutrition on resting energy expenditure were found. Active Crohn's disease is associated with changes in substrate metabolism that resemble a starvation pattern. These changes appear not to be specific to Crohn's disease but to malnutrition and are readily reversed by enteral nutrition. Enteral nutrition did not affect resting energy expenditure. Wasting is a consequence of malnutrition but not of hypermetabolism in Crohn's disease.  (+info)

Direct and correlated responses to selection for efficiency of lean gain in mice. (6/1143)

Improvement in feed efficiency when selection is based on gain:feed ratio has often been accompanied by a reduction in feed intake. The following four criteria were used in mass selection for improved lean gain efficiency in mice with an objective of evaluating changes in lean gain and intake: 1) gain deviation, animals selected had the greatest gain in fat-free mass (FFM) after adjustment to a constant intake; 2) intake deviation, mice selected had the least feed intake after adjustment to a constant gain in FFM; 3) intrinsic efficiency, similar to the second criterion except that adjustment was also made for average weight maintained during the period; and 4) a positive control that used the ratio of gain in FFM: feed intake as the selection criterion. A fifth line, in which a male and a female were selected at random from each litter, served as a negative control. Experimental animals were outbred mice of the CF1 strain. Two replicates of the five lines were included in the study. Twelve males and females were pair-mated within each line-replicate combination each generation. Feed disappearance was measured from 25 to 42 d. Mice were scanned to obtain an electrical conductivity measurement for prediction of FFM. After six generations of selection, realized heritabilities for gain:feed, gain deviation, intake deviation, and intrinsic efficiency were .00 +/- .04, .04 +/- .29, .35 +/- .08, and .28 +/- .06, respectively. There were no differences among lines for gain:feed ratio. The correlated response in feed intake reduction was significant in the intake deviation and intrinsic efficiency lines (-.17 +/- .05 and -.21 +/- .04 g x d(-1) x generation(-1), respectively). The realized genetic correlations between the ratio and gain deviation, intake deviation, and intrinsic efficiency were .83 +/- .15, .01 +/- .04, and .21 +/- .12, respectively. Litter size was depressed in all selected lines.  (+info)

Endogenous thermoregulatory rhythms of squirrel monkeys in thermoneutrality and cold. (7/1143)

Whole body heat production (HP) and heat loss (HL) were examined to determine if the free-running circadian rhythm in body temperature (Tb) results from coordinated changes in HP and HL rhythms in thermoneutrality (27 degrees C) as well as mild cold (17 degrees C). Squirrel monkey metabolism (n = 6) was monitored by both indirect and direct calorimetry, with telemetered measurement of Tb and activity. Feeding was also measured. Rhythms of HP, HL, and conductance were tightly coupled with the circadian Tb rhythm at both ambient temperatures (TA). At 17 degrees C, increased HP compensated for higher HL at all phases of the Tb rhythm, resulting in only minor changes to Tb. Parallel compensatory changes of HP and HL were seen at all rhythm phases at both TA. Similar time courses of Tb, HP, and HL in their respective rhythms and the relative stability of Tb during both active and rest periods suggest action of the circadian timing system on Tb set point.  (+info)

The value of basal serum follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and oestradiol concentrations following pituitary down-regulation in predicting ovarian response to stimulation with highly purified follicle stimulating hormone. (8/1143)

The value of gonadotrophin and oestradiol concentrations following pituitary down-regulation with leuprolide acetate in predicting ovarian response to stimulation was evaluated in three groups of women undergoing ovarian stimulation for in-vitro fertilization with highly purified follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). Leuprolide acetate was started in the midluteal phase, and either stopped at menses (IVF-SL group, n = 3), or continued throughout stimulation (IVF-LL group, n = 38; oocyte donors, n = 58). Ovarian stimulation was started on cycle day 3, after blood was drawn for down-regulated FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH) and oestradiol. Higher down-regulated LH was predictive of higher oestradiol on day 5 of stimulation in both IVF groups, and of need for fewer ampoules in the IVF-LL group, but not of oestradiol on day of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) administration or number of oocytes retrieved. Higher FSH after down-regulation predicted yield of fewer oocytes in the donor and IVF-LL groups, and higher oestradiol on day 5 of stimulation, need for fewer ampoules and a shorter duration of therapy in both IVF groups. Higher oestradiol after down-regulation was associated with higher oestradiol on day 5 of stimulation and on day of HCG administration, a shorter duration of therapy and need for fewer ampoules in all groups. Whereas these results do not ascribe any predictive significance to LH, they suggest that oestradiol and FSH concentrations after down-regulation are predictive of the pattern of ovarian response to stimulation and of oocyte yield.  (+info)

Basal metabolism, also known as basal metabolic rate (BMR) or resting metabolic rate (RMR), is the amount of energy expended by an organism at rest, in a neutrally temperate environment, while in the post-absorptive state. It is the minimum amount of energy required to maintain basic bodily functions such as breathing, heartbeat, and maintenance of body temperature.

The BMR is typically measured in units of energy per unit time, such as kilocalories per day (kcal/day) or watts (W). In humans, the BMR is usually around 10-15% of a person's total daily energy expenditure. It can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, body size and composition, and genetics.

The BMR can be measured in a variety of ways, including direct calorimetry, indirect calorimetry, or by using predictive equations based on factors such as age, weight, and height. It is an important concept in the study of energy balance, nutrition, and metabolism.

Energy metabolism is the process by which living organisms produce and consume energy to maintain life. It involves a series of chemical reactions that convert nutrients from food, such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, into energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

The process of energy metabolism can be divided into two main categories: catabolism and anabolism. Catabolism is the breakdown of nutrients to release energy, while anabolism is the synthesis of complex molecules from simpler ones using energy.

There are three main stages of energy metabolism: glycolysis, the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle), and oxidative phosphorylation. Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell and involves the breakdown of glucose into pyruvate, producing a small amount of ATP and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). The citric acid cycle takes place in the mitochondria and involves the further breakdown of pyruvate to produce more ATP, NADH, and carbon dioxide. Oxidative phosphorylation is the final stage of energy metabolism and occurs in the inner mitochondrial membrane. It involves the transfer of electrons from NADH and other electron carriers to oxygen, which generates a proton gradient across the membrane. This gradient drives the synthesis of ATP, producing the majority of the cell's energy.

Overall, energy metabolism is a complex and essential process that allows organisms to grow, reproduce, and maintain their bodily functions. Disruptions in energy metabolism can lead to various diseases, including diabetes, obesity, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Oxygen consumption, also known as oxygen uptake, is the amount of oxygen that is consumed or utilized by the body during a specific period of time, usually measured in liters per minute (L/min). It is a common measurement used in exercise physiology and critical care medicine to assess an individual's aerobic metabolism and overall health status.

In clinical settings, oxygen consumption is often measured during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) to evaluate cardiovascular function, pulmonary function, and exercise capacity in patients with various medical conditions such as heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other respiratory or cardiac disorders.

During exercise, oxygen is consumed by the muscles to generate energy through a process called oxidative phosphorylation. The amount of oxygen consumed during exercise can provide important information about an individual's fitness level, exercise capacity, and overall health status. Additionally, measuring oxygen consumption can help healthcare providers assess the effectiveness of treatments and rehabilitation programs in patients with various medical conditions.

Myocardial contraction refers to the rhythmic and forceful shortening of heart muscle cells (myocytes) in the myocardium, which is the muscular wall of the heart. This process is initiated by electrical signals generated by the sinoatrial node, causing a wave of depolarization that spreads throughout the heart.

During myocardial contraction, calcium ions flow into the myocytes, triggering the interaction between actin and myosin filaments, which are the contractile proteins in the muscle cells. This interaction causes the myofilaments to slide past each other, resulting in the shortening of the sarcomeres (the functional units of muscle contraction) and ultimately leading to the contraction of the heart muscle.

Myocardial contraction is essential for pumping blood throughout the body and maintaining adequate circulation to vital organs. Any impairment in myocardial contractility can lead to various cardiac disorders, such as heart failure, cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmias.

Lipid metabolism is the process by which the body breaks down and utilizes lipids (fats) for various functions, such as energy production, cell membrane formation, and hormone synthesis. This complex process involves several enzymes and pathways that regulate the digestion, absorption, transport, storage, and consumption of fats in the body.

The main types of lipids involved in metabolism include triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids, and fatty acids. The breakdown of these lipids begins in the digestive system, where enzymes called lipases break down dietary fats into smaller molecules called fatty acids and glycerol. These molecules are then absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to the liver, which is the main site of lipid metabolism.

In the liver, fatty acids may be further broken down for energy production or used to synthesize new lipids. Excess fatty acids may be stored as triglycerides in specialized cells called adipocytes (fat cells) for later use. Cholesterol is also metabolized in the liver, where it may be used to synthesize bile acids, steroid hormones, and other important molecules.

Disorders of lipid metabolism can lead to a range of health problems, including obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). These conditions may be caused by genetic factors, lifestyle habits, or a combination of both. Proper diagnosis and management of lipid metabolism disorders typically involves a combination of dietary changes, exercise, and medication.

... faster basal metabolism; loss of body hair; evolution of sweat glands; a change in the shape of the dental arcade from u-shaped ... Other similar basal primates were widespread in Eurasia and Africa during the tropical conditions of the Paleocene and Eocene. ... as well as changes in metabolism due to changes in diet, such as lactase persistence. Culturally-driven evolution can defy the ... "Effects of brain evolution on human nutrition and metabolism". Annual Review of Nutrition. 27: 311-327. doi:10.1146/annurev. ...
On the Utility of Uniformity in the Definition of Basal Rate of Metabolism. Physiol. Zool. Vol.70; 718-720. Speakman, J.R., ... Sanborn M.S., Frank B (1922). Basal metabolism: its determination and application. p. 20. Retrieved 21 March 2016. McNab, B. K ... RMR differs from basal metabolic rate (BMR) because BMR measurements must meet total physiological equilibrium whereas RMR ... Resting metabolic rate (RMR) is whole-body mammal (and other vertebrate) metabolism during a time period of strict and steady ...
New tests of basal metabolism, 1935. Adjustment temperature and ground level, 1937. Outdoor temperature and heat transfer in ...
Harris J, Benedict F; Benedict (1918). "A Biometric Study of Human Basal Metabolism". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 4 (12): 370-3. ... However, the mean metabolic rate of sedentary adults is about 50% to 70% greater than their basal rate. There are other ... Basal metabolic rate for a 40-year-old male is about 35 kcal/(m2·h), which is equivalent to 1700 kcal per day, assuming the ...
A Biometric Study of Basal Metabolism in Man. J. Arthur Harris and Francis G. Benedict. Washington, DC: Carnegie Institution, ... which was published in 1919 by the Carnegie Institution of Washington in the monograph A Biometric Study Of Basal Metabolism In ... "A Biometric Study of Human Basal Metabolism". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. ... The Harris-Benedict equation (also called the Harris-Benedict principle) is a method used to estimate an individual's basal ...
... rates of metabolism for many mammals. Metabolism comprises the processes that the body needs to function. Basal metabolic rate ... Harris, JA; Benedict, FG (1918). "A Biometric Study of Human Basal Metabolism". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ... 1. Harris J, Benedict F (1918). "A Biometric Study of Human Basal Metabolism". PNAS. 4 (12): 370-373. Bibcode:1918PNAS....4.. ... 2004). "Climatic adaptation and the evolution of basal and maximum rates of metabolism in rodents". Evolution. 58 (6): 1361- ...
The influence of physical work on the basal metabolism : graduation thesis in candidacy for the degree of Master of Physical ... "The influence of physical work on the basal metabolism" PhD, University of Chicago, 1928. Dissertation: "Studies on the ... I. Exercise and basal metabolism in dogs ... OCLC 40202690. https://libcat.uchicago.edu Archived August 15, 2013, at the ... Thesis: "The influence of exercise on the basal metabolic rate" and Crerar Library, University of Chicago, record Master of ...
"Studies on the Metabolism of Obesity, II. Basal Metabolism" (1924, with Solomon Strouse and M. Dye) "Metabolism of ... Strouse, Solomon (1924-09-01). "Studies on the Metabolism of Obesity, II. Basal Metabolism". Archives of Internal Medicine. 34 ... Wang, Chi Che (1932-07-01). "Basal Metabolism of Twenty-One Chinese Children Reared or Born and Reared in the United States". ... Wang, Chi Che (1939-04-01). "Basal Metabolism and Preformed and Total Creatinine in Urine of Seventy Children". Archives of ...
First, during nutrient starvation, a reduction of basal metabolism takes place. The gut tissues are the first tissues to be ... an increase in feeding enables more dietary protein and energy to be contributed for tissue growth instead of basal metabolism ... metabolism, and the endocrine system. Animals undergoing compensatory growth have been seen to have impaired muscle development ...
Magnus-Levy, Adolf (1942-04-18). "Basal metabolism in the same person after an interval of fifty years". JAMA: The Journal of ... ISBN 978-3-8055-3374-4. Metabolism and Practical Medicine. Volume I. The Physiology of Metabolism. (1907) (Articles with ISNI ... Among his studies on basal metabolic rate, he found that his own BMR had declined by 10% from the age of 26 to 76. Magnus-Levy ... Here he worked on the use of isotopes for studying human metabolism. In later life, he wrote on the history of medicine in ...
... they have a higher basal metabolism comparing to the other leaves. Xerophyte Thermophyte Hydrophyte Halophyte Sofradžija A., ... metabolism). Solar plants, for example, are mullein, ling, thyme and soft velcro, white clover, and most roses. They are common ...
In humans, the hypothalamus regulates metabolism, and hence the basal metabolic rate. Amongst its functions is the regulation ... The lowest normal temperature of a mammal, the basal body temperature, is achieved during sleep. In women, it is affected by ... whereas hypothermia is a condition in which the body's core temperature drops below that required for normal metabolism, and ...
DuBois mapped out basal metabolism for aging men, which he published in 1916. The Aub-DuBois table is still in use today. He ... DuBois thought his "chief contribution was popularizing the simple, fundamental principles of metabolism in disease so that ...
Most vertebrate species devote between 2% and 8% of basal metabolism to the brain. In primates, however, the percentage is much ... The basal ganglia are the central site at which decisions are made: the basal ganglia exert a sustained inhibitory control over ... The basal ganglia are a group of interconnected structures in the forebrain. The primary function of the basal ganglia appears ... All vertebrates have a blood-brain barrier that allows metabolism inside the brain to operate differently from metabolism in ...
Normal human metabolism produces heat at a basal metabolic rate of around 80 watts. During a bicycle race, an elite cyclist can ...
Arends, A; Bonaccorso, FJ; Genoud, M (1995). "Basal rates of metabolism of nectarivorous bats (Phyllostomidae) from a semiarid ... The basal body temperature ranges between 36.7-37.3 °C (98.1-99.1 °F) throughout the luteal phase, and drops down to pre- ... The effect of too extreme a cold is to decrease metabolism, and hence to lessen the production of heat. Both catabolic and ... However, too high a temperature speeds up the metabolism of different tissues to such a rate that their metabolic capital is ...
doi:10.1111/j.1442-9993.2008.01923.x. Arends, Alexis; Bonaccorso, Frank J.; Genoud, Michel (1995). "Basal Rates of Metabolism ... The evolution of endothermy is directly linked to the selection for high levels of activity sustained by aerobic metabolism. ...
Lean muscle is the driver of basal energy metabolism and aids in the use of energy. When sufficient levels of fat are provided ... "Vitamin D metabolism in dogs and cats and its relation to diseases not associated with bone metabolism". Journal of Animal ... This difference in metabolism is due to very low levels of activity of the enzyme B-carotene 15, 15' dioxygenase in feline ... Lipid metabolism is also a major contributor of free radicals, leading to an increased dietary requirement of vitamin E as the ...
Anthropogenic metabolism Basal metabolic rate Calorimetry Rating of perceived exertion VO2 max vVO2max Ainsworth et al. 2011. " ...
It may also present with mild fever and night sweats due to an elevated basal level of metabolism. Some (. 10 × 109/L), ...
Laborit's ideas on anesthesia included potentiated anaesthesia, lowering basal metabolism and lowering body temperature (so- ...
They have a basal rate metabolism of only 74% of what is expected for a mammal of its size. Black-bellied fruit bats may enter ...
Basal Metabolism (1926) Physics in Physiology In 1926, he married Elizabeth Mary Bedale, who had worked as his assistant. ...
"Basal Metabolism" "Let's Kiss and Make Up" - from Funny Face "He Loves and She Loves" - from Funny Face "Bonjour, Paris! ( ...
Pisculli was to take blood samples during the flight, and the basal metabolism tests would have been repeated on arrival in ... For the purpose of the first study, the three crew members underwent pre-flight physical examinations, basal metabolism tests, ...
A treadmill desk is not intended to provide aerobic exercise, but rather to keep the user's metabolism over the basal metabolic ...
Growth And Metabolism In Basal Mosasaurids (MS). Fort Hays State University. Carpenter, J.A. (2017). Locomotion and skeletal ... However, only four specimens were studied, and Clidastes is considered a basal mosasaur. Identification of the mosasaur and ... Nearly all squamates are characterized by their cold-blooded ectothermic metabolism, but mosasaurs like Tylosaurus are unique ... the type of metabolism can be inferred. The study used the body temperatures of the cold-blooded fish Enchodus and sea turtle ...
... altered blood perfusion and metabolism within their basal ganglia. Several case reports describe that deep brain stimulation of ... Basal ganglia disease is a group of physical problems that occur when the group of nuclei in the brain known as the basal ... Blepharospasm may come from abnormal functioning of the brain's basal ganglia. Many disorders of the basal ganglia are due to ... Though motor disorders are the most common associated with the basal ganglia, recent research shows that basal ganglia ...
Growth And Metabolism In Basal Mosasaurids (MS). Fort Hays State University. Glenn J. Tattersall; Cleo A. C. Leite; Colin E. ... hoffmannii as basal to a multitude of descendant clades containing (in order of most to least basal) Globidens, M. lemonnieri, ... missouriensis to be the most basal species of the genus instead of M. conodon. In 2014, Konishi and colleagues expressed a ... conodon being the most basal of the genus. Contrary to Russell (1967), Bell also recovered Mosasaurus in a sister relationship ...
Basal metabolic rate Calorimetry Metabolism Respirometer VO2max White, C. R., and R. S. Seymour. 2005. Allometric scaling of ... Energy metabolism in animals and man. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-36931-2 Weibel, E. R., and H. Hoppeler. 2005. ... Respirometry is a general term that encompasses a number of techniques for obtaining estimates of the rates of metabolism of ... Two measures are typically obtained: standard (SMR) or basal metabolic rate (BMR) and maximal rate (VO2max). SMR is measured ...
... Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016 Nov ... We also showed that ARAP2 knockdown did not affect fatty acid uptake but reduced basal glucose uptake, total levels of the ... Taken together, our data suggest that ARAP2 promotes lipid droplet formation by modifying sphingolipid metabolism through GCS. ... Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of GCS resulted in increases in basal glucose uptake, total GLUT1 levels, triglyceride ...
... metabolism, Basal Metabolism:drug effects, Biomarkers:metabolism, Caspases:metabolism, Female, Homeostasis:drug effects, ... It influences not only the oxidative homeostasis but also the basal metabolism, as represented by, e.g., cholesterol and ... Pohanka I, Bandouchova A, Pikula I, Melatonin influences antioxidant homeostasis and basal metabolism in the BALB/c mouse model ... Melatonin influences antioxidant homeostasis and basal metabolism in the BALB/c mouse model.. ...
Compare BASAL METABOLIC RATE.. What is part of basal metabolism?. Basal metabolic rate is the amount of energy per unit of time ... What is basal metabolism short definition?. Definition of basal metabolism : the turnover of energy in a fasting and resting ... What is metabolism?. What Is Metabolism? - Definition, Types, Process What is Metabolism? "Metabolism refers to a series of ... What is basal metabolism short definition?. 15/07/2022. By Tanisha Donald Articles ...
... faster basal metabolism; loss of body hair; evolution of sweat glands; a change in the shape of the dental arcade from u-shaped ... Other similar basal primates were widespread in Eurasia and Africa during the tropical conditions of the Paleocene and Eocene. ... as well as changes in metabolism due to changes in diet, such as lactase persistence. Culturally-driven evolution can defy the ... "Effects of brain evolution on human nutrition and metabolism". Annual Review of Nutrition. 27: 311-327. doi:10.1146/annurev. ...
Researchers identify ion channel required for proper regulation of basal metabolism and body weight UT Southwestern Medical ...
BASAL METABOLISM. The human body uses calories to live, in what is called basal metabolism. For example, the body consumes ... Because these functions are constantly performed, the body has quite high resting energy requirements (basal metabolism). It is ...
This energy burn is your basal metabolism. For the average woman, its about 1,200 calories a day. Additional calories go into ... since metabolism slows as we age. But in general, excess calories begin finding their way to your hips approximately four to ...
Harris, J. A., and Benedict, F. G. (1918). A biometric study of human basal metabolism. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 4, 370- ... where BMR is the basal metabolic rate of the body. According to this approach (Harris and Benedict, 1918), BMR can be ... Mink, J. W., Blumenschine, R. J., and Adams, D. B. (1981). Ratio of central nervous system to body metabolism in vertebrates: ... Herculano-Houzel, S. (2011). Scaling of brain metabolism with a fixed energy budget per neuron: implications for neuronal ...
Keys, A.; Taylor, H.L.; Grande, F. Basal metabolism and age of adult man. Metabolism 1973, 22, 579-587. [Google Scholar] [ ... Given the established relationship that basal metabolic rate generally declines with age [49], the higher metabolic rate in ... This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Intake and Adipose Tissue Metabolism). ...
Categories: Basal Metabolism Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 2 ...
Thiamine metabolism dysfunction syndrome 2, see Biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease ... THMD2, see Biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease. *Thoracic aortic aneurysm, see Familial thoracic aortic aneurysm ... Thiamine transporter-2 deficiency, see Biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease. *Thiamine-responsive encephalopathy, ...
When Samsung Health App is launched for the first time, the basal metabolism you expend until the time you launch the App will ... The burned calories being includes your basal metabolism calculated based on the profile you registered. ...
1952b Basal metabolism of the Eskimo. J. Nutr. 48:359-365.. 1955 Nutritional requirements of troops stationed in Alaska. Arctic ... Rodahl, K. 1952a Basal metabolism of the Eskimo. Pp. 1-110 in Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory project no. 22-1301-001, part 2. Ft ... 18 Fluid Metabolism at High Altitudes 331-356 * 19 Maintenance of Body Weight at High Altitudes: In Search of 500 kcal/day 357- ... 10 Muscle Metabolism and Shivering During Cold Stress 181-188 * 11 Macronutrient Requirements for Work in Cold Environments 189 ...
C) Brain positron emission tomography-computed tomography suggested reduced glucose metabolism in the left basal ganglia. ... B) A T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery image with hyperintense signal changes in the left basal ganglia. ...
Brozak J, Grande F. Body composition and basal metabolism in man correlation analysis versus physiologic approach. Human Biol. ... Recovery of energy metabolism in rat brain after carbon monoxide hypoxia. J Clin Invest. 1992 Feb. 89(2):666-72. [QxMD MEDLINE ... The effect of varying ambient oxygen tensions on wound metabolism and collagen synthesis. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1972 Oct. 135(4 ... cerebral circulation and cerebral metabolism. J Appl Physiol. 1953 Mar. 5(9):471-86. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ...
Build muscles and increase basal metabolism. It has been proven that the bigger muscle mass you have the greater is the ... The number of calories burn depends on your BMR or basal metabolic rate. Basically BMR is based on your current weight, height ...
Ratios of measured to predicted values were used for basal metabolism (Hbr) and minimum wet thermal conductance (Cmwr). ...
Medically, soda lime is used to absorb carbon dioxide in basal ... soda lime is used to absorb carbon dioxide in basal metabolism ...
Basal Metabolism - Fred Astaire/Audrey Hepburn/Kay Thompson [2:54]. 11.. Lets Kiss And Make Up - Fred Astaire [4:48]. ...
The Effects of Aerobic Exercise Training on Basal Metabolism and Physical Fitness in Sedentary Women (Articles) ...
3. Is enhancing basal metabolism safe for the body? Promoting basal metabolism means using up glucose and convert into energy ... Without you having to engage in any special supportive mechanism, the supplement helps to promote basal metabolism resulting in ... Chromium is an essential element needed for body metabolism by allowing your body to make use of lipids( fats and oil) and ... Found in Asia and Southern Europe, Licorice is useful for the metabolism of fats in essential organs such as the liver, among ...
Basal Metabolism 98% * cross-sectional studies 87% * Cross-Sectional Studies 49% * energy 45% ...
aka Sanctorius Sanctorius was an Italian physician who made the first systematic study of basal metabolism. In his research, he ...
Reference: Harris J, Benedict F. A biometric study of basal metabolism in man. Washington D.C. Carnegie Institute of Washington ... Basal Metabolic Rate is calculated based on age, weight and height. To modify the information, enter a few weight entries at ...
People with higher BMRs (Basal Metabolism Rates) sweat more than those with lower BMRs. Women especially around the time of [[ ...
Basal and Bolus Defined. Basal insulin is the background insulin that covers your normal metabolism and insulin needs. Basal ... A bolus dose of insulin is when insulin is taken in a larger all-at-once dose rather than basal insulin. Where the basal ... No matter what type you use or how you take it, people with type 1 diabetes need two basic types of insulin: basal and bolus. ... Before basal-bolus was available, the only options were split-mixed insulin. This technique combines an intermediate-acting ...
We investigated whether basal metabolism changes in such patients before and after kidney transplantation, during the recovery ... Background Few studies on the basal metabolism of pediatric patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have been published. ... We investigated whether basal metabolism changes in such patients before and after kidney transplantation, during the recovery ... Few studies on the basal metabolism of pediatric patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have been published. ...
These hormones enhance oxygen consumption by most tissues of the body, increase the basal metabolic rate, and the metabolism of ...
... a losing weight solution that uses thermogenic supplements to boost metabolism and accelerate fat burning. ... Its contribution to thermogenesis stimulates basal metabolism, paving the way for increased fat burning and aligning seamlessly ... Enhanced Metabolism:. Designed with the aim to supercharge metabolism, the Alpilean Ice Hack Diet takes center stage in the ... How do Alpilean pills boost metabolism?. Alpilean pills boost metabolism by incorporating thermogenic ingredients like green ...
  • Definition of basal metabolism : the turnover of energy in a fasting and resting organism using energy solely to maintain vital cellular activity, respiration, and circulation as measured by the basal metabolic rate. (orderwithme.com)
  • In this article, I'm going to give you a practical definition of the metabolism, as well as break down each of the basic components: basal metabolic rate (BMR), non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT), exercise activity thermogenesis (EAT), and the thermic effect of food (TEF). (orderwithme.com)
  • Basal metabolic rate is the amount of energy per unit of time that a person needs to keep the body functioning at rest. (orderwithme.com)
  • Basal metabolic rate (BMR) estimates the minimum number of calories a person needs to burn to sustain their basic life functions during a 24-hour period of rest. (orderwithme.com)
  • The chemical reactions of metabolism are organized into metabolic pathways, in which one chemical is transformed through a series of steps into another chemical, by a sequence of enzymes. (orderwithme.com)
  • This is known as your basal metabolic rate or metabolism. (lifehack.org)
  • When the total energy expenditure for a typical subject is 2,750 kcal/d, approximately 60 percent of this total energy is due to basal metabolic rate (BMR) (1,500 kcal). (nationalacademies.org)
  • The number of calories burn depends on your BMR or basal metabolic rate. (weightlosshelpandtips.net)
  • Many different factors can influence your overall metabolism and your basal metabolic rate, including how active you are. (webmd.com)
  • Your basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the amount of calories you need to keep your body working when you're resting. (webmd.com)
  • Basal Metabolic Rate is calculated based on age, weight and height. (lowcarber.org)
  • Green nodes: lipid metabolism. (orderwithme.com)
  • Here, we investigated the role of CPT1 in lipid metabolism and in resistance to starvation in Rhodnius prolixus. (bvsalud.org)
  • B) A T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery image with hyperintense signal changes in the left basal ganglia. (cdc.gov)
  • C) Brain positron emission tomography-computed tomography suggested reduced glucose metabolism in the left basal ganglia. (cdc.gov)
  • Metabolism is broken down into two processes: anabolism and catabolism. (webmd.com)
  • The human body uses calories to live, in what is called basal metabolism . (botanical-online.com)
  • The burned calories being includes your basal metabolism calculated based on the profile you registered. (samsung.com)
  • Your metabolism uses calories and oxygen to make and release energy in a form the cells in all your organs and tissues can use. (webmd.com)
  • If you have a "fast metabolism," it means that you burn lots of calories when you're just resting. (webmd.com)
  • If your metabolism is slow, your body can get by with less food or calories. (webmd.com)
  • however, data from other sources indicated that farm labor is generally very energy intensive, consuming large numbers of calories relative to those used by basal metabolism. (cdc.gov)
  • We also showed that ARAP2 knockdown did not affect fatty acid uptake but reduced basal glucose uptake, total levels of the glucose transporter GLUT1, and GLUT1 levels in the plasma membrane and the lipid micro-domain fraction (a specialized plasma membrane domain enriched in sphingolipids). (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of GCS resulted in increases in basal glucose uptake, total GLUT1 levels, triglyceride biosynthesis from glucose, and lipid droplet formation, indicating that the effects of GCS inhibition are the opposite to those resulting from ARAP2 knockdown. (nih.gov)
  • It influences not only the oxidative homeostasis but also the basal metabolism, as represented by, e.g., cholesterol and glucose. (nel.edu)
  • Having a fast metabolism will mean that your energy levels are much more stable, and you hardly feel tired. (lifehack.org)
  • So, having a fast metabolism doesn't always mean you'll be thin. (webmd.com)
  • In this study, we measured locomotory activity, and the glyceride accumulation profile in the hemolymph and fat body, as well as the expression of key genes related to triglyceride metabolism, of Rhodnius prolixus nymphs infected with T. rangeli. (bvsalud.org)
  • The energy that the body needs to maintain vital functions (breathing, thinking, heartbeat, healthy organs, etc.) is called basal metabolism . (botanical-online.com)
  • Control ineffective erythropoiesis: Ineffective erythropoiesis, a distinctive and principal feature of thalassemia, causes bone marrow expansion, elevated basal metabolism, extra-medullary hematopoietic masses, skeletal deformities of face and skull, fragile bones, and increased absorption of dietary iron. (cdc.gov)
  • Because these functions are constantly performed, the body has quite high resting energy requirements (basal metabolism). (botanical-online.com)
  • As you get older, though, it's quite natural for various body systems to begin slowing down, including your metabolism. (lifehack.org)
  • Your metabolism is simply the process by which your body converts food into energy. (lifehack.org)
  • Your body uses up a lot of energy when it breaks down the fiber and protein, and that keeps your metabolism in good working order. (lifehack.org)
  • The basal metabolism of cattle is their greatest energetic expense and if we are to decrease it, we will need to examine their body composition and differences in protein-turnover rates. (usda.gov)
  • Metabolism is a series of processes that control how your body creates and uses energy. (webmd.com)
  • Your metabolism affects how much of that energy your body uses up and how much it stores. (webmd.com)
  • Postgraduate in Phytotherapy and master in Nutrition and Metabolism. (botanical-online.com)
  • You might hear people talk about metabolism when discussing health, weight, and nutrition. (webmd.com)
  • Your metabolism depends on many different factors. (webmd.com)
  • This energy burn is your basal metabolism. (oprah.com)
  • A lack of activity combined with lower energy needs creates a slow metabolism. (webmd.com)
  • high-protein foods such as meat relatively slowly), and your age, since metabolism slows as we age. (oprah.com)
  • Management that decreases carcass protein degradation probably would result in a decreased basal metabolism. (usda.gov)
  • The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the above described set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism. (orderwithme.com)
  • Some people do seem like they've been born with a high metabolism and can eat whatever they want without gaining an ounce. (webmd.com)
  • There are two categories of metabolism: catabolism and anabolism. (orderwithme.com)
  • Are there different types of metabolism? (orderwithme.com)
  • There are three basic metabolism types: ectomorph, mesomorph, and endomorph - definitely words you probably don't use in your normal, day-to-day conversations. (orderwithme.com)
  • Definition, Types, Process What is Metabolism? (orderwithme.com)
  • Most importantly, research has even found that nuts can ramp up your metabolism. (lifehack.org)
  • This zone secretes cortisol both at a basal level and as a response to the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary gland. (medscape.com)
  • Ratios of measured to predicted values were used for basal metabolism (Hbr) and minimum wet thermal conductance (Cmwr). (dictionary.com)
  • Your age - As you get older, your body's muscle content tends to decrease and fat begins to increase, which can slow down your metabolism. (lifehack.org)
  • Without them, your metabolism can slow down or become impaired. (lifehack.org)
  • ‌You might think your metabolism , whether fast or slow, is something you're born with, passed down from your parents. (webmd.com)
  • But it might surprise you that fast vs. slow metabolism doesn't always relate to a person's weight in the way you'd expect. (webmd.com)
  • But there are several things that you can control that affect your metabolism and your weight. (webmd.com)
  • It's easy to blame problems with weight on metabolism. (webmd.com)
  • Your metabolism is working to maintain your weight. (webmd.com)
  • Metabolism refers to a series of chemical reactions that occur in a living organism to sustain life. (orderwithme.com)
  • People with great metabolisms can also stay mentally focused. (lifehack.org)
  • Many people who have fast metabolisms or BMRs can be overweight or have obesity. (webmd.com)
  • When your metabolism is functioning at its best, you'll experience lots of health benefits. (lifehack.org)
  • Microarray analysis showed that ARAP2 knockdown altered expression of genes involved in sphingolipid metabolism. (nih.gov)