Basal Ganglia Cerebrovascular Disease: A pathological condition caused by impaired blood flow in the basal regions of cerebral hemispheres (BASAL GANGLIA), such as INFARCTION; HEMORRHAGE; or ISCHEMIA in vessels of this brain region including the lateral lenticulostriate arteries. Primary clinical manifestations include involuntary movements (DYSKINESIAS) and muscle weakness (HEMIPARESIS).Basal Ganglia: Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Basal Ganglia Diseases: Diseases of the BASAL GANGLIA including the PUTAMEN; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; claustrum; AMYGDALA; and CAUDATE NUCLEUS. DYSKINESIAS (most notably involuntary movements and alterations of the rate of movement) represent the primary clinical manifestations of these disorders. Common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES; and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Ganglia: Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.ConnecticutCellular Phone: Analog or digital communications device in which the user has a wireless connection from a telephone to a nearby transmitter. It is termed cellular because the service area is divided into multiple "cells." As the user moves from one cell area to another, the call is transferred to the local transmitter.Professional Practice Location: Geographic area in which a professional person practices; includes primarily physicians and dentists.Hospitals, Religious: Private hospitals that are owned or sponsored by religious organizations.Medicare Part A: The compulsory portion of Medicare that is known as the Hospital Insurance Program. All persons 65 years and older who are entitled to benefits under the Old Age, Survivors, Disability and Health Insurance Program or railroad retirement, persons under the age of 65 who have been eligible for disability for more than two years, and insured workers (and their dependents) requiring renal dialysis or kidney transplantation are automatically enrolled in Medicare Part A.Needle-Exchange Programs: Organized services for exchange of sterile needles and syringes used for injections as a potential means of reducing the transmission of infectious diseases.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Anemia, Sickle Cell: A disease characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, episodic painful crises, and pathologic involvement of many organs. It is the clinical expression of homozygosity for hemoglobin S.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial: A non-invasive technique using ultrasound for the measurement of cerebrovascular hemodynamics, particularly cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebral collateral flow. With a high-intensity, low-frequency pulse probe, the intracranial arteries may be studied transtemporally, transorbitally, or from below the foramen magnum.Sickle Cell Trait: The condition of being heterozygous for hemoglobin S.Hemoglobin C Disease: A disease characterized by compensated hemolysis with a normal hemoglobin level or a mild to moderate anemia. There may be intermittent abdominal discomfort, splenomegaly, and slight jaundice.Priapism: A prolonged painful erection that may lasts hours and is not associated with sexual activity. It is seen in patients with SICKLE CELL ANEMIA, advanced malignancy, spinal trauma; and certain drug treatments.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Ultrasonography, Doppler: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)ArchivesBiological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Paresis: A general term referring to a mild to moderate degree of muscular weakness, occasionally used as a synonym for PARALYSIS (severe or complete loss of motor function). In the older literature, paresis often referred specifically to paretic neurosyphilis (see NEUROSYPHILIS). "General paresis" and "general paralysis" may still carry that connotation. Bilateral lower extremity paresis is referred to as PARAPARESIS.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Imagery (Psychotherapy): The use of mental images produced by the imagination as a form of psychotherapy. It can be classified by the modality of its content: visual, verbal, auditory, olfactory, tactile, gustatory, or kinesthetic. Common themes derive from nature imagery (e.g., forests and mountains), water imagery (e.g., brooks and oceans), travel imagery, etc. Imagery is used in the treatment of mental disorders and in helping patients cope with other diseases. Imagery often forms a part of HYPNOSIS, of AUTOGENIC TRAINING, of RELAXATION TECHNIQUES, and of BEHAVIOR THERAPY. (From Encyclopedia of Human Behavior, vol. 4, pp29-30, 1994)GreeceManagement Quality Circles: Participation of employees with management as a labor-management team, in decisions pertaining to the operational activities of the organization or industry.Quality Indicators, Health Care: Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Empathy: An individual's objective and insightful awareness of the feelings and behavior of another person. It should be distinguished from sympathy, which is usually nonobjective and noncritical. It includes caring, which is the demonstration of an awareness of and a concern for the good of others. (From Bioethics Thesaurus, 1992)Unconscious (Psychology): Those forces and content of the mind which are not ordinarily available to conscious awareness or to immediate recall.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Frontotemporal Dementia: The most common clinical form of FRONTOTEMPORAL LOBAR DEGENERATION, this dementia presents with personality and behavioral changes often associated with disinhibition, apathy, and lack of insight.Myositis, Inclusion Body: Progressive myopathies characterized by the presence of inclusion bodies on muscle biopsy. Sporadic and hereditary forms have been described. The sporadic form is an acquired, adult-onset inflammatory vacuolar myopathy affecting proximal and distal muscles. Familial forms usually begin in childhood and lack inflammatory changes. Both forms feature intracytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions in muscle tissue. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1409-10)Osteitis Deformans: A disease marked by repeated episodes of increased bone resorption followed by excessive attempts at repair, resulting in weakened, deformed bones of increased mass. The resultant architecture of the bone assumes a mosaic pattern in which the fibers take on a haphazard pattern instead of the normal parallel symmetry.Neurobiology: The study of the structure, growth, activities, and functions of NEURONS and the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.MinnesotaNerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Video Games: A form of interactive entertainment in which the player controls electronically generated images that appear on a video display screen. This includes video games played in the home on special machines or home computers, and those played in arcades.Videotape Recording: Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Peer Review, Research: The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.Peer Review: An organized procedure carried out by a select committee of professionals in evaluating the performance of other professionals in meeting the standards of their specialty. Review by peers is used by editors in the evaluation of articles and other papers submitted for publication. Peer review is used also in the evaluation of grant applications. It is applied also in evaluating the quality of health care provided to patients.

Two types of auditory neglect. (1/36)

Auditory neglect, defined as inattention to stimuli within the left hemispace, is mostly reported in association with left ear extinction in dichotic listening. However, it remains disputed as to how far dichotic extinction reflects a primary attentional deficit and is thus appropriate for the diagnosis of auditory neglect. We report here on four patients who presented left ear extinction in dichotic listening following right unilateral hemispheric lesions. Auditory spatial attention was assessed with two additional tasks: (i) diotic test by means of interaural time differences (ITDs), simulating bilateral simultaneous spatial presentation of the dichotic tasks without the inconvenience of interaural intensity or content difference; and (ii) sound localization. A hemispatial asymmetry on the ITD diotic test or a spatial bias on sound localization were found to be part of auditory neglect. Two patients (J.C.N. and M.B.) presented a marked hemispatial asymmetry favouring the ipsilesional hemispace in the ITD diotic test, but did not show any spatial bias in sound localization. Two other patients (A.J. and E.S.) had the reverse profile: no hemispatial asymmetry in the ITD diotic test, but a severe spatial bias directed to the ipsilesional side in sound localization. J.C.N. and M.B. had mainly subcortical lesions affecting the basal ganglia. A.J. and E.S. had cortical lesions in the prefrontal, superior temporal and inferior parietal areas. Thus, there are two behaviourally and anatomically distinct types of auditory neglect characterized by: (i) deficit in allocation of auditory spatial attention following lesions centred on basal ganglia; or (ii) distortion of auditory spatial representation following frontotemporoparietal lesions.  (+info)

Correlation of early CT signs in the deep middle cerebral artery territories with angiographically confirmed site of arterial occlusion. (2/36)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Early CT signs in the deep middle cerebral artery (MCA) territories have been reported to be seen at the initial period of ischemia. We attempted to investigate the incidence of parenchymal hypodensity within 3 hours after ischemic onset among patients with angiographically proved embolic MCA occlusion and to assess the correlation of subtle hypodensity in the deep MCA territories with involvement of the lenticulostriate arteries in the presence of ischemia. METHODS: Fifty CT images obtained within 3 hours after onset of embolic MCA occlusion were retrospectively reviewed by three neurosurgeons who were aware of clinical features. Early CT signs in the deep MCA territories were divided into three grades according to their anatomic location: grade I, normal basal ganglia with hypodensity localized to the insula; grade II, partial obscuration of the posterolateral part of the putamen; and grade III, hypodensity of the entire lentiform nucleus. A grade I CT sign was considered to be a negative finding for lenticulostriate artery involvement, whereas grade II and III CT signs were considered to be positive findings. Site of occlusion and involvement of the lenticulostriate arteries were confirmed by angiography. RESULTS: Thirty-eight (76%) of 50 patients had early CT signs in the deep MCA territories. Sensitivity and specificity of a grade I CT sign indicating absence of lenticulostriate artery involvement in ischemia were 65% and 87%, respectively. On the other hand, sensitivity and specificity of grade II and grade III CT signs for presence of lenticulostriate artery involvement in ischemia were 77% and 100%, respectively. Grade II CT signs resulted from various sites of occlusion, whereas grade III was unequivocally predictive of proximal occlusion to all of the lenticulostriate arteries. CONCLUSION: Involvement of the lenticulostriate arteries may be presumed by precise evaluation of subtle, CT-revealed hypodensity in the deep MCA territories, even within 3 hours of ischemic onset.  (+info)

Small centrum ovale infarcts on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. (3/36)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A small centrum ovale infarct (SCOI), caused by occlusion of the white matter medullary arteries, is often equated with a lacunar infarct. We sought to clarify the clinical characteristics of a SCOI visualized by diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) compared with those of a small basal ganglia infarct (SBGI). METHODS: Patients with a SCOI (SCOI group; n=38) or SBGI (SBGI group; n=68) < or =15 mm in diameter on conventional MRI and DWI were selected from 582 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke. Sex, age, neurological symptoms, vascular risk factors, emboligenic heart disease, arterial occlusive disease in the ipsilateral carotid system, and recurrent stroke within the initial 30 days were compared between the 2 groups. RESULTS: Only 47% of SCOIs but 87% of SBGIs could be identified with the use of conventional MRI, whereas DWI could detect them all. Age, sex, and vascular risk factors were not significantly different between the 2 groups. The SCOI group had more frequently an abrupt onset of symptoms (63% versus 26%; P=0.0002), emboligenic heart diseases (34% versus 12%; P=0.0054), occlusive carotid and/or middle cerebral artery diseases (53% versus 19%; P=0.0004), and recurrent stroke (13% versus 1%; P=0.0216) but less frequently a classic lacunar syndrome (50% versus 81%; P=0.0009) than the SBGI group. On a multivariate analysis, both arterial and heart diseases were independently associated with the SCOI group. CONCLUSIONS: Symptomatic SCOIs detected by DWI may be associated with large-vessel and heart diseases and should be distinguished from lacunar infarcts.  (+info)

Cerebrovascular disease and evolution of depressive symptoms in the cardiovascular health study. (4/36)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Previous studies have reported an association between cerebrovascular disease and depressive symptoms. The Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) provides an opportunity to examine the relationship between vascular brain pathology seen on neuroimaging and changes in depressive symptoms. METHODS: The sample included 3236 CHS participants who had an MRI brain scan. Demographic variables, medical history, functional status, and apolipoprotein E genotype were obtained at baseline. Annual scores on a modified version of the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale were obtained initially and up to 7 years subsequently. RESULTS: After controlling for important covariates, occurrence of depressive symptoms (defined as modified CES-D score of >7) was associated with small lesions in the basal ganglia, large cortical white-matter lesions, and severe subcortical white-matter grade. Neuroimaging variables did not predict incident depression among those who were nondepressive at the time of MRI. Persistence of depressive symptoms across 2 consecutive time points was associated with small basal ganglia lesions and large cerebral cortical white-matter lesions. Worsening of depression (increase in CES-D score of > or =5) was associated with subcortical white-matter lesions. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that cerebrovascular disease at baseline is related to depression symptoms over time. Further studies are needed to investigate the differential effects of subcortical white- versus gray-matter lesions on mood.  (+info)

Early and late postnatal identification of isolated lenticulostriate vasculopathy in preterm infants: associated findings. (5/36)

OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence, possible etiologies, and neurodevelopmental outcome of premature infants (<35 weeks) with isolated lenticulostriate vasculopathy (LSV). STUDY DESIGN: In a retrospective case-control design, we reviewed the medical records of all premature infants who were admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit between 1996 and 2000. RESULTS: The prevalence of LSV was 4.6% (21 of 453). Patients with late LSV (detected after 10 days of age) had less exposure than controls to prenatal steroids [42.8% (6 of 14) vs. 92.8% (13 of 14), respectively; p<0.01], and prenatal antibiotics [42.8% (6 of 14) vs. 85.7% (12 of 14), respectively; p=0.01]. Fifty-seven percent (8 of 14) of patients with late LSV had a low Apgar score vs. 14.2% (2 of 14) of the control group (p=0.01). Patients with LSV also had more muscle tone abnormalities than controls at 6 months of age [33.3% (5 of 15) vs. 5.2% (1 of 19), respectively; p=0.03]. CONCLUSION: Patients with late LSV have less exposure to antenatal steroids and antibiotics, lower Apgar scores, and abnormal muscle tone at 6 months of age.  (+info)

Heterogeneity of cerebral blood flow in Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia. (6/36)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Alzheimer disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) are the two major diseases that cause dementia, and early diagnosis is important. Single photon emission CT (SPECT) of cerebral blood flow (CBF) is used for the early detection of dementia and as an auxiliary method for follow-up. AD shows reduced posterior blood flow and VaD manifests reduced anterior blood flow on CBF SPECT images. We examined the usefulness of 3D fractal analysis of CBF SPECT images to objectively quantify the heterogeneity of CBF in patients with AD and VaD. METHODS: Thirty-two patients with AD and 22 with VaD based on neuropsychologic tests and imaging findings, as well as 20 age-matched control subjects underwent technetium-99m hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime CBF SPECT. We then conducted statistical image processing by 3D fractal analysis on reconstructed data. Fractal dimension, an index of heterogeneity, was then calculated for the whole brain, as well as for the anterior and posterior regions of the brain. A higher fractal dimension indicates that the CBF SPECT image is uneven. The ratio of fractal dimension of the anterior region to fractal dimension of the posterior region (A/P ratio) was calculated. Heterogeneity of CBF was compared among the AD, VaD, and control groups. RESULTS: Fractal dimensions of the AD, VaD, and control groups were 1.072+/-0.179 (mean +/- SD), 1.005+/-0.156, and 0.806+/-0.06, respectively. A significant difference of fractal dimension was noted between the control group and the two types of dementia (P<.0001); however, no significant difference was noted between the AD and VaD groups. The A/P ratios of the AD and VaD groups were significantly different (0.952 and 1.163, respectively; P<.01). CONCLUSION: Analysis of CBF SPECT images quantitatively showed that the fractal dimension was significantly higher (indicating heterogeneity) in patients with AD and VaD when compared with age-matched control subjects. Comparison of the A/P ratio on CBF SPECT images between AD and VaD groups showed that the heterogeneity of CBF was posterior-dominant for AD and anterior-dominant for VaD. Thus, 3D fractal analysis enabled a simple and objective evaluation of the heterogeneity of CBF in patients with AD and VaD.  (+info)

Neonatal lenticulostriate vasculopathy: further characterisation. (7/36)

BACKGROUND: Lenticulostriate vasculopathy (LSV) is sometimes detected on routine brain ultrasonography in neonates, and is often associated with various perinatal and neonatal abnormalities. However, most reports on LSV are retrospective with no controls. OBJECTIVES: To compare the perinatal and neonatal clinical characteristics of neonates with LSV with matched controls and to summarise all published reports of LSV. DESIGN: A prospective study that summarises the clinical, laboratory, and neurosonographic data of neonates with LSV. METHODS: Of 1184 neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) during a three year period, 857 had a routine head ultrasound examination. Twenty one had LSV, and were compared with 42 matched controls with regard to gestational, perinatal, neonatal, laboratory, and neurosonographic characteristics. RESULTS: LSV was detected in 21 of the 857 (2.45%) neonates. It was bilateral in 10 of the 21 cases and located in the thalamus (n = 14) and basal ganglia (n = 7). Infants with LSV were not significantly different from matched controls in most tested variables. However, compared with the control group, the LSV group included significantly more multiple births and more disturbances in amniotic fluid volume, but less meconial amniotic fluid. In addition, the patients with LSV required fewer blood transfusions and less phototherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Except for more multiple births, neonates with LSV did not display more adverse findings than their matched controls.  (+info)

The L-dopa response in vascular parkinsonism. (8/36)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a positive L-dopa response in vascular parkinsonism (VP) is correlated with the presence of nigrostriatal pathology due to either vascular damage or neuronal cell loss. METHODS: Seventeen patients with pathologically confirmed VP were selected from the pathological collection of the Queen Square Brain Bank for Neurological Disorders, and their L-dopa response during life was compared with the presence of macroscopic vascular damage in the nigrostriatal pathway and microscopic substantia nigra cell loss. RESULTS: Ten of the twelve patients with a good or excellent response had macroscopic infarcts or lacunae caused by enlarged perivascular spaces in the basal ganglia or microscopic neuronal cell loss in the substantia nigra. In contrast, only one of the five patients with a moderate or no response had lacunae in the putamen, and none had lacunar infarcts or substantia nigra cell loss. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that a substantial number of patients with clinically suspected VP may respond with benefit to dopaminergic therapy, especially those with lesions in or close to the nigrostriatal pathway.  (+info)

A highly reliable model for the study of focal cerebral ischemia has been developed using a retro-orbital approach to occlude the lateral lenticulostriate arteries of the baboon. An infarction of the caudate, putamen and the anterior limb of the internal capsule has consistently been produced. Reliability has been attained because the anatomical variations of the lenticulostriate arteries of each animal can be fully appraised, permitting selective vessel occlusion. A well-defined clinical and radiographic lesion has also resulted from this procedure which was clinically well tolerated by all animals. Selective lenticulostriate occlusion provides a new approach to the study of focal cerebral ischemia in the sub-human primate, and serves for the evaluation of proposed therapies for treatment of focal cerebral ischemia. ...
Methods-We retrospectively reviewed 85 consecutive patients with acute small subcortical infarcts in the lenticulostriate artery territory who were admitted to our stroke center within 24 hours of symptom onset and underwent serial diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). Albuminuria was determined based on the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio obtained from a first morning spot urine after admission. Infarct volume was measured on axial sections of the initial and follow-up DWI. Early neurological deterioration (END) was defined as an increase of ≥2 points in the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score during the first 5 days after admission.. ...
Results Data from 112 infants scanned at a median age of 1.4 postnatal days were analysed. Only 57 (51%) infants had scans considered normal, including 30 infants with isolated focal peritrigonal white matter (WM) echogenicity that was very common, occurring in 60 (53%) of infants. More extensive WM echogencities were seen in nine (7.5%) and focal unilateral central grey matter echogenicity in eight (6.5%) infants. Haemorrhage was not common. Subependymal pseudocysts (SEP) and choroid plexus cysts (CPC) occurred in 19.6% of infants each. Four infants only had lenticulostriate vasculopathy. No correlation was found between mode of delivery, birth weight, head circumference or gestational age, maternal HIV status and any cUS abnormality.. ...
Term: eclampsia Origin: Anc Greek εκ /ec(=forth)+ λάμπω /lampo(=to shine) Literally meaning: shine forth Coined: In 1619 in treat ...
COMMENT Both Berezuk et al. and Suzuki et al. focus on the often-neglected role of the Virchow-Robin spaces that control the rate of bulk flow of brain interstitial fluid (ISF), including clearance of potentially toxic substances from brain. Therefore, changes in .... ...
Its the only box you need to have connected to your TV, according to TiVo president and CEO Tom Rogers. "At the heart of it, were demonstrating how cable, broadcast and broadband content can come together in an integrated fashion," he said in an interview.. TiVo desperately needs to punch up its sex appeal to convince new customers to pay upwards of $500 for one of its set-tops, plus a $12.95 monthly subscription fee.. The company, which pioneered the DVR market 10 years ago, has been losing ground to operator-supplied DVRs. As of Oct. 31, 2009, the company had 2.7 million total subscribers -- down from 3.5 million a year earlier and off 62% from a peak of around 4.4 million in late 2006.. To reverse the tide, TiVo has inked distribution deals with Comcast, DirecTV, Cox Communications and others but so far none have paid off in any significant way.. One of TiVos customers is RCN, which now plans to begin rolling out TiVo Premiere boxes as its primary DVR starting in the second quarter of ...
While its not compatible with your cable companys interactive and video-on-demand services, the TiVo HDs excellent onscreen interface and long list of network and Internet features puts it in a class above the generic high-def DVRs offered by most cable providers.
Heres another example of how companies turn DVRs into their friends (remeber KFCs hidden coupon?) At the end of the usual TV spots, GE inserts a one-second bonus that consists of thirty frames viewable in slo-mo or in the frame-by-frame mode. You can watch the commercials and extra material at GEs website. They have also created MySpace profiles for the spots characters (heres one for Elli the Elephant, created on May 2 ...
Typical enlarged VR space - location inferior to the basal ganglia adjacent ot the terminal ICA with fluid having identical characteristics to CSF (it is a CSF-filled space). In this case we can actually see the vessel (penetrating barnch of the...
Ischemia of the basal ganglia as an immediate consequence of minor head injury in children is rare (| 2% of all ischemic stroke in childhood) and is due to vasospasm of the lenticulostriate arteries. The clinical history of these lesions is particularly favourable because they are usually small, and also because the facial-brachial-crural hemiparesis typical of this pathology usually regresses after a period ranging from several weeks to several months, despite the persistence of an ischemic area on MRI. This is due to the well known neuronal plasticity of the CNS, in particular, of the primary motor cortex. The most effective therapeutic approach appears to be the conservative one, although the best treatment regimen is still not well defined. Young patients should be closely monitored and treated conservatively with osmotic diuretics to reduce perilesional edema. At the same time, however, it is very important to exclude, by means of instrumental and laboratory studies, conditions that could favour
Ischemia of the basal ganglia as an immediate consequence of minor head injury in children is rare (| 2% of all ischemic stroke in childhood) and is due to vasospasm of the lenticulostriate arteries. The clinical history of these lesions is particularly favourable because they are usually small, and also because the facial-brachial-crural hemiparesis typical of this pathology usually regresses after a period ranging from several weeks to several months, despite the persistence of an ischemic area on MRI. This is due to the well known neuronal plasticity of the CNS, in particular, of the primary motor cortex. The most effective therapeutic approach appears to be the conservative one, although the best treatment regimen is still not well defined. Young patients should be closely monitored and treated conservatively with osmotic diuretics to reduce perilesional edema. At the same time, however, it is very important to exclude, by means of instrumental and laboratory studies, conditions that could favour
DISCUSSION. Since its initial description, there has been a lot of discussion in the literature concerning the causes and the clinical correlation of LA. There may even be some confusion relating to previous brain alterations and loss of involutive and nonspecific white substance, which occurs as age advances. There has also been discussion concerning the possibility of the existence of LA only as an incidental radiologic diagnosis (without clinical correspondence), on assymptomatic patients. There are different neurologic findings which may contribute to the presence of periventricular hypodensities: perivascular demielinization and gliosis; dilatation of Virchow-Robin spaces; small gaps; loss of axons and glial cells (predominantly oligodendrocytes); rarefaction of myelin associated with spongiosis; presence of multiple gaps and numerous sclerotic plates. Nevertheless, as mentioned by Hachinski et al.1, a simple infiltration of the spinal-brain liquid into the periventricular brain parenchyma ...
China Fracture Fixation Stryker Orthopedics External Fixator Instruments Set, Find details about China Surgical Instrument, External Fixator from Fracture Fixation Stryker Orthopedics External Fixator Instruments Set - Suzhou Gemmed Medical Instrument Co., Ltd.
INTRODUCTION: The brain is almost always a localization of invasive aspergillosis, after hematogenous spread from pulmonary aspergillosis. Brain aspergilosis is not rare and is one of the worst prognosis factors of invasive aspergillosis. STATE OF ART: The incidence of this severe mycosis is currently on the rise due to the development of major immunosuppressive treatments. Brain aspergillosis is noteworthy for its vascular tropism, leading to infectious cerebral vasculitis, mainly involving thalamoperforating and lenticulostriate arteries, with a high frequency of thalamic or basal nuclei lesions. Extra-neurologic features that suggest this diagnosis are: i) risk factors for invasive aspergillosis (major or prolonged neutropenia, hematologic malignancies, prolonged corticosteroid treatment, bone marrow or solid organ transplant, AIDS); ii) persistent fever not responding to presumptive antibacterial treatment; iii) respiratory signs (brain aspergillosis is associated with pulmonary ...
INTRODUCTION: The brain is almost always a localization of invasive aspergillosis, after hematogenous spread from pulmonary aspergillosis. Brain aspergilosis is not rare and is one of the worst prognosis factors of invasive aspergillosis. STATE OF ART: The incidence of this severe mycosis is currently on the rise due to the development of major immunosuppressive treatments. Brain aspergillosis is noteworthy for its vascular tropism, leading to infectious cerebral vasculitis, mainly involving thalamoperforating and lenticulostriate arteries, with a high frequency of thalamic or basal nuclei lesions. Extra-neurologic features that suggest this diagnosis are: i) risk factors for invasive aspergillosis (major or prolonged neutropenia, hematologic malignancies, prolonged corticosteroid treatment, bone marrow or solid organ transplant, AIDS); ii) persistent fever not responding to presumptive antibacterial treatment; iii) respiratory signs (brain aspergillosis is associated with pulmonary ...
Charcot-Bouchard aneurysms (also known as miliary aneurysms or microaneurysms) are aneurysms of the brain vasculature which occur in small blood vessels (less than 300 micrometre diameter). Charcot-Bouchard aneurysms are most often located in the lenticulostriate vessels of the basal ganglia and are associated with chronic hypertension. Charcot-Bouchard aneurysms are a common cause of cerebral hemorrhage. If a Charcot-Bouchard aneurysm ruptures, it will lead to an intracerebral hemorrhage, which can cause hemorrhagic stroke, typically experienced as a sudden focal paralysis or loss of sensation. Charcot-Bouchard aneurysms are aneurysms in the small penetrating blood vessels of the brain. They are associated with hypertension. The common artery involved is the lenticulostriate branch of the middle cerebral artery. Common locations of hypertensive hemorrhages include the putamen, caudate, thalamus, pons, and cerebellum.[citation needed] As with any aneurysm, once formed they have a tendency to ...
The most common remote control codes for Insignia televisions include 096, 135, 136, 0463 and 1507. Codes vary based on cable or satellite provider, television model and accessories, such as DVRs,...
Mark A. Perigard is an executive arts editor and the TV critic for the Boston Herald. His favorite all-time TV shows, in no special order, are: "Rome," "Farscape," "St. Elsewhere," "Dark Shadows," "The Wire," "The Shield," "Star Trek" (classic and next gen), "Battlestar Galactica" (the remake) and "NYPD Blue." Currently, he DVRs "The Walking Dead," "Once Upon a Time," "Game of Thrones" and anything that promises a surprise or two ...
Mark A. Perigard is an executive arts editor and the TV critic for the Boston Herald. His favorite all-time TV shows, in no special order, are: "Rome," "Farscape," "St. Elsewhere," "Dark Shadows," "The Wire," "The Shield," "Star Trek" (classic and next gen), "Battlestar Galactica" (the remake) and "NYPD Blue." Currently, he DVRs "The Walking Dead," "Once Upon a Time," "Game of Thrones" and anything that promises a surprise or two ...
... - Virchow-Robin (VR) spaces surround the walls of vessels as they course from the subarachnoid space through the brain parenchyma. English Translation,
... http://ryushare.com/5f38zxlcqaj3/Surgical_Management_of_Cerebrovascular_Disease.pdf
Spatial unsharp-mask processing and its variants are commonly used in x-ray radiography to enhance image contrast. We investigated the effect of three unsharp-masking filter kernels of different sizes on the detection of an advanced guidewire tip in simulated x-ray fluoroscopy image sequences. To isolate the effect of visual temporal processing, we repeated the experiments on single images. Filter gains were selected so that all three kernels increased the contrast of a 0.018-in. (0.457-mm) guidewire by a factor of 2 but had different effects on image noise and signal profiles. There was no statistically significant effect of unsharp masking on human-observer performance in single images. However, all three kernels significantly improved average performance in image sequences, and the guidewire contrast required for detection was reduced by 32%-40%. A prewhitening channelized observer model predicted the disparity between sequences and single images and fitted measurements at different kernel ...
BACKGROUND: Fear of falling (FOF) and increased gait variability are both independent markers of gait instability. There is a complex interplay between both entities. The purposes of this study were (1) to perform a qualitative analysis of all published studies on FOF-related changes in gait variability through a systematic review, and (2) to quantitatively synthesize FOF-related changes in gait variability. METHODS: A systematic Medline literature search was conducted in May 2014 using the Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms Fear OR fear of falling combined with Accidental Falls AND Gait OR Gait Apraxia OR Gait Ataxia OR Gait disorders, Neurologic OR Gait assessment OR Functional gait assessment AND Self efficacy OR Self confidence AND Aged OR Aged, 80 and over. Systematic review and fixed-effects meta-analysis using an inverse-variance method were performed. RESULTS: Of the 2184 selected studies, 10 observational studies (including 5 cross-sectional studies, 4 prospective
With Love & Hip-Hop occupying our DVRs once again, viewers will be welcoming a new bevy of beauties from Atlanta and the drama that comes with em. One
I am writing this for two reasons. #1. To see if anyone has experience or advice. #2. So other men and women can understand they are not alone. On...
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Note (1): Reference for Cyg OB2 objects as follows: b = Cyg OB2 association: brightest stars M = Cyg OB2 association: Massey & Thompson 1991, Cat. J/AJ/101/1408 C = Cyg OB2 association: Comeron et al. (2002A&A...389..874C) stars Note (2): Origin of names: ALS = Reed (1998, Cat. J/ApJS/115/271; 2005, Cat. V/125) CP05 = Comeron & Pasquali (2005A&A...430..541C), [CP2005] NN in Simbad CPR02 = Comeron et al. (2002A&A...389..874C), [CPR2002] ANN in Simbad MT91 = Massey & Thompson 1991, Cat. J/AJ/101/1408, [MT91] NNN in Simbad SMV89 = Straizys et al. 1989VilOB..83....3S, [SMV89] NNN in Simbad SKV-2 = Straizys et al. 1993, Cat. II/196, [SKV93] 2-NNN in Simbad LS02 = Laugalys & Straizys (2002BaltA..11..205L) LSV06-1 = Laugalys et al. (2006BaltA..15..327L) LSV06-22 = Laugalys et al. 2006, Cat. J/BaltA/15/483, Table 2, [LSV2006] Area II NNN in Simbad LSV07 = Laugalys et al. (2007BaltA..16..349L), Cl* Collinder 428 LSV NNN in Simbad VI Cyg = numbers of the Cyg OB2 association stars from Johnson & Morgan ...
Looking for Cerebrovascular disease? Find out information about Cerebrovascular disease. of or relating to the blood vessels and the blood supply of the brain Explanation of Cerebrovascular disease
Part of the What Do I Do Now? series, Cerebrovascular Disease a case-based approach to cover common and important topics in the examination, investigation, and management of stroke, embolism, thrombosis, hemorrhage, and other critical presentations of cerebrovascular disease. Each chapter provides a discussion of the diagnosis, key points to remember, and selected references for further reading.
Imaging genomics has increasingly moved towards a GWAS approach, using large-scale collaborations to improve power for the detection of variants with small independent effects [29]. Examples of such consortia include the Enhancing Neuro-imaging through Meta-analysis (ENIGMA) consortium [37], Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium [36], Alzheimers Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), IMAGEN, which is focused on adolescents [38], and the Uniform Neuro-Imaging of Virchow-Robin Spaces Enlargement (UNIVRSE) consortium [39]. The growing number of GWAS of brain phenotypes and of neuropsychiatric disorders has, on occasion, lent support to previously reported candidate variants [40], but importantly has identified many new variants of interest [41].. An early study by the ENIGMA consortium consisted of approximately 8000 participants, including healthy controls and cases with psychiatric disorders [42]. This study identified significant associations between ...
In advance of the debut of all new That Metal Show episodes 1/18 on VH1 CLASSIC, our sister HD channel Palladia will be doing a special weekend this weekend starting 9A ET this Saturday. That Metal Weekend on Palladia will feature all rock and metal programs and concerts and episodes of TMS in HD! VH1 Classic is sadly still not an HD channel, but you can finally catch some of our recent past episodes this weekend on Palladia in HD. Here are the times and guests for TMS in HD this weekend. All times are Eastern so be sure to convert for your time zone. Some of my all time favorite episodes with Brian Johnson, Steve Harris, Sammy Hagar, Lars Ulrich and more will be featured. Set those DVRs and grab them in HD while you can, Thanks!. SATURDAY 1/11/14:. 9A: Dave Mustaine/Rex Brown. 1P: Lars Ulrich/Robb Flynn. 5P: Sammy Hagar/Michael Anthony. SUNDAY 1/12/14:. 1A: Alice Cooper/Jack Russell. 5A: Corey Taylor/Josh Rand. 11A: Steve Harris. 3P: Rob Zombie/John 5/Tom Keifer. 6P: Brian Johnson. 9P: Vegas ...
The following are the current most viewed articles on Wikipedia within Wikipedias Cerebrovascular diseases category. Think of it as a Whats Hot list for Cerebrovascular diseases. More info ». This is a beta release and so the figures may be a day or two out of date. Wed love to get your thoughts. ...
This massive compactor-known as "Big Blue"-has proved invaluable to the Decontamination Volume Reduction System (DVRS) Project, which is aimed at decreasing the profusion of space-wasting "RFP crates." Contaminated waste, ranging from glove boxes to air filtration systems, that was originally stored in large reinforced plywood crates is sorted, decontaminated, and fed to Big Blue, which reduces the waste into the black jumbles of metal at the bottom of the photo. The compressed waste will be repackaged either for shipment to WIPP or storage at Los Alamos. And happily for both taxpayers and Lab administrators, TWISP was completed two years ahead of schedule and $18 million under budget. Another concern in the arena of TRU waste management has been the profusion of what are known as "RFP crates"-Fiberglas -reinforced boxes containing a diversity of equipment ranging from glove boxes to high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration systems contaminated with both TRU and other types of waste, ...
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... basal ganglia diseases MeSH C10.228.140.079.127 --- basal ganglia cerebrovascular disease MeSH C10.228.140.079.127.500 --- ... basal ganglia cerebrovascular disease MeSH C10.228.140.300.100.200 --- basal ganglia hemorrhage MeSH C10.228.140.300.100.200. ... lewy body disease MeSH C10.228.662.600.400 --- parkinson disease MeSH C10.228.662.600.700 --- parkinson disease, secondary MeSH ... lewy body disease MeSH C10.228.140.079.862.500 --- parkinson disease MeSH C10.228.140.079.862.800 --- parkinson disease, ...
Wilson's disease, Huntington's disease, abetalipoproteinemia, Fahr disease, biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease ... There are many causes of childhood chorea, including cerebrovascular accidents, collagen vascular diseases, drug intoxication, ... biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease, Fahr disease, familial dyskinesia-facial myokymia (Bird-Raskind syndrome) due ... Molecular mimicry to streptococcal antigens leading to an autoantibody production against the basal ganglia has long been ...
... basal ganglia cerebrovascular disease MeSH C14.907.253.061.200 --- basal ganglia hemorrhage MeSH C14.907.253.061.200.500 --- ... basal ganglia hemorrhage MeSH C14.907.253.573.200.150.500 --- putaminal hemorrhage MeSH C14.907.253.573.200.200 --- cerebral ... basal ganglia hemorrhage MeSH C14.907.253.420.150.500 --- putaminal hemorrhage MeSH C14.907.253.420.200 --- cerebral hemorrhage ... intracranial arterial diseases MeSH C14.907.253.560.200 --- cerebral arterial diseases MeSH C14.907.253.560.200.175 --- cadasil ...
... basal ganglia and thalamus has recently been used as a successful treatment for tremors of patients with Parkinson's disease. ... These conditions are listed below: Perinatal (during birth) cerebral injury Kernicterus Cerebrovascular diseases Drug induced ... Treatment was based on the theory that there is an imbalance of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the basal ganglia. These drugs ... Although no lesions are present in the basal ganglia in primary spasmodic torticollis, fMRI and PET studies have shown ...
It accounts for 20% of all cases of cerebrovascular disease in the United States, behind cerebral thrombosis (40%) and cerebral ... Aspiration by stereotactic surgery or endoscopic drainage may be used in basal ganglia hemorrhages, although successful reports ... January 2013). "Heart disease and stroke statistics--2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association". Circulation. ...
... and the caudate nucleus of the basal ganglia may implicate dementia due to arteriosclerotic microvascular disease, in ... Because dilated perivascular spaces are so closely correlated with cerebrovascular disease, there is much current research on ... In contrast to VRS of the basal ganglia, VRS in the cerebral cortex are surrounded by only one layer of leptomeninges. As such ... have noted the greater frequency of β-amyloid plaques in the cerebral cortex than in the basal ganglia of Alzheimer's disease ...
... cerebrovascular attack) Tumors of the nervous system (e.g. cancer) Multiple sclerosis and other demyelinating diseases ... brain areas such as basal ganglia, cerebellum, brainstem): Frontal lobe damage Parietal lobe damage Temporal lobe damage ... Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis and organic psychosis.) Many of the diseases and disorders listed ... lysosomal storage diseases such as Niemann-Pick disease can lead to neurological deterioration. The National Institutes of ...
In contrast, after a stroke, people with moderate anosognosia have a higher frequency of lesions involving the basal ganglia, ... Cerebrovascular Diseases. 27 (3): 280-9. doi:10.1159/000199466. PMID 19202333. Breier, J. I.; Adair, J. C.; Gold, M.; Fennell, ... Those diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease often display this lack of awareness and insist that nothing is wrong with them. ... Anosognosia (/æˌnɒsɒɡˈnoʊziə/, /æˌnɒsɒɡˈnoʊʒə/; from Ancient Greek ἀ- a-, "without", νόσος nosos, "disease" and γνῶσις gnōsis ...
"Cerebrovascular Disease Service, Palmer 127, West Campus, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center; Caplan LR. Diakses tanggal 2011 ... serta menginduksi lintasan lipohialinosis di pembuluh ganglia basal, hingga menyebabkankan infark lakunar atau pendarahan otak. ... "Diabetes mellitus and cerebrovascular disease". Department of Neurological Sciences, Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke's Medical ... dalam kasus ischaemic cerebrovascular disease.[17] Patofisiologi[sunting , sunting sumber]. Hingga saat ini patofisiologi ...
GA1 can be described as a metabolic disorder, a neurometabolic disease, a cerebral palsy or a basal ganglia disorder (it is ... cerebrovascular abrupt and severe neonatal asphyxia ("selective neuronal necrosis")). Amongst 279 patients who had been ... So-called "orphan diseases", such as GA1, can be adopted into wider groups of diseases (such as carnitine deficiency diseases, ... These intermediate breakdown products are particularly prone to affect the basal ganglia, causing many of the signs and ...
Other specified degenerative diseases of basal ganglia (G23.9) Degenerative disease of basal ganglia, unspecified (G24) ... Other vascular syndromes of brain in cerebrovascular diseases (G47) Sleep disorders (G47.0) Disorders of initiating and ... Parkinsonism in diseases classified elsewhere (G23) Other degenerative diseases of basal ganglia (G23.0) Hallervorden-Spatz ... Fazio-Londe disease) Kugelberg-Welander disease (spinal muscular atrophy type 3) (G12.2) Motor neuron disease Familial motor ...
Diffuse white matter changes (leukoencephalopathy) and multiple lacunar infarcts in basal ganglia of thalamus are usually ... Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases, 20(2), 85-86,87,88,89,90,91.. ... The disease is rare and has only been diagnosed in about 50 patients, mostly of Japanese descent but few of Chinese and Spanish ... CARASIL is a degenerative disease, and most patients live only 10 years past symptom onset. CARASIL is caused by a deletion or ...
... basal ganglia output nucleus). This dysfunction with the basal ganglia and PFC may explain the executive function and semantic ... cerebrovascular disease, pre-existing neurological disease, severe substance abuse compatible with CNS disorder. While the ... including the basal ganglia, deep white matter, and hippocampal regions. Neuroimaging studies of HIV patients indicate that ... especially with regards to basal ganglia volume and total white matter. Changes in the brain may be ongoing but asymptomatic, ...
It has also been found that damage to the medulla, cerebellum, and basal ganglia may cause dysprosody. These conclusions have ... In addition, dysprosody has been associated with several other diseases, including Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, ... Marie described the case of a Frenchman who started speaking in an Alsatian accent after suffering from a cerebrovascular ... ISBN 0-7619-2163-X. Vanlanckersidtis, D; Pachana, N; Cummings, J; Sidtis, J (2006). "Dysprosodic speech following basal ganglia ...
Ventricles of brain and basal ganglia. Superior view. Horizontal section. Deep dissection Ventricles of brain and basal ganglia ... A cerebrovascular accident (stroke) can lead to the thalamic syndrome, which involves a one-sided burning or aching sensation ... Fatal familial insomnia is a hereditary prion disease in which degeneration of the thalamus occurs, causing the patient to ... Deep dissection List of regions in the human brain List of thalamic nuclei Neothalamus Primate basal ganglia system Thalamic ...
G22) Parkinsonism in diseases classified elsewhere. *(G23) Other degenerative diseases of basal ganglia *(G23.0) Hallervorden- ... G46) Vascular syndromes of brain in cerebrovascular diseases *(G46.0) Middle cerebral artery syndrome ... G00-G99 - Diseases of the nervous system[edit]. (G00-G09) Inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system[edit]. *(G00) ... G30) Alzheimer's disease. *(G31) Other degenerative diseases of nervous system, not elsewhere classified *(G31.0) ...
Chapter 4. Abnormalities of Movement and Posture Caused by Disease of the Basal Ganglia. In: Ropper AH, Samuels MA, eds. Adams ... associated with underlying cerebrovascular disease Wilson's disease is a genetic disorder in which an abnormal accumulation of ... 2007). "Unified Wilson's Disease Rating Scale - a proposal for the neurological scoring of Wilson's disease patients". Neurol. ... a few metabolic diseases, and a handful of neurological conditions other than Parkinson's disease. About 7% of people with ...
Basal ganglia disease *Parkinsonism *PD. *Postencephalitic. *NMS. *PKAN. *Tauopathy *PSP. *Striatonigral degeneration ... Cipolla MJ (July 2007). "Cerebrovascular function in pregnancy and eclampsia". Hypertension. 50 (1): 14-24. doi:10.1161/ ...
... and thereby lowers the levels of dopamine in the basal ganglia neurons and leads to the Parkinson's symptoms.[1] ... or a genetic predispostion to the disease are more likely to develop the drug induced form of this disease as a result of ... Clinical pharmacology and therapeutic role in cerebrovascular disorders". Drugs. 26 (1): 44-69. doi:10.2165/00003495-198326010- ... Emanuel MB (July 1979). "Specific calcium antagonists in the treatment of peripheral vascular disease". Angiology. 30 (7): 454- ...
"Cerebrovascular Disease Service, Palmer 127, West Campus, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center; Caplan LR. Diakses tanggal 2011 ... serta menginduksi lintasan lipohialinosis di pembuluh ganglia basal, hingga menyebabkankan infark lakunar atau pendarahan otak. ... "Diabetes mellitus and cerebrovascular disease". Department of Neurological Sciences, Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke's Medical ... Demyelinating disease, hipoglisemia, hiperglisemia, primary ocular disease-glaucoma, vitreal hemorrhage. floaters and the like ...
According to fMRI studies, the acquisition of procedural memories activates the basal ganglia, the premotor cortex and the ... Ribot, T. (1882). Diseases of Memory: An essay in the positive psychology. London: D. Appleton and company. Scoville, W.B.; ... The damage is usually caused by head trauma, cerebrovascular accident, stroke, tumor, hypoxia, encephalitis, or chronic ... The law follows a logical progression of memory loss due to disease. First, a patient loses the recent memories, then personal ...
... the parietal and basal ganglia regions are often affected in degenerative brain diseases associated with aging and it has ... cerebrovascular disease, Parkinson's disease and Lou Gehrig's disease. While much research has focused on diseases of aging, ... Age is a major risk factor for most common neurodegenerative diseases, including mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease ... basal ganglia, and to a lesser degree, the frontal white matter, has also been noted. Although these levels were studied in the ...
Basal ganglia disease: Parkinsonism (PD, Postencephalitic, NMS) · PKAN · Tauopathy (PSP) · Striatonigral degeneration · ... Cerebrovascular. TIA (Amaurosis fugax, Transient global amnesia). Stroke (MCA, ACA, PCA, Foville's, Millard-Gubler, Lateral ... LMN only: PMA · PBP (Fazio-Londe, Infantile progressive bulbar palsy) · SMA (SMN-linked, Kennedy disease, SMAX2, DSMA1) ... autoimmune (Multiple sclerosis, Neuromyelitis optica, Schilder's disease) · hereditary (Adrenoleukodystrophy, Alexander, ...
Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases : the official journal of National Stroke Association. 6 (5): 368-369. doi: ... "Neuropsychological alterations in patients with computed tomography-detected basal ganglia calcification". Archives of ... Diagnosis of Crohn's disease was made within 5 to 13 years."(Blanchet C, Luton JP. 2002)"This disease should be diagnostically ... Addison's disease is a disorder of the adrenal cortex which results in decreased hormonal production. Addison's disease, even ...
Wilson's disease, biotin-responsive basal ganglia disease, and some forms of encephalitis. Perinatal asphyxia can cause ... In the case of Leigh disease, crucial cells in the brain stem and basal ganglia are affected. This causes a chronic lack of ... Dystonia, nystagmus, and problems with the autonomic nervous system suggest damage to the basal ganglia and brain stem ... When hyperbilirubinemia is not treated with phototherapy, the bilirubin can accumulate in the basal ganglia and cause lesions ...
Basal ganglia disease *Parkinsonism *PD. *Postencephalitic. *NMS. *PKAN. *Tauopathy *PSP. *Striatonigral degeneration ... Disease Primers. 3 (17071): 17071. doi:10.1038/nrdp.2017.71. PMID 28980624.. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v van ... Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neurone disease (MND) or Lou Gehrig's disease, is a specific disease ... Other names for ALS include Charcot's disease, Lou Gehrig's disease, and motor neurone disease.[1] Amyotrophic comes from the ...
Basal ganglia disease *پارکینسونیزم *پارکینسون. *Postencephalitic. *نشانگان نورولپتیک بدخیم. *PKAN. *Tauopathy *PSP ... Baizabal-Carvallo, JF; Jankovic J. (2012-07-18). "Movement disorders in autoimmune diseases". Movement disorders : official ...
A finding of reduced dopamine-related activity in the basal ganglia can rule out drug-induced parkinsonism, but reduced basal ... "Functional organization of the basal ganglia: therapeutic implications for Parkinson's disease". Movement Disorders. 23 Suppl 3 ... Illustration of Parkinson's disease by William Richard Gowers, first published in A Manual of Diseases of the Nervous System ( ... There are five major pathways in the brain connecting other brain areas with the basal ganglia. These are known as the motor, ...
Basal Ganglia / blood supply*, pathology. Basal Ganglia Cerebrovascular Disease / pathology*. Blood Proteins / isolation & ...
Basal Ganglia Cerebrovascular Disease * Peripheral Vascular Diseases (Peripheral Artery Disease) * Carotid Body Tumor ... They can also help patients manage diabetes, blood pressure and cholesterol as well as treat artery disease. Treatment for more ...
Prevalence and vascular risk factors of basal ganglia calcifications in patients at risk for cerebrovascular disease. ... Automated CT quantification methods for the assessment of interstitial lung disease in collagen vascular diseases: A systematic ... Association of Chromosome 9p21 With Subsequent Coronary Heart Disease Events.. Patel RS, Schmidt AF, Tragante V, McCubrey RO, ... Subjects with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis have an increased burden of coronary artery disease: An evaluation in ...
Sickle-cell disease (SCD) is the most common cause of ischemic stroke in children and it happens in about 11% of patients ... The basal ganglia or thalamus, and brainstem or cerebellum, are less involved. Silent infarctions occur in 37% of children ... The following key words were used: Transcranial Doppler, Sickle cell disease, stroke in children, Cerebrovascular disease ( ... Huttenlocher, P.R., Moohr, J.W., Johns, L. and Brown, F.D. (1984) Cerebral Blood Flow in Sickle Cell Cerebrovascular Disease. ...
19 exp basal ganglia cerebrovascular disease. 20 exp cerebral hemorrhage. 21 exp cerebral ischemia ... The Atlas of Heart Disease and Stroke *Biernaskie J, Chernenko G, Corbett D. Efficacy of rehabilitative experience declines ...
In the UMC Utrecht research is concentrated in six programs with each a limited number of disease targets. Patient care is ... Prevalence and vascular risk factors of basal ganglia calcifications in patients at risk for cerebrovascular disease. de ...
Basal Ganglia Diseases. Diseases of the BASAL GANGLIA including the PUTAMEN; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; claustrum; AMYGDALA; and CAUDATE ... in patients with cerebrovascular disease. A total of 182 patients with cerebrovascular disease and 166 controls were examined ... Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a chronic occlusive cerebrovascular disease with unknown etiology, sharing many similar clinical ... Study on the oral mucosal diseases in patients with cerebrovascular diseases.. To investigate the prevalence of oral mucosal ...
... cardiovascular disease (CVD), and stroke. Restless legs syndrome, or Willis-Ekbom Disease... ... Most patients who developed RLS had infarcts in subcortical regions, including the basal ganglia/corona radiate, pontine region ... cerebrovascular disease, or heart disease in patients with RLS/PLMS [2, 10, 14, 16, 40, 61, 71, 78, 84, 87, 97, 121, 132, 136, ... The relationship among restless legs syndrome (Willis-Ekbom Disease), hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and cerebrovascular ...
exp cerebrovascular disorders/or exp basal ganglia cerebrovascular disease/. *2.. exp basal ganglia hemorrhage/or exp brain ... MH "Cerebrovascular Disorders") OR (MH "Basal Ganglia Cerebrovascular Disease+") OR (MH "Carotid Artery Diseases+") OR (MH " ... or intracerebral or infratentorial or supratentorial or MCA or anterior circulation or posterior circulation or basal ganglia) ... or intracerebral or infratentorial or supratentorial or MCA or anterior circulation or posterior circulation or basal ganglia) ...
Nervous System Diseases. Vascular Diseases. Cardiovascular Diseases. Parkinsonian Disorders. Basal Ganglia Diseases. Movement ... Alzheimer Disease. Dementia. Huntington Disease. Lewy Body Disease. Cerebrovascular Disorders. Brain Diseases. Central Nervous ... Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Alzheimer Disease Stroke Parkinsons Disease Lewy Body Dementia Huntington Disease ... Alzheimer disease. Stroke. Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration. Lewy Body Dementia. Huntington Disease. mild cognitive impairment ...
Cerebrovascular diseaseCerebrovascular disease--SurgeryBasal gangliaNeurosciencesMedicine. 128. Irreversible Hemichorea- ... Cervical vertebrae--DiseasesQuality of lifeDystoniaBotulinum toxinMovement disordersMedicineNeurosciences. ...
Cerebrovascular diseaseCerebrovascular disease--SurgeryBasal gangliaNeurosciencesMedicine. 22. Irreversible Hemichorea- ... TremorParkinsons diseaseNeurosciencesMovement disordersMedicine. 41. Restless Legs Syndrome: Current Concepts about Disease ... Parkinsons disease--TreatmentBotulinum toxinDystoniaCervical vertebrae--DiseasesDeglutition disordersMovement disorders ... TremorParkinsons diseaseNeuropsychologyMovement disordersNeurosciencesMedicine. 2. A Pilot Study of Botulinum Toxin for Jerky ...
... rare and progressive cerebrovascular disorder that is caused by blocked arteries at the base of the brain in the basal ganglia. ... moyamoya disease can be fatal as the result of intracerebral hemorrhage. It is a ... In this disease, the arteries get blocked at the base of the brain in the basal ganglia. ... What is Moyamoya Disease Moyamoya disease is a rare, progressive cerebrovascular disorder caused by blocked arteries at the ...
Haber Lab - Basal Ganglia and Degenerative Diseases. *Halterman Stroke Lab - Targeted Therapeutics for Cerebrovascular Diseases ... Haber Lab - Basal Ganglia and Degenerative Diseases. *Huxlin Lab - Behavioral Studies and Functional Imaging of Visual Function ... Halterman Stroke Lab - Targeted Therapeutics for Cerebrovascular Diseases. *Holt Lab - Synaptic Pharmacology of the Vestibular ... Halterman Stroke Lab - Targeted Therapeutics for Cerebrovascular Diseases. *Huxlin Lab - Behavioral Studies and Functional ...
... obtain a history of neurologic disorders that may involve the basal ganglia (eg, cerebrovascular disease, encephalitis, head ... Support for the hypothesis that TD may result from blockade of postsynaptic dopamine receptors in the basal ganglia and other ... In Fahr syndrome, calcification is often seen in the brain, particularly in the basal ganglia. Imaging results can also exclude ... Hypothesized pathways among basal ganglia and other structures of the central nervous system ...
... progressive cerebrovascular disorder caused by blocked arteries at the basal ganglia, which is located at ... ... Moyamoya disease is a rare, progressive cerebrovascular disorder caused by blocked arteries at the basal ganglia, which is ... Moyamoya disease is a rare, progressive cerebrovascular disorder caused by blocked arteries at the basal ganglia. ... Known side effects of moyamoya disease. Side effects of moyamoya disease are most likely to first appear with an ischemic ...
Virchow-Robin spaces in the basal ganglia and white matter: correlations with sleep quality in patients with cerebrovascular ... Association of sleep disorders with cerebrovascular disease including:. *Prevalence, impact and characterization of sleep ... Neurophysiological aspects of sleep and cerebrovascular disease (e.g., electroencephalography, eye and limb movement detection) ... Unattended hospital and home sleep apnea testing following cerebrovascular events. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2017 Jan;26(1):143 ...
The autologous blood injection model in mice involves the stereotaxic injection of arterial blood into the basal ganglia ... Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a common form of cerebrovascular disease and is associated with significant morbidity and ... Two murine models in popular use include intrastriatal (basal ganglia) injection of either autologous whole blood or ... Medicine, Issue 86, Autonomic Nervous System Diseases, Digestive System Neoplasms, Gastrointestinal Diseases, Pancreatic ...
The autologous blood injection model in mice involves the stereotaxic injection of arterial blood into the basal ganglia ... Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a common form of cerebrovascular disease and is associated with significant morbidity and ... Two murine models in popular use include intrastriatal (basal ganglia) injection of either autologous whole blood or ... The goal of the autologous rodent model of surgically-induced endometriosis is to mimic the disease in women. We and others ...
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a common form of cerebrovascular disease and is associated with significant morbidity and ... Two murine models in popular use include intrastriatal (basal ganglia) injection of either autologous whole blood or ... Animal models of both ALS and SCI can model many clinically-relevant aspects of these diseases, including phrenic motor neuron ... Patients ultimately succumb to the disease on average 2-5 years following diagnosis because of respiratory paralysis due to ...
... and more basal ganglia PVS (e.g. odds ratio = 1.38, 95% confidence interval 1.06, 1.79, per 0.1 increase in superior sagittal ... Small vessel disease is associated with altered cerebrovascular pulsatility but not resting cerebral blood flow.. Shi Y1,2,3, ... Cerebral blood flow; cerebral small vessel disease; cerebrovascular pulsatility; magnetic resonance imaging; perivascular ... Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) contributes to 25% of ischemic strokes and 45% of dementias. We aimed to investigate the ...
Basal Ganglia and Subcortical Structures. Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) and Ventricles. Brainstem and Cerebellum ... Cerebrovascular Disease. Intracranial Neoplasms. Demyelinating Disorders. Dementia. Seizures. Headache and Facial Pain ...
... especially the basal ganglia, possibly resulting in a hematoma; blood acts as an irritant, evoking cerebral edema; bleeding ... See Cerebrovascular disease. Want to thank TFD for its existence? Tell a friend about us, add a link to this page, or visit the ...
... included 20 patients with lower body parkinsonism and cerebrovascular disease but without lesions affecting the basal ganglia. ... 123I-FP-CIT SPECT imaging of dopamine transporters in patients with cerebrovascular disease and clinical diagnosis of vascular ... The criteria for VP include (1) bradykinesia, (2) cerebrovascular disease visualised by CT or MRI and (3) a temporal ... Parkinson disease. Although clinical diagnosis of Parkinson disease is often straightforward and robust in cases with classic ...
Common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES; and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. ... Diseases of the BASAL GANGLIA including the PUTAMEN; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; claustrum; AMYGDALA; and CAUDATE NUCLEUS. DYSKINESIAS ( ... Basal Ganglia Diseases (Basal Ganglia Disease). Subscribe to New Research on Basal Ganglia Diseases ... Basal Ganglia Disease; Extrapyramidal Disorder; Basal Ganglia Disorders; Lenticulostriate Disorders; Basal Ganglia Disorder; ...
  • At the end of the course the student will be able to know the clinical pictures related to the main diseases of the nervous system and of the head and neck cancer. (unimi.it)
  • Diagnosis at presentation or early in the disease course when the clinical picture may not yet have fully developed is even more problematic. (bmj.com)
  • Vascular depression is regarded as a subtype of late-life depression characterized by a distinct clinical presentation and an association with cerebrovascular damage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 5 In one clinical trial, 12 patients who had experienced chronic strokes affecting the basal ganglia received intracerebral transplantation of neurons generated from the human NT-2 teratocarcinoma cell line. (cmaj.ca)
  • The level of staining in vessels and neurons in the cortex, white matter and basal ganglia was compared to neuropsychological and other clinical measures. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This single centre, retrospective study was conducted with the following objectives: a) to describe the aetiological, clinical and prognostic characteristics of patients with thalamic haemorrhage as compared with that of patients with internal capsule-basal ganglia haemorrhage, and b) to identify predictors of in-hospital mortality in patients with thalamic haemorrhage. (beds.ac.uk)
  • However, the differential clinical profile between subcortical cerebral haemorrhages of isolated thalamic topography and haemorrhages involving the basal ganglia and the internal capsule is poorly defined. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Various clinical studies have registered with the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to study neurologic diseases and damage. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Intravenous administration of BMSC is a well-established approach to neurologic disease and injury with much support for its effectiveness in the pre-clinical and clinical literature. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • These studies, which range from clinical trials to investigations of basic biological mechanisms, are aimed at discovering how and why diseases develop in the brain, and focus on finding ways to prevent, treat, or cure them. (neurologycolorado.com)
  • Elucidation of the pathophysiology of cerebrovascular disease, clarification of characteristic findings of in vivo imaging and knowledge about the impact of combined pathologies are needed to improve the diagnostic accuracy of clinical diagnoses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Clinical trials in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases, vascular imaging in atherosclerosis, the study of traditional and emerging cardiovascular risk factors, cardiovascular epidemiology and the use of echocardiographic methods for the assessment of left ventricular mass and left ventricular systolic and diastolic function. (mcmaster.ca)
  • This study aims to investigate the potential causes and clinical and imaging characteristics of Moyamoya Disease (MMD) in children. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Various clinical studies have indicated that the incidence and high mortality of cerebrovascular diseases can be pre- vented to a large extent. (covex.com)
  • Though a definitive post-mortem diagnosis still needs to be confirmed by an extensive macroscopic and microscopic examination of the brain using validated neuropathological criteria, 4 7.0-tesla MRI can be used as an additional tool to examine post-mortem brains of patients with neurodegenerative diseases. (touchneurology.com)
  • The service manages the full range of neurovascular diseases including aneurysms, arterio-venous malformations, cavernous malformations, carotid stenosis, and intracranial occlusive disease requiring endovascular stenting or extracranial-intracranial bypass. (uic.edu)
  • Lobster stomatogastric ganglion (STG): This is a well-studied network of neurons found in the lobster which controls the rhythmic contractions of stomach muscles and intra-stomach teeth. (kidneynotes.com)
  • The body systems harmed by moyamoya disease include the nervous system and the cardiovascular system. (naturalpedia.com)
  • Background and Purpose- Few studies have shown the association between glucose tolerance status defined by a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test and the development of different types of cardiovascular disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cardiovascular disease continues to be a major global public health concern. (ahajournals.org)
  • Investigations into glucose tolerance levels and cardiovascular disease have become increasingly important, because the impact of diabetes on cardiovascular disease is considered to be rising due to the rapid increase in the worldwide prevalence of diabetes mellitus in recent years. (ahajournals.org)
  • A number of epidemiological studies have demonstrated that Type 2 diabetic subjects have approximately 2.0 to 4.0 times higher risk of cardiovascular disease compared with nondiabetic subjects. (ahajournals.org)
  • 3-9,11,12 Because nonfatal events were not included in these studies, the results may not have represented the true association between glucose tolerance levels and cardiovascular disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • Thus, prospective studies using incidence data would provide further information for predicting cardiovascular disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1,2,11,12 Furthermore, many investigators have evaluated cardiovascular generally, rather than by type, and did not separately evaluate sex, although it is well known that the effects of each risk factor are different for each type of cardiovascular disease and sex. (ahajournals.org)
  • Data on body mass index, history of hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus, history of coronary artery disease, family history of cardiovascular disease, and frequency of alcohol consumption were obtained by means of a personal interview and a physical examination. (ahajournals.org)
  • Epidemiology, etiology, pathophysiology and staging -- Anemia in chronic kidney disease -- Renal osteodystrophy -- Cardiovascular disease -- Hyperlipidemia -- Nutrition -- Management of the patient with progressive renal failure -- Drug dosing in patients with CKD -- Part IV. (stanford.edu)
  • influences of environmental and genetic factors in future cardiovascular disease. (mcmaster.ca)
  • Quality of care and outcomes, knowledge translation, and health systems improvement pertaining to chronic cardiovascular diseases. (mcmaster.ca)
  • Anatomy, Physiology, and Embryology -- Benign Growths -- Malignant Growths -- Rashes -- Autoimmune Blistering Diseases -- Infectious Diseases -- Hair and Nail Diseases -- Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases -- Genodermatoses and Syndromes. (stanford.edu)
  • Accurate identification of parkinsonism involving presynaptic degeneration is important for patient management, because the disease course, therapy and prognosis differ substantially from non-degenerative diseases. (bmj.com)
  • 1) Primary degenerative changes of the basal ganglia and their connections prevent motor transmission of automatic movements (blinking, facial expressions, muscle tone). (free-ed.net)
  • P arkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common degenerative neurological condition after Alzheimer's disease, with a prevalence of between 120 and 230 per 100,000 people. (guidelinesinpractice.co.uk)
  • This literature review outlines the lessons learned from studies demonstrating insomnia and OSA as risk factors for hypertension and vascular diseases to support the epidemiologic and physiologic evidence suggesting a similar increase in hypertension and vascular disease risk due to RLS. (springer.com)
  • After 65 years of age, the incidence and prevalence of Alzheimer's disease doubles every 5 years. (rcpsych.org)
  • The primary aim of the study is to determine the safety and tolerability of etanercept in subjects with Alzheimer's Disease. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • It has become increasingly clear that part of the explanation for the lack of therapeutic advancement in Alzheimer's disease (AD) lies in the unyielding quagmire resulting from the premise that AD is caused by the excessive production in the brain of a sticky substance called amyloid-β (Aβ). (j-alz.com)
  • Hence, VD often co-occurs with Alzheimer's disease (AD). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Predictors of behavioral disturbance in Alzheimer's disease. (rush.edu)
  • Hallucinations and associated factors in Alzheimer's disease. (rush.edu)
  • The risk factors for these will be discussed, and, since there have been significant advances in our understanding of the genetic component of Alzheimer's disease in particular, there is a separate section on genetic contribution. (rcpsych.org)
  • In contrast to the advances made in our understanding of genetic risk factors in Alzheimer's disease, identification of non-genetic or environmental risk factors has been slower. (rcpsych.org)
  • Recent work suggests that the acceleration of incidence rates for Alzheimer's disease slows down in very old age (although there is no evidence of a rate decline), the corollary thus being that Alzheimer's disease is age-related rather than age-dependent ( Gao et al , 1998 ). (rcpsych.org)
  • Even when controlling for differences in longevity, several studies have found that women are at increased risk for Alzheimer's disease. (rcpsych.org)
  • Gender-related differences in risk could be at least partly ascribed to hormonal factors, as several studies suggest that oestrogen replacement can prevent or delay the onset of Alzheimer's disease. (rcpsych.org)
  • A 16-year follow-up of nearly 500 women found that hormone replacement therapy produced a 54% reduction in risk of Alzheimer's disease ( Kawas et al , 1997 ). (rcpsych.org)
  • However, a recent trial exploring the value of therapeutic oestrogen in subjects with Alzheimer's disease was unable to demonstrate any improvement in cognition or disease progression ( Mulnard et al , 2000 ). (rcpsych.org)
  • Oestrogen may be implicated in Alzheimer's disease in several ways, for example, via reduction in β-amyloid deposition, improvement in cerebral blood flow, neuroprotection or suppression of ApoE. (rcpsych.org)
  • Increased levels of oxidative stress are a biochemical feature of Alzheimer's disease. (rcpsych.org)
  • Several studies have reported that intake of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is negatively associated with the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease ( Beard et al , 1998 ). (rcpsych.org)
  • Because of this, researchers think that the disease may be a result of inherited genetic abnormalities. (naturalpedia.com)
  • Most ischemic strokes are caused by large artery atherosclerosis, small vessel occlusive disease, or cardioembolism. (j-nn.org)
  • 7.0-tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be applied as an additional tool to examine post-mortem brains of patients with neurodegenerative and cerebrovasular diseases. (touchneurology.com)
  • High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging: an emerging tool for evaluating intracranial arterial disease. (umassmed.edu)
  • This study could help to understand some neurological diseases and thereby to identify them earlier and/or to better differentiate them. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Background and Purpose -An increasing body of literature suggests a role for clinically "silent" cerebrovascular disease in the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment. (ahajournals.org)
  • Relatively little is known about cognitive impairment associated with peripheral vascular disease (PVD), but PVD is known to be a risk factor for TIA. (ahajournals.org)
  • SVD initially manifests as lipohyalinosis and arteriolosclerosis in vessels of the basal ganglia, that is, the putamen and globus pallidus, and then in leptomeningeal arteries. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Rasalkar DD, Chu WC, Cheng FW et al (2010) Atypical location of germinoma in basal ganglia in adolescents: radiological features and treatment outcomes. (springer.com)
  • Molecular mimicry to streptococcal antigens leading to an autoantibody production against the basal ganglia has long been thought to be the main mechanism by which chorea occurs in this condition. (wikipedia.org)