Aphasia, Primary Progressive: A progressive form of dementia characterized by the global loss of language abilities and initial preservation of other cognitive functions. Fluent and nonfluent subtypes have been described. Eventually a pattern of global cognitive dysfunction, similar to ALZHEIMER DISEASE, emerges. Pathologically, there are no Alzheimer or PICK DISEASE like changes, however, spongiform changes of cortical layers II and III are present in the TEMPORAL LOBE and FRONTAL LOBE. (From Brain 1998 Jan;121(Pt 1):115-26)Aphasia: A cognitive disorder marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or express language in its written or spoken form. This condition is caused by diseases which affect the language areas of the dominant hemisphere. Clinical features are used to classify the various subtypes of this condition. General categories include receptive, expressive, and mixed forms of aphasia.Basal Ganglia: Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.Primary Progressive Nonfluent Aphasia: A form of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and a progressive form of dementia characterized by motor speech impairment and AGRAMMATISM, with relative sparing of single word comprehension and semantic memory.Multiple Sclerosis, Chronic Progressive: A form of multiple sclerosis characterized by a progressive deterioration in neurologic function which is in contrast to the more typical relapsing remitting form. If the clinical course is free of distinct remissions, it is referred to as primary progressive multiple sclerosis. When the progressive decline is punctuated by acute exacerbations, it is referred to as progressive relapsing multiple sclerosis. The term secondary progressive multiple sclerosis is used when relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis evolves into the chronic progressive form. (From Ann Neurol 1994;36 Suppl:S73-S79; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp903-914)Anomia: A language dysfunction characterized by the inability to name people and objects that are correctly perceived. The individual is able to describe the object in question, but cannot provide the name. This condition is associated with lesions of the dominant hemisphere involving the language areas, in particular the TEMPORAL LOBE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p484)Basal Ganglia Diseases: Diseases of the BASAL GANGLIA including the PUTAMEN; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; claustrum; AMYGDALA; and CAUDATE NUCLEUS. DYSKINESIAS (most notably involuntary movements and alterations of the rate of movement) represent the primary clinical manifestations of these disorders. Common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES; and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Aphasia, Broca: An aphasia characterized by impairment of expressive LANGUAGE (speech, writing, signs) and relative preservation of receptive language abilities (i.e., comprehension). This condition is caused by lesions of the motor association cortex in the FRONTAL LOBE (BROCA AREA and adjacent cortical and white matter regions).Language Tests: Tests designed to assess language behavior and abilities. They include tests of vocabulary, comprehension, grammar and functional use of language, e.g., Development Sentence Scoring, Receptive-Expressive Emergent Language Scale, Parsons Language Sample, Utah Test of Language Development, Michigan Language Inventory and Verbal Language Development Scale, Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, Northwestern Syntax Screening Test, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Ammons Full-Range Picture Vocabulary Test, and Assessment of Children's Language Comprehension.Agraphia: Loss or impairment of the ability to write (letters, syllables, words, or phrases) due to an injury to a specific cerebral area or occasionally due to emotional factors. This condition rarely occurs in isolation, and often accompanies APHASIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p485; APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting: The most common clinical variant of MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, characterized by recurrent acute exacerbations of neurologic dysfunction followed by partial or complete recovery. Common clinical manifestations include loss of visual (see OPTIC NEURITIS), motor, sensory, or bladder function. Acute episodes of demyelination may occur at any site in the central nervous system, and commonly involve the optic nerves, spinal cord, brain stem, and cerebellum. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp903-914)Apraxia, Ideomotor: A form of apraxia characterized by an acquired inability to carry out a complex motor activity despite the ability to mentally formulate the action. This condition has been attributed to a disruption of connections between the dominant parietal cortex and supplementary and premotor cortical regions in both hemispheres. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p57)Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Apraxias: A group of cognitive disorders characterized by the inability to perform previously learned skills that cannot be attributed to deficits of motor or sensory function. The two major subtypes of this condition are ideomotor (see APRAXIA, IDEOMOTOR) and ideational apraxia, which refers to loss of the ability to mentally formulate the processes involved with performing an action. For example, dressing apraxia may result from an inability to mentally formulate the act of placing clothes on the body. Apraxias are generally associated with lesions of the dominant PARIETAL LOBE and supramarginal gyrus. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp56-7)Speech: Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Multiple Sclerosis: An autoimmune disorder mainly affecting young adults and characterized by destruction of myelin in the central nervous system. Pathologic findings include multiple sharply demarcated areas of demyelination throughout the white matter of the central nervous system. Clinical manifestations include visual loss, extra-ocular movement disorders, paresthesias, loss of sensation, weakness, dysarthria, spasticity, ataxia, and bladder dysfunction. The usual pattern is one of recurrent attacks followed by partial recovery (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, RELAPSING-REMITTING), but acute fulminating and chronic progressive forms (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, CHRONIC PROGRESSIVE) also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p903)Speech Therapy: Treatment for individuals with speech defects and disorders that involves counseling and use of various exercises and aids to help the development of new speech habits.Ganglia: Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Semantics: The relationships between symbols and their meanings.Aphasia, Conduction: A type of fluent aphasia characterized by an impaired ability to repeat one and two word phrases, despite retained comprehension. This condition is associated with dominant hemisphere lesions involving the arcuate fasciculus (a white matter projection between Broca's and Wernicke's areas) and adjacent structures. Like patients with Wernicke aphasia (APHASIA, WERNICKE), patients with conduction aphasia are fluent but commit paraphasic errors during attempts at written and oral forms of communication. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p482; Brain & Bannister, Clinical Neurology, 7th ed, p142; Kandel et al., Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p848)Frontotemporal Dementia: The most common clinical form of FRONTOTEMPORAL LOBAR DEGENERATION, this dementia presents with personality and behavioral changes often associated with disinhibition, apathy, and lack of insight.Language Disorders: Conditions characterized by deficiencies of comprehension or expression of written and spoken forms of language. These include acquired and developmental disorders.Speech Disorders: Acquired or developmental conditions marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or generate spoken forms of language.Retinal Ganglion Cells: Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Aphasia, Wernicke: Impairment in the comprehension of speech and meaning of words, both spoken and written, and of the meanings conveyed by their grammatical relationships in sentences. It is caused by lesions that primarily affect Wernicke's area, which lies in the posterior perisylvian region of the temporal lobe of the dominant hemisphere. (From Brain & Bannister, Clinical Neurology, 7th ed, p141; Kandel et al., Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p846)Basal Ganglia Hemorrhage: Bleeding within the subcortical regions of cerebral hemispheres (BASAL GANGLIA). It is often associated with HYPERTENSION or ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS. Clinical manifestations may include HEADACHE; DYSKINESIAS; and HEMIPARESIS.Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration: Heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by frontal and temporal lobe atrophy associated with neuronal loss, gliosis, and dementia. Patients exhibit progressive changes in social, behavioral, and/or language function. Multiple subtypes or forms are recognized based on presence or absence of TAU PROTEIN inclusions. FTLD includes three clinical syndromes: FRONTOTEMPORAL DEMENTIA, semantic dementia, and PRIMARY PROGRESSIVE NONFLUENT APHASIA.Language: A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.Globus Pallidus: The representation of the phylogenetically oldest part of the corpus striatum called the paleostriatum. It forms the smaller, more medial part of the lentiform nucleus.Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Acid Sensing Ion Channel Blockers: A subclass of sodium channel blockers that are specific for ACID-SENSING SODIUM CHANNELS.Ganglia, Sympathetic: Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.Neuroimaging: Non-invasive methods of visualizing the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities.Pick Disease of the Brain: A rare form of DEMENTIA that is sometimes familial. Clinical features include APHASIA; APRAXIA; CONFUSION; ANOMIA; memory loss; and personality deterioration. This pattern is consistent with the pathologic findings of circumscribed atrophy of the poles of the FRONTAL LOBE and TEMPORAL LOBE. Neuronal loss is maximal in the HIPPOCAMPUS, entorhinal cortex, and AMYGDALA. Some ballooned cortical neurons contain argentophylic (Pick) bodies. (From Brain Pathol 1998 Apr;8(2):339-54; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1057-9)Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Ganglia, Autonomic: Clusters of neurons and their processes in the autonomic nervous system. In the autonomic ganglia, the preganglionic fibers from the central nervous system synapse onto the neurons whose axons are the postganglionic fibers innervating target organs. The ganglia also contain intrinsic neurons and supporting cells and preganglionic fibers passing through to other ganglia.Language Therapy: Rehabilitation of persons with language disorders or training of children with language development disorders.Dementia: An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.Trigeminal Ganglion: The semilunar-shaped ganglion containing the cells of origin of most of the sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve. It is situated within the dural cleft on the cerebral surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone and gives off the ophthalmic, maxillary, and part of the mandibular nerves.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Basal Ganglia Cerebrovascular Disease: A pathological condition caused by impaired blood flow in the basal regions of cerebral hemispheres (BASAL GANGLIA), such as INFARCTION; HEMORRHAGE; or ISCHEMIA in vessels of this brain region including the lateral lenticulostriate arteries. Primary clinical manifestations include involuntary movements (DYSKINESIAS) and muscle weakness (HEMIPARESIS).Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Ganglia, Parasympathetic: Ganglia of the parasympathetic nervous system, including the ciliary, pterygopalatine, submandibular, and otic ganglia in the cranial region and intrinsic (terminal) ganglia associated with target organs in the thorax and abdomen.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Ganglia, Sensory: Clusters of neurons in the somatic peripheral nervous system which contain the cell bodies of sensory nerve axons. Sensory ganglia may also have intrinsic interneurons and non-neuronal supporting cells.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Verbal Behavior: Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.Diffusion Tensor Imaging: The use of diffusion ANISOTROPY data from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging results to construct images based on the direction of the faster diffusing molecules.Putamen: The largest and most lateral of the BASAL GANGLIA lying between the lateral medullary lamina of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and the EXTERNAL CAPSULE. It is part of the neostriatum and forms part of the LENTIFORM NUCLEUS along with the GLOBUS PALLIDUS.Echolalia: Involuntary ("parrot-like"), meaningless repetition of a recently heard word, phrase, or song. This condition may be associated with transcortical APHASIA; SCHIZOPHRENIA; or other disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p485)Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Subthalamic Nucleus: Lens-shaped structure on the inner aspect of the INTERNAL CAPSULE. The SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS and pathways traversing this region are concerned with the integration of somatic motor function.Comprehension: The act or fact of grasping the meaning, nature, or importance of; understanding. (American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed) Includes understanding by a patient or research subject of information disclosed orally or in writing.Neurologic Examination: Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.Remission, Spontaneous: A spontaneous diminution or abatement of a disease over time, without formal treatment.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Stellate Ganglion: A paravertebral sympathetic ganglion formed by the fusion of the inferior cervical and first thoracic ganglia.Parkinson Disease: A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Substantia Nigra: The black substance in the ventral midbrain or the nucleus of cells containing the black substance. These cells produce DOPAMINE, an important neurotransmitter in regulation of the sensorimotor system and mood. The dark colored MELANIN is a by-product of dopamine synthesis.Mental Status Schedule: Standardized clinical interview used to assess current psychopathology by scaling patient responses to the questions.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Caudate Nucleus: Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Spiral Ganglion: The sensory ganglion of the COCHLEAR NERVE. The cells of the spiral ganglion send fibers peripherally to the cochlear hair cells and centrally to the COCHLEAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM.Nerve Degeneration: Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Dominance, Cerebral: Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Nodose Ganglion: The inferior (caudal) ganglion of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. The unipolar nodose ganglion cells are sensory cells with central projections to the medulla and peripheral processes traveling in various branches of the vagus nerve.Supranuclear Palsy, Progressive: A degenerative disease of the central nervous system characterized by balance difficulties; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS (supranuclear ophthalmoplegia); DYSARTHRIA; swallowing difficulties; and axial DYSTONIA. Onset is usually in the fifth decade and disease progression occurs over several years. Pathologic findings include neurofibrillary degeneration and neuronal loss in the dorsal MESENCEPHALON; SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS; RED NUCLEUS; pallidum; dentate nucleus; and vestibular nuclei. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1076-7)Thalamic Diseases: Disorders of the centrally located thalamus, which integrates a wide range of cortical and subcortical information. Manifestations include sensory loss, MOVEMENT DISORDERS; ATAXIA, pain syndromes, visual disorders, a variety of neuropsychological conditions, and COMA. Relatively common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; BRAIN NEOPLASMS; BRAIN HYPOXIA; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; and infectious processes.Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Nerve Fibers, Myelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.Movement Disorders: Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.Dystonia: An attitude or posture due to the co-contraction of agonists and antagonist muscles in one region of the body. It most often affects the large axial muscles of the trunk and limb girdles. Conditions which feature persistent or recurrent episodes of dystonia as a primary manifestation of disease are referred to as DYSTONIC DISORDERS. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p77)Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Aniline CompoundsStatistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Chorea: Involuntary, forcible, rapid, jerky movements that may be subtle or become confluent, markedly altering normal patterns of movement. Hypotonia and pendular reflexes are often associated. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent episodes of chorea as a primary manifestation of disease are referred to as CHOREATIC DISORDERS. Chorea is also a frequent manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.Ganglia, Invertebrate: Clusters of neuronal cell bodies in invertebrates. Invertebrate ganglia may also contain neuronal processes and non-neuronal supporting cells. Many invertebrate ganglia are favorable subjects for research because they have small numbers of functional neuronal types which can be identified from one animal to another.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Dyslexia, Acquired: A receptive visual aphasia characterized by the loss of a previously possessed ability to comprehend the meaning or significance of handwritten words, despite intact vision. This condition may be associated with posterior cerebral artery infarction (INFARCTION, POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY) and other BRAIN DISEASES.Superior Cervical Ganglion: The largest and uppermost of the paravertebral sympathetic ganglia.Parkinsonian Disorders: A group of disorders which feature impaired motor control characterized by bradykinesia, MUSCLE RIGIDITY; TREMOR; and postural instability. Parkinsonian diseases are generally divided into primary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE), secondary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY) and inherited forms. These conditions are associated with dysfunction of dopaminergic or closely related motor integration neuronal pathways in the BASAL GANGLIA.Speech Production Measurement: Measurement of parameters of the speech product such as vocal tone, loudness, pitch, voice quality, articulation, resonance, phonation, phonetic structure and prosody.Linguistics: The science of language, including phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and historical linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Neostriatum: The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.Parkinson Disease, Secondary: Conditions which feature clinical manifestations resembling primary Parkinson disease that are caused by a known or suspected condition. Examples include parkinsonism caused by vascular injury, drugs, trauma, toxin exposure, neoplasms, infections and degenerative or hereditary conditions. Clinical features may include bradykinesia, rigidity, parkinsonian gait, and masked facies. In general, tremor is less prominent in secondary parkinsonism than in the primary form. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch38, pp39-42)Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Entopeduncular Nucleus: A portion of the nucleus of ansa lenticularis located medial to the posterior limb of the internal capsule, along the course of the ansa lenticularis and the inferior thalamic peduncle or as a separate nucleus within the internal capsule adjacent to the medial GLOBUS PALLIDUS (NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc. washington.edu/neuronames/ (September 28, 1998)). In non-primates, the entopeduncular nucleus is analogous to both the medial globus pallidus and the entopeduncular nucleus of human.Dysarthria: Disorders of speech articulation caused by imperfect coordination of pharynx, larynx, tongue, or face muscles. This may result from CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; CEREBELLAR DISEASES; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; BRAIN STEM diseases; or diseases of the corticobulbar tracts (see PYRAMIDAL TRACTS). The cortical language centers are intact in this condition. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p489)Fluorodeoxyglucose F18: The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Names: Personal names, given or surname, as cultural characteristics, as ethnological or religious patterns, as indications of the geographic distribution of families and inbreeding, etc. Analysis of isonymy, the quality of having the same or similar names, is useful in the study of population genetics. NAMES is used also for the history of names or name changes of corporate bodies, such as medical societies, universities, hospitals, government agencies, etc.Levodopa: The naturally occurring form of DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE and the immediate precursor of DOPAMINE. Unlike dopamine itself, it can be taken orally and crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is rapidly taken up by dopaminergic neurons and converted to DOPAMINE. It is used for the treatment of PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS and is usually given with agents that inhibit its conversion to dopamine outside of the central nervous system.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cebus: A genus of the family CEBIDAE, subfamily CEBINAE, consisting of four species which are divided into two groups, the tufted and untufted. C. apella has tufts of hair over the eyes and sides of the head. The remaining species are without tufts - C. capucinus, C. nigrivultatus, and C. albifrons. Cebus inhabits the forests of Central and South America.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Hypokinesia: Slow or diminished movement of body musculature. It may be associated with BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; prolonged inactivity due to illness; and other conditions.Dystonic Disorders: Acquired and inherited conditions that feature DYSTONIA as a primary manifestation of disease. These disorders are generally divided into generalized dystonias (e.g., dystonia musculorum deformans) and focal dystonias (e.g., writer's cramp). They are also classified by patterns of inheritance and by age of onset.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The primary symptoms are the results of decreased stimulation of the motor cortex by the basal ganglia, normally caused by the ... PD is both chronic and progressive. Myasthenia gravis is a neuromuscular disease leading to fluctuating muscle weakness and ... As the disorder progresses, cognitive (intellectual) impairment extends to the domains of language (aphasia), skilled movements ... Neurons are the primary components of the central nervous system, which includes the brain and spinal cord, and of the ...
Progressive aphasiasEdit. Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a neurodegenerative focal dementia that can be associated with ... Possible sites of lesions include the thalamus, internal capsule, and basal ganglia. ... www.aphasia.org/aphasia-resources/aphasia-statistics/ *^ "Aphasia Fact sheet - National Aphasia Association". National Aphasia ... and Logopenic progressive aphasia (LPA)[49][50]. Progressive Jargon Aphasia[citation needed] is a fluent or receptive aphasia ...
March 2004). "Cognition and anatomy in three variants of primary progressive aphasia". Annals of Neurology. 55 (3): 335-46. doi ... Gaznick, N. (2013). "Basal Ganglia Plus Insula Damage Yields Stronger Disruption of Smoking Addiction Than Basal Ganglia Damage ... Progressive expressive aphasia is the deterioration of normal language function that causes individuals to lose the ability to ... Nestor PJ, Graham NL, Fryer TD, Williams GB, Patterson K, Hodges JR (November 2003). "Progressive non-fluent aphasia is ...
... aphasia, conduction MeSH C10.597.606.150.500.800.100.155 --- primary progressive aphasia MeSH C10.597.606.150.500.800.100.166 ... basal ganglia cerebrovascular disease MeSH C10.228.140.079.127.500 --- basal ganglia hemorrhage MeSH C10.228.140.079.127.500. ... basal ganglia cerebrovascular disease MeSH C10.228.140.300.100.200 --- basal ganglia hemorrhage MeSH C10.228.140.300.100.200. ... primary progressive aphasia MeSH C10.228.140.380.165 --- creutzfeldt-jakob syndrome MeSH C10.228.140.380.230 --- dementia, ...
1996) suggests that lesions to the subcortical regions of the cortex such as the thalamus, basal ganglia, internal capsule, and ... Mesulam, M (2010). "Aphasia, Sudden and Progressive". In Whitaker, Harry A. Concise Encyclopedia of Brain And Language (1 ed ... Speech and language therapy is typically the primary treatment for individuals with aphasia. The goal of speech and language ... In addition to stroke, global aphasia can also be caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI), tumors, and progressive neurological ...
"Cognition and anatomy in three variants of primary progressive aphasia". Annals of Neurology. 55 (3): 335-46. doi:10.1002/ana. ... "Basal Ganglia Plus Insula Damage Yields Stronger Disruption of Smoking Addiction Than Basal Ganglia Damage Alone". Nicotine. 16 ... Progressive expressive aphasiaEdit. Progressive expressive aphasia is the deterioration of normal language function that causes ... "Progressive non-fluent aphasia is associated with hypometabolism centred on the left anterior insula". Brain. 126 (Pt 11): 2406 ...
... primary progressive aphasia MeSH C23.888.592.604.150.500.800.100.166 --- receptive aphasia MeSH C23.888.592.604.150.500.800.150 ... basal ganglia hemorrhage MeSH C23.550.414.913.100.200.500 --- putaminal hemorrhage MeSH C23.550.414.913.400 --- hematoma, ... aphasia MeSH C23.888.592.604.150.500.800.100.100 --- expressive aphasia MeSH C23.888.592.604.150.500.800.100.111 --- aphasia, ... chronic progressive external MeSH C23.888.592.636.447.690 --- supranuclear palsy, progressive MeSH C23.888.592.636.637 --- ...
... progressive neurodegenerative disease involving the cerebral cortex and the basal ganglia. CBD symptoms typically begin in ... This may be related to speech impairment such as dysarthria, and thus is not a true aphasia, as aphasia is related to a change ... The partial (or total) use of a feeding tube may be necessary and will help prevent aspiration pneumonia, primary cause of ... Included in these fundamental features are problems with cortical processing, dysfunction of the basal ganglia, and a sudden ...
... resulting from damage to parts of the basal ganglia, such as in Huntington's disease or Parkinsonism), and the mixed ... These allow people who are unintelligible, or may be in the later stages of a progressive illness, to continue to be able to ... It is unrelated to problems with understanding language (that is aphasia), although a person can have both. Any of the speech ... Since regulation of skilled movements is a primary function of the cerebellum, damage to the superior cerebellum and the ...
Lesions to the basal ganglia may also be responsible, although there is considerable debate as to whether damage to the basal ... evidence from primary progressive apraxia". Brain Cogn. 44 (2): 166-91. doi:10.1006/brcg.2000.1227. PMID 11041988. Imazu, S.; ... Additionally, clinicians must be careful to exclude aphasia as a possible diagnosis, as, in the tests involving verbal command ... Macauley, Beth; Handley, Candace (Spring 2005). "Gestures Produced by Patients with Aphasia and Ideomotor Apraxia" (PDF). ...
Anomic aphasia Conduction aphasia Global aphasia Primary progressive aphasias Transcortical motor aphasia Broca's area ... TMA is caused by lesions in cortical motor areas of the brain as well as lesions in the anterior portion of the basal ganglia, ... receptive aphasia. However, transcortical sensory aphasia differs from receptive aphasia in that patients still have intact ... Transcortical sensory aphasia (TSA) is a kind of aphasia that involves damage to specific areas of the temporal lobe of the ...
Primary progressive aphasia. *Frontotemporal dementia/Frontotemporal lobar degeneration *Pick's. *Dementia with Lewy bodies ... "Modulation of Movement by the Basal Ganglia - Circuits within the Basal Ganglia System". In Dale Purves (ed.). Neuroscience ( ... "Modulation of Movement by the Basal Ganglia - Box A. Huntington's Disease". In Dale Purves (ed.). Neuroscience (2nd ed.). ... Recent independent research by Nagai et al.[38] and Di Giorgio et al.[39] provide in vitro evidence that the primary cellular ...
Primary progressive aphasia. *Frontotemporal dementia/Frontotemporal lobar degeneration *Pick's. *Dementia with Lewy bodies ... Basal ganglia disease *Parkinsonism *PD. *Postencephalitic. *NMS. *PKAN. *Tauopathy *PSP. *Striatonigral degeneration ... progressive bulbar palsy, progressive muscular atrophy, and primary lateral sclerosis.[130] In Europe, the term "ALS" also ... primary lateral sclerosis (PLS), progressive muscular atrophy (PMA), progressive bulbar palsy, pseudobulbar palsy, and ...
basal ganglia, particularly the subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra and globus pallidus;. *brainstem, particularly the ... Primary progressive aphasia. *Frontotemporal dementia/Frontotemporal lobar degeneration *Pick's. *Dementia with Lewy bodies ... "Orphanet: Progressive supranuclear palsy". Orpha.net. Retrieved 2017-01-08.. *^ "What's New in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy?" ... Basal Ganglia and cerebellum with vertical gaze and pseudobulbar palsy, nuchal dystonia and dementia". Archives of Neurology. ...
Primary progressive aphasia. *Frontotemporal dementia/Frontotemporal lobar degeneration *Pick's. *Dementia with Lewy bodies ... In the case of Leigh disease, crucial cells in the brain stem and basal ganglia are affected. This causes a chronic lack of ... Dystonia, nystagmus, and problems with the autonomic nervous system suggest damage to the basal ganglia and brain stem ... When hyperbilirubinemia is not treated with phototherapy, the bilirubin can accumulate in the basal ganglia and cause lesions ...
Primary progressive aphasia. *Frontotemporal dementia/Frontotemporal lobar degeneration *Pick's. *Dementia with Lewy bodies ... Basal ganglia disease *Parkinsonism *PD. *Postencephalitic. *NMS. *PKAN. *Tauopathy *PSP. *Striatonigral degeneration ... Progressive inflammatory neuropathy. Treatment[edit]. See also: Multiple sclerosis § Medications, and Management of multiple ...
Primary progressive aphasia. *Frontotemporal dementia/Frontotemporal lobar degeneration *Pick's. *Dementia with Lewy bodies ... Basal ganglia disease *Parkinsonism *PD. *Postencephalitic. *NMS. *PKAN. *Tauopathy *PSP. *Striatonigral degeneration ... GABAA agonists,[2] usually diazepam but sometimes other benzodiazepines,[31] are the primary treatment for SPS. Drugs that ... Patients with stiff-person syndrome (SPS) suffer progressive stiffness in their truncal muscles,[2] which become rigid and ...
Primary progressive aphasia. *Frontotemporal dementia/Frontotemporal lobar degeneration *Pick's. *Dementia with Lewy bodies ... A finding of reduced dopamine-related activity in the basal ganglia can rule out drug-induced parkinsonism, but reduced basal ... There are five major pathways in the brain connecting other brain areas with the basal ganglia. These are known as the motor, ... The main pathological characteristics of PD are cell death in the brain's basal ganglia (affecting up to 70% of the dopamine ...
Primary progressive aphasia. *Frontotemporal dementia/Frontotemporal lobar degeneration *Pick's. *Dementia with Lewy bodies ... Basal ganglia disease *Parkinsonism *PD. *Postencephalitic. *NMS. *PKAN. *Tauopathy *PSP. *Striatonigral degeneration ... Essential tremor (ET, also referred to as benign tremor, familial tremor, or idiopathic tremor) is a progressive[7][8][9] ... HAPT1 mutations have also been linked to ET, as well as to Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy, and progressive ...
Primary progressive aphasia. *Frontotemporal dementia/Frontotemporal lobar degeneration *Pick's. *Dementia with Lewy bodies ... Basal ganglia disease *Parkinsonism *PD. *Postencephalitic. *NMS. *PKAN. *Tauopathy *PSP. *Striatonigral degeneration ... The primary goal in treatment of IIH is the prevention of visual loss and blindness, as well as symptom control.[9] IIH is ...
Primary progressive aphasia. *Frontotemporal dementia/Frontotemporal lobar degeneration *Pick's. *Dementia with Lewy bodies ... Basal ganglia disease *Parkinsonism *PD. *Postencephalitic. *NMS. *PKAN. *Tauopathy *PSP. *Striatonigral degeneration ... This is caused by progressive degeneration of neurons in several parts of the brain including the substantia nigra, striatum, ... characterized by progressive ataxia (an inability to coordinate voluntary muscular movements) of the gait and arms and ...
Primary progressive aphasia. *Frontotemporal dementia/Frontotemporal lobar degeneration *Pick's. *Dementia with Lewy bodies ... Basal ganglia disease *Parkinsonism *PD. *Postencephalitic. *NMS. *PKAN. *Tauopathy *PSP. *Striatonigral degeneration ...
Primary progressive aphasia. *Frontotemporal dementia/Frontotemporal lobar degeneration *Pick's. *Dementia with Lewy bodies ... Basal ganglia. *Chorea. *Dystonia. *Parkinson's disease. Cortex. *ACA syndrome. *MCA syndrome. *PCA syndrome ...
Primary progressive aphasia. *Frontotemporal dementia/Frontotemporal lobar degeneration *Pick's. *Dementia with Lewy bodies ... Basal ganglia disease *Parkinsonism *PD. *Postencephalitic. *NMS. *PKAN. *Tauopathy *PSP. *Striatonigral degeneration ... reported in 1761 that it was a progressive condition.[21] ... Progressive muscular atrophy. *Progressive bulbar palsy *Fazio- ...
Primary progressive aphasia. *Frontotemporal dementia/Frontotemporal lobar degeneration *Pick's. *Dementia with Lewy bodies ... Basal ganglia disease *Parkinsonism *PD. *Postencephalitic. *NMS. *PKAN. *Tauopathy *PSP. *Striatonigral degeneration ... "Meta-analysis: melatonin for the treatment of primary sleep disorders". www.crd.york.ac.uk. Retrieved 2016-03-08.. ... Insomnia disorder (primary insomnia), chronic difficulty in falling asleep and/or maintaining sleep when no other cause is ...
Primary progressive aphasia. *Frontotemporal dementia/Frontotemporal lobar degeneration *Pick's. *زوال عقل با اجسام لویی ... Basal ganglia disease *پارکینسونیزم *پارکینسون. *Postencephalitic. *نشانگان نورولپتیک بدخیم. *PKAN. *Tauopathy *PSP ...
Recently, the primary progressive aphasias were classified into three clinical variants; non fluent/agrammatic, semantic and ... The Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA) syndrome was firstly introduced in 1982. ... possible link between non fluent Primary Progressive Aphasia and basal ganglia dysfunction. The Primary Progressive Aphasia ( ... Recently, the primary progressive aphasias were classified into three clinical variants; non fluent/agrammatic, semantic and ...
Aphasia. Aphasia, Primary Progressive. Parkinsonian Disorders. Basal Ganglia Diseases. Brain Diseases. Central Nervous System ... Primary progressive aphasia. Parkinsons Disease dementia. Mixed dementia. Alzheimers Disease and other non-AD dementia. ... Alzheimers Disease Mild Cognitive Impairment Vascular Dementia Fronto-temporal Dementia Primary Progressive Aphasia Parkinson ... Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Familial Alzheimer Disease Primary Progressive Aphasia Frontotemporal ...
A 71-year-old woman initially presented dysarthria, clumsiness, progressive asymmetric bradykinesia, and rigidity in left arm. ... language involvement to primary progressive aphasia (PPA), and prominent behavioral features to frontotemporal dementia (FTD) [ ... Basal ganglia are also involved with substantial atrophy in the lateral two-thirds of the substantia nigra, and, to a lesser ... except in some forms presenting with dementia or primary progressive aphasia, which are characterised by a more symmetric and ...
Head CT and MRI scans showed abnormalities of the thalami, basal ganglia, and right caudate nucleus. A battery of laboratory ... The patient was discharged home on March 26 with substantial residual cognitive deficits, aphasia, and motor dysfunction. Six ... and progressive limb weakness. On February 22, he was transferred to a hospital in Bangkok where he had fever, intermittent ... family had visited a travel medicine clinic but deferred JE vaccination because of insufficient time to complete a full primary ...
This paper presents a clinicopathological approach to characterizing primary dementias by their different dementia-causing ... logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia; nfPPA, nonfluent primary progressive aphasia; PD, Parkinsons disease dementia; ... Tufted astrocytes, tau and neurodegeneration in brainstem and basal ganglia. Slow vertical saccade, gait instability, ... Table 2. Common primary dementias: risk factors, characteristic lesion, and common clinical phenotypes. Risk factors. ...
Clinicopathologic correlations in a family with a TBK1 mutation presenting as primary progressive aphasia and primary lateral ... SLC20A2 and THAP1 deletion in familial basal ganglia calcification with dystonia. Neurogenetics. 2014 Mar; 15 (1):23-30 Epub ... Progranulin-associated PiB-negative logopenic primary progressive aphasia. J Neurol. 2014 Mar; 261 (3):604-14 Epub 2014 Jan 22 ... Dominant frontotemporal dementia mutations in 140 cases of primary progressive aphasia and speech apraxia. Dement Geriatr Cogn ...
The primary symptoms are the results of decreased stimulation of the motor cortex by the basal ganglia, normally caused by the ... PD is both chronic and progressive. Myasthenia gravis is a neuromuscular disease leading to fluctuating muscle weakness and ... As the disorder progresses, cognitive (intellectual) impairment extends to the domains of language (aphasia), skilled movements ... Neurons are the primary components of the central nervous system, which includes the brain and spinal cord, and of the ...
Progressive aphasiasEdit. Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a neurodegenerative focal dementia that can be associated with ... Possible sites of lesions include the thalamus, internal capsule, and basal ganglia. ... www.aphasia.org/aphasia-resources/aphasia-statistics/ *^ "Aphasia Fact sheet - National Aphasia Association". National Aphasia ... and Logopenic progressive aphasia (LPA)[49][50]. Progressive Jargon Aphasia[citation needed] is a fluent or receptive aphasia ...
March 2004). "Cognition and anatomy in three variants of primary progressive aphasia". Annals of Neurology. 55 (3): 335-46. doi ... Gaznick, N. (2013). "Basal Ganglia Plus Insula Damage Yields Stronger Disruption of Smoking Addiction Than Basal Ganglia Damage ... Progressive expressive aphasia is the deterioration of normal language function that causes individuals to lose the ability to ... Nestor PJ, Graham NL, Fryer TD, Williams GB, Patterson K, Hodges JR (November 2003). "Progressive non-fluent aphasia is ...
... embolism Primary adrenal insufficiency Abnormality of immune system physiology Thyroiditis Hyperthyroidism Basal ganglia ... Fabry disease (FD) is a progressive, inherited, multisystemic lysosomal storage disease characterized by specific neurological ... hypoglycemia Abnormality of visual evoked potentials Hashimoto thyroiditis Atopic dermatitis Distal arthrogryposis Aphasia ... MELAS (Mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke) syndrome is a rare progressive multisystemic ...
... semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA) (71% vs 17%), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) (38% vs 31%), and ... Although [18F]RO948 has been shown to have negligible retention in vivo in the basal ganglia, thalamus, and choroid plexus,21 ... RO948 SUVR Values in Temporal and Primary Somatosensory Cortex ROIs for Semantic Variant Primary Progressive Aphasia ... Prevalence of amyloid-β pathology in distinct variants of primary progressive aphasia.  Ann Neurol. 2018;84(5):729-740. doi: ...
... lipomas Primary adrenal insufficiency Abnormality of immune system physiology Rhabdomyolysis Hyperthyroidism Basal ganglia ... MELAS (Mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke) syndrome is a rare progressive multisystemic ... Prolonged QT interval Abnormality of neuronal migration Episodic vomiting Hyperkalemia Dysphasia Vestibular dysfunction Aphasia ... Immunodeficiency-55 is an autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, ...
"Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 positron emission tomography in progressive apraxia of speech and primary progressive aphasia variants ... J. R. Booth, L. Wood, D. Lu, J. C. Houk, and T. Bitan, "The role of the basal ganglia and cerebellum in language processing," ... M. L. Gorno-Tempini and S. M. Brambati, "The logopenic/phonologic variant of primary progressive aphasia," AAN Enterprise, vol ... M. L. Gorno-Tempini, A. E. Hillis, S. Weintraub et al., "Classification of primary progressive aphasia and its variants," ...
4 Primary Progressive Aphasia Syndromes; Introduction; Historical Background; Progressive Nonfluent/Agrammatic Aphasia (PNFA); ... Basal Ganglia and Cerebellum; The Cerebral Cortex; The Major Lobes-Visible and Hidden; Gyral-Sulcal Organization; ... Transcortical Sensory Aphasia; Mixed Transcortical Aphasia; Flow Chart for Classifying the Aphasia Syndromes; Box 3.4: Aphasia ... Lesion CorrelatesConduction Aphasia; Production; Comprehension; Repetition; Lesion Correlates; Global Aphasia; Anomic Aphasia; ...
... and primary progressive aphasia (n = 2) [8].. *Less frequent disorders are cortico-basal ganglionic degeneration (CBGD), ... Distribution of basal ganglia lesions in diffuse neurofibrillary tangles with calcification: a clinicopathological study of ... The pathology and nosology of primary progressive aphasia. Kertesz, A., Hudson, L., Mackenzie, I.R., Munoz, D.G. Neurology ( ... In DNTC, the degree and distribution of the basal ganglia lesions, except for nigral lesions, were analogous to those found in ...
Mixed tau and TDP-43 pathology in a patient with unclassifiable primary progressive aphasia. Neurocase. 2016; 22: (1)55-9. View ... Striking basal ganglia imaging abnormalities in LGI1 ab faciobrachial dystonic seizures. Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm. 2017 ... Dominant frontotemporal dementia mutations in 140 cases of primary progressive aphasia and speech apraxia. Dement Geriatr Cogn ... Basal ganglia T1 hyperintensity in LGI1-autoantibody faciobrachial dystonic seizures. Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm. 2015 ...
... progressive non-fluent aphasia [14], primary lateral sclerosis [8], and a behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia [15]. ... A heterogeneous degeneration involving the brain stem, basal ganglia and cerebellum with vertical gaze and pseudobulbar palsy, ... Atypical progressive supranuclear palsy underlying progressive apraxia of speech and nonfluent aphasia. Neurocase 2005;11:283- ... Key Words: Progressive supranuclear palsy; Genetics; MAPT; Microtubule-associated protein tau; Familial progressive ...
... not gradually as in primary progressive aphasia.. *It is valuable to recognize each of the primary progressive aphasia ... basal ganglia, and white matter tracts connecting them.. *In the traditional nosology, apperceptive agnosias result from a ... Patients with logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia resemble patients with nonfluent/agrammatic primary progressive ... Article 4: Primary Progressive Aphasia and Stroke Aphasia. Murray Grossman, MDCM, FAAN; David J. Irwin, MD. Continuum (Minneap ...
... primary progressive aphasia, and several others. PSP in particular has a 4-repeat tau (4RT) that accumulates in the basal ... According to Cordato et al (2000), atrophy of the basal ganglia is largely confined to the internal globus pallidus. Cerebral ... In addition to the midbrain disease, there is also damage to the basal ganglia (especially globus pallidus), subthalamic nuclei ... There is neuronal loss and neurofibrillary tangles in the basal ganglia, diencephalon and brainstem. Tau-immunoreactive ...
14 primary progressive aphasia]. Logistic regression identified those regions least helpful for distinguishing bvFTD and ... Sep, 2009 , Pubmed ID: 19700954 To determine whether basal ganglia atrophy, known to be associated with apathy in nondementia ... primary progressive aphasia from controls. Linear regression tested the correlation of duration of illness to atrophy severity ... Apathy is Not Associated with Basal Ganglia Atrophy in Frontotemporal Dementia The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry : ...
Seizures, confusion, hemianopsia, aphasia, cortical findings, hemiparesis on contralateral side. Basal Ganglia ... later becoming progressive • A minority of cases are primary progressive • Women are affected more than men • Most common ... 1/3 cases due to primary HSV cases, 2/3 due to reactivation of latent HSV • Rapidly progressive disease with profound ... Basal ganglia disorders (Parkinsons/Huntingtons/ Wilsons diseases) • Anoxic brain injury • Infections (TB/encephalitis) ...
Clinicopathological studies of four cases of chronic progressive leukoencephalopathy with systemic arteriosclerosis are ... and small cystic and softening foci in the white matter and the basal ganglia. The cytoarchitecture of the cerebral cortex was ... 7538647 - Crossed aphasia. an update.. 8530687 - Partial hydatidiform mole and hypertension associated with a live fetus-- ... 1325417 - Primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of the eyelid.. 23510157 - Annual acknowledgement of reviewers.. ...
... semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA) and non-fluent variant primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA). These ... muscle tone and truncal stability through the basal ganglia; injuries to this system can cause movement disorders, inability to ... PPA (primary progressive aphasia): A neurodegenerative disease marked by the progressive decline of language functions. PPA has ... progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA) and logopenic progressive aphasia (LPA). ...
... primary progressive aphasia patients also showed increased F-PI-2620 uptakes in the frontotemporoparietal cortex. Patients with ... RESULTS: All participants showed no increase in off-target binding in basal ganglia on F-PI-2620 PET images, as noted for first ... Furthermore, this study showed that "off-target" binding in the basal ganglia does not affect F-PI-2620. ... The primary outcomes of the study were to demonstrate the safety, feasibility and reversibility of BBB disruption in PDD, ...
Neurofibrillary degeneration occurs in the hippocampus, basal ganglia and brainstem nuclei. Note: The disease is caused by ... Neuropathologic features may overlap Alzheimer disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, and Parkinson disease.; Progressive ... Home/Products/Product type/Primary antibody. Rabbit Polyclonal Phospho-Tau (S422) antibody (STJ91005). ... Clinical features include aphasia, apraxia, confusion, anomia, memory loss and personality deterioration. . Note: The disease ...
  • Symptoms are typically slowly progressive and associated with behavioral change (e.g. apathy or withdrawal), and motor abnormalities (e.g. slowness of movement, gait disorder). (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • The Ravel issue offers an explanation for our clinical observation and constitutes a hint for the possible overlap between the non fluent PPA variant and basal ganglia dysfunction. (atlasofscience.org)
  • The ultimate goal is to define the clinical utility of AclarusDx™ to provide Primary Care Physicians (PCPs) with a tool that will help them in making the diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In clinical studies, several clinical endpoints for progressive functional decline in PD have been used, including the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) in the defined off state or after drug washout up to two weeks, time to need for dopaminergic therapy, or time to development of motor fluctuations (85-89). (guwsmedical.info)
  • The incidence of CVST is usually underestimated, as its clinical presentation is non-specific, including headache, hemiparalysis, aphasia, seizures and even coma ( 2 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Searching the literature I came up the case of the French composer Maurice Ravel who suffered from a progressive cerebral disease of uncertain etiology which led him to death in 1937, at the age of 62. (atlasofscience.org)
  • Remarkably uniform changes were found in the brains of all four cases, involving diffuse demyelination of the cerebral white matter, with some preservation of U-fibers, and small cystic and softening foci in the white matter and the basal ganglia. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We provide an update regarding the diagnosis and classification of primary cerebral low-grade B-cell lymphomas and cerebral light chain deposit diseases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This work aims to add evidence and provide an update on the classification and diagnosis of monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition disease (MIDD) and primary central nervous system low-grade lymphomas. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Symptomes and signs of parkinsonismo have their origin in a change in the function in two regions on the basal ganglions: black substance and striatum (Caudate nucleus and putamen). (efisioterapia.net)