Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.
Diseases of the BASAL GANGLIA including the PUTAMEN; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; claustrum; AMYGDALA; and CAUDATE NUCLEUS. DYSKINESIAS (most notably involuntary movements and alterations of the rate of movement) represent the primary clinical manifestations of these disorders. Common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES; and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.
Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.
Bleeding within the subcortical regions of cerebral hemispheres (BASAL GANGLIA). It is often associated with HYPERTENSION or ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS. Clinical manifestations may include HEADACHE; DYSKINESIAS; and HEMIPARESIS.
Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.
The representation of the phylogenetically oldest part of the corpus striatum called the paleostriatum. It forms the smaller, more medial part of the lentiform nucleus.
Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.
Clusters of neurons and their processes in the autonomic nervous system. In the autonomic ganglia, the preganglionic fibers from the central nervous system synapse onto the neurons whose axons are the postganglionic fibers innervating target organs. The ganglia also contain intrinsic neurons and supporting cells and preganglionic fibers passing through to other ganglia.
The semilunar-shaped ganglion containing the cells of origin of most of the sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve. It is situated within the dural cleft on the cerebral surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone and gives off the ophthalmic, maxillary, and part of the mandibular nerves.
A pathological condition caused by impaired blood flow in the basal regions of cerebral hemispheres (BASAL GANGLIA), such as INFARCTION; HEMORRHAGE; or ISCHEMIA in vessels of this brain region including the lateral lenticulostriate arteries. Primary clinical manifestations include involuntary movements (DYSKINESIAS) and muscle weakness (HEMIPARESIS).
Ganglia of the parasympathetic nervous system, including the ciliary, pterygopalatine, submandibular, and otic ganglia in the cranial region and intrinsic (terminal) ganglia associated with target organs in the thorax and abdomen.
Clusters of neurons in the somatic peripheral nervous system which contain the cell bodies of sensory nerve axons. Sensory ganglia may also have intrinsic interneurons and non-neuronal supporting cells.
The largest and most lateral of the BASAL GANGLIA lying between the lateral medullary lamina of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and the EXTERNAL CAPSULE. It is part of the neostriatum and forms part of the LENTIFORM NUCLEUS along with the GLOBUS PALLIDUS.
Lens-shaped structure on the inner aspect of the INTERNAL CAPSULE. The SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS and pathways traversing this region are concerned with the integration of somatic motor function.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
A paravertebral sympathetic ganglion formed by the fusion of the inferior cervical and first thoracic ganglia.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)
The black substance in the ventral midbrain or the nucleus of cells containing the black substance. These cells produce DOPAMINE, an important neurotransmitter in regulation of the sensorimotor system and mood. The dark colored MELANIN is a by-product of dopamine synthesis.
Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.
The sensory ganglion of the COCHLEAR NERVE. The cells of the spiral ganglion send fibers peripherally to the cochlear hair cells and centrally to the COCHLEAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM.
The inferior (caudal) ganglion of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. The unipolar nodose ganglion cells are sensory cells with central projections to the medulla and peripheral processes traveling in various branches of the vagus nerve.
An attitude or posture due to the co-contraction of agonists and antagonist muscles in one region of the body. It most often affects the large axial muscles of the trunk and limb girdles. Conditions which feature persistent or recurrent episodes of dystonia as a primary manifestation of disease are referred to as DYSTONIC DISORDERS. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p77)
Involuntary, forcible, rapid, jerky movements that may be subtle or become confluent, markedly altering normal patterns of movement. Hypotonia and pendular reflexes are often associated. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent episodes of chorea as a primary manifestation of disease are referred to as CHOREATIC DISORDERS. Chorea is also a frequent manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.
Clusters of neuronal cell bodies in invertebrates. Invertebrate ganglia may also contain neuronal processes and non-neuronal supporting cells. Many invertebrate ganglia are favorable subjects for research because they have small numbers of functional neuronal types which can be identified from one animal to another.
The largest and uppermost of the paravertebral sympathetic ganglia.
Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.
A group of disorders which feature impaired motor control characterized by bradykinesia, MUSCLE RIGIDITY; TREMOR; and postural instability. Parkinsonian diseases are generally divided into primary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE), secondary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY) and inherited forms. These conditions are associated with dysfunction of dopaminergic or closely related motor integration neuronal pathways in the BASAL GANGLIA.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
A portion of the nucleus of ansa lenticularis located medial to the posterior limb of the internal capsule, along the course of the ansa lenticularis and the inferior thalamic peduncle or as a separate nucleus within the internal capsule adjacent to the medial GLOBUS PALLIDUS (NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc. (September 28, 1998)). In non-primates, the entopeduncular nucleus is analogous to both the medial globus pallidus and the entopeduncular nucleus of human.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
Conditions which feature clinical manifestations resembling primary Parkinson disease that are caused by a known or suspected condition. Examples include parkinsonism caused by vascular injury, drugs, trauma, toxin exposure, neoplasms, infections and degenerative or hereditary conditions. Clinical features may include bradykinesia, rigidity, parkinsonian gait, and masked facies. In general, tremor is less prominent in secondary parkinsonism than in the primary form. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch38, pp39-42)
A genus of the family CEBIDAE, subfamily CEBINAE, consisting of four species which are divided into two groups, the tufted and untufted. C. apella has tufts of hair over the eyes and sides of the head. The remaining species are without tufts - C. capucinus, C. nigrivultatus, and C. albifrons. Cebus inhabits the forests of Central and South America.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
The naturally occurring form of DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE and the immediate precursor of DOPAMINE. Unlike dopamine itself, it can be taken orally and crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is rapidly taken up by dopaminergic neurons and converted to DOPAMINE. It is used for the treatment of PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS and is usually given with agents that inhibit its conversion to dopamine outside of the central nervous system.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.
Acquired and inherited conditions that feature DYSTONIA as a primary manifestation of disease. These disorders are generally divided into generalized dystonias (e.g., dystonia musculorum deformans) and focal dystonias (e.g., writer's cramp). They are also classified by patterns of inheritance and by age of onset.
Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.
Slow or diminished movement of body musculature. It may be associated with BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; prolonged inactivity due to illness; and other conditions.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
A neurotransmitter analogue that depletes noradrenergic stores in nerve endings and induces a reduction of dopamine levels in the brain. Its mechanism of action is related to the production of cytolytic free-radicals.
Manganese poisoning is associated with chronic inhalation of manganese particles by individuals who work with manganese ore. Clinical features include CONFUSION; HALLUCINATIONS; and an extrapyramidal syndrome (PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY) that includes rigidity; DYSTONIA; retropulsion; and TREMOR. (Adams, Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1213)
Common name for small PASSERIFORMES in the family Fringillidae. They have a short stout bill (BEAK) adapted for crushing SEEDS. Some species of Old World finches are called CANARIES.
The sensory ganglion of the facial (7th cranial) nerve. The geniculate ganglion cells send central processes to the brain stem and peripheral processes to the taste buds in the anterior tongue, the soft palate, and the skin of the external auditory meatus and the mastoid process.
Disorders of the centrally located thalamus, which integrates a wide range of cortical and subcortical information. Manifestations include sensory loss, MOVEMENT DISORDERS; ATAXIA, pain syndromes, visual disorders, a variety of neuropsychological conditions, and COMA. Relatively common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; BRAIN NEOPLASMS; BRAIN HYPOXIA; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; and infectious processes.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Sounds used in animal communication.
Abnormal involuntary movements which primarily affect the extremities, trunk, or jaw that occur as a manifestation of an underlying disease process. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent episodes of dyskinesia as a primary manifestation of disease may be referred to as dyskinesia syndromes (see MOVEMENT DISORDERS). Dyskinesias are also a relatively common manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.
Several groups of nuclei in the thalamus that serve as the major relay centers for sensory impulses in the brain.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Agents used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. The most commonly used drugs act on the dopaminergic system in the striatum and basal ganglia or are centrally acting muscarinic antagonists.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
A neuropsychological disorder related to alterations in DOPAMINE metabolism and neurotransmission involving frontal-subcortical neuronal circuits. Both multiple motor and one or more vocal tics need to be present with TICS occurring many times a day, nearly daily, over a period of more than one year. The onset is before age 18 and the disturbance is not due to direct physiological effects of a substance or a another medical condition. The disturbance causes marked distress or significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. (From DSM-IV, 1994; Neurol Clin 1997 May;15(2):357-79)
Abnormal movements, including HYPERKINESIS; HYPOKINESIA; TREMOR; and DYSTONIA, associated with the use of certain medications or drugs. Muscles of the face, trunk, neck, and extremities are most commonly affected. Tardive dyskinesia refers to abnormal hyperkinetic movements of the muscles of the face, tongue, and neck associated with the use of neuroleptic agents (see ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1199)
A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.
Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.
Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction which is often a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from MUSCLE SPASTICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p73)
A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D1-class receptor genes lack INTRONS, and the receptors stimulate ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.
The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
PASSERIFORMES of the suborder, Oscines, in which the flexor tendons of the toes are separate, and the lower syrinx has 4 to 9 pairs of tensor muscles inserted at both ends of the tracheal half rings. They include many commonly recognized birds such as CROWS; FINCHES; robins; SPARROWS; and SWALLOWS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
A familial disorder inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by the onset of progressive CHOREA and DEMENTIA in the fourth or fifth decade of life. Common initial manifestations include paranoia; poor impulse control; DEPRESSION; HALLUCINATIONS; and DELUSIONS. Eventually intellectual impairment; loss of fine motor control; ATHETOSIS; and diffuse chorea involving axial and limb musculature develops, leading to a vegetative state within 10-15 years of disease onset. The juvenile variant has a more fulminant course including SEIZURES; ATAXIA; dementia; and chorea. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1060-4)
NERVE FIBERS which project from the central nervous system to AUTONOMIC GANGLIA. In the sympathetic division most preganglionic fibers originate with neurons in the intermediolateral column of the SPINAL CORD, exit via ventral roots from upper thoracic through lower lumbar segments, and project to the paravertebral ganglia; there they either terminate in SYNAPSES or continue through the SPLANCHNIC NERVES to the prevertebral ganglia. In the parasympathetic division the fibers originate in neurons of the BRAIN STEM and sacral spinal cord. In both divisions the principal transmitter is ACETYLCHOLINE but peptide cotransmitters may also be released.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
Cell-surface proteins that bind dopamine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Acquired or inborn metabolic diseases that produce brain dysfunction or damage. These include primary (i.e., disorders intrinsic to the brain) and secondary (i.e., extracranial) metabolic conditions that adversely affect cerebral function.
Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.
Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.
A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.
Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.
Brain waves with frequency between 15-30 Hz seen on EEG during wakefulness and mental activity.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
A degenerative disease of the central nervous system characterized by balance difficulties; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS (supranuclear ophthalmoplegia); DYSARTHRIA; swallowing difficulties; and axial DYSTONIA. Onset is usually in the fifth decade and disease progression occurs over several years. Pathologic findings include neurofibrillary degeneration and neuronal loss in the dorsal MESENCEPHALON; SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS; RED NUCLEUS; pallidum; dentate nucleus; and vestibular nuclei. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1076-7)
Any drugs that are used for their effects on dopamine receptors, on the life cycle of dopamine, or on the survival of dopaminergic neurons.
Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.
Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.
A condition caused by the neurotoxin MPTP which causes selective destruction of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Clinical features include irreversible parkinsonian signs including rigidity and bradykinesia (PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY). MPTP toxicity is also used as an animal model for the study of PARKINSON DISEASE. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1072; Neurology 1986 Feb;36(2):250-8)
Organic compounds that contain technetium as an integral part of the molecule. These compounds are often used as radionuclide imaging agents.
Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.
Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.
A dopaminergic neurotoxic compound which produces irreversible clinical, chemical, and pathological alterations that mimic those found in Parkinson disease.
Autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by mutations in PROPIONYL-COA CARBOXYLASE genes that result in dysfunction of branch chain amino acids and of the metabolism of certain fatty acids. Neonatal clinical onset is characterized by severe metabolic acidemia accompanied by hyperammonemia, HYPERGLYCEMIA, lethargy, vomiting, HYPOTONIA; and HEPATOMEGALY. Survivors of the neonatal onset propionic acidemia often show developmental retardation, and intolerance to dietary proteins. Late-onset form of the disease shows mild mental and/or developmental retardation, sometimes without metabolic acidemia.
Cyclical movement of a body part that can represent either a physiologic process or a manifestation of disease. Intention or action tremor, a common manifestation of CEREBELLAR DISEASES, is aggravated by movement. In contrast, resting tremor is maximal when there is no attempt at voluntary movement, and occurs as a relatively frequent manifestation of PARKINSON DISEASE.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A condition caused by a deficiency of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH). It is characterized by HYPOCALCEMIA and hyperphosphatemia. Hypocalcemia leads to TETANY. The acquired form is due to removal or injuries to the PARATHYROID GLANDS. The congenital form is due to mutations of genes, such as TBX1; (see DIGEORGE SYNDROME); CASR encoding CALCIUM-SENSING RECEPTOR; or PTH encoding parathyroid hormone.
A gamma-emitting RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING agent used in the evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow and in non-invasive dynamic biodistribution studies and MYOCARDIAL PERFUSION IMAGING. It has also been used to label leukocytes in the investigation of INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES.
The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.
An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
INTERNEURONS of the vertebrate RETINA. They integrate, modulate, and interpose a temporal domain in the visual message presented to the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS, with which they synapse in the inner plexiform layer.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.
The anterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which coordinate the general behavioral orienting responses to visual stimuli, such as whole-body turning, and reaching.
Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.
Automatic, mechanical, and apparently undirected behavior which is outside of conscious control.
Compounds that contain the radical R2C=N.OH derived from condensation of ALDEHYDES or KETONES with HYDROXYLAMINE. Members of this group are CHOLINESTERASE REACTIVATORS.
Bleeding within the SKULL that is caused by systemic HYPERTENSION, usually in association with INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOSCLEROSIS. Hypertensive hemorrhages are most frequent in the BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; PONS; and THALAMUS; but may also involve the CEREBRAL CORTEX, subcortical white matter, and other brain structures.
Performance of complex motor acts.
The lectin wheatgerm agglutinin conjugated to the enzyme HORSERADISH PEROXIDASE. It is widely used for tracing neural pathways.
Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.
Injuries to the optic nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve. Clinical manifestations may include visual loss, PAPILLEDEMA, and an afferent pupillary defect.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
The anterior subdivision of the embryonic PROSENCEPHALON or the corresponding part of the adult prosencephalon that includes the cerebrum and associated structures.
An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.
A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, (September 2, 1998)).
Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A derivative of morphine that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It is a powerful emetic and has been used for that effect in acute poisoning. It has also been used in the diagnosis and treatment of parkinsonism, but its adverse effects limit its use.
A symptom, not a disease, of a twisted neck. In most instances, the head is tipped toward one side and the chin rotated toward the other. The involuntary muscle contractions in the neck region of patients with torticollis can be due to congenital defects, trauma, inflammation, tumors, and neurological or other factors.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
A phosphoprotein that was initially identified as a major target of DOPAMINE activated ADENYLYL CYCLASE in the CORPUS STRIATUM. It regulates the activities of PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE-1 and PROTEIN KINASE A, and it is a key mediator of the biochemical, electrophysiological, transcriptional, and behavioral effects of DOPAMINE.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC
A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.
An inherited autosomal disorder that is characterized by neurodegeneration; orofacial and buccal DYSKINESIAS; CHOREA; and thorny-looking red cells (ACANTHOCYTES). This disorder is due to mutations of chorein which is important in protein trafficking and is encoded by Vps13a on chromosome 9q21.
Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.
A small protuberance at the dorsal, posterior corner of the wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE, adjacent to the dorsal THALAMUS and PINEAL BODY. It contains the habenular nuclei and is a major part of the epithalamus.
Cell groups within the internal medullary lamina of the THALAMUS. They include a rostral division comprising the paracentral, central lateral, central dorsal, and central medial nuclei, and a caudal division composed of the centromedian and parafascicular nuclei.
Involuntary shock-like contractions, irregular in rhythm and amplitude, followed by relaxation, of a muscle or a group of muscles. This condition may be a feature of some CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; (e.g., EPILEPSY, MYOCLONIC). Nocturnal myoclonus is the principal feature of the NOCTURNAL MYOCLONUS SYNDROME. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp102-3).
An acute neurological disorder characterized by the triad of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and disturbances of mental activity or consciousness. Eye movement abnormalities include nystagmus, external rectus palsies, and reduced conjugate gaze. THIAMINE DEFICIENCY and chronic ALCOHOLISM are associated conditions. Pathologic features include periventricular petechial hemorrhages and neuropil breakdown in the diencephalon and brainstem. Chronic thiamine deficiency may lead to KORSAKOFF SYNDROME. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1139-42; Davis & Robertson, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, pp452-3)
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Knowing or understanding without conscious use of reasoning. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)
Disorders caused by cellular or humoral immune responses primarily directed towards nervous system autoantigens. The immune response may be directed towards specific tissue components (e.g., myelin) and may be limited to the central nervous system (e.g., MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS) or the peripheral nervous system (e.g., GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME).
One of the three major families of endogenous opioid peptides. The enkephalins are pentapeptides that are widespread in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in the adrenal medulla.
A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)
Transection or severing of an axon. This type of denervation is used often in experimental studies on neuronal physiology and neuronal death or survival, toward an understanding of nervous system disease.
Drugs that act on adrenergic receptors or affect the life cycle of adrenergic transmitters. Included here are adrenergic agonists and antagonists and agents that affect the synthesis, storage, uptake, metabolism, or release of adrenergic transmitters.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
A complex network of nerve fibers in the pelvic region. The hypogastric plexus distributes sympathetic fibers from the lumbar paravertebral ganglia and the aortic plexus, parasympathetic fibers from the pelvic nerve, and visceral afferents. The bilateral pelvic plexus is in its lateral extent.
A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.
A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
Learning to make a series of responses in exact order.
Incoordination of voluntary movements that occur as a manifestation of CEREBELLAR DISEASES. Characteristic features include a tendency for limb movements to overshoot or undershoot a target (dysmetria), a tremor that occurs during attempted movements (intention TREMOR), impaired force and rhythm of diadochokinesis (rapidly alternating movements), and GAIT ATAXIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p90)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Low molecular weight, calcium binding muscle proteins. Their physiological function is possibly related to the contractile process.
EEG phase synchronization of the cortical brain region (CEREBRAL CORTEX).
A beta-hydroxylated derivative of phenylalanine. The D-form of dihydroxyphenylalanine has less physiologic activity than the L-form and is commonly used experimentally to determine whether the pharmacological effects of LEVODOPA are stereospecific.
Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.
A syndrome complex composed of three conditions which represent clinical variants of the same disease process: STRIATONIGRAL DEGENERATION; SHY-DRAGER SYNDROME; and the sporadic form of OLIVOPONTOCEREBELLAR ATROPHIES. Clinical features include autonomic, cerebellar, and basal ganglia dysfunction. Pathologic examination reveals atrophy of the basal ganglia, cerebellum, pons, and medulla, with prominent loss of autonomic neurons in the brain stem and spinal cord. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1076; Baillieres Clin Neurol 1997 Apr;6(1):187-204; Med Clin North Am 1999 Mar;83(2):381-92)
The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).
A neurotoxic isoxazole isolated from species of AMANITA. It is obtained by decarboxylation of IBOTENIC ACID. Muscimol is a potent agonist of GABA-A RECEPTORS and is used mainly as an experimental tool in animal and tissue studies.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Parkinsonism following encephalitis, historically seen as a sequella of encephalitis lethargica (Von Economo Encephalitis). The early age of onset, the rapid progression of symptoms followed by stabilization, and the presence of a variety of other neurological disorders (e.g., sociopathic behavior; TICS; MUSCLE SPASMS; oculogyric crises; hyperphagia; and bizarre movements) distinguish this condition from primary PARKINSON DISEASE. Pathologic features include neuronal loss and gliosis concentrated in the MESENCEPHALON; SUBTHALAMUS; and HYPOTHALAMUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p754)
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
A syndrome characterized by a silent and inert state without voluntary motor activity despite preserved sensorimotor pathways and vigilance. Bilateral FRONTAL LOBE dysfunction involving the anterior cingulate gyrus and related brain injuries are associated with this condition. This may result in impaired abilities to communicate and initiate motor activities. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p348; Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 1995 Feb;63(2):59-67)
Nerve fibers which project from cell bodies of AUTONOMIC GANGLIA to SYNAPSES on target organs.
Non-invasive methods of visualizing the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities.
Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
Compounds with BENZENE fused to AZEPINES.

Concordant induction of cyclin E and p21cip1 in differentiated keratinocytes by the human papillomavirus E7 protein inhibits cellular and viral DNA synthesis. (1/1612)

Productive infections by human papillomaviruses (HPVs) occur only in differentiated keratinocytes in squamous epithelia in which the HPV E7 protein reactivates the host DNA replication machinery to support viral DNA replication. In a fraction of the differentiated keratinocytes, E7 also posttranscriptionally induces p21Cip1, which is distributed in a mutually exclusive manner with unscheduled cellular DNA synthesis. In this study, double immunofluorescence labeling unexpectedly revealed that E7 caused a concordant accumulation of both cyclin E and p21Cip1 to high levels in patient papillomas and in organotypic cultures of primary human keratinocytes. The induction of cyclin E is mutually exclusive with unscheduled cellular DNA synthesis or abundant viral DNA. These novel virus-host interactions in differentiated keratinocytes are in contrast to previous observations made in submerged proliferating cultures, in which HPV E7 induces cyclin E and overcomes p21Cip1 inhibition of S-phase entry. We propose that an appropriately timed induction of cyclin E/cyclin-dependent kinase 2 by HPV E7 in postmitotic cells enables S-phase reentry and HPV DNA amplification, whereas prematurely induced cyclin E stabilizes p21Cip1 protein, which then inhibits cyclin E/cyclin-dependent kinase 2. Consequently, cyclin E and p21Cip1 both fail to turn over, and DNA synthesis does not occur.  (+info)

Developmental regulation of expression of the D3 dopamine receptor in rat nucleus accumbens and islands of Calleja. (2/1612)

The dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) belongs to the D2 subfamily and is expressed in the rat brain in targets of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system. Little is known about its normal development and control by dopaminergic innervation. We studied developmental expression of D3R in the rat nucleus accumbens (NAC) and islands of Calleja (ISC). At postnatal day (P) 7, D3 binding sites and mRNA were low in both areas. By P14, D3R and mRNA concentrations were close to adult levels in the ISC, whereas, in the NAC, binding increased until 3 months after birth. Cellular concentrations of D3 mRNA in the ISC increased with age in conjunction with a decrease in the number of D3 positive cells. In the NAC, the number of positive cells increased, whereas cellular levels of expression remained unchanged. Neonatal 6-hydroxydopamine lesion caused age-dependent changes in D3R expression. D3 binding sites did not change at P7 or P14, but there was a reduction in the number of D3 mRNA positive neurons accompanied by an increase in cellular levels of D3 mRNA at P14, suggesting that changes occurred in a subset of neurons. Up-regulation of D3 binding sites in NAC and ISC occurred 1 month after the lesion (P35) concomitant with a decrease in cellular levels of D3 mRNA and the number of D3 mRNA positive cells. At 3 months (P90) after the lesion, an increase in D3 mRNA occurred with no change in D3 binding sites. D3R shows region-specific dynamics in receptor/mRNA expression during development and is sensitive to loss of dopamine in early postnatal development.  (+info)

Bilateral basal ganglial necrosis after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in a child with Kostmann syndrome. (3/1612)

A 6-year-old girl underwent allogeneic BMT from a matched sibling donor for the treatment of Kostmann syndrome. She suddenly became drowsy on day 30 after BMT, and lost consciousness 2 days later. Cranial CT scan showed symmetrical lesions suggesting bilateral necrosis in the basal ganglia. Clinical and laboratory investigations failed to reveal any evidence of neurometabolic disease.  (+info)

5-HT modulation of dopamine release in basal ganglia in psilocybin-induced psychosis in man--a PET study with [11C]raclopride. (4/1612)

The modulating effects of serotonin on dopamine neurotransmission are not well understood, particularly in acute psychotic states. Positron emission tomography was used to examine the effect of psilocybin on the in vivo binding of [11C]raclopride to D2-dopamine receptors in the striatum in healthy volunteers after placebo and a psychotomimetic dose of psilocybin (n = 7). Psilocybin is a potent indoleamine hallucinogen and a mixed 5-HT2A and 5-HT1A receptor agonist. Psilocybin administration (0.25 mg/kg p.o.) produced changes in mood, disturbances in thinking, illusions, elementary and complex visual hallucinations and impaired ego-functioning. Psilocybin significantly decreased [11C]raclopride receptor binding potential (BP) bilaterally in the caudate nucleus (19%) and putamen (20%) consistent with an increase in endogenous dopamine. Changes in [11C]raclopride BP in the ventral striatum correlated with depersonalization associated with euphoria. Together with previous reports of 5-HT receptor involvement in striatal dopamine release, it is concluded that stimulation of both 5-HT2A and 5-HT1A receptors may be important for the modulation of striatal dopamine release in acute psychoses. The present results indirectly support the hypothesis of a serotonin-dopamine dysbalance in schizophrenia and suggest that psilocybin is a valuable tool in the analysis of serotonin-dopamine interactions in acute psychotic states.  (+info)

Impairment of EEG desynchronisation before and during movement and its relation to bradykinesia in Parkinson's disease. (5/1612)

OBJECTIVE: It has been suggested that the basal ganglia act to release cortical elements from idling (alpha) rhythms so that they may become coherent in the gamma range, thereby binding together those distributed activities necessary for the effective selection and execution of a motor act. This hypothesis was tested in 10 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. METHODS: Surface EEG was recorded during self paced squeezing of the hand and elbow flexion performed separately, simultaneously, or sequentially. Recordings were made after overnight withdrawal of medication and, again, 1 hour after levodopa. The medication related improvement in EEG desynchronisation (in the 7.5-12.5 Hz band) over the 1 second before movement and during movement were separately correlated with the improvement in movement time for each electrode site. Correlation coefficients (r) > 0.632 were considered significant (p<0.05). RESULTS: Improvement in premovement desynchronisation correlated with reduction in bradykinesia over the contralateral sensorimotor cortex and supplementary motor area in flexion and squeeze, respectively. However, when both movements were combined either simultaneously or sequentially, this correlation shifted anteriorly, to areas overlying prefrontal cortex. Improvement in EEG desynchronisation during movement only correlated with reduction in bradykinesia in two tasks. Correlation was seen over the supplementary motor area during flexion, and central prefrontal and ipsilateral premotor areas during simultaneous flex and squeeze. CONCLUSIONS: The results are consistent with the idea that the basal ganglia liberate frontal cortex from idling rhythms, and that this effect is focused and specific in so far as it changes with the demands of the task. In particular, the effective selection and execution of more complex tasks is associated with changes over the prefrontal cortex.  (+info)

Variation in echogenicity of the basal ganglia: anisotropic effect. (6/1612)

We observed that the fetal brain demonstrates relatively increased echogenicity of the basal ganglia compared with the thalami and cortical brain parenchyma, which we did not observe on neonatal sonograms. We hypothesized that the difference in relative echogenicity was due to differences in imaging techniques and anisotropic effects for prenatal and postnatal brain images. In 18 consecutive neonates, we obtained coronal images of the basal ganglia and thalami through the anterior fontanelle and axial images through the anterolateral fontanelle with both 5 and 7.5 MHz transducers. Two observers determined whether increased echogenicity or conspicuity of the basal ganglia was present, comparing the axial and coronal planes. We observed relatively increased echogenicity of the basal ganglia in the axial plane in 11 of the 16 examinations in this series. Of these 11, the increased echogenicity effect was manifest only in the axial plane in seven neonates. In the four instances in which the increased basal ganglia echogenicity was seen in both the coronal and axial planes, the effect was better shown in axial plane in all four. We did not observe any cases of increased echogenicity of the basal ganglia only in the coronal plane. The increased echogenicity was more conspicuous with the lower frequency transducer in 10 of the 11 examinations. We believe that the change in echogenicity of the basal ganglia is predominantly an anisotropic effect. Observing that increased echogenicity of the basal ganglia can disappear or decrease when comparing images in the axial to the coronal plane or be better demonstrated with lower frequency transducers might be a means by which to distinguish this phenomenon from true pathologic processes of the neonatal brain.  (+info)

Iron in the basal ganglia in Parkinson's disease. An in vitro study using extended X-ray absorption fine structure and cryo-electron microscopy. (7/1612)

Iron is found in high concentration in some areas of the brain, and increased iron in the substantia nigra is a feature of Parkinson's disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the physical environment of brain iron in post-mortem tissue to provide information on the possible role of iron in neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease. Iron has also been implicated as the cause of signal loss in areas of high brain iron on T2-weighted MRI sequences. Knowledge of the physical environment of the brain iron is essential in interpreting the cause of signal change. Post-mortem tissue was obtained from six cases of Parkinson's disease and from six age-matched controls. Iron levels were measured using absorption spectrophotometry. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure was used to evaluate the atomic environment of iron within the substantia nigra and both segments of the globus pallidus. Cryo-electron transmission microscopy was used to probe the iron storage proteins in these areas. Iron levels were increased in the parkinsonian nigra and lateral portion of the globus pallidus. Spectra from the extended X-ray absorption fine structure experiments showed that ferritin was the only storage protein detectable in both control and parkinsonian tissue in all areas studied. Cryo-electron transmission microscopy studies showed that ferritin was more heavily loaded with iron in Parkinson's disease when compared with age-matched controls. In summary we have shown that iron levels are increased in two areas of the brain in Parkinson's disease including the substantia nigra, the site of maximal neurodegeneration. This produces increased loading of ferritin, which is the normal brain iron storage protein. It is possible that increased loading of ferritin may increase the risk of free radical-induced damage. Differences in ferritin loading may explain regional differences in iron's effect on the T2 signal.  (+info)

Altered gene expression in striatal projection neurons in CB1 cannabinoid receptor knockout mice. (8/1612)

The basal ganglia, a brain structure critical for sensorimotor and motivational aspects of behavior, contain very high levels of CB1 cannabinoid receptors. These receptors are activated by endogenous lipophilic ligands, and they are thought to mediate behavioral effects of cannabinoid drugs. To evaluate the role of the endogenous cannabinoid system in the regulation of basal ganglia pathways, we have investigated the effects of targeted deletion of CB1 receptors on gene expression of various neuropeptides and transmitter-related enzymes in basal ganglia neurons. Mice without CB1 receptors are extremely hypoactive in a test for exploratory behavior (open-field test), showing markedly reduced locomotion and rearing. These CB1 mutants display significantly increased levels of substance P, dynorphin, enkephalin, and GAD 67 mRNAs in neurons of the two output pathways of the striatum that project to the substantia nigra and the globus pallidus. Our findings demonstrate that elimination of CB1 receptors results in behavioral abnormalities and functional reorganization of the basal ganglia.  (+info)

R MANICKAVASAGAR1, R SINGER2, R SWAMINATHAN1, D PRENTICE3, A IRISH1. 1Fiona Stanley Hospital, Perth, WA; 2Canberra Hospital, Canberra, ACT; 3Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, WA Aim: To characterise the features of acute bilateral basal ganglia dysfunction in dialysis patients and identify possible risk factors and clinical outcomes.. Background: Acute bilateral basal ganglia dysfunction is a rare complication of dialysis, manifesting as a movement disorder with chorea or acute Parkinsonism. In the non-dialysis population, degeneration of the basal ganglia is associated with genetic disorders of iron overload, mutations of Vitamin B5, toxins, hypoxia and metabolic acidosis.. Methods: Retrospective case series describing clinical, biochemical, radiological and post mortem histology features in 15 dialysis patients with acute bilateral basal ganglia syndrome over a 20 year period.. Results: The 15 patients (3 male; 4 ATSI) had an average age of 61±13 years at diagnosis. All were on dialysis (HD= ...
Damage to the basal ganglia cells may cause problems with ones ability to control speech, movement, and posture. This combination of symptoms is called Parkinsonism. A person with basal ganglia dysfunction may have difficulty starting, stopping, or sustaining movement. Depending on which area is affected, there may also be problems with memory and other thought processes. Generally, symptoms vary and may include ...
Background Although increased nasality can originate from basal ganglia dysfunction, data regarding hypernasality in Parkinsons disease (PD) and Huntingtons disease (HD) are very sparse. The aim of the current study was to analyze acoustic and perceptual correlates of velopharyngeal seal closure in 37 PD and 37 HD participants in comparison to 37 healthy control speakers. Methods Acoustical analysis was based on sustained phonation of the vowel /i/ and perceptual analysis was based on monologue. Perceptual analysis was performed by 10 raters using The Great Ormond Street Speech Assessment 98. Acoustic parameters related to changes in a 1/3-octave band centered on 1 kHz were proposed to reflect nasality level and behavior through utterance. Results Perceptual analysis showed the occurrence of mild to moderate hypernasality in 65% of PD, 89% of HD and 22% of control speakers. Based on acoustic analyses, 27% of PD, 54% of HD and 19% of control speakers showed an increased occurrence of hypernasality. In
Title: Progress in Understanding Basal Ganglia Dysfunction as a Common Target for Methamphetamine Abuse and HIV-1 Neurodegeneration. VOLUME: 5 ISSUE: 3. Author(s):Shaji Theodore, Wayne A. Cass, Avindra Nath and William F. Maragos. Affiliation:Department of Neurology, Center for Neurodegeneration and Experimental Therapeutics, University of Alabama, Birmingham 1719, 6th Avenue South, CIRC 516, Birmingham, AL-35294, USA.. Keywords:Drug abuse, AIDS, glia, cytokines, dopamine, striatum, neurodegeneration. Abstract: HIV-1 infection with concurrent methamphetamine (MA) abuse results in exacerbated neurodegenerative changes and rapid progression of a form of sub-cortical dementia termed HIV-1 associated dementia (HAD). A notable feature of HAD is the involvement of the dopaminergic system manifested as parkinsonian like movement abnormalities. The HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (Tat) protein is very often used in experimental studies trying to understand neurotoxic consequences of HIV-1 ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Basal ganglia dysfunction and equine learning ability. AU - Greening, Linda. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. M3 - Conference contribution. BT - Behaviour 2013 Abstract Book. T2 - Behaviour 2013. Y2 - 4 August 2013 through 8 August 2013. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A Connectomic Analysis of the Human Basal Ganglia Network. AU - Cacciola, Alberto. AU - Calamuneri, Alessandro. AU - Milardi, Demetrio. AU - Mormina, Enricomaria. AU - Chillemi, Gaetana. AU - Marino, Silvia. AU - Naro, Antonino. AU - Rizzo, Giuseppina. AU - Anastasi, Giuseppe. AU - Quartarone, Angelo. PY - 2017. Y1 - 2017. N2 - The current model of basal ganglia circuits has been introduced almost two decades ago and has settled the basis for our understanding of basal ganglia physiology and movement disorders. Although many questions are yet to be answered, several efforts have been recently made to shed new light on basal ganglia function. The traditional concept of direct and indirect pathways, obtained from axonal tracing studies in non-human primates and post-mortem fiber dissection in the human brain, still retains a remarkable appeal but is somehow obsolete. Therefore, a better comprehension of human structural basal ganglia connectivity in vivo, in humans, is of ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Subcortical connections of the basal ganglia. AU - Winn, Philip. AU - Wilson, D.I.G. AU - Redgrave, P.. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. N2 - Chapter describing subcortial connections of the Basal Ganglia. The Basal Ganglia comprise a group of forebrain nuclei that are interconnected with the cerebral cortex, thalamus and brainstem. Basal ganglia circuits are involved in various functions, including motor control and learning, sensorimotor integration, reward and cognition. The importance of these nuclei for normal brain function and behavior is emphasized by the numerous and diverse disorders associated with basal ganglia dysfunction, including Parkinsons disease, Tourettes syndrome, Huntingtons disease, obsessive-compulsive disorder, dystonia, and psychostimulant addiction.. AB - Chapter describing subcortial connections of the Basal Ganglia. The Basal Ganglia comprise a group of forebrain nuclei that are interconnected with the cerebral cortex, thalamus and brainstem. Basal ganglia ...
The basal ganglia may be divided into several functional subcompartments. The primary input structures are the caudate, putamen, and the nucleus accumbens, which are collectively termed the striatum. The putamen processes the motor component of basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits, whereas caudate and nucleus accumbens mediate cognitive, emotive, and limbic inputs. The spiny neurons, the principal input and output cells accounting for more than three quarters of the total striatal neuronal population, receive the excitatory synaptic inputs from neocortex as well as thalamus and the dopaminergic input from substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc).5 Two neurochemically and anatomically distinct populations of spiny neurons of the striatum project downstream to the globus pallidus internal segment (GPi) and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), which are the basal ganglia output nuclei (GPi/SNr). A specific subpopulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)- and substance P-containing spiny neurons ...
We learn new motor tasks by trial and error, repeating what works best and avoiding past mistakes. To repeat what works best we must register a satisfactory outcome, and in a study [1] we showed the existence of an evoked activity in the basal ganglia that correlates with accuracy of task performance and is associated with reiteration of successful motor parameters in subsequent movements. Here we report evidence that the signaling of positive trial outcome relies on dopaminergic input to the basal ganglia, by recording from the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in patients with nigrostriatal denervation due to Parkinsons Disease (PD) who have undergone functional neurosurgery. Correlations between subthalamic evoked activities and trial accuracy were weak and behavioral performance remained poor while patients were untreated; however, both improved after the dopamine prodrug levodopa was re-introduced. The results suggest that the midbrain dopaminergic system may be important, not only in signaling explicit
Objective To study the therapeutic effects for cerebral hematomas in basal ganglia region by microneurosurgery via transsylvian fissure-insular approach. Methods Retrospective analysis was performed in 23 cases with cerebral hematomas in basal ganglia region which were treated by microsurgery via transsylvian fissure-insular approach in our department from 2003 to 2005. Results The patients were evaluated by activities of daily living(ADL) after the operation, GradeⅠ was found in 3 cases, Ⅱ in 11 cases, Ⅲ in 7 cases, Ⅳ in 1 case, death in 1 case. Conclusion Microneurosurgical treatment via transsylvian fissure-insular approach for cerebral hematomas in basal ganglia region is a kind of minimally invasive method with less damage, better effects and more favorable prognosis.
Basal ganglia dysfunction has being implied in both Parkinsons disease and dystonia. While these disorders probably involve different cellular and circuit pathologies within and beyond basal ganglia, there may be some shared neurophysiological pathways. For example, pallidotomy and pallidal Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) are used in symptomatic treatment of both disorders. Both conditions are marked by alterations of rhythmicity of neural activity throughout basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits.
My grandpa who just passed away suffered from St. Vitis Dance as a child. I believe it is the same as chorea or a form of it. I have never understood it much. It went away and reoccurred just about 2 years ago. That just one of many of the factors in his end. In the end he couldnt swallow at all. I never understood the disease much. I am glad to see you have a medical knowledge of it. Hang in there Leanne. It is possible for him to maintain the tremors and there are things that can be done. My grandpa overcame it as a child when very little was known about it at all and lived a long healthy life until the end when it reoccured. I hope all the rest of your family is doing well.. ReplyDelete ...
Accuracy and variability of motor timing was assessed using a finger-tapping task. Participants were healthy, had generalized cerebellar dysfunction or Parkinson Disease. Inaccuracy of motor timing during the short duration interval differentiated groups. Variability of motor timing was increased in the cerebellar disorder participants.. ...
Video created by Duke University for the course Medical Neuroscience. Next, we will consider two major brain systems that modulate the output of upper motor neuronal circuits: the basal ganglia and the cerebellum. Take note: the output of these ...
Our current findings from the Granger causality analyses showed that the PMC and preSMA are functionally connected with the caudate head and STN. Furthermore, the IFC is connected with the preSMA but not the caudate head or STN. Thus, with strong interconnectivity with the basal ganglia circuitry of motor control, the PMC and preSMA are in a position to engage the com petition of go and stop processes, whereas the IFC indirectly influence the basal ganglia circuitry via projection to the preSMA. These new findings provide evidence differentiating the roles of the IFC and preSMA during stop signal inhibition. In particular, these data are inconsistent with the hypothesis of a hyperdirect pathway from the IFC to STN for motor inhibitory control (Aron and Poldrack, 2006).. The results from PPI analyses further corroborated this hypothesis: the IFC showed greater connectivity with the preSMA during stop success than during stop error trials. A number of other brain regions including the superior ...
Evidence suggests that dopamine (DA) is crucial for initiation and termination as well as sustained execution of movement. For the present study, it was hypothesized that DA plays a more important role in initiation and termination of movement than in its sustained production. To test these hypotheses, rats were trained to walk on a treadmill in a continuous and discontinuous (walk 30 secs/stop 15 seconds) fashion for one hour while striatal DA samples were collected using In Vivo Microdialysis (IVMCD). We predicted larger increases during discontinuous compared to continuous walking. It was found that brain dialysate levels of DA consistently increased from baseline to walking [p|0.05]. However, no significant difference was found in brain dialysate DA between continuous and discontinuous walking [p|0.05]. Similar to DA, its major metabolites DOPAC and HVA, and the serotonin metabolite 5-HIAA, increased during treadmill walking from resting state levels [p|0.05]. None of these metabolites showed a
We embed our basal ganglia model into a wider circuit containing the motor thalamocortical loop and thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN). Simulation of this extended model showed that the additions gave five main results which are desirable in a selection/switching mechanism. First, low salience actions (i.e. those with low urgency) could be selected. Second, the range of salience values over which actions could be switched between was increased. Third, the contrast between the selected and non-selected actions was enhanced via improved differentiation of outputs from the BG. Fourth, transient increases in the salience of a non-selected action were prevented from interrupting the ongoing action, unless the transient was of sufficient magnitude. Finally, the selection of the ongoing action persisted when a new closely matched salience action became active. The first result was facilitated by the thalamocortical loop; the rest were dependent on the presence of the TRN. Thus, we conclude that the ...
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Studies in non-human primates (NHPs) have led to major advances in our understanding of the function of the basal ganglia and of the pathophysiologic mechanisms of hypokinetic movement disorders such as Parkinsons disease and hyperkinetic disorders such as chorea and dystonia. Since the brains of NHPs are anatomically very close to those of humans, disease states and the effects of medical and surgical approaches, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS), can be more faithfully modeled in NHPs than in other species. According to the current model of the basal ganglia circuitry, which was strongly influenced by studies in NHPs, the basal ganglia are viewed as components of segregated networks that emanate from specific cortical areas, traverse the basal ganglia, and ventral thalamus, and return to the frontal cortex. Based on the presumed functional domains of the different cortical areas involved, these networks are designated as motor, oculomotor, associative and limbic circuits. The ...
In Parkinsons disease (PD) there are abnormalities in brain regions important in the control of voluntary movement. The purpose of this project is to learn the relationship between three of these brain regions: the basal ganglia, motor cortex, and cerebellum in PD patients who have undergone deep brain stimulation (DBS) treatment. DBS involves the implantation of electrodes (wires) into the basal ganglia. In our center, we externalize the DBS electrodes for a few days after surgery, providing a unique opportunity to record basal ganglia activity. We will also record signals from the motor cortex using electrodes placed on the scalp (EEG). These deep (basal ganglia) and surface (motor cortex) brain recordings will be compared before and after the cerebellum is temporarily shut down with a special kind of magnetic stimulation (called cTBS). The cerebellum is thought to be involved in tremor and to explore this relationship, we will measure arm movement changes in response to cerebellar cTBS. This ...
We developed a computational model of the cortical basal ganglia network to investigate closed-loop control of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinsons disease (PD). The cortical basal ganglia network model incorporates the (i) the extracellular DBS electric field, (ii) antidromic and orthodromic activation of STN afferent fibers, (iii) the LFP detected at non-stimulating contacts on the DBS electrode and (iv) temporal variation of network beta-band activity within the thalamo-cortico-basal ganglia loop. The model facilitates investigation of clinically-viable closed-loop DBS control approaches, modulating either DBS amplitude or frequency, using an LFP derived measure of network beta-activity ...
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Multiple benzodiazepine receptors in the human basal ganglia: a detailed pharmacological and anatomical study.: The pharmacological characteristics and anatomic
Information storage in the central nervous system is believed to emerge from changes in the functional efficacy of synaptic connections, a property known as synaptic plasticity. Parkinsons disease (PD) and dystonia are movement disorders that are the result of basal ganglia dysfunction. In PD, basal ganglia abnormalities are the result of the loss of dopamine, which leads to paucity of movements, rigidity of the limbs, and rest tremor. A unique characteristic of synaptic plasticity in the basal ganglia is that a certain level of endogenous dopamine and dopamine receptor activation seems to be required for its induction. In dystonia, a model has emerged in which a fundamental deficit within the basal ganglia generates impaired inhibition in the motor cortex that results in increased excitability, abnormal processing of sensory feedback and increased striatal, brainstem, and cortical plasticity. This thesis addresses the question of whether movement disorders such as PD and dystonia are ...
Chunking allows the brain to efficiently organize memories and actions. Although basal ganglia circuits have been implicated in action chunking, little is known about how individual elements are concatenated into a behavioral sequence at the neural level. Using a task in which mice learned rapid action sequences, we uncovered neuronal activity encoding entire sequences as single actions in basal ganglia circuits. In addition to neurons with activity related to the start/stop activity signaling sequence parsing, we found neurons displaying inhibited or sustained activity throughout the execution of an entire sequence. This sustained activity covaried with the rate of execution of individual sequence elements, consistent with motor concatenation. Direct and indirect pathways of basal ganglia were concomitantly active during sequence initiation, but behaved differently during sequence performance, revealing a more complex functional organization of these circuits than previously postulated. These ...
The basal ganglia consists of masses of subcortical grey matter deep within the cerebral hemispheres. Along with the cerebellum, the basal ganglia controls movement and posture, adjusting the body to do certain things, as well as inhibits unwanted movement. Lesions in the basal ganglia cause disturbances in motor activity. Information is sent from the motor cortex to the basal ganglia and is relayed back via the thalamus. Recent studies suggest that the basal ganglia contains five segregated circuits for different functions of behavior. Each involves separate regions within the basal ganglia and the thalamus.
By comparison with these reports our results demonstrate a different pattern of hyperechogenic lesions in Huntingtons disease, primarily affecting the caudate nucleus and the substantia nigra. Considering different basal ganglia regions, hyperechogenic lesions of the substantia nigra were detectable in Huntingtons disease half as often as reported previously in Parkinsons disease.9 The rate of hyperechogenic lesions of the caudate nucleus was similar in Huntingtons disease and dystonia. Nevertheless, we found a considerably high signal intensity in most patients showing caudate nucleus hyperechogenic lesions, possibly pointing towards the predominant localisation of neuronal loss, whereas hyperechogenic lesions of the caudate nucleus in dystonia were described as mild. The precise morphological and pathological interpretation of basal ganglia hyperechogenicity demonstrated by TCS is still speculative. The fact that in the present study hyperechogenic lesions of the caudate nucleus were ...
Abstract: GABA and its associated benzodiazepine interactions play an important role in basal ganglia function. Distinctive GABA, benzodiazepine and opiate receptor changes occur in response to striatal lesions and in the human neurodegenerative disorder, Huntingtons disease (HD). In animal experiments, the in vivo administration of [3H]flunitrazepam labels benzodiazepine receptors and can demonstrate the receptor changes seen after striatal lesions. It should be possible to measure these receptors in vivo in humans using positron-emission tomographic scanning ...
The basal ganglia (the odd snail-shaped region in the diagram below, which includes the aforementioned putamen, globus pallidus and caudate nucleus, as well as a few other sub regions we havent yet discussed) is another key brain region which is believed to be involved in ADHD and other related disorders. The basal ganglia region of the brain essentially determine how fast a persons brain idles. This region has often been found to be underactive in ADHD and similar disorders and overactive in obsessive compulsive or anxiety-related disorders. Thus the basal ganglia function can have some far-reaching implications. Not surprisingly, then, is the fact that mis-development in the wiring process of the basal ganglia (such as seen in the formative years), may play a crucial role on the onset of ADHD both directly, and indirectly (via interaction with other key ADHD brain regions ...
BackgroundThis study aims to (i) compare volumes of individual basal ganglia nuclei (caudate nucleus, pallidum, and putamen) and the thalamus between very preterm (VP) and term-born infants at term-equivalent age; (ii) explore neonatal basal ganglia and thalamic volume relationships with 7-year neur …
The basal ganglia refer to a group of closely connected structures including the striatum (the caudate and the putamen), the globus pallidus, the substantia nigra and the subthalamic nucleus.. It seems to be generally agreed that the basal ganglia have something to do with the creation and execution of motor plans. Just watch a person with a typical basal ganglion affliction, such as Parkinsons disease, characterized by difficulty in starting or stopping the walking sequence, and realize how profundly these nuclei are involved in daily life.. In addition to their role in control of movement and posture, it now appears that the basal ganglia also play a more complex (cognitive) aspects of behavior and may be involved in limbic functions.. They are responsible not only for the integration of motor activity but probably also for the programming, beginning and termination of such activity. There are other definitions of the term basal ganglia: the archistriatum, the paleostriatum, and the ...
This article introduces the notion of cognitive pattern generators and suggests, by analogy with the central pattern generators of the motor system, that these pattern generators operate to organize neural activity underlying aspects of action-oriented cognition. It is further proposed that the basal ganglia are involved in the control of cognitive as well as motor pattern generators. Disorders of the basal ganglia may thereby contribute to neural circuit dysfunctions that are expressed as positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia.. ...
In temporal information processing, both the cerebellum and the basal ganglia play essential roles. In particular, for interval timing learning, the cerebellum exhibits temporally localized activity around the onset of the unconditioned stimulus, whereas the basal ganglia represents the passage of time by their ramping-up activity from the onset of the conditioned stimulus to that of the unconditioned stimulus. We present a unified computational model of the cerebellum and the basal ganglia for the interval timing learning task. We report that our model reproduces the localized activity in the cerebellum and the gradual increase of the activity in the basal ganglia. These results suggest that the cerebellum and the basal ganglia play different roles in temporal information processing.. Date: 09/11/2018 ...
Objectives Recognize the basal ganglia system and name its parts Describe how the basal ganglia system works toward control of motor movements Identify basal ganglia abnormalities University of Jordan
The basal ganglia play a critical but enigmatic role in many aspects of brain function including movement, motivation, reward and addiction. The vast number of neurologic disorders, such as Parkinsons disease, Huntingtons disease, Tourettes syndrome, Dystonia and Schizophrenia, which involve the basal ganglia are a testament to the importance of this role. However, precisely defining the purpose of the basal ganglia in the normal control of movement or motivation is surprisingly difficult. The goal of the experiments described here is to explore the influence of basal ganglia in adaptive learning and motor control in awake-behaving primates and in human subjects undergoing surgery. Our lab is uniquely positioned to investigate basal ganglia function in nonhuman primates and in humans undergoing surgery for movement disorders.. Areas of research focus:. ...
Basal ganglia of brain. Coloured Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scan of a healthy brain, viewed at basal ganglia level. The colour-coded scan through this cerebral layer shows brain activity: from low (blue) to high (yellow). At centre and centre right are two pairs of basal ganglia (yellow ovals), nerve cell clusters deep in the cerebrum & upper part of the brainstem. The basal ganglia play a vital part in producing smooth, continuous muscular actions and in stopping and starting movement. PET scanning relies on a radioactive tracer injected into the bloodstream, to reveal metabolic activity in the brain. - Stock Image P332/0202
View Notes - 18BasalGanglia from CHEM 2341 at Texas State. Modulation of Movement by Basal Ganglia • Basal Ganglia and cerebellum function in modulating movement • Basal ganglia involved in
The present study examined the regional differences in dopamine transporter binding sites and NMDA receptor complex binding based on autoradiographic images obtained in postmortem sections of human normal brain tissues. in middle-aged control tissues, high and comparable levels of [H-3]CFT binding were observed in the caudate nucleus, putamen, and accumbens nucleus without significant alteration along the rostrocaudal axis and ventral and dorsal parts of these nuclei. in aging normal brain tissues, dopamine binding sites for [H-3]CFT were significantly reduced in the caudate nucleus, putamen, and accumbens nucleus. L-[H-3]Glutamate, [H-3]MK-801, and [H-3]glycine binding to the NMDA receptor complex was lower in aging brain tissues than in middle-aged controls. Significant correlation did occur between age and [H-3]CFT binding and between age and L-[H-3]glutamate, [H-3]MK-801, and [H-3]glycine binding sites. These results demonstrate that the basal ganglia have age-associated reductions in ...
Anatomy 196 // Internal and External Connections 197 // Major Components of the Limbie System 197 // Hippocampus 197 // Microanatomy of the Hippocampal formation 197 // Amygdala 199 // Functions of the Limbie System 200 // Types of Memory 201 // Memory Dysfunction-the Amnestie Syndrome and Its Causes 203 // Basal Ganglia 210 // Preliminary Remarks on Terminology 210 // The Role of the Basal Ganglia in the torear System: Phylogenetic Aspects 210 // Coponents of the Basal Ganglia and Their CaaBections 211 // Nuclei 211 // Connections of the Basal Ganglia 213 // Function and Dysfunction of the Basal Ganglia 215 // Clinical Syndromes of Basal Ganglia Lesions 215 // Cerebrum 224 // Development 224 // Anatomy and Subdivision of the Cerebrum 226 // Cyri and Sulci 226 // Histological Organization of the Cerebral Cortex 228 // Laminar Architecture 228 // Cerebral White Matter 232 // Projection Fibers 232 // Association Fibers 233 // Commissural Fibers 234 // Functional Localization in the // Cerebral ...
FIGURE 2 The basal ganglia motor loop. Major connections linking motor cortex, basal ganglia (blue box), and thalamus are shown in this simplified scheme. Cortical areas representing all three levels of the motor hierarchy project to the neostriatum (caudate and putamen). Output from the basal ganglia is via the globus pallidus and substantia nigra to three nuclei of the thalamus. The thalamus completes the loop pathway with projections back to the motor cortex, particularly the supplemental motor area.. FIGURE 3 Connections of the direct and indirect pathways in the basal ganglia motor loop. The overall role of the basal ganglia (blue box) is to maintain inhibitory control over the thalamus. Inhibitory influence (-) is shown with blue arrows and excitatory influence ( + ) is shown with black arrows. Pathways through the basal ganglia are tonically active and coordinate converging excitatory input from the cortex through two separate routes, both of which feed back to the cortex through the ...
OBJECTIVE: To examine functional connectivity within the basal ganglia network (BGN) in a group of cognitively normal patients with early Parkinson disease (PD) on and off medication compared to age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC), and to validate the findings in a separate cohort of participants with PD. METHODS: Participants were scanned with resting-state fMRI (RS-fMRI) at 3T field strength. Resting-state networks were isolated using independent component analysis. A BGN template was derived from 80 elderly HC participants. BGN maps were compared between 19 patients with PD on and off medication in the discovery group and 19 age- and sex-matched controls to identify a threshold for optimal group separation. The threshold was applied to 13 patients with PD (including 5 drug-naive) in the validation group to establish reproducibility of findings. RESULTS: Participants with PD showed reduced functional connectivity with the BGN in a wide range of areas. Administration of medication significantly
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The net effect of basal ganglia activation through this so-called direct pathway is thus excitiation of cortical neurons. The subthalamic nucleus, on the other hand, forms part of an internal loop within the basal ganglia that via excitation of a portion of the globus pallidus has a net inhibitory effect on the cortical neurons, so called indirect pathway. The balance of excitatotry and inhibibory effects of the basal ganglia releases and coordinates desired movements. ...
Other questions scientists are attempting to answer include: Why is the striatum predisposed to damage? Why are certain populations of striatal neurons selectively targeted during the start of HD? A couple of theories have been presented, but scientists are still working on determining the exact events involved in the progression of cell deaths caused by HD.. One theory proposes that neurons die in HD because of an over-accumulation of normal excitatory chemicals involved in nerve impulses. Excitatory chemicals are important, and they are normally present in the brain. However, if they are released in excessive amounts or if brain cells are weak, these excitatory chemicals can cause cell damage and become chemicals known as excitotoxins. One of the neurotransmitters released by the basal ganglia is called glutamate, which acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Studies show that when glutamate is injected into the basal ganglion region of brains of living rats, the rats exhibit ...
The basal ganglia are is a group of structures nestled under the cerebral cortex. What exactly the basal ganglia do remains controversial and subject to intense investigation. They seem to be play a critical role, though, in a laundry list of neurological and psychiatric disorders, ranging from Parkinsons disease to addiction to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder…
Substantial evidence indicates that the dorsolateral striatum is needed to execute sensorimotor habits (Yin et al., 2004, 2006; Redgrave et al., 2010). Such behaviors are highly repetitive, are mediated by stimulus-response (S-R) associations, and are expressed even in the absence of reinforcement. In rats, focal lesions in the dorsolateral striatum disrupt the normal sequence of repetitive, stereotyped grooming behaviors [Cromwell and Berridge, 1996). Although the normal sequence of grooming behavior is clearly disrupted, the capacity to emit individual grooming movements is not affected. Consistent with this distinction, neurons in the dorsolateral striatum appear to encode the serial order of sequential grooming movements (Aldridge and Berridge, 1998). Furthermore, the striatal sites associated with stereotyped grooming behaviors are located in regions that receive corticostriatal projections from the forepaw and, to a lesser extent, the whisker representations in SI cortex (Hoover et al., ...
Groups of brain nuclei deep within the cerebral white matter. Basal ganglia - This is the least well known of all the structures because of how deep it is. It helps us understand habits and to feel the passage of time. It also controls motor movements, specifically regulating the intensity of movements.. Basal forebrain nuclei - memory. Claustrum - subconscious visual processing. Amygdala - part of Limbic System where we store our fears (associates w/ memories in hippocampus). Note that we will only be discussing the Basal Ganglia group in detail for this blog post. Also note that as research continues, the name Basal Ganglia is falling out of favor.. ...
Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) couple the actions of glutamate to intracellular second messenger systems through G-proteins. The mGluRs play an important role in the regulation of basal ganglia function. Ligand binding studies have revealed that the basal ganglia contain at least two pharmacological types of metabotropic binding sites. Agonists of mGluRs can affect both in vitro electrophysiologic responses of striatal neurons and motor behavior in vivo. Recently, cDNAs encoding five mGluRs have been cloned, each with distinct structural and pharmacological properties. In order to elucidate the function of these receptors in the biology of the extrapyramidal motor system, we have used in situ hybridization to examine the regional and cellular expression patterns of mGluR1-mGluR5 in the adult rat basal ganglia. In the striatum, all of these mGluRs were present in widely varying relative densities and cellular patterns. MGluR5 was particularly prominent, and exhibited a heterogeneous ...
Basal Ganglia. CB1 receptors are expressed throughout the basal ganglia and have well established effects on movement in rodents. As in the hippocampus, these receptors inhibit the release of glutamate or GABA transmitter, resulting in decreased excitation or reduced inhibition based on the cell they are expressed in. Consistent with the variable expression of both excitatory glutamate and inhibitory GABA interneurons in both the basal ganglias direct and indirect motor loops, synthetic cannabinoids are known to influence this system in a dose-dependent triphasic pattern. Decreased locomotor activity is seen at both higher and lower concentrations of applied cannabinoids, while an enhancement of movement may occur upon moderate dosages. However, these dose-dependent effects have been studied predominately in rodents and the physiological basis for this triphasic pattern warrants future research in humans. Effects may vary based on the site of cannabinoid application, input from higher cortical ...
de Hollander, G.; Keuken, M. C.; van der Zwaag, W.; Forstmann, B. U.; Trampel, R.: Comparing functional MRI protocols for small, iron-rich basal ganglia nuclei such as the subthalamic nucleus at 7 T and 3 T. Human Brain Mapping 38 (6), pp. 3226 - 3248 (2017 ...
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Basal ganglia. Imaging of Basal Ganglia at USUHS Houk Jim (2007). "Models of Basal ... The basal ganglia are situated at the base of the forebrain and top of the midbrain. Basal ganglia are strongly interconnected ... Basal ganglia disease is a group of movement disorders that result from either excessive output from the basal ganglia to the ... The International Basal Ganglia Society (IBAGS) informally considers the basal ganglia to be made up of the striatum, the ...
... and of being regulated by the basal ganglia. In the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop the basal ganglia are ... The primate central complex as one of the basal ganglia. In The Basal Ganglia III Bernardi, G. et al. (eds) pp. 177-186. Plenum ... The basal ganglia form a major brain system in all species of vertebrates, but in primates (including humans) there are special ... 2004) to propose that the complex be linked in a way or another to the basal ganglia system. A review on its role in the system ...
Blepharospasm may come from abnormal functioning of the brain's basal ganglia. Many disorders of the basal ganglia are due to ... Though motor disorders are the most common associated with the basal ganglia, recent research shows that basal ganglia ... primarily in the basal ganglia. About 0.3-1.5% of people have asymptomatic basal ganglia calcifications. Blepharospasm is any ... Basal ganglia disease is a group of physical problems that occur when the group of nuclei in the brain known as the basal ...
Parent, A.; Hazrati, L. N. (1 January 1995). "Functional anatomy of the basal ganglia. I. The cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo- ... The cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop (CBGTC loop) is a system of neural circuits in the brain. The loop involves ... The loop was originally proposed as a part of a model of the basal ganglia called the parallel processing model, which has been ... However, the timing of basal ganglia activity and limb moment, as well as lesion studies do not support this hypothesis Two ...
June 2013). "Biotin-responsive basal ganglia disease should be renamed biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease: a ... Biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease (BTBGD) is a rare disease that affects the nervous system, particularly the ... "Biotin thiamine responsive basal ganglia disease". Orphanet. Retrieved 2022-11-27. Majumdar S, Salamon N (March 2022). "Biotin- ... The MRI of individuals with BTBGD may reveal lesions on the basal ganglia and central bilateral necrosis in the caudate nucleus ...
... (PBWM) is an algorithm that models working memory in the prefrontal cortex and ... This is the dynamic gating system representing the striatum units of the basal ganglia. Every even-index unit within a stripe ... The PVLV system controls the dopaminergic modulation of the basal ganglia (BG). Thus, BG/PVLV form an actor-critic architecture ... These learning mechanisms are based on subcortical structures in the midbrain, basal ganglia and amygdala, which together form ...
ISBN 978-0-443-06982-6. (Basal ganglia). ...
Basal Ganglia. 6 (3): 123-148. doi:10.1016/j.baga.2016.02.001. PMC 4850498. PMID 27141430. Despite the challenges in ... Differences in the VNTR have been shown to affect the basal level of expression of the transporter; consequently, researchers ... tonically activates inwardly rectifying K(+) channels, which reduces the basal firing frequency of dopamine (DA) neurons of the ...
Basal ganglia regions like the right globus pallidus, the right putamen, and the nucleus caudatus are structurally affected in ... Basal Ganglia. 6 (3): 123-148. doi:10.1016/j.baga.2016.02.001. PMC 4850498. PMID 27141430. Despite the challenges in ... such as the right caudate nucleus of the basal ganglia. Reviews of clinical stimulant research have established the safety and ... tonically activates inwardly rectifying K(+) channels, which reduces the basal firing frequency of dopamine (DA) neurons of the ...
Csoti I, Storch A, Müller W, Jost WH (December 1, 2012). "Drug interactions with selegiline versus rasagiline". Basal Ganglia. ... basal ganglia, midbrain, and cingulate gyrus. Selegiline is mostly metabolized in the intestines and liver; it and its ...
Basal Ganglia. 1 (2): 83-89. doi:10.1016/j.baga.2011.04.001. PMC 3144573. PMID 21804954. v t e GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...
Basal ganglia regions like the right globus pallidus, the right putamen, and the nucleus caudatus are structurally affected in ... including the basal ganglia, frontal cortex, and thalamus (Colasanti et al. 2012). Oral administration of d-amphetamine, 0.5 mg ... Basal Ganglia. 6 (3): 123-148. doi:10.1016/j.baga.2016.02.001. PMC 4850498. PMID 27141430. Despite the challenges in ... such as the right caudate nucleus of the basal ganglia. Reviews of clinical stimulant research have established the safety and ...
Basal ganglia regions like the right globus pallidus, the right putamen, and the nucleus caudatus are structurally affected in ... Basal Ganglia. 6 (3): 123-148. doi:10.1016/j.baga.2016.02.001. PMC 4850498. PMID 27141430. Despite the challenges in ... leading to nonresponse in those with low basal DA activity. On average, methylphenidate elicits a 3-4 times increase in ... leading to the hypothesis that methylphenidate amplifies basal dopamine activity, ...
Basal ganglia regions like the right globus pallidus, the right putamen, and the nucleus caudatus are structurally affected in ... Basal Ganglia. 6 (3): 123-148. doi:10.1016/j.baga.2016.02.001. PMC 4850498. PMID 27141430. Despite the challenges in ... such as the right caudate nucleus of the basal ganglia. Reviews of clinical stimulant research have established the safety and ... tonically activates inwardly rectifying K(+) channels, which reduces the basal firing frequency of dopamine (DA) neurons of the ...
O'Kusky JR, Nasir J, Cicchetti F, Parent A, Hayden MR (Feb 1999). "Neuronal degeneration in the basal ganglia and loss of ...
Basal ganglia regions like the right globus pallidus, the right putamen, and the nucleus caudatus are structurally affected in ... Basal Ganglia. 6 (3): 123-148. doi:10.1016/j.baga.2016.02.001. PMC 4850498. PMID 27141430. Despite the challenges in ... such as the right caudate nucleus of the basal ganglia. Reviews of clinical stimulant research have established the safety and ... 2 A, open squares). We stress that Zn2+ per se did not affect basal efflux (Fig. 2 A). ... In many brain regions, Zn2+ is ...
The Basal Ganglia IX. Springer. p. 104. ISBN 978-1-4419-0340-2. Robert H. Wilkins; Irwin A. Brody (1997). Neurological Classics ...
The Basal Ganglia II. Advances in Behavioral Biology. Vol. 32. Boston, MA: Springer. pp. 169-173. doi:10.1007/978-1-4684-5347-8 ...
The indicative diagnostic biomarkers are: reduced dopamine transporter uptake in the basal ganglia shown on PET or SPECT ... midbrain and basal ganglia - movement; brain stem - sleep, alertness, and autonomic dysfunction; olfactory cortex - smell. Also ...
"Basal Ganglia Calcification with Hypomagnesemia". Retrieved 2021-06-03. Viering, Daan H. H. M.; Baaij, Jeroen H. ...
Martin's book The Basal Ganglia and Posture (1967) includes case histories and clinical observations of a large group of ... Miller, Henry (April 1968). "Review of The Basal Ganglia and Posture by James Purdon Martin". Proc R Soc Med. 61 (4): 434-435. ... Geary, Elizabeth K.; Seidenberg, Michael; Hermann, Bruce (2009). "Atrophy of Basal Ganglia Nuclei and Negative Symptoms in ... "The Basal Ganglia and Locomotion. Arris and Gale Lecture delivered at the Royal College of Surgeons of England on 3rd January ...
Neuropsychiatry of the basal ganglia. Psychiatric Clinics of North America. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 1997. Dougherty DD, ...
and or basal ganglia hypermetabolism. Ancillary laboratory tests including MRI and brain biopsy have confirmed temporal lobe ...
"Basal Ganglia Calcification with Hypomagnesemia". Retrieved 2021-06-03. Viering DH, de Baaij JH, Walsh SB, Kleta ... basal ganglia calcifications and in extreme and prolonged cases coma, intellectual disability or death. Magnesium plays an ...
see Primate basal ganglia system. Percheron, G. (2003) "Thalamus". In Paxinos, G. and May, J.(eds). The human nervous system. ... The central region thus appears not as a nonspecific part of the thalamus but as one element of the basal ganglia system: one ... They have strong connections with elements of the basal ganglia system. The pars parafascicularis is linked bilaterally to the ...
Tabarki B, Al-Hashem A, Alfadhel M (August 2020). "Biotin-Thiamine-Responsive Basal Ganglia Disease". In Adam MP, Ardinger HH, ... Several diseases are associated with thiamine deficiency, including beriberi, biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease ...
... basal ganglia, and hippocampus. An early review of the book Neural Darwinism in The New York Review of Books by Israel ... basal ganglia, hypothalamus and brainstem centers. Simultaneously, each sensory modality is also being sent to the cortex in ...
"Functional anatomy of the basal ganglia. II. The place of subthalamic nucleus and external pallidium in basal ganglia circuitry ... "Functional anatomy of the basal ganglia. I. The cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop". Brain Research Reviews. 20 (1): ... The basal ganglia functions to tonically inhibit movement, mainly in the absence of motor cortex command, via GABAergic ... This combines with direct pathway inhibition in the GPi, allowing for fine tuned basal ganglia output, and more controlled ...
ISBN 978-0-9740155-0-7. Powers (1973:88-92). Yin, Henry H. (18 November 2014). "How Basal Ganglia Outputs Generate Behavior". ...
Schultz, Wolfram (2016-02-02). "Reward functions of the basal ganglia". Journal of Neural Transmission. 123 (7): 679-693. doi: ...
... is a proposed fossil taxon of basal arthropods that flourished in the Cambrian period with occasional Ordovician ... or 2 cerebral ganglions (protocerebrum and deutocerebrum). Although some authors may rather suggest different taxonomic ... It is most likely paraphyletic, with Kerygmachela and Pambdelurion more basal than the clade compose of Opabiniidae, Radiodonta ... occupied the basal position; while Opabiniidae and Radiodonta are more derived and closely related to the arthropod crown group ...
This is caused by progressive degeneration of neurons in several parts of the brain including the basal ganglia, inferior ...
It produces extrapyramidal symptoms with necrosis of the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and basal ganglia. Toxicity may also ...
These lesions are concentrated around the basal ganglia, peri-ventricular white matter, and the pons, and are similar to those ...
The cell bodies of these primary neurons are located in the dorsal root ganglia. In the spinal cord, the axons synapse and the ... The alar plate and the basal plate are separated by the sulcus limitans. Additionally, the floor plate also secretes netrins. ... Dorsal root ganglion neurons differentiate from neural crest progenitors. As the dorsal and ventral column cells proliferate, ... The peripheral nervous system is made up of these spinal roots, nerves, and ganglia. The dorsal roots are afferent fascicles, ...
"Histamine Modulation of the Basal Ganglia Circuitry in the Development of Pathological Grooming." Proceedings of the National ... because of H3 receptor-modulation of dopamine and GABA in the basal ganglia), schizophrenia and ADHD (again because of dopamine ...
... with intracranial haemorrhage due to high blood pressure which occurs in deep locations of the brain such as basal ganglia and ...
The basal ganglia are the central site at which decisions are made: the basal ganglia exert a sustained inhibitory control over ... The basal ganglia are a group of interconnected structures in the forebrain. The primary function of the basal ganglia appears ... It is implemented by a network of brain areas centered on the basal ganglia. Motor learning is the ability to refine patterns ... Among the most important secondary areas are the premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. In ...
"Altered parvalbumin-positive neuron distribution in basal ganglia of individuals with Tourette syndrome". Proceedings of the ...
Animal research and positron emission tomography (PET) studies have shown the role of the basal ganglia in selective attention ... It is therefore suggested that deficits in the basal ganglia and related regions may lead to impaired visual selective ... Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterised by degeneration of the substantia nigra within the basal ganglia and the locus ... These regions of the basal ganglia are also implicated in attentional processes, especially visual selective attention. ...
... in blue Occipital lobe Occipital lobe Ventricles of brain and basal ganglia. Superior view. Horizontal section. ...
... in basal ganglia when an individual learns the action or already has sufficient familiarity with the program of actions. The ... regulated more by basal ganglia). Rusalov demonstrated that this distinction is applicable to the structure of temperament. For ...
With the possible exception of Siberion, they also have digestive glands like those of a gilled lobopodian and basal ... 2018 - it presents a brain composed of only a protocerebrum (the frontal-most cerebral ganglion of panarthropods) that is ... However, they are widely accepted as stem-group arthropods just basal to radiodonts. Siberion, Megadictyon and Jianshanopodia ... most of them were either suggest to be stem-group onychophorans or basal panarthropods, with a few species (Aysheaia or ...
A ganglion mother cell (GMC) is the cell derived from the division of a neuroblast in the Drosophila central nervous system. ... The mother neuroblast divides along the apical-basal axis, with Numb localizing basally and ending up in the GMC. In mice ... In neuroblasts, both complexes are localized to the apical cortex, causing apical/basal cell division and daughter cells ... Karcavich RE (March 2005). "Generating neuronal diversity in the Drosophila central nervous system: a view from the ganglion ...
His scientific research includes "Integrated function of the cerebellum of the basal ganglia and motor cortex in the ...
ERICH3 is most highly expressed in a variety of regions of the human brain, including the nucleus accumbens (basal ganglia) and ...
"Localization and Function of GABA Transporters GAT-1 and GAT-3 in the Basal Ganglia". Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience. 5: 63 ...
... Ventricles of brain and basal ganglia. Superior view. Horizontal section. Deep dissection. ... Ventricles of brain and basal ganglia.Superior view. Horizontal section. Deep dissection. Powell, Meshell (13 January 2014). " ... The external capsule is a route for cholinergic fibers from the basal forebrain to the cerebral cortex. The putamen separates ...
"Dose response of the 16p11.2 distal copy number variant on intracranial volume and basal ganglia". Molecular Psychiatry. 25 (3 ...
... rather than deep white matter or basal ganglia. These are usually described as "lobar". These bleedings are not associated with ...
The underlying mechanism is believed to typically involve the central nervous system, specifically the basal ganglia. Diagnosis ...
The association cortex projects to places including the hippocampus, basal ganglia, and cerebellum, and other association ...
... basal ganglion of Meynert' (Meynert'sches Basalganglion). Later, in a pair of 1942 publications, Harold Brockhaus referred to ... Meynert originally called this group of cells the 'ganglion of the ansa peduncularis' (ganglion der Hirnschenkelschlinge), ... The nucleus basalis in humans is a somewhat diffuse collection of large cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain. The main ... Goard M, Dan Y (November 2009). "Basal forebrain activation enhances cortical coding of natural scenes". Nat. Neurosci. 12 (11 ...
"Canceling actions involves a race between basal ganglia pathways". Nature Neuroscience. 16 (8): 1118-24. doi:10.1038/nn.3456. ...
Apoica is one of the basal genera in the tribe. The species is most closely related to Apoica flavissima. Apoica pallens was ... such as the lateral branching of neurons in the first optic ganglion within the eye. Apoica pallens is a caste species with ...
... which allows the frontal lobes to exhibit some control over basal ganglia activity. Animation. Frontal view. Medial view. ...
... hippocampal dysfunction might produce an alteration of dopamine release in the basal ganglia, thereby indirectly affecting the ...
This was shown by Gene Block in isolated mollusk basal retinal neurons (BRNs). At the same time, different cells may ... But the retina also contains specialized ganglion cells that are directly photosensitive, and project directly to the SCN, ... Ma Y, Gil S, Grasser KD, Mas P (April 2018). "Targeted Recruitment of the Basal Transcriptional Machinery by LNK Clock ... the period family genes Photosensitive ganglion cell: part of the eye which is involved in regulating circadian rhythm. ...
Treatment was based on the theory that there is an imbalance of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the basal ganglia. These drugs ... Deep brain stimulation to the basal ganglia and thalamus has recently been used as a successful treatment for tremors of ... Although no lesions are present in the basal ganglia in primary spasmodic torticollis, fMRI and PET studies have shown ... These neurotransmitters are secreted from the basal ganglia, traveling to muscle groups in the neck. An increase in ...
Basal ganglia dysfunction is a problem with the deep brain structures that help start and control movement. ... Damage to the basal ganglia cells may cause problems controlling speech, movement, and posture. This combination of symptoms is ... A person with basal ganglia dysfunction may have trouble starting, stopping, or sustaining movement. Depending on which area of ... Basal ganglia dysfunction is a problem with the deep brain structures that help start and control movement. ...
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The anatomy and physiology of the basal ganglia and their relation to brain and behavior, disorders and therapies, and ... The main task of the basal ganglia-a group of subcortical nuclei, located at the base of the brain-is to optimize and execute ... In this book, Hagai Bergman analyzes the anatomy and physiology of the basal ganglia, discussing their relation to brain and ... Focusing on studies of nonhuman primates and human basal ganglia and relying on system physiology and in vivo extra-cellular ...
Basal ganglia: A region of the base of the brain that consists of three clusters of neurons (caudate nucleus, putamen, and ... The basal ganglia are abnormal in a number of important neurologic conditions, including Parkinsons disease and Huntingtons ...
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The results suggest that atrophy of the basal ganglia occurs gradually, beginning years before symptom onset. ... Basal ganglia volume and proximity to onset in presymptomatic Huntington disease Arch Neurol. 1996 Dec;53(12):1293-6. doi: ... Gene-positive subjects who were far from onset had smaller basal ganglia volumes than gene-negative subjects for all structures ... Gene-positive subjects who were close to onset had smaller volumes than gene-negative subjects for all basal ganglia structures ...
Basal Ganglia Pathophysiologys profile in Lund University Research portal Description. The basal ganglia are a group of ... Loss or dysfunction of neurons within the basal ganglia cause some typical motor symptoms, such as poverty of movement ( ... is the most common neurodegenerative disease affecting the basal ganglia. The typical lesion in PD consists in a loss of ... Website: ...
We conclude that a relatively large number of basal ganglia neurons are involved in eye motion control. Surprisingly, neurons ... The oculomotor role of the basal ganglia has been supported by extensive evidence, although their role in scanning eye ... Basal ganglia Is the Subject Area "Basal ganglia" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ... basal ganglia or cerebellum [4], [8], [24]. Therefore, in a subgroup of patients, we additionally studied the basal ganglia ...
The presence of calcium deposition affecting one or more structures of the basal ganglia. ... Basal ganglia calcifications; Basal ganglion calcification; Calcification of the basal ganglia. alt_id: HP:0002485. ...
The AFP starts with the projection from HVC to area X, a part of the avian basal ganglia surrounded by the medial striatum (mSt ... Ding L, Perkel DJ (2002) Dopamine modulates excitability of spiny neurons in the avian basal ganglia. J Neurosci 22: 5210-5218. ... Luo M, Ding L, Perkel DJ (2001) An avian basal ganglia pathway essential for vocal learning forms a closed topographic loop. J ... Long-Term Potentiation in an Avian Basal Ganglia Nucleus Essential for Vocal Learning. Long Ding and David J. Perkel ...
Hypomyelination with atrophy of basal ganglia and cerebellum. Disease definition A rare disorder characterized by slowly ... mild to severe cerebellar atrophy and atrophy of the basal ganglia.. Genetic counseling All of the reported cases were sporadic ...
MRI studies assessing volumes of basal ganglia in patients at various stages of illness also suggest that increasing basal ... Longitudinal change in basal ganglia volume in patients with Huntingtons disease. E. H. Aylward, Q. Li, O. C. Stine, N. Ranen ... Longitudinal change in basal ganglia volume in patients with Huntingtons disease. E. H. Aylward, Q. Li, O. C. Stine, N. Ranen ... Total basal ganglia volume was calculated by adding the volumes of the head of the caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus. ...
In this episode of the Strange Horizons podcast, editor Ciro Faienza presents Lynne Sargents "Basal Ganglia". ...
Proceedings of the workshop on Cerebellum, Basal Ganglia and Cortical Connections Unmasked in Health and Disorder Held in Brno ... KW - Basal ganglia. KW - Dentate. KW - Striatum. KW - Imaging. KW - White matter. KW - Magnetic resonance spectroscopy. KW - ... Publications , Proceedings of the workshop on Cerebellum, Basal Ganglia and Cortical Connections Unmasked in .... ... TI - Proceedings of the workshop on Cerebellum, Basal Ganglia and Cortical Connections Unmasked in Health and Disorder Held in ...
... Apr 14, 2015 , Magazine: ... Here we stress the importance of the basal ganglia circuitry in the ketamine model of schizophrenia and leave the door open to ... The activity of free moving rats was recorded in different structures of the cortico-basal ganglia circuit before and after an ... Recent studies have suggested the implication of the basal ganglia in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. To investigate this ...
Dopamine and GABA Interaction in Basal Ganglia: GABA-A or GABA-B Receptor Stimulation Attenuates L-DOPA-Induced Striatal and ... Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder secondary to lesion of the basal ganglia Giovanni Mazzotta, Lucia Lucia Cirulli, Marco ... The involuntary movement might occur due to the unequal distribution of the blood flow in the basal ganglia. ... "Parallel Organization of Functionally Segregated Circuits Linking Basal Ganglia and Cortex," Annual Review of Neuroscience,Vol ...
All patients exhibited dyskinesia of the limbs coinciding with symmetric T2 hyperintensities of the basal ganglia on cranial ... Recessive DEAF1 mutation associates with autism, intellectual disability, basal ganglia dysfunction and epilepsy ... Recessive DEAF1 mutation associates with autism, intellectual disability, basal ganglia dysfunction and epilepsy ...
Magnetization transfer imaging identifies basal ganglia abnormalities in adult ADHD that are invisible to conventional T1 ... Magnetization transfer imaging identifies basal ganglia abnormalities in adult ADHD that are invisible to conventional T1 ...
Mapping the functional integration in the human basal ganglia by means of multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging. *Andersen, ...
This is a model of the basal ganglia-thalamic network, modified from the Rubin and Terman model (High frequency stimulation of ... Basal ganglia-thalamic network model for deep brain stimulation (So et al. 2012). ...
Presentation] Topography of cortical inputs from the medial wall of the hemisphere to GPe : An anatomy of basal ganglia ... In one series of studies, anatomical organization linking the frontal cortex, the basal ganglia, and the cerebellum was ... Journal Article] Origins of multisynaptic projections from the basal ganglia to rostrocau dally distinct sectors of the dorsal ... Presentation] Involvement of the basal ganglia and the frontal cortex in action planning as mediated by the abstract ...
Node strength decreases of the basal ganglia, i.e. the putamen, caudate, and pallidum, were displayed in LTLE, FLE, and POLE. ... Large-scale cortico-subcortical functional networks in focal epilepsies: The role of the basal ganglia. ... Large-scale cortico-subcortical functional networks in focal epilepsies: The role of the basal ganglia ... Objectives: The aimwas to describe the contribution of basal ganglia (BG) thalamo-cortical circuitry to thewholebrain ...
A download the basal ganglia vi of level kappa and Spanish universe units for the money of British childhood celebratory ... A download the basal ganglia vi of the events see whole. hear this download the basal ganglia vi to prepare a cocktail pp. of ... download the basal ganglia at the painting of July. And, of download the basal ganglia vi, potentially I ve an inoculation ... have also be the download the basal ganglia of this Site was you off. urban download the basal ganglia vi pieces and demanding ...
Basal ganglia region. The patients were infarcted mainly in the basal ganglia region, the CST passing through posterior limb of ... The patients were infarcted mainly in the basal ganglia region, but the FA reduction of some remote areas has reached the point ... Due to the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamocortical motor loop, any impact on the circuit constituent can lead to a shift in the ... Lesions of the 7 stroke patients were mainly located in the basal ganglia region in the left hemisphere. For the 3 patients ...
Altered activation and connectivity in a hippocampal-basal ganglia-midbrain circuit during salience processing in subjects at ... Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to compare neural responses in a hippocampal-basal ganglia-midbrain network ... Altered activation and connectivity in a hippocampal-basal ganglia-midbrain circuit during salience processing in subjects at ... Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to compare neural responses in a hippocampal-basal ganglia-midbrain network ...
Basal Ganglia confirmed how underrated Reyes is and how good his music can be. ...
This paper introduces a new hypothesis concerning the dissociated role of the basal ganglia in the selection and the evaluation ... Preferential modulatory action of 5-HT2Areceptors on the dynamic regulation of basal ganglia circuits. Lise Guilhemsang, Amaia ... One critic, two actors: Evidence for covert learning in the basal ganglia. ... One critic, two actors: Evidence for covert learning in the basal ganglia. ...
Set-shifting-related basal ganglia deformation as a novel familial marker of obsessive-compulsive disorder. British Journal of ... The basal ganglia are central to habit learning and are thought to be abnormal in OCD, contributing to inflexible, rigid ... The basal ganglia are central to habit learning and are thought to be abnormal in OCD, contributing to inflexible, rigid ... Set-shifting-related basal ganglia deformation as a novel familial marker of obsessive-compulsive disorder. / Isobe, Masanori; ...
  • Proceedings of the workshop on Cerebellum, Basal Ganglia and Cortical Connections Unmasked in Health and Disorder Held in Brno, Czech Republic, October 17th, 2013. (
  • N2 - The proceedings of the workshop synthesize the experimental, preclinical, and clinical data suggesting that the cerebellum, basal ganglia (BG), and their connections play an important role in pathophysiology of various movement disorders (like Parkinson's disease and atypical parkinsonian syndromes) or neurodevelopmental disorders (like autism). (
  • In one series of studies, anatomical organization linking the frontal cortex, the basal ganglia, and the cerebellum was analyzed systematically. (
  • Some case reports have shown hypermetabolism in 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography ( 18 F-FDG-PET) images involving the insular cortex, hippocampus, basal ganglia, cerebellum, and brainstem, suggesting acute inflammation when correlative to MRI [ 2 ]. (
  • This article describes evidence indicating that procedural memory involves several, largely separable neuroanatomical systems, including the cerebellum, basal ganglia , and amygdala. (
  • The premotor and sensory regions provide the input for planning to the basal ganglia and the cerebellum. (
  • There is usually preserved metabolism in the sensorimotor cortices, basal ganglia, occipital lobes, and cerebellum. (
  • Pilocytic astrocytomas (ie, WHO grade I) arise throughout the neuraxis, but preferred sites include the optic nerve, optic chiasm/hypothalamus, thalamus and basal ganglia, cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, and brain stem. (
  • As indicated earlier, the basal ganglia influence motor functions primarily by acting on motor neurons of the cerebral cortex via relay nuclei of the thalamus. (
  • An RSN is identified in the basal ganglia and thalamus, comprising the pallidum, putamen, subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra, with a projection also to the supplementary motor area. (
  • Studies show the importance of the basal ganglia and thalamus in memory, attention, selection and monitoring of information. (
  • Shaheen H , Melnik R, Singh P. Deep Brain Stimulation with a Computational Model for the Cortex-Thalamus-Basal-Ganglia System and Network Dynamics of Neurological Disorders. (
  • Antidromic activation of the hyperdirect pathway and subsequent intracortical and cortico-thalamo-cortical synaptic interactions were sufficient to generate cEP by STN DBS, and orthodromic activation through basal ganglia-thalamus-cortex pathways was not required. (
  • The main task of the basal ganglia-a group of subcortical nuclei, located at the base of the brain-is to optimize and execute our automatic behavior. (
  • Basal ganglia (nuclei) in anatomy are usually called a complex of accumulations of grey matter in the brain's white matter . (
  • The basal ganglia include the septal region, the magnocellular basal telencephalic nuclei, the striatum, the amygdala, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the entopeduncular nucleus, and the claustrum. (
  • Participating nuclei and thalamo-cortical connection probabilities allow this network to be identified as the motor control circuit of the basal ganglia. (
  • Basal ganglia, a set of interconnected nuclei, are implicated in the elaboration, control and memorization of cognitive-motor behaviors. (
  • Compared with the controls, the patients showed an FA reduction in the perilesional basal ganglia and brainstem, with a few in bilateral frontal lobes. (
  • however, other entities cause bilateral symmetric basal ganglia calcifications . (
  • We report a bilateral basal ganglia lesion that developed after Basta ® ingestion. (
  • C) Bilateral supratentorial hypersignals at day 24 in the cortex, the white matter, and the basal ganglia. (
  • Basal Ganglia Cerebrovascular Disease" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Basal Ganglia Cerebrovascular Disease" by people in this website by year, and whether "Basal Ganglia Cerebrovascular Disease" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Basal Ganglia Cerebrovascular Disease" by people in Profiles. (
  • We showed that CSD is a powerful technique that allows a fine evaluation of both the long and small tracts between cortex and basal ganglia, including direct, indirect, and hyperdirect pathways. (
  • The basal ganglia receive information from the cerebral cortex (above) and the brainstem (below) and form a connected chain. (
  • In the case of disturbances in the basal ganglia, the corresponding areas of the cortex begin to discharge uncontrollably, leading to the development of different diseases. (
  • The basal ganglia are a diverse collection of large structures in the telencephalon that are not strictly part of the olfactory system or the cerebral cortex-but they have anatomical links to olfactory and cortical components. (
  • Example: dystonia is known to origin in the basal ganglia, but it is also suspected or known that the cortex and maybe other areas of the brain have an impact in dystonia. (
  • Hemorrhage may involve any part of the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the BASAL GANGLIA. (
  • Article abstract-Cross-sectional MRI studies demonstrating an association between caudate atrophy and symptom severity and duration of symptoms in patients with Huntington's disease (HD) have been assumed to reflect longitudinal changes in basal ganglia, but such neuropathologic progression has never been directly demonstrated. (
  • We designed the current study to determine whether longitudinal changes in basal ganglia could be detected over a relatively-short time in a group of patients at varying stages of HD. (
  • The data implicate changes in basal ganglia structure linked to cognitive inflexibility as a familial marker of OCD. (
  • Ten ischemic stroke patients with basal ganglia lesion and motor dysfunction and eleven demographically matched adults underwent brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging scans. (
  • To investigate this hypothesis, here we have used the ketamine model of schizophrenia to determine the oscillatory abnormalities induced in the rat motor circuit of the basal ganglia. (
  • Basal ganglia dysfunction is a problem with the deep brain structures that help start and control movement. (
  • Focusing on studies of nonhuman primates and human basal ganglia and relying on system physiology and in vivo extra-cellular recording techniques, Bergman first describes the major brain structures that constitute the basal ganglia, the morphology of their cellular elements, their synaptic connectivity and their physiological function in health and disease. (
  • After controlling for the subject's age at the time of the scan, significant correlations were found between volumes of all basal ganglia structures and years to onset. (
  • Gene-positive subjects who were far from onset had smaller basal ganglia volumes than gene-negative subjects for all structures except globus pallidus. (
  • The presence of calcium deposition affecting one or more structures of the basal ganglia. (
  • Amount of change in basal ganglia structures was not significantly correlated with neurologic symptom severity at the time of the initial imaging or duration of symptoms. (
  • The activity of free moving rats was recorded in different structures of the cortico-basal ganglia circuit before and after an injection of a subanesthesic dose of ketamine (10mg/kg). (
  • The basal ganglia are a set of structures deep in the brain. (
  • Cependant, cette transmission nécessite une régulation fine de l'activité neuronale de la SNr car celle-ci exerce une inhibition constante de ces structures cibles en raison de son activité GABAergique spontanée. (
  • Combining structural equation modeling (SEM) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM), this study investigated the interactions among neural structures in the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuit (BGTC) in the left hemisphere of stuttering and non-stuttering speakers. (
  • The results suggest that atrophy of the basal ganglia occurs gradually, beginning years before symptom onset. (
  • H-ABC is diagnosed on the basis of the distinctive MRI findings of diffuse but partial hypomyelination of the cerebral hemispheres, mild to severe cerebellar atrophy and atrophy of the basal ganglia. (
  • This is the first longitudinal MRI study to document progressive basal ganglia atrophy in HD, and suggests that quantitative neuroimaging with serial MRI may be useful in monitoring effectiveness of potential treatments. (
  • In addition, demonstration of greater rate of basal ganglia atrophy in patients with earlier symptom onset suggests that treatment effects may be more quickly observed in this subgroup of patients than in the general HD population. (
  • The AFP starts with the projection from HVC to area X, a part of the avian basal ganglia surrounded by the medial striatum (mSt). (
  • Single axial CT scan of the head without contrast shows calcifications within the basal ganglia (globus pallidi). (
  • Here we stress the importance of the basal ganglia circuitry in the ketamine model of schizophrenia and leave the door open to further investigations devoted to elucidate to what extent these abnormalities also reflect the prominent neurophysiological deficits observed in schizophrenic patients. (
  • Objectives: The aimwas to describe the contribution of basal ganglia (BG) thalamo-cortical circuitry to thewholebrain functional connectivity in focal epilepsies. (
  • In the recent past, basal ganglia circuitry was simplified as represented by the direct and indirect pathways and by hyperdirect pathways. (
  • The information presented thus far has enabled us to identify the major circuitry of the basal ganglia. (
  • This includes the primary input pathways and the internal circuitry of the basal ganglia and their output pathways. (
  • Results indicated significant decreases over time in caudate, putamen, and total basal ganglia volume. (
  • Age at onset and length of trinucleotide repeat correlated significantly with amount of volume change in caudate and total basal ganglia, even after controlling for length of interimage interval, duration of disease, and measures of symptom severity. (
  • We tested the role of basal ganglia (BG) in the temporal control of movement sequences by a convergent approach involving inactivation of the BG by muscimol injections into the caudate nucleus of monkeys and assessing behavior of Parkinson's disease patients, performing a modified double-step saccade task. (
  • Basal ganglia involvement is typically most prominent in the caudate. (
  • The involuntary movement might occur due to the unequal distribution of the blood flow in the basal ganglia. (
  • Several diseases have now been identified that are etiologically related to the state of the basal ganglia. (
  • Many brain disorders are associated with basal ganglia dysfunction. (
  • The anatomy and physiology of the basal ganglia and their relation to brain and behavior, disorders and therapies, and philosophy of mind and moral values. (
  • In this book, Hagai Bergman analyzes the anatomy and physiology of the basal ganglia, discussing their relation to brain and behavior, to disorders and therapies, and even to moral values. (
  • Drawing on his forty years of studying the basal ganglia, Bergman presents new information on physiology and computational models, Parkinson's disease and other ganglia-related disorders, and such therapies as deep brain stimulation. (
  • He discusses the computational physiology of the healthy basal ganglia, describing four generations of computational models, and then traces the computational physiology of basal ganglia-related disorders and their treatments, including Parkinson's disease and its pharmacological and surgical therapies. (
  • Does imbalance between basal ganglia and cerebellar outputs cause movement disorders? (
  • Calcification of basal ganglia, pigmentary pallidal degeneration, and neurogenic orthostatic hypotension are also caused by certain disorders of the basal ganglia of the brain. (
  • In addition to the internal pallidal segment , the basal ganglia can also influence motor functions through the output pathways of the substantia nigra. (
  • The basal ganglia are abnormal in a number of important neurologic conditions, including Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease . (
  • Dementia syndromes associated with parkinsonism include diffuse Lewy body dementia (DLBD), Parkinson disease dementia, and Parkinson disease combined with other dementia syndromes (progressive supranuclear palsy and cortical basal ganglionic degeneration). (
  • Basal ganglia network by constrained spherical deconvolution: A possible cortico-pallidal pathway? (
  • Dive into the research topics of 'Basal ganglia network by constrained spherical deconvolution: A possible cortico-pallidal pathway? (
  • The output pathways of the basal ganglia achieve this.The first pathway, the ansa lenticularis, arises from the ventral aspect of the medial pallidal segment. (
  • CNS toxoplasmosis produces multifocal lesions, with a predilection for the basal ganglia and the frontal, parietal, and occipital lobes. (
  • At the subcortical level, an involvement of the basal ganglia during scanning EM was suggested by early research using regional cerebral blood flow in healthy controls and schizophrenic patients [7] . (
  • This is the case of anti-NMDAR encephalitis patient whose DWI/ADC images revealed sequential involvement on the left and right basal ganglia with a short time interval. (
  • Dopamine physiology in the basal ganglia of male zebra finches during social stimulation. (
  • This is a model of the basal ganglia-thalamic network, modified from the Rubin and Terman model (High frequency stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus, Rubin and Terman 2004). (
  • A common cause of the symptoms of basal ganglia dysfunction is chronic use of medicines used to treat schizophrenia. (
  • A person with basal ganglia dysfunction may have trouble starting, stopping, or sustaining movement. (
  • ModelDB: Basal ganglia-thalamic network model for deep brain stimulation (So et al. (
  • This could open a future scenario in which CSD could be used to focally target with deep brain stimulation (DBS) the small bundles within the basal ganglia loops. (
  • On the morning of 3 April 2021 my mother suffered a massive hemorrhagic stroke in the basal ganglia region of her brain. (
  • Our results confirm that the CSD tractography is a valuable technique allowing a reliable reconstruction of small- and long-fiber pathways in brain regions with multiple fiber orientations, such as basal ganglia. (
  • Dr Nonaka Saddens applied unwilling humans as an download the basal. (
  • Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to compare neural responses in a hippocampal-basal ganglia-midbrain network during reward, novelty and aversion processing between 29 UHR subjects and 32 healthy controls. (
  • All patients exhibited dyskinesia of the limbs coinciding with symmetric T 2 hyperintensities of the basal ganglia on cranial MRI. (
  • To assess the role of surgery in patients with spontaneous basal ganglia haemorrhages, we evaluated poor outcome (mortality and prolonged unawareness) one month after 'open' surgery in patients with haematomas larger than 30 cm(3). (
  • We conclude that a relatively large number of basal ganglia neurons are involved in eye motion control. (
  • The oculomotor role of the basal ganglia has been supported by extensive evidence, although their role in scanning eye movements is poorly understood. (
  • In several studies, the role of the rodent basal ganglia in procedural/habit learning has been dissociated from the role of the hippocampal system in cognitive/declarative memory. (
  • Survey study involving correlations between basal ganglia volume, measured blind to subject status, and estimation of subjects' age at onset. (
  • Although the basal ganglia RSN has not been reported in most ICA-based studies using a similar methodology, we demonstrate that it is reproducible across subjects, common resting state conditions and imaging parameters, and show that it corresponds with the motor control circuit. (
  • Damage to the basal ganglia cells may cause problems controlling speech, movement, and posture. (
  • Reference to prior probabilistic diffusion tractography work is used to identify the basal ganglia circuit to which these fluctuations correspond. (
  • Fornix - Basal Ganglia Demonstration. (
  • Here they seem to look into Per's hypothesis that the pathway involving the basal ganglia is affected in stuttering people. (
  • In his unique, passionate style, Hagai Bergman takes the reader on a journey through his lifelong quest for understanding the fundamental role of the basal ganglia within the brain orchestra. (
  • This paper introduces a new hypothesis concerning the dissociated role of the basal ganglia in the selection and the evaluation of action that has been formulated using a theoretical model and confirmed experimentally in monkeys. (
  • An additional study used two water-maze tasks to investigate the selective role of the basal ganglia in S-R memory (Packard and McGaugh, 1992). (
  • In Arabidopsis, MKK3 plays a role in pathogen signaling, MKK2 is involved in cold and salt stress signaling, MKK4/MKK5 participates in innate immunity, and MKK7 regulates basal and systemic acquired resistance. (
  • The gray area represents the basal ganglia (paleostriatal complex). (
  • To determine in presymptomatic individuals who carry the gene mutation for Huntington disease whether proximity to estimated age at onset is associated with volume of basal ganglia, as measured on magnetic resonance imaging scans. (
  • [12] We also designed the current study to determine whether either age at onset or length of the trinucleotide repeat is associated with rate of disease progression, as measured by basal ganglia volume change on serial MRI. (
  • Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (Hallervorden-Spatz disease) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that predominantly affects the basal ganglia and is associated with iron accumulation in the brain. (
  • Pettigrew AL, Jackson LG, Ledbetter DH , New X-linked mental retardation disorder with Dandy-Walker malformation, basal ganglia disease, and seizures. (