Basal Ganglia: Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.Basal Ganglia Diseases: Diseases of the BASAL GANGLIA including the PUTAMEN; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; claustrum; AMYGDALA; and CAUDATE NUCLEUS. DYSKINESIAS (most notably involuntary movements and alterations of the rate of movement) represent the primary clinical manifestations of these disorders. Common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES; and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Ganglia: Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Retinal Ganglion Cells: Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Basal Ganglia Hemorrhage: Bleeding within the subcortical regions of cerebral hemispheres (BASAL GANGLIA). It is often associated with HYPERTENSION or ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS. Clinical manifestations may include HEADACHE; DYSKINESIAS; and HEMIPARESIS.Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Globus Pallidus: The representation of the phylogenetically oldest part of the corpus striatum called the paleostriatum. It forms the smaller, more medial part of the lentiform nucleus.Ganglia, Sympathetic: Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.Ganglia, Autonomic: Clusters of neurons and their processes in the autonomic nervous system. In the autonomic ganglia, the preganglionic fibers from the central nervous system synapse onto the neurons whose axons are the postganglionic fibers innervating target organs. The ganglia also contain intrinsic neurons and supporting cells and preganglionic fibers passing through to other ganglia.Trigeminal Ganglion: The semilunar-shaped ganglion containing the cells of origin of most of the sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve. It is situated within the dural cleft on the cerebral surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone and gives off the ophthalmic, maxillary, and part of the mandibular nerves.Basal Ganglia Cerebrovascular Disease: A pathological condition caused by impaired blood flow in the basal regions of cerebral hemispheres (BASAL GANGLIA), such as INFARCTION; HEMORRHAGE; or ISCHEMIA in vessels of this brain region including the lateral lenticulostriate arteries. Primary clinical manifestations include involuntary movements (DYSKINESIAS) and muscle weakness (HEMIPARESIS).Ganglia, Parasympathetic: Ganglia of the parasympathetic nervous system, including the ciliary, pterygopalatine, submandibular, and otic ganglia in the cranial region and intrinsic (terminal) ganglia associated with target organs in the thorax and abdomen.Ganglia, Sensory: Clusters of neurons in the somatic peripheral nervous system which contain the cell bodies of sensory nerve axons. Sensory ganglia may also have intrinsic interneurons and non-neuronal supporting cells.Putamen: The largest and most lateral of the BASAL GANGLIA lying between the lateral medullary lamina of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and the EXTERNAL CAPSULE. It is part of the neostriatum and forms part of the LENTIFORM NUCLEUS along with the GLOBUS PALLIDUS.Subthalamic Nucleus: Lens-shaped structure on the inner aspect of the INTERNAL CAPSULE. The SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS and pathways traversing this region are concerned with the integration of somatic motor function.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Stellate Ganglion: A paravertebral sympathetic ganglion formed by the fusion of the inferior cervical and first thoracic ganglia.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Parkinson Disease: A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)Substantia Nigra: The black substance in the ventral midbrain or the nucleus of cells containing the black substance. These cells produce DOPAMINE, an important neurotransmitter in regulation of the sensorimotor system and mood. The dark colored MELANIN is a by-product of dopamine synthesis.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Caudate Nucleus: Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.Spiral Ganglion: The sensory ganglion of the COCHLEAR NERVE. The cells of the spiral ganglion send fibers peripherally to the cochlear hair cells and centrally to the COCHLEAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM.Nodose Ganglion: The inferior (caudal) ganglion of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. The unipolar nodose ganglion cells are sensory cells with central projections to the medulla and peripheral processes traveling in various branches of the vagus nerve.Dystonia: An attitude or posture due to the co-contraction of agonists and antagonist muscles in one region of the body. It most often affects the large axial muscles of the trunk and limb girdles. Conditions which feature persistent or recurrent episodes of dystonia as a primary manifestation of disease are referred to as DYSTONIC DISORDERS. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p77)Chorea: Involuntary, forcible, rapid, jerky movements that may be subtle or become confluent, markedly altering normal patterns of movement. Hypotonia and pendular reflexes are often associated. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent episodes of chorea as a primary manifestation of disease are referred to as CHOREATIC DISORDERS. Chorea is also a frequent manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.Ganglia, Invertebrate: Clusters of neuronal cell bodies in invertebrates. Invertebrate ganglia may also contain neuronal processes and non-neuronal supporting cells. Many invertebrate ganglia are favorable subjects for research because they have small numbers of functional neuronal types which can be identified from one animal to another.Superior Cervical Ganglion: The largest and uppermost of the paravertebral sympathetic ganglia.Movement Disorders: Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.Parkinsonian Disorders: A group of disorders which feature impaired motor control characterized by bradykinesia, MUSCLE RIGIDITY; TREMOR; and postural instability. Parkinsonian diseases are generally divided into primary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE), secondary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY) and inherited forms. These conditions are associated with dysfunction of dopaminergic or closely related motor integration neuronal pathways in the BASAL GANGLIA.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Entopeduncular Nucleus: A portion of the nucleus of ansa lenticularis located medial to the posterior limb of the internal capsule, along the course of the ansa lenticularis and the inferior thalamic peduncle or as a separate nucleus within the internal capsule adjacent to the medial GLOBUS PALLIDUS (NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc. washington.edu/neuronames/ (September 28, 1998)). In non-primates, the entopeduncular nucleus is analogous to both the medial globus pallidus and the entopeduncular nucleus of human.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Parkinson Disease, Secondary: Conditions which feature clinical manifestations resembling primary Parkinson disease that are caused by a known or suspected condition. Examples include parkinsonism caused by vascular injury, drugs, trauma, toxin exposure, neoplasms, infections and degenerative or hereditary conditions. Clinical features may include bradykinesia, rigidity, parkinsonian gait, and masked facies. In general, tremor is less prominent in secondary parkinsonism than in the primary form. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch38, pp39-42)Cebus: A genus of the family CEBIDAE, subfamily CEBINAE, consisting of four species which are divided into two groups, the tufted and untufted. C. apella has tufts of hair over the eyes and sides of the head. The remaining species are without tufts - C. capucinus, C. nigrivultatus, and C. albifrons. Cebus inhabits the forests of Central and South America.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Levodopa: The naturally occurring form of DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE and the immediate precursor of DOPAMINE. Unlike dopamine itself, it can be taken orally and crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is rapidly taken up by dopaminergic neurons and converted to DOPAMINE. It is used for the treatment of PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS and is usually given with agents that inhibit its conversion to dopamine outside of the central nervous system.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Neostriatum: The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.Dystonic Disorders: Acquired and inherited conditions that feature DYSTONIA as a primary manifestation of disease. These disorders are generally divided into generalized dystonias (e.g., dystonia musculorum deformans) and focal dystonias (e.g., writer's cramp). They are also classified by patterns of inheritance and by age of onset.Deep Brain Stimulation: Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.Hypokinesia: Slow or diminished movement of body musculature. It may be associated with BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; prolonged inactivity due to illness; and other conditions.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Oxidopamine: A neurotransmitter analogue that depletes noradrenergic stores in nerve endings and induces a reduction of dopamine levels in the brain. Its mechanism of action is related to the production of cytolytic free-radicals.Manganese Poisoning: Manganese poisoning is associated with chronic inhalation of manganese particles by individuals who work with manganese ore. Clinical features include CONFUSION; HALLUCINATIONS; and an extrapyramidal syndrome (PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY) that includes rigidity; DYSTONIA; retropulsion; and TREMOR. (Adams, Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1213)Finches: Common name for small PASSERIFORMES in the family Fringillidae. They have a short stout bill (BEAK) adapted for crushing SEEDS. Some species of Old World finches are called CANARIES.Geniculate Ganglion: The sensory ganglion of the facial (7th cranial) nerve. The geniculate ganglion cells send central processes to the brain stem and peripheral processes to the taste buds in the anterior tongue, the soft palate, and the skin of the external auditory meatus and the mastoid process.Thalamic Diseases: Disorders of the centrally located thalamus, which integrates a wide range of cortical and subcortical information. Manifestations include sensory loss, MOVEMENT DISORDERS; ATAXIA, pain syndromes, visual disorders, a variety of neuropsychological conditions, and COMA. Relatively common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; BRAIN NEOPLASMS; BRAIN HYPOXIA; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; and infectious processes.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Dominance, Cerebral: Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Vocalization, Animal: Sounds used in animal communication.Dyskinesias: Abnormal involuntary movements which primarily affect the extremities, trunk, or jaw that occur as a manifestation of an underlying disease process. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent episodes of dyskinesia as a primary manifestation of disease may be referred to as dyskinesia syndromes (see MOVEMENT DISORDERS). Dyskinesias are also a relatively common manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Receptors, Dopamine D2: A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Thalamic Nuclei: Several groups of nuclei in the thalamus that serve as the major relay centers for sensory impulses in the brain.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Dopamine Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Antiparkinson Agents: Agents used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. The most commonly used drugs act on the dopaminergic system in the striatum and basal ganglia or are centrally acting muscarinic antagonists.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Tourette Syndrome: A neuropsychological disorder related to alterations in DOPAMINE metabolism and neurotransmission involving frontal-subcortical neuronal circuits. Both multiple motor and one or more vocal tics need to be present with TICS occurring many times a day, nearly daily, over a period of more than one year. The onset is before age 18 and the disturbance is not due to direct physiological effects of a substance or a another medical condition. The disturbance causes marked distress or significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. (From DSM-IV, 1994; Neurol Clin 1997 May;15(2):357-79)Dyskinesia, Drug-Induced: Abnormal movements, including HYPERKINESIS; HYPOKINESIA; TREMOR; and DYSTONIA, associated with the use of certain medications or drugs. Muscles of the face, trunk, neck, and extremities are most commonly affected. Tardive dyskinesia refers to abnormal hyperkinetic movements of the muscles of the face, tongue, and neck associated with the use of neuroleptic agents (see ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1199)Macaca fascicularis: A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.Stereotyped Behavior: Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.Muscle Rigidity: Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction which is often a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from MUSCLE SPASTICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p73)Receptors, Dopamine D1: A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D1-class receptor genes lack INTRONS, and the receptors stimulate ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Motor Cortex: Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Songbirds: PASSERIFORMES of the suborder, Oscines, in which the flexor tendons of the toes are separate, and the lower syrinx has 4 to 9 pairs of tensor muscles inserted at both ends of the tracheal half rings. They include many commonly recognized birds such as CROWS; FINCHES; robins; SPARROWS; and SWALLOWS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cerebral Hemorrhage: Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Huntington Disease: A familial disorder inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by the onset of progressive CHOREA and DEMENTIA in the fourth or fifth decade of life. Common initial manifestations include paranoia; poor impulse control; DEPRESSION; HALLUCINATIONS; and DELUSIONS. Eventually intellectual impairment; loss of fine motor control; ATHETOSIS; and diffuse chorea involving axial and limb musculature develops, leading to a vegetative state within 10-15 years of disease onset. The juvenile variant has a more fulminant course including SEIZURES; ATAXIA; dementia; and chorea. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1060-4)Nerve Tissue ProteinsAutonomic Fibers, Preganglionic: NERVE FIBERS which project from the central nervous system to AUTONOMIC GANGLIA. In the sympathetic division most preganglionic fibers originate with neurons in the intermediolateral column of the SPINAL CORD, exit via ventral roots from upper thoracic through lower lumbar segments, and project to the paravertebral ganglia; there they either terminate in SYNAPSES or continue through the SPLANCHNIC NERVES to the prevertebral ganglia. In the parasympathetic division the fibers originate in neurons of the BRAIN STEM and sacral spinal cord. In both divisions the principal transmitter is ACETYLCHOLINE but peptide cotransmitters may also be released.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Receptors, Dopamine: Cell-surface proteins that bind dopamine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Axonal Transport: The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)Denervation: The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Brain Diseases, Metabolic: Acquired or inborn metabolic diseases that produce brain dysfunction or damage. These include primary (i.e., disorders intrinsic to the brain) and secondary (i.e., extracranial) metabolic conditions that adversely affect cerebral function.Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Efferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Stereotaxic Techniques: Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.Beta Rhythm: Brain waves with frequency between 15-30 Hz seen on EEG during wakefulness and mental activity.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Supranuclear Palsy, Progressive: A degenerative disease of the central nervous system characterized by balance difficulties; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS (supranuclear ophthalmoplegia); DYSARTHRIA; swallowing difficulties; and axial DYSTONIA. Onset is usually in the fifth decade and disease progression occurs over several years. Pathologic findings include neurofibrillary degeneration and neuronal loss in the dorsal MESENCEPHALON; SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS; RED NUCLEUS; pallidum; dentate nucleus; and vestibular nuclei. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1076-7)Dopamine Agents: Any drugs that are used for their effects on dopamine receptors, on the life cycle of dopamine, or on the survival of dopaminergic neurons.Nerve Degeneration: Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.Visual Pathways: Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.MPTP Poisoning: A condition caused by the neurotoxin MPTP which causes selective destruction of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Clinical features include irreversible parkinsonian signs including rigidity and bradykinesia (PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY). MPTP toxicity is also used as an animal model for the study of PARKINSON DISEASE. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1072; Neurology 1986 Feb;36(2):250-8)Organotechnetium Compounds: Organic compounds that contain technetium as an integral part of the molecule. These compounds are often used as radionuclide imaging agents.Interneurons: Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.Electrodes, Implanted: Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine: A dopaminergic neurotoxic compound which produces irreversible clinical, chemical, and pathological alterations that mimic those found in Parkinson disease.Propionic Acidemia: Autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by mutations in PROPIONYL-COA CARBOXYLASE genes that result in dysfunction of branch chain amino acids and of the metabolism of certain fatty acids. Neonatal clinical onset is characterized by severe metabolic acidemia accompanied by hyperammonemia, HYPERGLYCEMIA, lethargy, vomiting, HYPOTONIA; and HEPATOMEGALY. Survivors of the neonatal onset propionic acidemia often show developmental retardation, and intolerance to dietary proteins. Late-onset form of the disease shows mild mental and/or developmental retardation, sometimes without metabolic acidemia.Tremor: Cyclical movement of a body part that can represent either a physiologic process or a manifestation of disease. Intention or action tremor, a common manifestation of CEREBELLAR DISEASES, is aggravated by movement. In contrast, resting tremor is maximal when there is no attempt at voluntary movement, and occurs as a relatively frequent manifestation of PARKINSON DISEASE.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Hypoparathyroidism: A condition caused by a deficiency of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH). It is characterized by HYPOCALCEMIA and hyperphosphatemia. Hypocalcemia leads to TETANY. The acquired form is due to removal or injuries to the PARATHYROID GLANDS. The congenital form is due to mutations of genes, such as TBX1; (see DIGEORGE SYNDROME); CASR encoding CALCIUM-SENSING RECEPTOR; or PTH encoding parathyroid hormone.Technetium Tc 99m Exametazime: A gamma-emitting RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING agent used in the evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow and in non-invasive dynamic biodistribution studies and MYOCARDIAL PERFUSION IMAGING. It has also been used to label leukocytes in the investigation of INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES.Biological Clocks: The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Neurologic Examination: Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Amacrine Cells: INTERNEURONS of the vertebrate RETINA. They integrate, modulate, and interpose a temporal domain in the visual message presented to the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS, with which they synapse in the inner plexiform layer.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Dopamine Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.Superior Colliculi: The anterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which coordinate the general behavioral orienting responses to visual stimuli, such as whole-body turning, and reaching.Sensory Receptor Cells: Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.Automatism: Automatic, mechanical, and apparently undirected behavior which is outside of conscious control.Oximes: Compounds that contain the radical R2C=N.OH derived from condensation of ALDEHYDES or KETONES with HYDROXYLAMINE. Members of this group are CHOLINESTERASE REACTIVATORS.Intracranial Hemorrhage, Hypertensive: Bleeding within the SKULL that is caused by systemic HYPERTENSION, usually in association with INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOSCLEROSIS. Hypertensive hemorrhages are most frequent in the BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; PONS; and THALAMUS; but may also involve the CEREBRAL CORTEX, subcortical white matter, and other brain structures.Motor Skills: Performance of complex motor acts.Wheat Germ Agglutinin-Horseradish Peroxidase Conjugate: The lectin wheatgerm agglutinin conjugated to the enzyme HORSERADISH PEROXIDASE. It is widely used for tracing neural pathways.Calcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.Optic Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the optic nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve. Clinical manifestations may include visual loss, PAPILLEDEMA, and an afferent pupillary defect.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Telencephalon: The anterior subdivision of the embryonic PROSENCEPHALON or the corresponding part of the adult prosencephalon that includes the cerebrum and associated structures.Substance P: An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.Limbic System: A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc.washington.edu/neuronames/index.html (September 2, 1998)).Microelectrodes: Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Apomorphine: A derivative of morphine that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It is a powerful emetic and has been used for that effect in acute poisoning. It has also been used in the diagnosis and treatment of parkinsonism, but its adverse effects limit its use.Torticollis: A symptom, not a disease, of a twisted neck. In most instances, the head is tipped toward one side and the chin rotated toward the other. The involuntary muscle contractions in the neck region of patients with torticollis can be due to congenital defects, trauma, inflammation, tumors, and neurological or other factors.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Dopamine and cAMP-Regulated Phosphoprotein 32: A phosphoprotein that was initially identified as a major target of DOPAMINE activated ADENYLYL CYCLASE in the CORPUS STRIATUM. It regulates the activities of PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE-1 and PROTEIN KINASE A, and it is a key mediator of the biochemical, electrophysiological, transcriptional, and behavioral effects of DOPAMINE.Choline O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC 2.3.1.6.Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.Neuroacanthocytosis: An inherited autosomal disorder that is characterized by neurodegeneration; orofacial and buccal DYSKINESIAS; CHOREA; and thorny-looking red cells (ACANTHOCYTES). This disorder is due to mutations of chorein which is important in protein trafficking and is encoded by Vps13a on chromosome 9q21.Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.Mice, Inbred C57BLHabenula: A small protuberance at the dorsal, posterior corner of the wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE, adjacent to the dorsal THALAMUS and PINEAL BODY. It contains the habenular nuclei and is a major part of the epithalamus.Intralaminar Thalamic Nuclei: Cell groups within the internal medullary lamina of the THALAMUS. They include a rostral division comprising the paracentral, central lateral, central dorsal, and central medial nuclei, and a caudal division composed of the centromedian and parafascicular nuclei.Myoclonus: Involuntary shock-like contractions, irregular in rhythm and amplitude, followed by relaxation, of a muscle or a group of muscles. This condition may be a feature of some CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; (e.g., EPILEPSY, MYOCLONIC). Nocturnal myoclonus is the principal feature of the NOCTURNAL MYOCLONUS SYNDROME. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp102-3).Wernicke Encephalopathy: An acute neurological disorder characterized by the triad of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and disturbances of mental activity or consciousness. Eye movement abnormalities include nystagmus, external rectus palsies, and reduced conjugate gaze. THIAMINE DEFICIENCY and chronic ALCOHOLISM are associated conditions. Pathologic features include periventricular petechial hemorrhages and neuropil breakdown in the diencephalon and brainstem. Chronic thiamine deficiency may lead to KORSAKOFF SYNDROME. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1139-42; Davis & Robertson, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, pp452-3)Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Intuition: Knowing or understanding without conscious use of reasoning. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System: Disorders caused by cellular or humoral immune responses primarily directed towards nervous system autoantigens. The immune response may be directed towards specific tissue components (e.g., myelin) and may be limited to the central nervous system (e.g., MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS) or the peripheral nervous system (e.g., GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME).Enkephalins: One of the three major families of endogenous opioid peptides. The enkephalins are pentapeptides that are widespread in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in the adrenal medulla.AIDS Dementia Complex: A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)Axotomy: Transection or severing of an axon. This type of denervation is used often in experimental studies on neuronal physiology and neuronal death or survival, toward an understanding of nervous system disease.Adrenergic Agents: Drugs that act on adrenergic receptors or affect the life cycle of adrenergic transmitters. Included here are adrenergic agonists and antagonists and agents that affect the synthesis, storage, uptake, metabolism, or release of adrenergic transmitters.Nerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Quinpirole: A dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Hypogastric Plexus: A complex network of nerve fibers in the pelvic region. The hypogastric plexus distributes sympathetic fibers from the lumbar paravertebral ganglia and the aortic plexus, parasympathetic fibers from the pelvic nerve, and visceral afferents. The bilateral pelvic plexus is in its lateral extent.Brain Damage, Chronic: A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.Macaca: A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.Serial Learning: Learning to make a series of responses in exact order.Cerebellar Ataxia: Incoordination of voluntary movements that occur as a manifestation of CEREBELLAR DISEASES. Characteristic features include a tendency for limb movements to overshoot or undershoot a target (dysmetria), a tremor that occurs during attempted movements (intention TREMOR), impaired force and rhythm of diadochokinesis (rapidly alternating movements), and GAIT ATAXIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p90)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Parvalbumins: Low molecular weight, calcium binding muscle proteins. Their physiological function is possibly related to the contractile process.Cortical Synchronization: EEG phase synchronization of the cortical brain region (CEREBRAL CORTEX).Dihydroxyphenylalanine: A beta-hydroxylated derivative of phenylalanine. The D-form of dihydroxyphenylalanine has less physiologic activity than the L-form and is commonly used experimentally to determine whether the pharmacological effects of LEVODOPA are stereospecific.Neurodegenerative Diseases: Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.Multiple System Atrophy: A syndrome complex composed of three conditions which represent clinical variants of the same disease process: STRIATONIGRAL DEGENERATION; SHY-DRAGER SYNDROME; and the sporadic form of OLIVOPONTOCEREBELLAR ATROPHIES. Clinical features include autonomic, cerebellar, and basal ganglia dysfunction. Pathologic examination reveals atrophy of the basal ganglia, cerebellum, pons, and medulla, with prominent loss of autonomic neurons in the brain stem and spinal cord. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1076; Baillieres Clin Neurol 1997 Apr;6(1):187-204; Med Clin North Am 1999 Mar;83(2):381-92)Periodicity: The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).Muscimol: A neurotoxic isoxazole isolated from species of AMANITA. It is obtained by decarboxylation of IBOTENIC ACID. Muscimol is a potent agonist of GABA-A RECEPTORS and is used mainly as an experimental tool in animal and tissue studies.Neurotransmitter Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Parkinson Disease, Postencephalitic: Parkinsonism following encephalitis, historically seen as a sequella of encephalitis lethargica (Von Economo Encephalitis). The early age of onset, the rapid progression of symptoms followed by stabilization, and the presence of a variety of other neurological disorders (e.g., sociopathic behavior; TICS; MUSCLE SPASMS; oculogyric crises; hyperphagia; and bizarre movements) distinguish this condition from primary PARKINSON DISEASE. Pathologic features include neuronal loss and gliosis concentrated in the MESENCEPHALON; SUBTHALAMUS; and HYPOTHALAMUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p754)Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Akinetic Mutism: A syndrome characterized by a silent and inert state without voluntary motor activity despite preserved sensorimotor pathways and vigilance. Bilateral FRONTAL LOBE dysfunction involving the anterior cingulate gyrus and related brain injuries are associated with this condition. This may result in impaired abilities to communicate and initiate motor activities. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p348; Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 1995 Feb;63(2):59-67)Autonomic Fibers, Postganglionic: Nerve fibers which project from cell bodies of AUTONOMIC GANGLIA to SYNAPSES on target organs.Neuroimaging: Non-invasive methods of visualizing the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities.Neurons, Efferent: Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.

Concordant induction of cyclin E and p21cip1 in differentiated keratinocytes by the human papillomavirus E7 protein inhibits cellular and viral DNA synthesis. (1/1612)

Productive infections by human papillomaviruses (HPVs) occur only in differentiated keratinocytes in squamous epithelia in which the HPV E7 protein reactivates the host DNA replication machinery to support viral DNA replication. In a fraction of the differentiated keratinocytes, E7 also posttranscriptionally induces p21Cip1, which is distributed in a mutually exclusive manner with unscheduled cellular DNA synthesis. In this study, double immunofluorescence labeling unexpectedly revealed that E7 caused a concordant accumulation of both cyclin E and p21Cip1 to high levels in patient papillomas and in organotypic cultures of primary human keratinocytes. The induction of cyclin E is mutually exclusive with unscheduled cellular DNA synthesis or abundant viral DNA. These novel virus-host interactions in differentiated keratinocytes are in contrast to previous observations made in submerged proliferating cultures, in which HPV E7 induces cyclin E and overcomes p21Cip1 inhibition of S-phase entry. We propose that an appropriately timed induction of cyclin E/cyclin-dependent kinase 2 by HPV E7 in postmitotic cells enables S-phase reentry and HPV DNA amplification, whereas prematurely induced cyclin E stabilizes p21Cip1 protein, which then inhibits cyclin E/cyclin-dependent kinase 2. Consequently, cyclin E and p21Cip1 both fail to turn over, and DNA synthesis does not occur.  (+info)

Developmental regulation of expression of the D3 dopamine receptor in rat nucleus accumbens and islands of Calleja. (2/1612)

The dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) belongs to the D2 subfamily and is expressed in the rat brain in targets of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system. Little is known about its normal development and control by dopaminergic innervation. We studied developmental expression of D3R in the rat nucleus accumbens (NAC) and islands of Calleja (ISC). At postnatal day (P) 7, D3 binding sites and mRNA were low in both areas. By P14, D3R and mRNA concentrations were close to adult levels in the ISC, whereas, in the NAC, binding increased until 3 months after birth. Cellular concentrations of D3 mRNA in the ISC increased with age in conjunction with a decrease in the number of D3 positive cells. In the NAC, the number of positive cells increased, whereas cellular levels of expression remained unchanged. Neonatal 6-hydroxydopamine lesion caused age-dependent changes in D3R expression. D3 binding sites did not change at P7 or P14, but there was a reduction in the number of D3 mRNA positive neurons accompanied by an increase in cellular levels of D3 mRNA at P14, suggesting that changes occurred in a subset of neurons. Up-regulation of D3 binding sites in NAC and ISC occurred 1 month after the lesion (P35) concomitant with a decrease in cellular levels of D3 mRNA and the number of D3 mRNA positive cells. At 3 months (P90) after the lesion, an increase in D3 mRNA occurred with no change in D3 binding sites. D3R shows region-specific dynamics in receptor/mRNA expression during development and is sensitive to loss of dopamine in early postnatal development.  (+info)

Bilateral basal ganglial necrosis after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in a child with Kostmann syndrome. (3/1612)

A 6-year-old girl underwent allogeneic BMT from a matched sibling donor for the treatment of Kostmann syndrome. She suddenly became drowsy on day 30 after BMT, and lost consciousness 2 days later. Cranial CT scan showed symmetrical lesions suggesting bilateral necrosis in the basal ganglia. Clinical and laboratory investigations failed to reveal any evidence of neurometabolic disease.  (+info)

5-HT modulation of dopamine release in basal ganglia in psilocybin-induced psychosis in man--a PET study with [11C]raclopride. (4/1612)

The modulating effects of serotonin on dopamine neurotransmission are not well understood, particularly in acute psychotic states. Positron emission tomography was used to examine the effect of psilocybin on the in vivo binding of [11C]raclopride to D2-dopamine receptors in the striatum in healthy volunteers after placebo and a psychotomimetic dose of psilocybin (n = 7). Psilocybin is a potent indoleamine hallucinogen and a mixed 5-HT2A and 5-HT1A receptor agonist. Psilocybin administration (0.25 mg/kg p.o.) produced changes in mood, disturbances in thinking, illusions, elementary and complex visual hallucinations and impaired ego-functioning. Psilocybin significantly decreased [11C]raclopride receptor binding potential (BP) bilaterally in the caudate nucleus (19%) and putamen (20%) consistent with an increase in endogenous dopamine. Changes in [11C]raclopride BP in the ventral striatum correlated with depersonalization associated with euphoria. Together with previous reports of 5-HT receptor involvement in striatal dopamine release, it is concluded that stimulation of both 5-HT2A and 5-HT1A receptors may be important for the modulation of striatal dopamine release in acute psychoses. The present results indirectly support the hypothesis of a serotonin-dopamine dysbalance in schizophrenia and suggest that psilocybin is a valuable tool in the analysis of serotonin-dopamine interactions in acute psychotic states.  (+info)

Impairment of EEG desynchronisation before and during movement and its relation to bradykinesia in Parkinson's disease. (5/1612)

OBJECTIVE: It has been suggested that the basal ganglia act to release cortical elements from idling (alpha) rhythms so that they may become coherent in the gamma range, thereby binding together those distributed activities necessary for the effective selection and execution of a motor act. This hypothesis was tested in 10 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. METHODS: Surface EEG was recorded during self paced squeezing of the hand and elbow flexion performed separately, simultaneously, or sequentially. Recordings were made after overnight withdrawal of medication and, again, 1 hour after levodopa. The medication related improvement in EEG desynchronisation (in the 7.5-12.5 Hz band) over the 1 second before movement and during movement were separately correlated with the improvement in movement time for each electrode site. Correlation coefficients (r) > 0.632 were considered significant (p<0.05). RESULTS: Improvement in premovement desynchronisation correlated with reduction in bradykinesia over the contralateral sensorimotor cortex and supplementary motor area in flexion and squeeze, respectively. However, when both movements were combined either simultaneously or sequentially, this correlation shifted anteriorly, to areas overlying prefrontal cortex. Improvement in EEG desynchronisation during movement only correlated with reduction in bradykinesia in two tasks. Correlation was seen over the supplementary motor area during flexion, and central prefrontal and ipsilateral premotor areas during simultaneous flex and squeeze. CONCLUSIONS: The results are consistent with the idea that the basal ganglia liberate frontal cortex from idling rhythms, and that this effect is focused and specific in so far as it changes with the demands of the task. In particular, the effective selection and execution of more complex tasks is associated with changes over the prefrontal cortex.  (+info)

Variation in echogenicity of the basal ganglia: anisotropic effect. (6/1612)

We observed that the fetal brain demonstrates relatively increased echogenicity of the basal ganglia compared with the thalami and cortical brain parenchyma, which we did not observe on neonatal sonograms. We hypothesized that the difference in relative echogenicity was due to differences in imaging techniques and anisotropic effects for prenatal and postnatal brain images. In 18 consecutive neonates, we obtained coronal images of the basal ganglia and thalami through the anterior fontanelle and axial images through the anterolateral fontanelle with both 5 and 7.5 MHz transducers. Two observers determined whether increased echogenicity or conspicuity of the basal ganglia was present, comparing the axial and coronal planes. We observed relatively increased echogenicity of the basal ganglia in the axial plane in 11 of the 16 examinations in this series. Of these 11, the increased echogenicity effect was manifest only in the axial plane in seven neonates. In the four instances in which the increased basal ganglia echogenicity was seen in both the coronal and axial planes, the effect was better shown in axial plane in all four. We did not observe any cases of increased echogenicity of the basal ganglia only in the coronal plane. The increased echogenicity was more conspicuous with the lower frequency transducer in 10 of the 11 examinations. We believe that the change in echogenicity of the basal ganglia is predominantly an anisotropic effect. Observing that increased echogenicity of the basal ganglia can disappear or decrease when comparing images in the axial to the coronal plane or be better demonstrated with lower frequency transducers might be a means by which to distinguish this phenomenon from true pathologic processes of the neonatal brain.  (+info)

Iron in the basal ganglia in Parkinson's disease. An in vitro study using extended X-ray absorption fine structure and cryo-electron microscopy. (7/1612)

Iron is found in high concentration in some areas of the brain, and increased iron in the substantia nigra is a feature of Parkinson's disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the physical environment of brain iron in post-mortem tissue to provide information on the possible role of iron in neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease. Iron has also been implicated as the cause of signal loss in areas of high brain iron on T2-weighted MRI sequences. Knowledge of the physical environment of the brain iron is essential in interpreting the cause of signal change. Post-mortem tissue was obtained from six cases of Parkinson's disease and from six age-matched controls. Iron levels were measured using absorption spectrophotometry. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure was used to evaluate the atomic environment of iron within the substantia nigra and both segments of the globus pallidus. Cryo-electron transmission microscopy was used to probe the iron storage proteins in these areas. Iron levels were increased in the parkinsonian nigra and lateral portion of the globus pallidus. Spectra from the extended X-ray absorption fine structure experiments showed that ferritin was the only storage protein detectable in both control and parkinsonian tissue in all areas studied. Cryo-electron transmission microscopy studies showed that ferritin was more heavily loaded with iron in Parkinson's disease when compared with age-matched controls. In summary we have shown that iron levels are increased in two areas of the brain in Parkinson's disease including the substantia nigra, the site of maximal neurodegeneration. This produces increased loading of ferritin, which is the normal brain iron storage protein. It is possible that increased loading of ferritin may increase the risk of free radical-induced damage. Differences in ferritin loading may explain regional differences in iron's effect on the T2 signal.  (+info)

Altered gene expression in striatal projection neurons in CB1 cannabinoid receptor knockout mice. (8/1612)

The basal ganglia, a brain structure critical for sensorimotor and motivational aspects of behavior, contain very high levels of CB1 cannabinoid receptors. These receptors are activated by endogenous lipophilic ligands, and they are thought to mediate behavioral effects of cannabinoid drugs. To evaluate the role of the endogenous cannabinoid system in the regulation of basal ganglia pathways, we have investigated the effects of targeted deletion of CB1 receptors on gene expression of various neuropeptides and transmitter-related enzymes in basal ganglia neurons. Mice without CB1 receptors are extremely hypoactive in a test for exploratory behavior (open-field test), showing markedly reduced locomotion and rearing. These CB1 mutants display significantly increased levels of substance P, dynorphin, enkephalin, and GAD 67 mRNAs in neurons of the two output pathways of the striatum that project to the substantia nigra and the globus pallidus. Our findings demonstrate that elimination of CB1 receptors results in behavioral abnormalities and functional reorganization of the basal ganglia.  (+info)

*Basal ganglia

Peter Redgrave (2007) Basal ganglia. Scholarpedia, 2(6):1825. Imaging of Basal Ganglia at USUHS Models of Basal ganglia Jim ... Basal ganglia disease is a group of movement disorders that result from either excessive output from the basal ganglia to the ... The International Basal Ganglia Society (IBAGS) informally considers the basal ganglia to be made up of the striatum, the ... The structures relevant to the basal ganglia are shown in bold. Play media The basal ganglia form a fundamental component of ...

*Basal ganglia disease

Though motor disorders are the most common associated with the basal ganglia, recent research shows that basal ganglia ... Basal ganglia disease is a group of physical dysfunctions that occur when the group of nuclei in the brain known as the basal ... The basal ganglia is a collective group of structures in the brain. These include the striatum, (composed of the putamen and ... Along with other structures, the basal ganglia are part of a circuit that is integral to voluntary motor function. It was once ...

*Primate basal ganglia system

The primate central complex as one of the basal ganglia. In The Basal Ganglia III Bernardi, G. et al. (eds) pp. 177-186. Plenum ... and of being regulated by the basal ganglia. In the cortico-striato-cortical loop the basal ganglia are interconnected, with ... The basal ganglia form a major brain system in all species of vertebrates, but in primates (including humans) there are special ... 2004) to propose that the complex be linked in a way or another to the basal ganglia system. A review on its role in the system ...

*Prefrontal cortex basal ganglia working memory

... (PBWM) is an algorithm that models working memory in the prefrontal cortex and ... This is the dynamic gating system representing the striatum units of the basal ganglia. Every even-index unit within a stripe ... The PVLV system controls the dopaminergic modulation of the basal ganglia (BG). Thus, BG/PVLV form an actor-critic architecture ... They control the dopaminergic modulation of the basal ganglia.[citation needed] O'Reilly, R.C & Frank, M.J. (2006). "Making ...

*Cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop

Parent, A.; Hazrati, L. N. (1 January 1995). "Functional anatomy of the basal ganglia. I. The cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo- ... The cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop (CBGTC) is a system of neural pathways in the brain that primarily consists of ... The loop was originally proposed as a part of a model of the basal ganglia called the parallel processing model, which has been ... Dunn, E. M.; Lowery, M. M. (1 April 2015). "A model of the cortico-basal ganglia network and local field potential during deep ...

*Dopamine transporter

Basal Ganglia. 6 (3): 123-148. doi:10.1016/j.baga.2016.02.001. PMC 4850498 . PMID 27141430. Despite the challenges in ... Differences in the VNTR have been shown to affect the basal level of expression of the transporter; consequently, researchers ... tonically activates inwardly rectifying K(+) channels, which reduces the basal firing frequency of dopamine (DA) neurons of the ...

*Dextroamphetamine

Basal ganglia regions like the right globus pallidus, the right putamen, and the nucleus caudatus are structurally affected in ... Basal Ganglia. 6 (3): 123-148. doi:10.1016/j.baga.2016.02.001. PMC 4850498 . PMID 27141430. Despite the challenges in ... such as the right caudate nucleus of the basal ganglia. Reviews of clinical stimulant research have established the safety and ... tonically activates inwardly rectifying K(+) channels, which reduces the basal firing frequency of dopamine (DA) neurons of the ...

*Selegiline

Basal Ganglia. Monoamine oxidase B Inhibitors. 2 (4, Supplement): S27-S31. doi:10.1016/j.baga.2012.06.003. Gillman, P. K. (2005 ...

*GPR88

Basal Ganglia. 1 (2): 83-89. doi:10.1016/j.baga.2011.04.001. PMC 3144573 . PMID 21804954. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...

*Amphetamine

Basal ganglia regions like the right globus pallidus, the right putamen, and the nucleus caudatus are structurally affected in ... including the basal ganglia, frontal cortex, and thalamus (Colasanti et al. 2012). Oral administration of d-amphetamine, 0.5 mg ... Basal Ganglia. 6 (3): 123-148. doi:10.1016/j.baga.2016.02.001. PMC 4850498 . PMID 27141430. Despite the challenges in ... such as the right caudate nucleus of the basal ganglia. Reviews of clinical stimulant research have established the safety and ...

*Methylphenidate

Basal ganglia regions like the right globus pallidus, the right putamen, and the nucleus caudatus are structurally affected in ... Basal Ganglia. 6 (3): 123-148. doi:10.1016/j.baga.2016.02.001. PMC 4850498 . PMID 27141430. Despite the challenges in ... leading to nonresponse in those with low basal DA activity. On average, methylphenidate elicits a 3-4 times increase in ... leading to the hypothesis that methylphenidate amplifies basal dopamine activity, ...

*Adderall

Basal ganglia regions like the right globus pallidus, the right putamen, and the nucleus caudatus are structurally affected in ... Basal Ganglia. 6 (3): 123-148. doi:10.1016/j.baga.2016.02.001. PMC 4850498 . PMID 27141430. Despite the challenges in ... such as the right caudate nucleus of the basal ganglia. Reviews of clinical stimulant research have established the safety and ... 2 A, open squares). We stress that Zn2+ per se did not affect basal efflux (Fig. 2 A). ... In many brain regions, Zn2+ is ...

*Morvan's syndrome

and or basal ganglia hypermetabolism. Ancillary laboratory tests including MRI and brain biopsy have confirmed temporal lobe ...

*Allothalamus

see Primate basal ganglia system. Percheron, G. (2003) "Thalamus". In Paxinos, G. and May, J.(eds). The human nervous system. ... The central region thus appears not as a nonspecific part of the thalamus but as one element of the basal ganglia system: one ... They have strong connections with elements of the basal ganglia system. The pars parafascicularis is linked bilaterally to the ...

*Direct pathway of movement

The motor cortices send signals through the basal ganglia to refine the choice of muscles that will participate in the movement ... The direct pathway of movement is a neuronal circuit within the central nervous system (CNS) through the basal ganglia which ... The direct pathway passes through the caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus, which are parts of the basal ganglia. It also ... Bolam JP, Hanley JJ, Booth PA, Bevan MD (May 2000). "Synaptic organisation of the basal ganglia". J. Anat. 196 ( Pt 4): 527-42 ...

*Lentiform nucleus

Ventricles of brain and basal ganglia. Superior view. Horizontal section. Deep dissection Ventricles of brain and basal ganglia ... The lentiform nucleus or lenticular nucleus comprises the putamen and the globus pallidus within the basal ganglia. With the ...

*External globus pallidus

"Functional anatomy of the basal ganglia. II. The place of subthalamic nucleus and external pallidium in basal ganglia circuitry ... "Functional anatomy of the basal ganglia. I. The cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop". Brain Research Reviews. 20 (1): ... The basal ganglia functions to tonically inhibit movement, mainly in the absence of motor cortex command, via GABAergic ... but as the main regulator of the basal ganglia system. It is sometimes used as a target for deep brain stimulation as a ...

*William T. Powers

ISBN 0-9740155-0-4. Powers (1973:88-92). Yin, Henry H. (18 November 2014). "How Basal Ganglia Outputs Generate Behavior". ...

*Indirect pathway of movement

Nambu A (2004). "A new dynamic model of the cortico-basal ganglia loop". Prog. Brain Res. 143: 461-466. doi:10.1016/S0079-6123( ... Bolam JP, Hanley JJ, Booth PA, Bevan MD (May 2000). "Synaptic organisation of the basal ganglia". J. Anat. 196 ( Pt 4): 527-42 ... The indirect pathway of movement is a neuronal circuit through the basal ganglia and several associated nuclei within the ... The indirect pathway passes through the caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus, which are parts of the basal ganglia. It ...

*Nucleus accumbens

Location: The nucleus accumbens core is part of the ventral striatum, located within the basal ganglia. Cell types: The core of ... The ventral striatum and dorsal striatum collectively form the striatum, which is the main component of the basal ganglia. The ... The nucleus accumbens is often described as one part of a cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop. Dopaminergic inputs from ... The output neurons of the nucleus accumbens send axonal projections to the basal ganglia and the ventral analog of the globus ...

*Lateralization of brain function

Ventricles of brain and basal ganglia. Superior view. Horizontal section. Deep dissection Ventricles of brain and basal ganglia ...

*Rett syndrome

Parent, André; Hazrati, Lili-Naz (1995). "Functional anatomy of the basal ganglia. I. The cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo- ... Indeed, based on the canonical anatomofunctional model of basal ganglia, nigrostriatal dopamine is able to modulate the motor ... This connection is involved in the tight modulation of motor strategies computed by a cortico-basal ganglia- thalamo-cortical ...

*Subthalamic nucleus

The function of the STN is unknown, but current theories place it as a component of the basal ganglia control system that may ... The connection of the lateral pallidum with the subthalamic nucleus is also the one in the basal ganglia system where the ... Surmeier D.J.; Mercer J.N. & Chan C.S. (2005). "Autonomous pacemakers in the basal ganglia: who needs excitatory synapses ... Plenz, D. & Kitai, S.T. (1999). "A basal ganglia pacemaker formed by the subthalamic nucleus and external globus pallidus". ...

*Perceptual control theory

ISBN 0-7045-0092-2. Yin, Henry H. (18 November 2014). "How Basal Ganglia Outputs Generate Behavior". Advances in Neuroscience. ...

*Internal globus pallidus

"Functional anatomy of the basal ganglia. II. The place of subthalamic nucleus and external pallidium in basal ganglia circuitry ... As the GPi, along with the substantia nigra pars reticulata, forms the output of the basal ganglia, these neurons extend to the ... The internal globus pallidus (GPi) (or medial globus pallidus) is one of the output nuclei of the basal ganglia (the other ... As the GPi is one of the direct output centers of the basal ganglia, this causes disinihibtion of the thalamus, increasing ...

*Sodium azide

... and basal ganglia. Toxicity may also include hypotension, blindness and hepatic necrosis. Sodium azide increases cyclic GMP ...
R MANICKAVASAGAR1, R SINGER2, R SWAMINATHAN1, D PRENTICE3, A IRISH1. 1Fiona Stanley Hospital, Perth, WA; 2Canberra Hospital, Canberra, ACT; 3Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, WA Aim: To characterise the features of acute bilateral basal ganglia dysfunction in dialysis patients and identify possible risk factors and clinical outcomes.. Background: Acute bilateral basal ganglia dysfunction is a rare complication of dialysis, manifesting as a movement disorder with chorea or acute Parkinsonism. In the non-dialysis population, degeneration of the basal ganglia is associated with genetic disorders of iron overload, mutations of Vitamin B5, toxins, hypoxia and metabolic acidosis.. Methods: Retrospective case series describing clinical, biochemical, radiological and post mortem histology features in 15 dialysis patients with acute bilateral basal ganglia syndrome over a 20 year period.. Results: The 15 patients (3 male; 4 ATSI) had an average age of 61±13 years at diagnosis. All were on dialysis (HD= ...
Damage to the basal ganglia cells may cause problems with ones ability to control speech, movement, and posture. This combination of symptoms is called Parkinsonism. A person with basal ganglia dysfunction may have difficulty starting, stopping, or sustaining movement. Depending on which area is affected, there may also be problems with memory and other thought processes. Generally, symptoms vary and may include ...
Background Although increased nasality can originate from basal ganglia dysfunction, data regarding hypernasality in Parkinsons disease (PD) and Huntingtons disease (HD) are very sparse. The aim of the current study was to analyze acoustic and perceptual correlates of velopharyngeal seal closure in 37 PD and 37 HD participants in comparison to 37 healthy control speakers. Methods Acoustical analysis was based on sustained phonation of the vowel /i/ and perceptual analysis was based on monologue. Perceptual analysis was performed by 10 raters using The Great Ormond Street Speech Assessment 98. Acoustic parameters related to changes in a 1/3-octave band centered on 1 kHz were proposed to reflect nasality level and behavior through utterance. Results Perceptual analysis showed the occurrence of mild to moderate hypernasality in 65% of PD, 89% of HD and 22% of control speakers. Based on acoustic analyses, 27% of PD, 54% of HD and 19% of control speakers showed an increased occurrence of hypernasality. In
Title: Progress in Understanding Basal Ganglia Dysfunction as a Common Target for Methamphetamine Abuse and HIV-1 Neurodegeneration. VOLUME: 5 ISSUE: 3. Author(s):Shaji Theodore, Wayne A. Cass, Avindra Nath and William F. Maragos. Affiliation:Department of Neurology, Center for Neurodegeneration and Experimental Therapeutics, University of Alabama, Birmingham 1719, 6th Avenue South, CIRC 516, Birmingham, AL-35294, USA.. Keywords:Drug abuse, AIDS, glia, cytokines, dopamine, striatum, neurodegeneration. Abstract: HIV-1 infection with concurrent methamphetamine (MA) abuse results in exacerbated neurodegenerative changes and rapid progression of a form of sub-cortical dementia termed HIV-1 associated dementia (HAD). A notable feature of HAD is the involvement of the dopaminergic system manifested as parkinsonian like movement abnormalities. The HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (Tat) protein is very often used in experimental studies trying to understand neurotoxic consequences of HIV-1 ...
We learn new motor tasks by trial and error, repeating what works best and avoiding past mistakes. To repeat what works best we must register a satisfactory outcome, and in a study [1] we showed the existence of an evoked activity in the basal ganglia that correlates with accuracy of task performance and is associated with reiteration of successful motor parameters in subsequent movements. Here we report evidence that the signaling of positive trial outcome relies on dopaminergic input to the basal ganglia, by recording from the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in patients with nigrostriatal denervation due to Parkinsons Disease (PD) who have undergone functional neurosurgery. Correlations between subthalamic evoked activities and trial accuracy were weak and behavioral performance remained poor while patients were untreated; however, both improved after the dopamine prodrug levodopa was re-introduced. The results suggest that the midbrain dopaminergic system may be important, not only in signaling explicit
Basal ganglia dysfunction has being implied in both Parkinsons disease and dystonia. While these disorders probably involve different cellular and circuit pathologies within and beyond basal ganglia, there may be some shared neurophysiological pathways. For example, pallidotomy and pallidal Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) are used in symptomatic treatment of both disorders. Both conditions are marked by alterations of rhythmicity of neural activity throughout basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits.
My grandpa who just passed away suffered from St. Vitis Dance as a child. I believe it is the same as chorea or a form of it. I have never understood it much. It went away and reoccurred just about 2 years ago. That just one of many of the factors in his end. In the end he couldnt swallow at all. I never understood the disease much. I am glad to see you have a medical knowledge of it. Hang in there Leanne. It is possible for him to maintain the tremors and there are things that can be done. My grandpa overcame it as a child when very little was known about it at all and lived a long healthy life until the end when it reoccured. I hope all the rest of your family is doing well.. ReplyDelete ...
Video created by Duke University for the course Medical Neuroscience. Next, we will consider two major brain systems that modulate the output of upper motor neuronal circuits: the basal ganglia and the cerebellum. Take note: the output of these ...
Our current findings from the Granger causality analyses showed that the PMC and preSMA are functionally connected with the caudate head and STN. Furthermore, the IFC is connected with the preSMA but not the caudate head or STN. Thus, with strong interconnectivity with the basal ganglia circuitry of motor control, the PMC and preSMA are in a position to engage the com petition of go and stop processes, whereas the IFC indirectly influence the basal ganglia circuitry via projection to the preSMA. These new findings provide evidence differentiating the roles of the IFC and preSMA during stop signal inhibition. In particular, these data are inconsistent with the hypothesis of a hyperdirect pathway from the IFC to STN for motor inhibitory control (Aron and Poldrack, 2006).. The results from PPI analyses further corroborated this hypothesis: the IFC showed greater connectivity with the preSMA during stop success than during stop error trials. A number of other brain regions including the superior ...
Evidence suggests that dopamine (DA) is crucial for initiation and termination as well as sustained execution of movement. For the present study, it was hypothesized that DA plays a more important role in initiation and termination of movement than in its sustained production. To test these hypotheses, rats were trained to walk on a treadmill in a continuous and discontinuous (walk 30 secs/stop 15 seconds) fashion for one hour while striatal DA samples were collected using In Vivo Microdialysis (IVMCD). We predicted larger increases during discontinuous compared to continuous walking. It was found that brain dialysate levels of DA consistently increased from baseline to walking [p|0.05]. However, no significant difference was found in brain dialysate DA between continuous and discontinuous walking [p|0.05]. Similar to DA, its major metabolites DOPAC and HVA, and the serotonin metabolite 5-HIAA, increased during treadmill walking from resting state levels [p|0.05]. None of these metabolites showed a
We embed our basal ganglia model into a wider circuit containing the motor thalamocortical loop and thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN). Simulation of this extended model showed that the additions gave five main results which are desirable in a selection/switching mechanism. First, low salience actions (i.e. those with low urgency) could be selected. Second, the range of salience values over which actions could be switched between was increased. Third, the contrast between the selected and non-selected actions was enhanced via improved differentiation of outputs from the BG. Fourth, transient increases in the salience of a non-selected action were prevented from interrupting the ongoing action, unless the transient was of sufficient magnitude. Finally, the selection of the ongoing action persisted when a new closely matched salience action became active. The first result was facilitated by the thalamocortical loop; the rest were dependent on the presence of the TRN. Thus, we conclude that the ...
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Multiple benzodiazepine receptors in the human basal ganglia: a detailed pharmacological and anatomical study.: The pharmacological characteristics and anatomic
Information storage in the central nervous system is believed to emerge from changes in the functional efficacy of synaptic connections, a property known as synaptic plasticity. Parkinsons disease (PD) and dystonia are movement disorders that are the result of basal ganglia dysfunction. In PD, basal ganglia abnormalities are the result of the loss of dopamine, which leads to paucity of movements, rigidity of the limbs, and rest tremor. A unique characteristic of synaptic plasticity in the basal ganglia is that a certain level of endogenous dopamine and dopamine receptor activation seems to be required for its induction. In dystonia, a model has emerged in which a fundamental deficit within the basal ganglia generates impaired inhibition in the motor cortex that results in increased excitability, abnormal processing of sensory feedback and increased striatal, brainstem, and cortical plasticity. This thesis addresses the question of whether movement disorders such as PD and dystonia are ...
Chunking allows the brain to efficiently organize memories and actions. Although basal ganglia circuits have been implicated in action chunking, little is known about how individual elements are concatenated into a behavioral sequence at the neural level. Using a task in which mice learned rapid action sequences, we uncovered neuronal activity encoding entire sequences as single actions in basal ganglia circuits. In addition to neurons with activity related to the start/stop activity signaling sequence parsing, we found neurons displaying inhibited or sustained activity throughout the execution of an entire sequence. This sustained activity covaried with the rate of execution of individual sequence elements, consistent with motor concatenation. Direct and indirect pathways of basal ganglia were concomitantly active during sequence initiation, but behaved differently during sequence performance, revealing a more complex functional organization of these circuits than previously postulated. These ...
The basal ganglia consists of masses of subcortical grey matter deep within the cerebral hemispheres. Along with the cerebellum, the basal ganglia controls movement and posture, adjusting the body to do certain things, as well as inhibits unwanted movement. Lesions in the basal ganglia cause disturbances in motor activity. Information is sent from the motor cortex to the basal ganglia and is relayed back via the thalamus. Recent studies suggest that the basal ganglia contains five segregated circuits for different functions of behavior. Each involves separate regions within the basal ganglia and the thalamus.
By comparison with these reports our results demonstrate a different pattern of hyperechogenic lesions in Huntingtons disease, primarily affecting the caudate nucleus and the substantia nigra. Considering different basal ganglia regions, hyperechogenic lesions of the substantia nigra were detectable in Huntingtons disease half as often as reported previously in Parkinsons disease.9 The rate of hyperechogenic lesions of the caudate nucleus was similar in Huntingtons disease and dystonia. Nevertheless, we found a considerably high signal intensity in most patients showing caudate nucleus hyperechogenic lesions, possibly pointing towards the predominant localisation of neuronal loss, whereas hyperechogenic lesions of the caudate nucleus in dystonia were described as mild. The precise morphological and pathological interpretation of basal ganglia hyperechogenicity demonstrated by TCS is still speculative. The fact that in the present study hyperechogenic lesions of the caudate nucleus were ...
Abstract: GABA and its associated benzodiazepine interactions play an important role in basal ganglia function. Distinctive GABA, benzodiazepine and opiate receptor changes occur in response to striatal lesions and in the human neurodegenerative disorder, Huntingtons disease (HD). In animal experiments, the in vivo administration of [3H]flunitrazepam labels benzodiazepine receptors and can demonstrate the receptor changes seen after striatal lesions. It should be possible to measure these receptors in vivo in humans using positron-emission tomographic scanning ...
The basal ganglia (the odd "snail-shaped" region in the diagram below, which includes the aforementioned putamen, globus pallidus and caudate nucleus, as well as a few other sub regions we havent yet discussed) is another key brain region which is believed to be involved in ADHD and other related disorders. The basal ganglia region of the brain essentially determine how fast a persons brain "idles". This region has often been found to be underactive in ADHD and similar disorders and overactive in obsessive compulsive or anxiety-related disorders. Thus the basal ganglia function can have some far-reaching implications. Not surprisingly, then, is the fact that mis-development in the "wiring process" of the basal ganglia (such as seen in the formative years), may play a crucial role on the onset of ADHD both directly, and indirectly (via interaction with other key "ADHD" brain regions ...
The basal ganglia refer to a group of closely connected structures including the striatum (the caudate and the putamen), the globus pallidus, the substantia nigra and the subthalamic nucleus.. It seems to be generally agreed that the basal ganglia have something to do with the creation and execution of motor plans. Just watch a person with a typical basal ganglion affliction, such as Parkinsons disease, characterized by difficulty in starting or stopping the walking sequence, and realize how profundly these nuclei are involved in daily life.. In addition to their role in control of movement and posture, it now appears that the basal ganglia also play a more complex (cognitive) aspects of behavior and may be involved in limbic functions.. They are responsible not only for the integration of motor activity but probably also for the programming, beginning and termination of such activity. There are other definitions of the term basal ganglia: the archistriatum, the paleostriatum, and the ...
This article introduces the notion of cognitive pattern generators and suggests, by analogy with the central pattern generators of the motor system, that these pattern generators operate to organize neural activity underlying aspects of action-oriented cognition. It is further proposed that the basal ganglia are involved in the control of cognitive as well as motor pattern generators. Disorders of the basal ganglia may thereby contribute to neural circuit dysfunctions that are expressed as positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia.. ...
In temporal information processing, both the cerebellum and the basal ganglia play essential roles. In particular, for interval timing learning, the cerebellum exhibits temporally localized activity around the onset of the unconditioned stimulus, whereas the basal ganglia represents the passage of time by their ramping-up activity from the onset of the conditioned stimulus to that of the unconditioned stimulus. We present a unified computational model of the cerebellum and the basal ganglia for the interval timing learning task. We report that our model reproduces the localized activity in the cerebellum and the gradual increase of the activity in the basal ganglia. These results suggest that the cerebellum and the basal ganglia play different roles in temporal information processing.. Date: 09/11/2018 ...
The basal ganglia play a critical but enigmatic role in many aspects of brain function including movement, motivation, reward and addiction. The vast number of neurologic disorders, such as Parkinsons disease, Huntingtons disease, Tourettes syndrome, Dystonia and Schizophrenia, which involve the basal ganglia are a testament to the importance of this role. However, precisely defining the purpose of the basal ganglia in the normal control of movement or motivation is surprisingly difficult. The goal of the experiments described here is to explore the influence of basal ganglia in adaptive learning and motor control in awake-behaving primates and in human subjects undergoing surgery. Our lab is uniquely positioned to investigate basal ganglia function in nonhuman primates and in humans undergoing surgery for movement disorders.. Areas of research focus:. ...
Basal ganglia of brain. Coloured Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scan of a healthy brain, viewed at basal ganglia level. The colour-coded scan through this cerebral layer shows brain activity: from low (blue) to high (yellow). At centre and centre right are two pairs of basal ganglia (yellow ovals), nerve cell clusters deep in the cerebrum & upper part of the brainstem. The basal ganglia play a vital part in producing smooth, continuous muscular actions and in stopping and starting movement. PET scanning relies on a radioactive tracer injected into the bloodstream, to reveal metabolic activity in the brain. - Stock Image P332/0202
View Notes - 18BasalGanglia from CHEM 2341 at Texas State. Modulation of Movement by Basal Ganglia • Basal Ganglia and cerebellum function in modulating movement • Basal ganglia involved in
The present study examined the regional differences in dopamine transporter binding sites and NMDA receptor complex binding based on autoradiographic images obtained in postmortem sections of human normal brain tissues. in middle-aged control tissues, high and comparable levels of [H-3]CFT binding were observed in the caudate nucleus, putamen, and accumbens nucleus without significant alteration along the rostrocaudal axis and ventral and dorsal parts of these nuclei. in aging normal brain tissues, dopamine binding sites for [H-3]CFT were significantly reduced in the caudate nucleus, putamen, and accumbens nucleus. L-[H-3]Glutamate, [H-3]MK-801, and [H-3]glycine binding to the NMDA receptor complex was lower in aging brain tissues than in middle-aged controls. Significant correlation did occur between age and [H-3]CFT binding and between age and L-[H-3]glutamate, [H-3]MK-801, and [H-3]glycine binding sites. These results demonstrate that the basal ganglia have age-associated reductions in ...
OBJECTIVE: To examine functional connectivity within the basal ganglia network (BGN) in a group of cognitively normal patients with early Parkinson disease (PD) on and off medication compared to age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC), and to validate the findings in a separate cohort of participants with PD. METHODS: Participants were scanned with resting-state fMRI (RS-fMRI) at 3T field strength. Resting-state networks were isolated using independent component analysis. A BGN template was derived from 80 elderly HC participants. BGN maps were compared between 19 patients with PD on and off medication in the discovery group and 19 age- and sex-matched controls to identify a threshold for optimal group separation. The threshold was applied to 13 patients with PD (including 5 drug-naive) in the validation group to establish reproducibility of findings. RESULTS: Participants with PD showed reduced functional connectivity with the BGN in a wide range of areas. Administration of medication significantly
Other questions scientists are attempting to answer include: Why is the striatum predisposed to damage? Why are certain populations of striatal neurons selectively targeted during the start of HD? A couple of theories have been presented, but scientists are still working on determining the exact events involved in the progression of cell deaths caused by HD.. One theory proposes that neurons die in HD because of an over-accumulation of normal excitatory chemicals involved in nerve impulses. Excitatory chemicals are important, and they are normally present in the brain. However, if they are released in excessive amounts or if brain cells are weak, these excitatory chemicals can cause cell damage and become chemicals known as "excitotoxins." One of the neurotransmitters released by the basal ganglia is called glutamate, which acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Studies show that when glutamate is injected into the basal ganglion region of brains of living rats, the rats exhibit ...
The basal ganglia are is a group of structures nestled under the cerebral cortex. What exactly the basal ganglia do remains controversial and subject to intense investigation. They seem to be play a critical role, though, in a laundry list of neurological and psychiatric disorders, ranging from Parkinsons disease to addiction to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder…
Substantial evidence indicates that the dorsolateral striatum is needed to execute sensorimotor habits (Yin et al., 2004, 2006; Redgrave et al., 2010). Such behaviors are highly repetitive, are mediated by stimulus-response (S-R) associations, and are expressed even in the absence of reinforcement. In rats, focal lesions in the dorsolateral striatum disrupt the normal sequence of repetitive, stereotyped grooming behaviors [Cromwell and Berridge, 1996). Although the normal sequence of grooming behavior is clearly disrupted, the capacity to emit individual grooming movements is not affected. Consistent with this distinction, neurons in the dorsolateral striatum appear to encode the serial order of sequential grooming movements (Aldridge and Berridge, 1998). Furthermore, the striatal sites associated with stereotyped grooming behaviors are located in regions that receive corticostriatal projections from the forepaw and, to a lesser extent, the whisker representations in SI cortex (Hoover et al., ...
Groups of brain nuclei deep within the cerebral white matter. Basal ganglia - This is the least well known of all the structures because of how deep it is. It helps us understand habits and to feel the passage of time. It also controls motor movements, specifically regulating the intensity of movements.. Basal forebrain nuclei - memory. Claustrum - subconscious visual processing. Amygdala - part of Limbic System where we store our fears (associates w/ memories in hippocampus). Note that we will only be discussing the Basal Ganglia group in detail for this blog post. Also note that as research continues, the name "Basal Ganglia" is falling out of favor.. ...
Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) couple the actions of glutamate to intracellular second messenger systems through G-proteins. The mGluRs play an important role in the regulation of basal ganglia function. Ligand binding studies have revealed that the basal ganglia contain at least two pharmacological types of metabotropic binding sites. Agonists of mGluRs can affect both in vitro electrophysiologic responses of striatal neurons and motor behavior in vivo. Recently, cDNAs encoding five mGluRs have been cloned, each with distinct structural and pharmacological properties. In order to elucidate the function of these receptors in the biology of the extrapyramidal motor system, we have used in situ hybridization to examine the regional and cellular expression patterns of mGluR1-mGluR5 in the adult rat basal ganglia. In the striatum, all of these mGluRs were present in widely varying relative densities and cellular patterns. MGluR5 was particularly prominent, and exhibited a heterogeneous ...
Basal Ganglia. CB1 receptors are expressed throughout the basal ganglia and have well established effects on movement in rodents. As in the hippocampus, these receptors inhibit the release of glutamate or GABA transmitter, resulting in decreased excitation or reduced inhibition based on the cell they are expressed in. Consistent with the variable expression of both excitatory glutamate and inhibitory GABA interneurons in both the basal ganglias direct and indirect motor loops, synthetic cannabinoids are known to influence this system in a dose-dependent triphasic pattern. Decreased locomotor activity is seen at both higher and lower concentrations of applied cannabinoids, while an enhancement of movement may occur upon moderate dosages. However, these dose-dependent effects have been studied predominately in rodents and the physiological basis for this triphasic pattern warrants future research in humans. Effects may vary based on the site of cannabinoid application, input from higher cortical ...
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With data from 578 subjects, this is the largest study to date that investigated the association between ARWMC volume and CC atrophy. We found that in nondisabled elderly subjects with very-mild-to-pronounced degrees of leukoaraiosis, there was a highly significant correlation between the total volume of ARWMC and rostral and splenium cross-sectional areas of the CC, indicating that increasing loads of ARWMC are associated with CC atrophy. This association remained significant after correction for a number of potential confounders, notably sulcal and ventricular atrophy.. For most brain regions (except the basal ganglia region), the volume of ARWMC was significantly correlated with the area of certain CC subregions, but we were unable to identify any regional specificity as regards the location of ARWMC. However, ARWMC seemed to be associated with CC tissue loss, mainly in the frontal and posterior part of the CC, whereas the size of the CC truncus was not associated with the volume of ...
Dr. Rices NIH-funded laboratory studies factors that regulate the release of dopamine, which is a key transmitter in motor and reward pathways of the brain. Current topics include modulation of dopamine release in the striatum by diet and by the metabolic hormones insulin and leptin, the influence of exercise on dopamine levels and release, and how a Parkinsons-related protein, alpha-synuclein, affects the physiology of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra. Methods used include fast-scan cyclic voltammetry, optogenetics, patch-clamp recording of basal ganglia neurons, and immunohistochemistry. Dr. Rice is an investigator in the Neuroscience Institute and a member of the Marlene and Paolo Fresco Institute for Parkinsons and Movement Disorders at NYU Langone, and she serves on the Scientific Advisory Board of the Parkinsons Foundation.. ...
The motor nervous system is one of the main systems of the body and is our principle means ofbehavior. Some of the most debilitating and wide spread disorders are motor systempathologies. In particular the basal ganglia are complex networks of the brain that control someaspects of movement in all vertebrates. Although these networks have been extensively studied,lack of proper methods to study them on a system level has hindered the process ofunderstanding what they do and how they do it. In order to facilitate this process I have usedcomputational models as an approach that can faithfully take into account many aspects of ahigh dimensional multi faceted system.In order to minimize the complexity of the system, I first took agnathan fish and amphibians asmodeling animals. These animals have rather simple neuronal networks and have been wellstudied so that developing their biologically plausible models is more feasible. I developedmodels of sensory motor transformation centers that are capable of ...
Many studies have implicated the basal ganglia in the suppression of action impulses ("stopping"). Here we discuss recent neurophysiological evidence that distinct hypothesized processes involved in action preparation and cancellation can be mapped onto distinct basal ganglia cell types and pathways. We examine how movement-related activity in the striatum is related to a "Go" process and how going may be modulated by brief epochs of beta oscillations. We then describe how, rather than a unitary "Stop" process, there appear to be separate, complementary "Pause" and "Cancel" mechanisms. We discuss the implications of these stopping subprocesses for the interpretation of the stop-signal reaction time - in particular, some activity that seems too slow to causally contribute to stopping when assuming a single Stop processes may actually be fast enough under a Pause-then-Cancel model. Finally, we suggest that combining complementary neural mechanisms that emphasize speed or accuracy respectively may ...
The basal ganglia plays a role in a number of functions in the brain, including involuntary motor control and some cognitive functions. The exact function of the basal ganglia is something that is...
Its easy to see why solo projects from already prolific musicians like Mestis exist. Guitarist Javier Reyes is already actively involved in projects that receive great fanfare in Animals as Leaders and T.R.A.M., but he has seldom held the spotlight to himself thus far in his career. Reyes is unfortunately an underrated and understated musician who has up until this point stood in the shadow of double-bandmate Tosin Abasi; no matter what output Animals as Leaders makes, many fans will unfairly assume it was because of sole founding member Abasis guitar wizardry. It may or may not be the intended case, but Mestis debut release Basal Ganglia could be seen as Reyes attempt at breaking away from this mentality and showing the world that he is just as creative and talented in his own right.. So with Mestis, we finally discover what Reyes is all about as he makes a name for himself as not just a guitarist, but as a composer. Basal Ganglia does sound a bit like one would expect out of Reyes given ...
The aim of my research is to gain a better understanding of the striatal gating mechanisms by means of detailed computational modeling and experimental measurements in organotypic triple cultures (cortex, striatum, and substantia nigra). The striatum is the main input stage of the basal ganglia system, which makes it interesting to study. (Click here for an introduction to the basal ganglia system ...
Presynaptic inhibition should give rise to a computationally powerful mechanism for pattern classification. Beiser & Houk (1998) found that, since the equilibrium potential for postsynaptic GABAergic inhibition (ECl in figure 3b) is between the down- and up-state of spiny neurons, this mechanism for mediating competition between neighbouring spiny neurons is quite sensitive to spontaneous membrane potential and to model parameters. It performed better than feed-forward inhibition, but it was not optimal. Presynaptic inhibition has no equilibrium potential-it just reduces the synaptic input regardless of the membrane potential of the spiny neuron (figure 3b). This presynaptic advantage reflects a qualitative principled effect that should be robust to parameter selection.. We modelled a minimal network of recurrent loops from cortex through basal ganglia and back to cortex that encodes the serial order of two visual cues, A and B (figure 4). The reader is also referred to the implementation ...
Bacigaluppi, M., Russo, G. L., Peruzzotti-Jametti, L., Rossi, S., Sandrone, S., Butti, E., . . . Martino, G. (2016). Neural Stem Cell Transplantation Induces Stroke Recovery by Upregulating Glutamate Transporter GLT-1 in Astrocytes. The Journal of Neuroscience, 36(41), 10529.. Beck, M. H., Haumesser, J. K., Kühn, J., Altschüler, J., Kühn, A. A., & van Riesen, C. (2016). Short- and long-term dopamine depletion causes enhanced beta oscillations in the cortico-basal ganglia loop of parkinsonian rats. Experimental Neurology, 286, 124-136. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.expneurol.2016.10.005.. Huang, C.-W., Chen, Y.-W., Lin, Y.-R., Chen, P.-H., Chou, M.-H., Lee, L.-J., . . . Chen, S.-L. (2016). Conditional Knockout of Breast Carcinoma Amplified Sequence 2 (BCAS2) in Mouse Forebrain Causes Dendritic Malformation via β-catenin. Scientific Reports, 6, 34927. doi: 10.1038/srep34927. Sack, M., Lenz, J. N., Jakovcevski, M., Biedermann, S. V., Falfán-Melgoza, C., Deussing, J., . . . Auer, M. K. ...
Fundamentally, the principal connections made by the extrapyramidal system are via closed circuits that receive input from the cerebral cortex and project reciprocally back to the cerebral cortex (figure 25). When considering the motor functions of the extrapyramidal system, the greatest input arises from the premotor cortex. This portion of the cortex is most involved in planning, patterning and initiating movements. The circuit passes through several nuclei in the system, each of which is involved in processing. There are two described pathways for transmission of signals through the basal ganglia, a direct and an indirect pathway (figure 25). These pathways have competing effects on movement and there is often thought to be a balance between these systems that is involved in establishing and regulating tone. In both the direct and indirect pathways, the caudate and putamen represent the first synapse in the system. These nuclei receive afferent nerve fibers from virtually all portions of the ...
The Basal ganglia is a nuclei in the brain of the central nervous system which coordinates motor control and is involved in learning. It is composed of the caudate, putamen, globuspallidus, subthalamus, and the substantia nigra. ...
Mental dysfunctions in dystonia-plus syndromes.: With the increasing understanding of the involvement of basal ganglia circuits in the functions of movement, co
This is the home page of the laboratory of basal ganglia research at the medical faculty of the Hebrew university in Jerusalem, directed by Prof. Hagai Bergman.
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lenticular nucleus definition: a basal ganglion shaped like a lens and like the external reddish putamen and the internal pale yellow pallidum
But this brain circuit has a vulnerability: It depends on dopamine. When the production of dopamine is interrupted, as it is with Parkinsons, the signals passing through the basal ganglia are garbled, and it ends up giving poor advice. Corrupted signals pass to other brain regions such as the thalamus (which relays sensory and motor data) and the cortex (which is responsible for many higher functions such as language and consciousness). These bad signals disrupt communication between the brain and the muscles. This is one reason people with Parkinsons have trouble picking up small objects and moving around fluently: Their motions are too hesitant, too small, too slow, too rigid, too shaky, too feeble and badly timed. These are symptoms of a brain in conflict with itself ...
Thanks a lot for the hint. Now we believe Ganglia is using the new config file, but the sampling rate is still 15 seconds. Maybe I will ask to the Ganglia team for this. Regards Fabio On Mon, Mar 2, 2015 at 7:23 PM, Yusaku Sako ,[email protected], wrote: , Hi Fabio, , , Since Ambari manages these files, you need to make modifications to , corresponding files , under /var/lib/ambari-server/resources/stacks/HDP/2.0.6/services/GANGLIA on , the Ambari Server instead of /etc/ganglia, /usr/lib/exec/hdp/ganglia, etc. , Once you modify appropriate files, you need to do "ambari-server restart" , to let the Ambari Server reload these changes. Then you go to Ambari Web , UI and restart Ganglia to push the files out to the nodes. , The same procedure can be applied for other services that you might want , to customize. , , I hope this helps. , , Yusaku , , From: "Fabio C." ,[email protected], , Reply-To: "[email protected]" ,[email protected], , Date: Sunday, March 1, 2015 10:41 PM , To: ...
Lerchner et al write a review in Nature Neuroscience of an article by Atallah et al. in the same issue which shows clear evidence that learning a new skill and expressing it are two separate steps that can be dissociated. From the articles abstract: "It is widely accepted that the striatum of the basal ganglia is a primary substrate for the learning and performance of skills. We provide evidence that two regions of the rat striatum, ventral and dorsal, play distinct roles in instrumental conditioning (skill learning), with the ventral striatum being critical for learning and the dorsal striatum being important for performance but, notably, not for learning. This implies an actor (dorsal) versus director (ventral) division of labor, which is a new variant of the widely discussed actor-critic architecture. Our results also imply that the successful performance of a skill can ultimately result in its establishment as a habit outside the basal ganglia ...
summary flags for urethane LFO experiemnts do_raster = 0; do_means = 1; do_trace = 0; do_isi = 0; do_bursts = 1; do_spectra = 1; do_coherence = 0; do_xcorr_intra = 0; do_xcorr_inter = 0; do_total_xcorr_stats = 0; % compute confidence intervals for total xcorr - can take a long time if firing rates are high do_acorr = 1; do_spike_trig_avg = 1; save_full_analysis = 1; save_summary_analysis = 0; do_display = 0 ...
Find yourself protecting turf? See others stuck in ruts, cling to stubborn opinions or demanding boring routines? If so, youre likely looking at the brains default to its basal ganglia. Think of the basal ganglia as a mental warehouse of sorts, where every action, both good and bad, sit ready… Read more ». ...
The frontal cortex is wired to handle novelty and the basal ganglia wired to handle routine, when we live in a world of constant novelty, is our gut reaction to oppose everything?
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The Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA) syndrome was firstly introduced in 1982. Recently, the primary progressive aphasias were classified into three clinical variants; non fluent/agrammatic, semantic and logopenic.
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We present a model of two BGTC loops which exploits this inter-loop connectivity to integrate several types of information required for the production of goal directed action sequences. An associative loop comprising prefrontal cortex (PFC) and its corresponding regions of BG receives information regarding the current goal. By integrating this with stored knowledge of a relevant goal directed action sequence, the loop forms a unique, self-sustaining representation of the temporal task context which indicates the current stage in the ongoing task. A lower motor loop is responsible for action selection based on affordance information regarding the objects in the environment available to it. Processing in this loop is influenced by the contextual representation in PFC via corticostriatal connectivity linking the two loops. Under reinforcement learning, these projections adopt the appropriate connectivity to successfully bias contextually appropriate action selection in the motor loop. Changes ...
Introduction. Hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage is a common critical disease in the neurosurgerical field and even may threaten patients life. The large hematoma with the significant mass effect is generally treated with surgery and the small ones with the conservative modality. The risk of basal ganglia hemorrhage increases in patients with hypertension. However, a proportion of patients with BGH have underlying vascular abnormalities, and these patients may require a different treatment approach1. However, it is still inconclusive on the treatment modality and timing for hemorrhage in the critical volume (between 25ml to 35ml) with no definite operative indications. Patients with such hematoma in multiple hospitals were observed for their prognosis, quality of life, hematoma-eliminating time, hospital stays and costs from October 2004 to May 2009 and compared using the random and control method.. Methods. A total of 595 patients with hematoma between 25 to 35ml in volume (380 males and 215 ...
The substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) plays a key role in basal ganglia function. Projections from multiple basal ganglia nuclei converge at the SNr to regulate nigrothalamic output. The SNr is also characterized by abundant aminergic input, including dopaminergic dendrites and axons containing 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) or histamine (HA). The functions of HA in the SNr include motor control via HA H3 receptors (H3Rs), although the mechanism remains far from elucidated. In Parkinsons disease, there is an increase in H3Rs and the density of HA-immunoreactive axons in the SN. We explored the role of H3Rs in the regulation of 5-HT release in SNr using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry at carbon-fiber microelectrodes in rat midbrain slices. Immunohistochemistry identified a similar distribution for histaminergic and serotonergic processes in the SNr: immunoreactive varicosities were observed in the vicinity of dopaminergic dendrites. Electrically evoked 5-HT release was dependent on extracellular Ca2+ and
Not long ago, a team of researchers led by DMRF Stanley Fahn Award Recipient William Dauer, MD, Associate Professor of Neurology at University of Michigan, published a remarkable study linking dystonia symptoms in mice to a loss of neurons in certain brain structures and abnormalities in a cellular protein called TorsinA. This is a departure from the widespread observation that isolated (primary) dystonia is not characterized by structural changes in the brain. In the continuation of this work, researchers have made further discoveries regarding the origins of dystonia in the nervous system.. Dystonia symptoms originate in part from problems in an area of the brain called the striatum (part of the basal ganglia). The striatum is made up of different types of neurons, but it remains unclear which of these are susceptible to degeneration in dystonia.. The investigators discovered that deleting the gene for TorsinA from certain neurons in mice (including in the striatum) causes abnormal twisting ...
Although neurochemical and behavioral changes associated with near-total losses of DA in striatum have been well characterized, little is known about the long-term consequences on basal ganglia function of the partial monoamine loss associated with METH-induced neurotoxicity. The present data show that 3 weeks after administration of a neurotoxic regimen of METH, SP mRNA in striatum was decreased and CO activity in the EPN and the SNr was increased. However, ENK mRNA in the striatum and neuronal activity in the GP and STN were unaltered. These data suggest that such exposure to METH results in a selective decrease in striatonigral pathway function.. Numerous studies indicate that the DA innervation of striatum is compromised following administration of high doses of METH (Hotchkiss and Gibb, 1980; Wagner et al., 1980). In the present study, dose-dependent decreases in DA tissue content and TH immunoreactivity in striatum were seen 3 weeks after administration of multiple doses of METH. At ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of linearly polarized near-infrared irradiation near the stellate ganglion region on pain and heart rate variability in patients with neuropathic pain. AU - Liao, Chun De. AU - Rau, Chi Lun. AU - Liou, Tsan Hon. AU - Tsauo, Jau Yih. AU - Lin, Li Fong. PY - 2017. Y1 - 2017. N2 - Background. Neuropathic pain associated with sympathetic overactivity can be effectively relieved by light irradiating the region near stellate ganglion (SGI), applied as an alternative to a conventional sympathetic blockade. The clinical effect of SGI on heart rate variability (HRV) and its association with pain outcomes require investigation. Objective. This study attempted to identify the effects of SGI on pain outcomes and HRV indices and to determine the association between pain and HRV outcomes. Design. A prospective double-blind, randomized study. Setting. An outpatient pain medicine clinic. Subjects and Methods. A total of 44 patients were enrolled and randomized into the experimental group ...
A progressive neurodegenerative condition of the central and autonomic nervous systems characterized by atrophy of the preganglionic lateral horn neurons of the thoracic spinal cord. This disease is generally considered a clinical variant of MULTIPLE SYSTEM ATROPHY. Affected individuals present in the fifth or sixth decade with ORTHOSTASIS and bladder dysfunction; and later develop FECAL INCONTINENCE; anhidrosis; ATAXIA; IMPOTENCE; and alterations of tone suggestive of basal ganglia dysfunction. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p536 ...
It is only 30 years ago since primary focal dystonias (PFD) such as blepharospasm and spasmodic torticollis, previously considered manifestations of psychiatric disease, were firmly reclassified as neurological disorders originating from basal ganglia dysfunction.1 Following this conceptual change, psychiatric comorbidity in patients with PFD was explained as resulting from the experience of pain and disfigurement. More recently, another conceptual change, this time in the opposite direction, has been brought about by the increased awareness of the important role of corticostriatal circuits in generating psychiatric symptoms and by the availability of well controlled studies of patients with PFD. Thus the psychiatric and … ...
Neurophysiological studies have identified a number of brain regions critically involved in solving the problem of action selection or decision making. In the case of highly practiced tasks, these regions include cortical areas hypothesized to integrate evidence supporting alternative actions and the basal ganglia, hypothesized to act as a central switch in gating behavioral requests. However, despite our relatively detailed knowledge of basal ganglia biology and its connectivity with the cortex and numerical simulation studies demonstrating selective function, no formal theoretical framework exists that supplies an algorithmic description of these circuits. This article shows how many aspects of the anatomy and physiology of the circuit involving the cortex and basal ganglia are exactly those required to implement the computation defined by an asymptotically optimal statistical test for decision making: the multihypothesis sequential probability ratio test (MSPRT). The resulting model of basal ...
These data highlight two essential principles that may help realize the functional potential of striatal transplants. First, it was demonstrated that distinct response deficits were alleviated only if grafted animals received extensive postoperative training. Second, comparisons of different postoperative training regimes revealed that only specific training on the impaired contralateral side conferred functional benefit. Together, these results suggest that graft maturation and integration is insufficient by itself to mediate recovery on this task unless specific, extensive training subsequently is undertaken. Furthermore, this recovery would appear to be mediated by the restoration of basal ganglia circuitry, as permitted by the striatal graft.. A comparison of animals that were either (i) initially retrained on the contralateral side or (ii) tested only on the contralateral side once they had received extensive training on the ipsilateral side highlighted the degree of training specificity ...
Previous literature showed several etiologies result in Klüver-Bucy syndrome. The most common involved region is the bilateral mesial temporal lo..
The brain enables animals to behaviorally adapt in order to survive in a complex and dynamic environment, but how reward-oriented behaviors are achieved and computed by its underlying neural circuitry is an open question. To address this concern, we have developed a spiking model of the basal ganglia (BG) that learns to dis-inhibit the action leading to a reward despite ongoing changes in the reward schedule. The architecture of the network features the two pathways commonly described in BG, the direct (denoted D1) and the indirect (denoted D2) pathway, as well as a loop involving striatum and the dopaminergic system. The activity of these dopaminergic neurons conveys the reward prediction error (RPE), which determines the magnitude of synaptic plasticity within the different pathways. All plastic connections implement a versatile four-factor learning rule derived from Bayesian inference that depends upon pre- and post-synaptic activity, receptor type, and dopamine level. Synaptic weight updates ...
Neuromodulation refers to invasive, minimally invasive or non-invasive techniques to stimulate discrete cortical or subcortical brain regions with therapeutic purposes in otherwise intractable patients: for example, thousands of advanced Parkinsonian patients, as well as patients with tremor or dystonia, benefited by deep brain stimulation (DBS) procedures (neural targets: basal ganglia nuclei). A new era for DBS is currently opening for patients with drug-resistant depression, obsessive-compulsive disorders, severe epilepsy, migraine and chronic pain (neural targets: basal ganglia and other subcortical nuclei or associative fibres). Vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) has shown clinical benefits in patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy and depression. Non-invasive brain stimulation neuromodulatory techniques such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are also being increasingly investigated for their therapeutic potential in ...
Central nervous system involvement in hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)-a retrospective analysis of cerebral CT and MRI studies. Theobald I, Kuwertz-Broking E, Schiborr M, Heindel W. Clinical Nephrolology 2001;56(6):S3-8.. ABSTRACT:. Cerebral involvement is one of the major complications of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). According to the literature, basal ganglia involvement in HUS is common and quite often associated with other cerebral pathologies. To evaluate the morphological changes of cerebral involvement in children with HUS utilizing CT and MRI studies, this study retrospectively analyzed 13 cranial CTs (CCT) and three cranial MRI studies of five of 93 patients with clinically proven HUS and severe central nervous system (CNS) involvement (seizures and coma and dysregulation of breathing) referred to the department of pediatric nephrology between 1987-2000. Three of five patients had CT and MRI studies; two patients had CT scans only. One of two patients with isolated basal ganglia ...
Decreased inhibition and aberrant plasticity are key features in the pathophysiology of dystonia. Impaired short interval cortical inhibition and resultant increased excitability has been described for various forms of dystonia using paired pulse methods with transcranial magnetic stimulation of motor cortex. It is hypothesized that, in addition to cortical abnormalities, impairments in basal ganglia function may lead to dystonia but a deficit of inhibition within the basal ganglia has not been demonstrated to date.
Over the past 25 years the amount of data pertaining to the GABAergic function in the basal ganglia has increased dramatically. GABA and the Basal Ganglia - From Molecules to Systems is a comprehensive review of the current state-of-the-art of knowledge about the neuroanatomy, neuropharmacology and neurophysiology of the basal ganglia, focusing on its GABAergic microcircuitry. It serves as a complete reference to the body of knowledge about the basal ganglia, its constituent neurons, and their interconnections. This volume is designed to serve as a convenient all-in-one review and reference for experienced basal ganglia researchers as well as an introduction to the functional organization of the basal ganglia and its GABAergic circuitry for students and researchers new to the field. * Reviews the anatomy, physiology and pharmacology of the basal ganglia itself in addition to focusing on the GABAergic circuitry of the basal ganglia * Authors of each chapter leading internationally acclaimed ...
About Parkinsons disease Parkinsons disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease of the basal ganglia region of the brain, with tremor, rigidity and difficulty initiating movement being the most common symptoms. The condition is associated with a deficiency of the chemical dopamine in the brain. It is estimated that four million people worldwide have Parkinsons disease and there is currently no effective cure. The worldwide market for Parkinsons disease treatments is currently worth approximately US$2.5 billion, and is dominated by drugs that manage the symptoms of the disease, primarily by raising the level of dopamine in the brain. These drugs do not stop the progression of the disease, however, and are poorly tolerated in many patients. About Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinsons Research The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinsons Research is a US-based organisation dedicated to ensuring the development of a cure for Parkinsons disease within this decade through an ...
Currently there existed no specific diagnostic test of Parkinsons Disease. Accurate diagnosis is of great interest because of the reduction in health cost and disease co-morbidity, improvement in effective treatment course and avoidance of un-necessary intervention. Our preliminary result showed superior performance from diffusion kurtosis imaging, a new development in MRI since 2007, on the diagnosis of Parkinsons Disease when compared to conventional diffusion MRI. The study proposes to validate the diagnostic value of diffusion kurtosis in major basal ganglia regions using a cross-sectional study and to assess the prognostic value through 3-year longitudinal follow-up. Furthermore, the iron content as well as global white matter involvement in both PD and PD plus syndrome patients will be assessed. The difference in MRI information between PD and PD plus syndrome patients will then be addressed in a comprehensive manner.. One hundred and twelve patients with Parkinsons Disease will be ...
Our understanding of the physiology of the basal ganglia and deep brain stimulation (DBS) has evolved and has been shaped by decades of studies of the basal ganglia in experimental animal models and...
Manganese deposition in basal ganglia structures results from both portal-systemic shunting and liver dysfunction. If you have diabetes and peripheral neuropathy, its critical that you carefully control your blood sugar levels. Prevalence of diabetic complications in relation to risk factors. This supports the exclusion of a femoral neuropathy and lumbar plexopathy or radiculopathy. Some neurological disorders requiring rehabilitative intervention can show mthfr small fiber neuropathy pain resistant to common analgesic treatment.
The caudate nucleus is one of three basic structures that make up the basal ganglia. Along with the putamen and globus pallidus, as well in conjunction with the thalamus and two related structures (the substantia nigra and subthalamic nucleus), the caudate nucleus constitutes a system that is responsible largely for voluntary movement. While this system has long been associated with motor processes due primarily to the basal ganglias role in Parkinsons disease, there is mounting evidence that the structures that make up the basal ganglia-the caudate nucleus included-play important roles in various other nonmotor functions as well. Organizationally, the interplay between the basal ganglia and various regions in the brain is best described as a series of cortico-striatal loops, in which the striatum receives axons from the cortex (along with the putamen, the caudate nuclei are the main input regions for the basal ganglia), processes the information, then relays this back to distinct cortical ...
In fundamental and pathological perspectives, our team studies the functional organization and dynamics of the basal ganglia network. For this purpose, it is necessary to characterize: (1) input processing, i.e. how cortical information are selected and integrated in this network, (2) trans-nuclei processing, i.e. how information is relayed toward the basal ganglia output structures to trigger an appropriate behavior and finally (3) the modulation, i.e. how this integration is sculpted by the main neuromodulatory systems, dopaminergic and cholinergic systems, which encode for reward and motivation and how it is altered in pathological conditions. For this purpose, we are using a set of high-performance techniques combining in vitro (multi-patch-clamp in brain slices) and in vivo (intra- and extracellular recordings) electrophysiology, single-cell RT-PCR, neurochemistry and genetic engineering. We are currently setting-up in vitro and in vivo two-photon microscopy, optogenetic and multi-channels ...
Basaria S, Jasuja R, Huang G, Wharton W, Pan H, Pencina K, Li Z, Travison T, Bhawan J, Gonthier R, Labrie F, Dury A, Serra C, Papazian A, Leary M, Amr S, Storer T, Stern E*, Bhasin S*. Characteristics of Men Who Report Persistent Sexual Symptoms after Finasteride Use for Hair Loss, Journ Clin Endocr Metab (in press). *shared Senior Authors. Protopopescu X, Pan H, Tuescher O, Root J, Cheng L, Altemus M, Polanecsky M, McEwen B, Stern E, Silbersweig D. Toward a functional neuroanatomy of premenstrual dysphoric disorder: differential amygdalar, orbitofrontal and ventral striatal activity. J Affective Disorders, 108: 87-94, 2008.. Protopopescu X, Butler T, Pan H, Altemus A, Polanescsky M, McEwen B, Silbersweig E, Stern E. Hippocampal structural changes across the menstrual cycle. Hippocampus, 18:985-8, 2008.. Butler T, Imperato-McGinley j, Pan H, Voyer D, Cunningham-Bussel AC, Chang L, Zhu Y-S, Cordero J, Stern E, Silbersweig D. Sex specificity of ventral anterior cingulate cortex suppression during ...
This paper develops a new closed-loop firing rate regulation strategy for a population of neurons in the subthalamic nucleus, derived using a model-based analysis of the basal ganglia. The system is d
The basal ganglia (BG) are a central component of the brain, crucial to the initiation, execution and learning of adaptive actions. The BG are the major site of the action of dopamine. An important aspect of the BG architecture is the existence of two paths, direct and indirect, having different projection targets and dopamine receptor expression. To understand the BG, dopamine, and related disorders, it is imperative to understand the two paths. The standard account used in neuroscience research for decades posits that the role of the direct path is to support movements, while that of the indirect path is to suppress unselected or completed movements. This account is contradicted by converging evidence. Here, we explain why the arguments supporting the standard account are flawed, and present a new account, in which the role of the indirect path is completely opposite: to support automated execution. During acute events, the direct path allows coarse responses. These are refined by competition, and the
On the other hand, basal ganglia location is normally attributed to a possible hypertensive etiology. This was unlikely in our series because only one patient had this condition before injury, whereas both patients with hematoma in the basal ganglia in the Baratham series had high blood pressure.. Posttraumatic hemorrhage located in basal ganglia with discrete neurological signs and complete recovery has occasionally been described in relatively young patients. The underlying mechanism proposed for these cases would be rupture of the choroid anterior or lenticulostriate artery caused by violent acceleration-deceleration.10 On the basis of the cases described in the literature, prognosis is generally poor. Curiously, prognosis is similar in both the pre-CT and post-CT eras.11 In our series, prognosis was good in both the short and long terms. Six patients showed no residual neurological deficit, and one patient had sequelae consisting of epileptic seizures. Two patients had a minimum deficit. One ...
U. Riordian. South Carolina State University.. They are named the transverse gyri of the cortical tissue of the dorsolateral surface buy cheap propecia 5 mg on line, including Heschl (as was also shown in the previous illustration), the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital cortex (dis- the auditory gyri, areas 41 and 42 (see Figure 60). Other small The lateral fissure forms a complete separation branches to the internal capsule and basal ganglia are between this part of the temporal lobe and the frontal and given off within the lateral fissure (discussed with Figure parietal lobes above. Cortical representation of sensory systems reflects the CLINICAL ASPECT particular sensation (modality). The auditory gyri are Since the auditory system has a bilateral pathway to the organized according to pitch, giving rise to the term tono- cortex, a lesion of the auditory pathway or cortex on one topic localization. This is similar to the representation of side will not lead to a total loss of ...
Dear all, Ive recently installed Hadoop 2.2.0 with Ganglia on a small cluster. I would like to get information about the progress of the application, such as running mappers/reducers/tasks, pending mappers/reducers/tasks. Checking the following file, Ive noticed that there are some interesting variables that could help me: hadoop-mapreduce-project/hadoop-mapreduce-client/hadoop-mapreduce-client-core/src/main/java/org/apache/hadoop/mapreduce/ClusterMetrics.java However, variables such as runningMaps and runningReduces dont seem to be available from Ganglia. Is it possible to get these variables from Hadoop 2.2.0? Or only 1.x? Any help is very welcome. Thanks in advance, Marco ------ Here is my hadoop-metrics2.properties which I believe may not be 100% correct --- *.sink.ganglia.class=org.apache.hadoop.metrics2.sink.ganglia.GangliaSink31 *.sink.ganglia.period=10 *.sink.ganglia.supportsparse=true tasktracker.sink.ganglia.class=org.apache.hadoop.metrics2.sink.ganglia.GangliaSink31 ...
to the plugin configuration. If no ID is specified, Logstash will generate one. It is strongly recommended to set this ID in your configuration. This is particularly useful when you have two or more plugins of the same type. For example, if you have 2 ganglia outputs. Adding a named ID in this case will help in monitoring Logstash when using the monitoring APIs. ...
Synonyms for cephalic ganglion in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for cephalic ganglion. 5 words related to ganglion: autonomic ganglion, nervous system, systema nervosum, neural structure, basal ganglion. What are synonyms for cephalic ganglion?
If a bone spur is suspected, x-rays may be needed. Fluid removal (needle aspiration) may be done to help determine the degree of swelling and to decrease pain. To confirm a ganglion, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be done, which reveals images of soft tissue and bone. Sometimes, special dyes may be injected into the area to show the outcome of a ganglion. Fluid withdrawn from the ganglion may reveal the severity of the swelling and decrease pain.. ...
Part Of: Neuroeconomics sequence Content Summary: 8min reading time, 800 words Reward Prediction Error An efficient way to learn about the world and its effect on the organism is by utilizing a reward prediction error (RPE) signal, defined as: $latex \Delta_t = \left[ r_t(A) + \gamma \sum P(s|s)V_{t+1}(s) \right] - V_t(s)$ The RPE is derived from the Bellman equation, and…
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Principal Investigator:SANO Hiromi, Project Period (FY):2008 - 2010, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (B), Research Field:Neurophysiology and muscle physiology
The rapid implementation of new techniques for imaging the central nervous system is one of the most impressive developments to have taken place in clinical neuroscience in the last decade. Not only...
There is no doubt that pain is one of the most important systems for survival. Even though we all feel pain, surprisingly little is known about pain mechanisms. Indeed, there are many outstanding fundamental questions in pain research, such as where acute pain is encoded in the brain, how pain competes with other processes. To further complicate matters, chronic pain is very different from acute or experimental pain. Read more. ...
After becoming irradiated, Ryan underwent two dramatic changes, he began to manifest stigmata and he acquired some immense mental powers. The first stigmata that he underwent was the development of a crown of thorns which were actually crystalline blood serum pushing out through his pores. A sort of crystalline ganglia grew about his skull.. He later developed similar crystalline ganglia on his hands and feet. The crystalline blood serum from his skull ganglia he called bloodthorns, the ones from his hands and feet were ruby nails. These blood crystals were unique in that they stimulated the Curie Factor in everyone who internalized them in any anyway. In addition to this they also had an effect on the frontal lobes placing anyone who ingested them in a highly suggestible state. There is some evidence that Ryans vast mental powers unconsciously manipulated the mutagenic changes concurrent with a stimulated Curie Factor. This is why so many bizarre freaks resulted from the ingestion of his ...
SNIP* , but part of this class is also setting up monitoring and benchmarking tools , and tests to get overall proformance and what not of my cluster... Check out MRTG and Ganglia on the net for monitoring. I know that MRTG is avalible as a RedHat package that can be installed from distros install CDs, but it is probably best to get it in source code and configure it to meet your needs. Ganglia is powerful, it is used by a lot of clusters running ROCKs. , And setting up and running some parrallel Applications ... Im very interested in , getting more into clusters so was wondering if anyone has any tools or scripts , or anything i can setup and test on my fedora warewulf setup just to get , experience Also i really need some computational or Sim type apps or any type , of cluster parrallel application i can play with to get the hang of them so i , can move on to makeing my own applications this would be a HUGE help Hot topics that are using clusters include astronomical models, biology (human ...
BACKGROUND: Symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been described in neuropsychiatric syndromes associated with streptococcal infections. It is proposed that antibodies raised against streptococcal proteins cross-react with neuronal proteins (antigens) in the brain, particularly in the basal ganglia, which is a brain region implicated in OCD pathogenesis. AIMS: To test the hypothesis that post-streptococcal autoimmunity, directed against neuronal antigens, may contribute to the pathogenesis of OCD in adults. METHOD: Ninety-six participants with OCD were tested for the presence of anti-streptolysin-O titres (ASOT) and the presence of anti-basal ganglia antibodies (ABGA) in a cross-sectional study. The ABGA were tested for with western blots using three recombinant antigens; aldolase C, enolase and pyruvate kinase. The findings were compared with those in a control group of individuals with depression (n = 33) and schizophrenia (n = 17). RESULTS: Positivity for ABGA was observed in 19/96 (19
As part of the basal ganglia circuitry, these anatomic locations play a critical role in the control of movement. The effects of stimulating these brain regions are indicated in the Table. Thalamic (Vim) stimulation is only effective for tremor, not for the other symptoms of Parkinsons disease. Stimulation of the globus pallidus or subthalamic nucleus, in contrast, may benefit not only tremor but also other parkinsonian symptoms such as rigidity, bradykinesia, dyskinesias, and gait problems. For most patients with Parkinsons disease, DBS of the globus pallidus or subthalamic nucleus are more appropriate choices than thalamic DBS because stimulation at these targets affects a broader range of symptoms. A recent studycompared the outcomes of 300 patients who were randomized to deep brain stimulation of either the globus pallidus interna or subthalamic nucleus (Follett et al 2010). Two years after surgery, there was no clear advantage to either location. Patients undergoing subthalamic ...
A syndrome complex composed of three conditions which represent clinical variants of the same disease process: STRIATONIGRAL DEGENERATION; SHY-DRAGER SYNDROME; and the sporadic form of OLIVOPONTOCEREBELLAR ATROPHIES. Clinical features include autonomic, cerebellar, and basal ganglia dysfunction. Pathologic examination reveals atrophy of the basal ganglia, cerebellum, pons, and medulla, with prominent loss of autonomic neurons in the brain stem and spinal cord (MeSH).. ...
Two major neurological disorders - Parkinsons disease and dystonia - are believed to involve pathology in the activity of the basal ganglia, a subcortical brain structure, whose output nuclei (internal Globus Pallidus, GPi) projects to thalamus and modulates thalamocortical relay. While these disorders may ultimately involve different network and cellular pathologies, some pathological physiology may be shared between them because surgical treatment of both conditions includes surgical lesion or electrical stimulation to GPi (pallidotomy and GPi DBS). This work compares the thalamocortical relay responses to inhibitory inputs from internal segment of GPi in Parkinsons disease and in dystonia. ...
MR spectroscopy-based brain metabolite profiling in propionic acidaemia: metabolic changes in the basal ganglia during acute decompensation and effect of liver transplantation : Propionic acidaemia (PA) results from deficiency of Propionyl CoA carboxylase, the commonest form presenting in the neonatal period. Despite best current management, PA is associated with severe neurological sequelae, in particular movement disorders resulting from basal ganglia infarction, although the pathogenesis remains poorly understood. The role of liver transplantation remains
Neuropathological features of corticobasal degeneration presenting as corticobasal syndrome or Richardson syndrome. Kouri, Naomi; Murray, Melissa E.; Hassan, Anhar; Rademakers, Rosa; Uitti, Ryan J.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Wszolek, Zbigniew K.; Litvan, Irene; Josephs, Keith A.; Dickson, Dennis W. // Brain: A Journal of Neurology;Nov2011, Vol. 134 Issue 11, p3264 Patients with corticobasal degeneration can present with several different clinical syndromes, making ante-mortem diagnosis a challenge. Corticobasal syndrome is the clinical phenotype originally described for corticobasal degeneration, characterized by asymmetric rigidity and apraxia, cortical... ...
We studied a 70-year-old woman with a unique combination of hyperkinesia and mutism. These findings differed from akinetic mutism because there was continuous bilateral ballism and dystonia--hence the term hyperkinetic mutism. CT demonstrated bilateral calcifications in the basal ganglia, and MRI indicated bilateral watershed infarcts. Different dopaminergic mechanisms may underlie the hyperkinesia and mutism.
Dopamine and the excitatory amino acids play important roles in the control of motor behavior by the basal ganglia; elucidating the manner in which these transmitter systems interact may provide new therapeutic approaches to the treatment of movement disorders such as Parkinsons disease. The 2-deoxyglucose autoradiographic technique was used to examine the effect of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor blockade on regional cerebral metabolic responses to D1 and D2 dopamine receptor stimulation in rats with a unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of the nigrostriatal pathway. The D1 agonist SKF 38393 (5 mg/kg, i.v.) increased glucose utilization markedly in entopeduncular nucleus and substantia nigra pars reticulata ipsilateral to the lesion, while the D2 agonist quinpirole (1 mg/kg, i.v.) had no effect in these striatal output regions. SKF 38393 and quinpirole reduced 2-deoxyglucose uptake to a similar extent in the lateral habenula, a region which receives afferent input from entopeduncular nucleus; quinpirole

migraine/TIA/basal ganglion hemorrhage/leg pain - Neurology - MedHelpmigraine/TIA/basal ganglion hemorrhage/leg pain - Neurology - MedHelp

Re: migraine/TIA/basal ganglion hemorrhage/leg pain CCF Neuro[P] MD, RPS 5/01/1999 (2) migraine/TIA/basal ganglion hemorrhage/ ... migraine/TIA/basal ganglion hemorrhage/leg pain kd__0__0 Posted By kd on April 30, 1999 at 09:40:03 Hi. Thanks for this ... Re: migraine/TIA/basal ganglion hemorrhage/leg pain CCF Neuro[P] MD, RPS 5/02/1999 (0) ... 4. My father recently had what is diagnosed as a hemorrhagic basal ganglion stroke caused by high blood pressure. He is 76. He ...
more infohttps://www.medhelp.org/posts/Neurology/migraine-TIA-basal-ganglion-hemorrhage-leg-pain/show/905022

Synchronization in basal ganglia disease: Evidence on speech perception and tapping :: MPG.PuReSynchronization in basal ganglia disease: Evidence on speech perception and tapping :: MPG.PuRe

Synchronization in basal ganglia disease: Evidence on speech perception and tapping ... Synchronization in basal ganglia disease: Evidence on speech perception and tapping Schwartze, M., & Kotz, S. A. (2008). ... Synchronization in basal ganglia disease: Evidence on speech perception and tapping. Talk presented at International PhD ...
more infohttps://pure.mpg.de/pubman/faces/ViewItemFullPage.jsp?itemId=item_726718

THE SYNDROME OF ACUTE BILATERAL BASAL GANGLIA DYSFUNCTION IN DIALYSIS PATIENTS - RISK FACTORS, PRESENTATION AND OUTCOMES | 54th...THE SYNDROME OF ACUTE BILATERAL BASAL GANGLIA DYSFUNCTION IN DIALYSIS PATIENTS - RISK FACTORS, PRESENTATION AND OUTCOMES | 54th...

The major finding on CT and MRI brain imaging was bilateral hypodensity of the basal ganglia. Autopsy in one patient was ... The bilateral basal ganglia syndrome can present with either chorea or Parkinsonism, manifest specific radiological findings ... Aim: To characterise the features of acute bilateral basal ganglia dysfunction in dialysis patients and identify possible risk ... THE SYNDROME OF ACUTE BILATERAL BASAL GANGLIA DYSFUNCTION IN DIALYSIS PATIENTS - RISK FACTORS, PRESENTATION AND OUTCOMES ...
more infohttp://www.anzsnasm.com/3007

Progressive supranuclear palsy: Pathology and genetics<...Progressive supranuclear palsy: Pathology and genetics<...

Microscopic findings include neuronal loss, gliosis and neurofibrillary tangles in basal ganglia, diencephalon and brainstem. ... Microscopic findings include neuronal loss, gliosis and neurofibrillary tangles in basal ganglia, diencephalon and brainstem. ... Microscopic findings include neuronal loss, gliosis and neurofibrillary tangles in basal ganglia, diencephalon and brainstem. ... Microscopic findings include neuronal loss, gliosis and neurofibrillary tangles in basal ganglia, diencephalon and brainstem. ...
more infohttps://mayoclinic.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/progressive-supranuclear-palsy-pathology-and-genetics

Sydenhams Chorea - SafeSpotSydenham's Chorea - SafeSpot

It affects cells in parts of a childs brain called the basal ganglia. These are a collection of brain cells located deep ...
more infohttp://safespot.org.uk/safespotopedia/sydenhams-chorea/

Basal ganglia dysfunction: MedlinePlus Medical EncyclopediaBasal ganglia dysfunction: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia

Basal ganglia dysfunction is a problem with the deep brain structures that help start and control movement. ... Basal ganglia disorders. In: Umphred DA, Burton GU, Lazaro RT, Roller ML, eds. Umphreds Neurological Renabilitation. 6th ed. ... Damage to the basal ganglia cells may cause problems controlling speech, movement, and posture. This combination of symptoms is ... A person with basal ganglia dysfunction may have difficulty starting, stopping, or sustaining movement. Depending on which area ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001069.htm

basal ganglia - Everything2.combasal ganglia - Everything2.com

Located on either side of the thalamus, the basal gan... ... The main parts of the basal ganglia are the caudate nucleus, ... Damage to the basal ganglia produces severe deficits in motor ability, but the neuronal activation in the basal ganglia ... The connections between the basal ganglia and the substantia nigra suggest that the basal ganglia may play a role in the plan ... Much of the output of the basal ganglia is directed at the primary motor cortex, and the motor nuclei of the brain stem. It is ...
more infohttps://everything2.com/title/basal+ganglia

Basal ganglia - ConservapediaBasal ganglia - Conservapedia

The Basal ganglia is a nuclei in the brain of the central nervous system which coordinates motor control and is involved in ... Retrieved from "http://www.conservapedia.com/index.php?title=Basal_ganglia&oldid=731649" ...
more infohttp://www.conservapedia.com/Basal_ganglia

Chapter 8C: The Basal GangliaChapter 8C: The Basal Ganglia

Chapter 8C - The Basal Ganglia. Anatomy. The extrapyramidal system consists of a series of functionally related nuclei in the ... The basal ganglia represent the largest component, and include the caudate, putamen and globus pallidus. The pars reticulata ... Most of the output from the basal ganglia goes through the thalamus to the cerebral cortex, effecting movement by influencing ... Many neurons in the basal ganglia begin to show activity before movement actually takes place. These have been termed "getting ...
more infohttps://www.dartmouth.edu/~rswenson/NeuroSci/chapter_8C.html

Urban Dictionary: basal gangliaUrban Dictionary: basal ganglia

basal gangliaunknown. The act of dangling one's testicles within close quarters of another peer's face while they ... That fucker Brandon fell asleep with his shoes on last night, so I basal ganglianed that nigga. ...
more infohttps://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=basal+ganglia

basal ganglia | Journal of Neurosciencebasal ganglia | Journal of Neuroscience

Sensorimotor Processing in the Basal Ganglia Leads to Transient Beta Oscillations during Behavior Amin Mirzaei, Arvind Kumar, ... Ventral Medial Thalamic Nucleus Promotes Synchronization of Increased High Beta Oscillatory Activity in the Basal Ganglia- ...
more infohttp://www.jneurosci.org/keyword/basal-ganglia

Basal GangliaBasal Ganglia

The Publisher has decided to discontinue the journal Basal Ganglia. Published content will remain available on ScienceDirect. ... Oscillatory activity in basal ganglia and motor cortex in an awake behaving rodent model of Parkinsons disease Claire ... Oscillatory activity in basal ganglia and motor cortex in an awake behaving rodent model of Parkinsons disease Claire ... Authors who look to publish the field of basal ganglia research related topics of movement disorders (e.g. Parkinsons Disease ...
more infohttps://www.journals.elsevier.com/basal-ganglia

basal gangliabasal ganglia

A definition of the medical term "basal ganglia" is presented. Basal Ganglia refer to four masses of gray matter located deep ...
more infohttp://connection.ebscohost.com/c/reference-entries/21220815/basal-ganglia

The Basal Ganglia III | Giorgio Bernardi | SpringerThe Basal Ganglia III | Giorgio Bernardi | Springer

This volume represents the collected papers presented at the Third Triennial Symposium of the International Basal Ganglia ... The Basal Ganglia III. Editors: Bernardi, G., Carpenter, M.B., Di Chiara, G., Morelli, M., Stanzione, P. (Eds.) ... The 80 papers collected here reflect the wide spectrum and the depth of studies on virtually all aspects of the basal ganglia. ... This volume represents the collected papers presented at the Third Triennial Symposium of the International Basal Ganglia ...
more infohttps://www.springer.com/us/book/9781468458732?wt_mc=

The Basal Ganglia | SpringerLinkThe Basal Ganglia | SpringerLink

This text presents the contemporary understanding of the basal ganglia. In a groundbreaking synthesis, diverse research ... basal ganglia and cognition basal ganglia and learning basal ganglia and motor functions direct and indirect pathways of basal ... Cerebellar-basal ganglia, cortical striatal, and cognitive motor interactions. * Role of the basal ganglia in associative ... from leading basal ganglia researchers altogether relate the neural architecture and functional circuitry of the basal ganglia ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-3-319-42743-0

Basal Ganglia - ScholarpediaBasal Ganglia - Scholarpedia

The basal ganglia can select: The macro-architecture of the basal ganglia appears to be configured for selection ( Figure 6). ... What are the normal functions of basal ganglia circuitry? Two recurring themes in basal ganglia literature point to their ... Figure 4: Cortical and subcortical sensorimotor loops through the basal ganglia. A. For cortico-basal ganglia loops the ... structure of the basal ganglia since its major connections are with other basal ganglia nuclei. Thus, it receives inhibitory ...
more infohttp://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Striatum

Basal Ganglia - ScholarpediaBasal Ganglia - Scholarpedia

The basal ganglia can select: The macro-architecture of the basal ganglia appears to be configured for selection ( Figure 6). ... What are the normal functions of basal ganglia circuitry? Two recurring themes in basal ganglia literature point to their ... Figure 4: Cortical and subcortical sensorimotor loops through the basal ganglia. A. For cortico-basal ganglia loops the ... structure of the basal ganglia since its major connections are with other basal ganglia nuclei. Thus, it receives inhibitory ...
more infohttp://scholarpedia.org/article/Ventral_tegmental_area

What does the basal ganglia do? | Reference.comWhat does the basal ganglia do? | Reference.com

The exact function of the basal ganglia is something that is... ... The basal ganglia plays a role in a number of functions in the ... Due to the basal ganglia being connected to the cerebral cortex, thalamus and brainstem, the area is found to play a part in ... What is the basal lamina?. A: The basal lamina is an extracellular matrix that is also known as the "basement membrane." It is ... The basal ganglia plays a role in a number of functions in the brain, including involuntary motor control and some cognitive ...
more infohttps://www.reference.com/science/basal-ganglia-1529166c141b0cef

Basal Ganglia and Learning :: DNA Learning CenterBasal Ganglia and Learning :: DNA Learning Center

Basal Ganglia. The basal ganglia comprise a group of structures that regulate the initiation of movements, balance, eye ... the basal ganglia were thought to be mainly involved with aspects of motor control. "Patients with damage to the basal ganglia ... Basal Ganglia - Primary Functions. Professor Trevor Robbins discusses the function of a set of structures called the basal ... The basal ganglia, a group of interconnected brain areas located deep in the cerebral cortex, have proved to be at work in ...
more infohttps://www.dnalc.org/view/833-Basal-Ganglia-and-Learning.html

Basal Ganglia Disorders Causes & Treatments - Common AilmentsBasal Ganglia Disorders Causes & Treatments - Common Ailments

To treat basal ganglion disorder; physiotherapy, speech therapy and occupational therapy are also used. ... Basal ganglia disease cure is done with medicines and surgery. ... Basal Ganglia Disorders Causes and Treatments. Posted in ... Basal ganglia disorders also cause disruptions in initiating and continuing movements. This may be visible in patients as ... Treatment of basal ganglia disorders involve the administration of medications that help in controlling the symptoms. Sometimes ...
more infohttp://www.home-remedies-for-you.com/blog/basal-ganglia-disorders.html

Basal ganglia beta oscillations accompany cue utilization.  - PubMed - NCBIBasal ganglia beta oscillations accompany cue utilization. - PubMed - NCBI

Basal ganglia beta oscillations accompany cue utilization.. Leventhal DK1, Gage GJ, Schmidt R, Pettibone JR, Case AC, Berke JD. ... Beta oscillations in cortical-basal ganglia (BG) circuits have been implicated in normal movement suppression and motor ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22325204?dopt=Abstract

Vibrissal basal ganglia circuits - ScholarpediaVibrissal basal ganglia circuits - Scholarpedia

... the vibrissal basal ganglia circuit is a subcomponent of the sensorimotor channel in the basal ganglia network. As such, it ... In: J C Houk, J L Davis and D G Beiser (Eds.), Models of Information Processing in the Basal Ganglia (pp. 29-50). Cambridge: ... "Vibrissal basal ganglia circuits" by Kevin Alloway is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike ... Vibrissal basal ganglia connections. The vibrissal circuit extends across the same set of interconnected nuclei as in other ...
more infohttp://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Vibrissal_basal_ganglia_circuits

Basal Ganglia News | SciTechDailyBasal Ganglia News | SciTechDaily

Home Basal Ganglia News. Basal Ganglia. Biology March 7, 2012 Hearing Loss Rapidly Changes Motor Areas that Control Song It ...
more infohttps://scitechdaily.com/tag/basal-ganglia/

Medical Xpress - basal gangliaMedical Xpress - basal ganglia

Striosome neurons in the basal ganglia play a key role in learning. A pleasant surprise or a nasty shock is likely to be a ...
more infohttps://medicalxpress.com/tags/basal+ganglia/
  • 4. My father recently had what is diagnosed as a hemorrhagic basal ganglion stroke caused by high blood pressure. (medhelp.org)
  • Contributions to the volume from leading basal ganglia researchers altogether relate the neural architecture and functional circuitry of the basal ganglia, its interactions with other major systems of the brain, its neurotransmitter and signaling mechanisms, its role in multiple cognitive and behavioral domains and in various neurocognitive, neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders. (springer.com)
  • Given the complex circuitry of the basal ganglia, research has suggested that they also are a coordination system. (dnalc.org)
  • Since the nucleic structure of the basal ganglia are thought to be involved in emotional functioning, disorders in this area can cause emotional and personality abnormalities such as paranoia, depression or abnormal behavior. (home-remedies-for-you.com)
  • The "behavior switching" that takes place within the basal ganglia is influenced by signals from many parts of the brain, including the prefrontal cortex , which is widely believed to play a key role in executive functions . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Basal ganglia disfunction is also implicated in some other disorders of behavior control such as Tourette's syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder , although the neural mechanisms underlying these are not well understood. (thefullwiki.org)
  • In addition to their role in control of movement and posture, it now appears that the basal ganglia also play a more complex (cognitive) aspects of behavior and may be involved in limbic functions. (cerebromente.org.br)
  • Of course, this machinery is inordinately intricate and complex, The more a behavior is ingrained, the more its neural representations in the basal ganglia are strengthened and honed. (dana.org)
  • The "behavior switching" that takes place within the basal ganglia is influenced by signals from many parts of the brain, including the prefrontal cortex, which plays a key role in executive functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two described pathways for transmission of signals through the basal ganglia, a direct and an indirect pathway ( figure 25 ). (dartmouth.edu)
  • The area has a number of pathways that loop not only through the basal ganglia, but also through the prefrontal association cortex and the limbic cortex. (reference.com)
  • The connections between the basal ganglia and the substantia nigra suggest that the basal ganglia may play a role in the plan ning and initiation of self-triggered (i.e. voluntary ) movement. (everything2.com)
  • Extrinsic Outputs from the basal ganglia arise mainly from the globus paliidus and substantia nigra pars reticula TO: 1. (scribd.com)
  • Although the vibrissal circuits in the basal ganglia are poorly understood, many findings support the view that these circuits are involved in regulating the movements of the head, neck, and whiskers during a wide range of behaviors. (scholarpedia.org)
  • But neuroscience is shedding light on how circuits linking two parts of the brain, the basal ganglia and the frontal cortex, contribute to learning both productive and counterproductive behaviors, and even to some neurological disorders. (dana.org)
  • New research shows that the basal ganglia can be modeled as a group of components of parallel, reentrant cortico-subcortical circuits, which originate in cortical areas, traverse the basal ganglia and terminate in specific areas in the frontal lobe. (wikipedia.org)
  • Understanding these circuits has led to breakthroughs in understanding the disorders of the basal ganglia. (wikipedia.org)
  • New research is showing how the basal ganglia, deep inside the brain below the cortex, are important in learning from feedback, in the formation of good and bad habits, and even in brain disorders as diverse as Parkinson's disease, ADHD, and addiction. (dana.org)
  • In turn, the basal ganglia affect activity in the frontal cortex through a series of neural projections that ultimately go back up to the same cortical areas from which they received the initial input. (dana.org)
  • This circuit enables the basal ganglia to transform and amplify the pattern of neural firing in the frontal cortex that is associated with adaptive, or appropriate, behaviors, while suppressing those that are less adaptive. (dana.org)
  • The basal ganglia have a limbic sector whose components are assigned distinct names: the nucleus accumbens (NA), ventral pallidum, and ventral tegmental area (VTA). (thefullwiki.org)
  • In more specific terms, the basal ganglia's primary function is likely to control and regulate activities of the motor and premotor cortical areas so that voluntary movements can be performed smoothly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although no one found gross physical lesions in people with obsessive-compulsive disorder or schizophrenia, often the basal ganglia were implicated by abnormal metabolic activity in the region," says Ann Graybiel, a leading researcher in the function of basal ganglia at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. (dnalc.org)
  • Dysfunctions of the Basal Ganglia : Abnormal movements are commonly caused by a release of the system from inhibition. (scribd.com)
  • reasons for abnormal increases or decreases of basal ganglia output are poorly understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basal ganglia plays a role in a number of functions in the brain, including involuntary motor control and some cognitive functions. (reference.com)
  • Along with the assistance that the basal ganglia gives to the body's movements, it also plays a factor in a number of cognitive processes. (reference.com)
  • It is clear that the basal ganglia play an important role in motor control, but that role is not well understood . (everything2.com)
  • Reflexes deserve respect, writes the author, and understanding how people differ in learning from positive or negative feedback may have implications for education as well as for treating diseases in which the basal ganglia's systems go awry. (dana.org)
  • Patients with damage to the basal ganglia often have deficits in movement," says Michael Frank, a neuroscientist at the University of Arizona. (dnalc.org)
  • Damage to the basal ganglia produces severe deficit s in motor ability, but the neuron al activation in the basal ganglia indicates that they do not specfically direct the muscular movements, nor are they involved in stimulus-triggered movement . (everything2.com)
  • Basal ganglia disorders also cause disruptions in initiating and continuing movements. (home-remedies-for-you.com)
  • The basal ganglia are associated with a variety of functions including: control of voluntary motor movements, procedural learning, routine behaviors or "habits" such as teeth grinding, eye movements, cognition, and emotion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the basal ganglia process tactile information produced by passive whisker stimulation, scientific interest in using the whisker system to understand the functional mechanisms of the basal ganglia has focused on the active whisking system of rats and mice. (scholarpedia.org)
  • GABA and its associated benzodiazepine interactions play an important role in basal ganglia function. (umich.edu)
  • Play media The basal ganglia form a fundamental component of the cerebrum. (wikipedia.org)
  • In species such as rats and mice, the vibrissal basal ganglia circuit is a subcomponent of the sensorimotor channel in the basal ganglia network. (scholarpedia.org)