Basal Bodies: Structures which form the base of FLAGELLA and CILIA. They contain nine triplets of MICROTUBULES that are arranged around the periphery and that serve as the nucleation center for AXONEME assembly.Cilia: Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Centrioles: Self-replicating, short, fibrous, rod-shaped organelles. Each centriole is a short cylinder containing nine pairs of peripheral microtubules, arranged so as to form the wall of the cylinder.Flagella: A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Tetrahymena thermophila: A species of ciliate protozoa used in genetic and cytological research.Organoids: An organization of cells into an organ-like structure. Organoids can be generated in culture. They are also found in certain neoplasms.Paramecium: A genus of ciliate protozoa that is often large enough to be seen by the naked eye. Paramecia are commonly used in genetic, cytological, and other research.Chlamydomonas: A genus GREEN ALGAE in the order VOLVOCIDA. It consists of solitary biflagellated organisms common in fresh water and damp soil.Axoneme: A bundle of MICROTUBULES and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS forming the core of each CILIUM or FLAGELLUM. In most eukaryotic cilia or flagella, an axoneme shaft has 20 microtubules arranged in nine doublets and two singlets.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Ciliophora: A phylum of EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of cilia at some time during the life cycle. It comprises three classes: KINETOFRAGMINOPHOREA; OLIGOHYMENOPHOREA; and POLYMENOPHOREA.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Naegleria: A free-living soil amoeba pathogenic to humans and animals. It occurs also in water and sewage. The most commonly found species in man is NAEGLERIA FOWLERI which is the pathogen for primary amebic meningoencephalitis in primates.Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: A species of GREEN ALGAE. Delicate, hairlike appendages arise from the flagellar surface in these organisms.Tetrahymena pyriformis: A species of ciliate protozoa used extensively in genetic research.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Centrosome: The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).Algal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of algae.Tetrahymena: A genus of ciliate protozoa commonly used in genetic, cytological, and other research.Ciliary Motility Disorders: Conditions caused by abnormal CILIA movement in the body, usually causing KARTAGENER SYNDROME, chronic respiratory disorders, chronic SINUSITIS, and chronic OTITIS. Abnormal ciliary beating is likely due to defects in any of the 200 plus ciliary proteins, such as missing motor enzyme DYNEIN arms.Electron Microscope Tomography: A tomographic technique for obtaining 3-dimensional images with transmission electron microscopy.Hypermastigia: A class of endosymbiont EUKARYOTES, in the group PARABASALIDEA, that are obligate mutualists in the digestive tracts of wood-eating insects. Hypermastigotes produce CELLULASE that breaks down the cellulose in wood so that insects can metabolize it.Kidney Diseases, Cystic: A heterogeneous group of hereditary and acquired disorders in which the KIDNEY contains one or more CYSTS unilaterally or bilaterally (KIDNEY, CYSTIC).Trypanosoma brucei brucei: A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).Photoreceptor Connecting Cilium: The bridge between the inner and the outer segments of a retinal rod or a cone photoreceptor cell. Through it, proteins synthesized in the inner segment are transported to the outer segment.Bardet-Biedl Syndrome: An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; POLYDACTYLY; OBESITY; MENTAL RETARDATION; hypogenitalism; renal dysplasia; and short stature. This syndrome has been distinguished as a separate entity from LAURENCE-MOON SYNDROME. (From J Med Genet 1997 Feb;34(2):92-8)Vibrio alginolyticus: A species of gram-negative, halophilic bacteria, in the genus VIBRIO. It is considered part of normal marine flora and commonly associated with ear infections and superficial wounds exposed to contaminated water sources.Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Ovulation Detection: Method to determine the occurrence of OVULATION by direct or indirect means. Indirect methods examine the effects of PROGESTERONE on cervical mucus (CERVIX MUCUS), or basal body temperature. Direct ovulation detection, generally used in fertility treatment, involves analyses of circulating hormones in blood and ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Polycystic Kidney Diseases: Hereditary diseases that are characterized by the progressive expansion of a large number of tightly packed CYSTS within the KIDNEYS. They include diseases with autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance.Chlorophyta: A phylum of photosynthetic EUKARYOTA bearing double membrane-bound plastids containing chlorophyll a and b. They comprise the classical green algae, and represent over 7000 species that live in a variety of primarily aquatic habitats. Only about ten percent are marine species, most live in freshwater.Phosphotungstic Acid: Tungsten hydroxide oxide phosphate. A white or slightly yellowish-green, slightly efflorescent crystal or crystalline powder. It is used as a reagent for alkaloids and many other nitrogen bases, for phenols, albumin, peptone, amino acids, uric acid, urea, blood, and carbohydrates. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Orofaciodigital Syndromes: Two syndromes of oral, facial, and digital malformations. Type I (Papillon-Leage and Psaume syndrome, Gorlin-Psaume syndrome) is inherited as an X-linked dominant trait and is found only in females and XXY males. Type II (Mohr syndrome) is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait.Encephalocele: Brain tissue herniation through a congenital or acquired defect in the skull. The majority of congenital encephaloceles occur in the occipital or frontal regions. Clinical features include a protuberant mass that may be pulsatile. The quantity and location of protruding neural tissue determines the type and degree of neurologic deficit. Visual defects, psychomotor developmental delay, and persistent motor deficits frequently occur.DNA, Kinetoplast: DNA of kinetoplasts which are specialized MITOCHONDRIA of trypanosomes and related parasitic protozoa within the order KINETOPLASTIDA. Kinetoplast DNA consists of a complex network of numerous catenated rings of two classes; the first being a large number of small DNA duplex rings, called minicircles, approximately 2000 base pairs in length, and the second being several dozen much larger rings, called maxicircles, approximately 37 kb in length.Cell Biology: The study of the structure, behavior, growth, reproduction, and pathology of cells; and the function and chemistry of cellular components.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Ependyma: A thin membrane that lines the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES and the central canal of the SPINAL CORD.Genes, Protozoan: The functional hereditary units of protozoa.Retinal Photoreceptor Cell Inner Segment: The inner portion of a retinal rod or a cone photoreceptor cell, situated between the PHOTORECEPTOR CONNECTING CILIUM and the synapse with the adjacent neurons (RETINAL BIPOLAR CELLS; RETINAL HORIZONTAL CELLS). The inner segment contains the cell body, the nucleus, the mitochondria, and apparatus for protein synthesis.Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Sperm Tail: The posterior filiform portion of the spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) that provides sperm motility.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Beluga Whale: The species Delphinapterus leucas, in the family Monodontidae, found primarily in the Arctic Ocean and adjoining seas. They are small WHALES lacking a dorsal fin.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Microtubule Proteins: Proteins found in the microtubules.Oviducts: Ducts that serve exclusively for the passage of eggs from the ovaries to the exterior of the body. In non-mammals, they are termed oviducts. In mammals, they are highly specialized and known as FALLOPIAN TUBES.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Marsileaceae: A plant family of the order Hydropteridales, class Filicopsida, division PTERIDOPHYTA. They are aquatic ferns with quatrifoliate leaves resembling four leaf clover, creeping rhizome, and bean shaped sporocarps.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Flagellin: A protein with a molecular weight of 40,000 isolated from bacterial flagella. At appropriate pH and salt concentration, three flagellin monomers can spontaneously reaggregate to form structures which appear identical to intact flagella.Ciliophora Infections: Infections with protozoa of the phylum CILIOPHORA.Group II Chaperonins: A subcategory of chaperonins found in ARCHAEA and the CYTOSOL of eukaryotic cells. Group II chaperonins form a barrel-shaped macromolecular structure that is distinct from GROUP I CHAPERONINS in that it does not utilize a separate lid like structure to enclose proteins.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Osmium: Osmium. A very hard, gray, toxic, and nearly infusible metal element, atomic number 76, atomic weight 190.2, symbol Os. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching: A method used to study the lateral movement of MEMBRANE PROTEINS and LIPIDS. A small area of a cell membrane is bleached by laser light and the amount of time necessary for unbleached fluorescent marker-tagged proteins to diffuse back into the bleached site is a measurement of the cell membrane's fluidity. The diffusion coefficient of a protein or lipid in the membrane can be calculated from the data. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995).Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.Natural Family Planning Methods: A class of natural contraceptive methods in which SEXUAL ABSTINENCE is practiced a few days before and after the estimated day of ovulation, during the fertile phase. Methods for determining the fertile period or OVULATION DETECTION are based on various physiological indicators, such as circulating hormones, changes in cervical mucus (CERVIX MUCUS), and the basal body temperature.Opsins: Photosensitive proteins in the membranes of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS such as the rods and the cones. Opsins have varied light absorption properties and are members of the G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS family. Their ligands are VITAMIN A-based chromophores.Models, Structural: A representation, generally small in scale, to show the structure, construction, or appearance of something. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Gene Knockout Techniques: Techniques to alter a gene sequence that result in an inactivated gene, or one in which the expression can be inactivated at a chosen time during development to study the loss of function of a gene.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Microtubule-Organizing Center: An amorphous region of electron dense material in the cytoplasm from which the MICROTUBULES polymerization is nucleated. The pericentriolar region of the CENTROSOME which surrounds the CENTRIOLES is an example.Cerebellar Diseases: Diseases that affect the structure or function of the cerebellum. Cardinal manifestations of cerebellar dysfunction include dysmetria, GAIT ATAXIA, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.Spermatids: Male germ cells derived from the haploid secondary SPERMATOCYTES. Without further division, spermatids undergo structural changes and give rise to SPERMATOZOA.Cytokinesis: The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Kinesin: A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Perchlorates: Compounds that contain the Cl(=O)(=O)(=O)O- structure. Included under this heading is perchloric acid and the salts and ester forms of perchlorate.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.Microtomy: The technique of using a microtome to cut thin or ultrathin sections of tissues embedded in a supporting substance. The microtome is an instrument that hold a steel, glass or diamond knife in clamps at an angle to the blocks of prepared tissues, which it cuts in sections of equal thickness.Contractile Proteins: Proteins which participate in contractile processes. They include MUSCLE PROTEINS as well as those found in other cells and tissues. In the latter, these proteins participate in localized contractile events in the cytoplasm, in motile activity, and in cell aggregation phenomena.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Microscopy, Phase-Contrast: A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Shigella flexneri: A bacterium which is one of the etiologic agents of bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY) and sometimes of infantile gastroenteritis.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Molecular Motor Proteins: Proteins that are involved in or cause CELL MOVEMENT such as the rotary structures (flagellar motor) or the structures whose movement is directed along cytoskeletal filaments (MYOSIN; KINESIN; and DYNEIN motor families).Fallopian Tubes: A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Histological Techniques: Methods of preparing tissue for examination and study of the origin, structure, function, or pathology.Eye Abnormalities: Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the eye; may also be hereditary.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Myosin Type II: The subfamily of myosin proteins that are commonly found in muscle fibers. Myosin II is also involved a diverse array of cellular functions including cell division, transport within the GOLGI APPARATUS, and maintaining MICROVILLI structure.Wnt Signaling Pathway: A complex signaling pathway whose name is derived from the DROSOPHILA Wg gene, which when mutated results in the wingless phenotype, and the vertebrate INT gene, which is located near integration sites of MOUSE MAMMARY TUMOR VIRUS. The signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of WNT PROTEINS to cells surface WNT RECEPTORS which interact with the AXIN SIGNALING COMPLEX and an array of second messengers that influence the actions of BETA CATENIN.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Proteus: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, as well as in manure, soil, and polluted waters. Its species are pathogenic, causing urinary tract infections and are also considered secondary invaders, causing septic lesions at other sites of the body.Organogenesis: Formation of differentiated cells and complicated tissue organization to provide specialized functions.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Hedgehog Proteins: A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.Dyneins: A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Mouth: The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Pronase: A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Streptomyces griseus.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Spermatogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Suppression, Genetic: Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).Inclusion Bodies: A generic term for any circumscribed mass of foreign (e.g., lead or viruses) or metabolically inactive materials (e.g., ceroid or MALLORY BODIES), within the cytoplasm or nucleus of a cell. Inclusion bodies are in cells infected with certain filtrable viruses, observed especially in nerve, epithelial, or endothelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Interphase: The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).Xenopus Proteins: Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Nocodazole: Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins: Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Germ-Free Life: Animals not contaminated by or associated with any foreign organisms.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Respiratory Mucosa: The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Genes, Recessive: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesAntibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.PhosphoproteinsActins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).

Dlic1 deficiency impairs ciliogenesis of photoreceptors by destabilizing dynein. (1/5)

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epsilon-tubulin is essential in Tetrahymena thermophila for the assembly and stability of basal bodies. (2/5)

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Independent localization of plasma membrane and chloroplast components during eyespot assembly. (3/5)

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Two appendages homologous between basal bodies and centrioles are formed using distinct Odf2 domains. (4/5)

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Distinct roles of a mitogen-activated protein kinase in cytokinesis between different life cycle forms of Trypanosoma brucei. (5/5)

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*Basal body

The basal body differs from the mother centriole in at least 2 aspects. First, basal bodies have basal feet, which are anchored ... The basal body serves as a nucleation site for the growth of the axoneme microtubules. Centrioles, from which basal bodies are ... Basal Body Components Exhibit Differential Protein Dynamics during Nascent Basal Body Assembly. Mol Biol Cell. Feb 1; 20(3): ... the mother centriole differentiates into the basal body upon entry into G1 or quiescence. Thus, the basal body in such a cell ...

*Basal body temperature

... (BBT or BTP) is the lowest body temperature attained during rest (usually during sleep). It is usually ... Records of basal body temperature can be used to accurately determine if a woman is ovulating, and if the length of the post- ... Basal body temperature alone is most effective at preventing pregnancy if the couple abstains from intercourse from the ... There is limited evidence about the effectiveness of fertility awareness family planning methods, some of which use basal body ...

*Apicomplexa

Basal bodies are present. Although hemosporidians and piroplasmids have normal triplets of microtubules in their basal bodies, ... The sporozoites escape from the oocyst and migrate within the body of the vector to the salivary glands where they are injected ... The apical complex consists of a set of spirally arranged microtubules (the conoid), a secretory body (the rhoptry) and one or ... The fertilized macrogamete forms a zygote that in its turn forms an oocyst that is normally released from the body. Syzygy, ...

*Infertility in polycystic ovary syndrome

"Basal Body Temperature". Pacific Fertility Center. Retrieved 6 March 2015. Baird, D. T.; Balen, A.; Escobar-Morreale, H. F.; ... Basal body temperatures are not reliable for predicting ovulation. Management of infertility in polycystic ovary syndrome ... One of the best ways to regulate your body and possibly reverse PCOS is through exercise. Even small amounts have been shown to ... A reason that insulin sensitizers work in increasing fertility is that they lower total insulin levels in body as metabolic ...

*Flagellum

... where the axoneme and basal body meet) and the root system (microtubular or fibrilar structures which extends from the basal ... The basal body has several traits in common with some types of secretory pores, such as the hollow, rod-like "plug" in their ... Basal bodies are structurally identical to centrioles. The flagellum is encased within the cell's plasma membrane, so that the ... A shaft runs between the hook and the basal body, passing through protein rings in the cell's membrane that act as bearings. ...

*Cochlosoma

The sixth flagellum emerges from a basal body the dorsal side of the body, independent of the basal body complex of the other ... Fibrillar appendages arise from the basal bodies. An axostyle also originates near the anterior basal bodies, passes through ... A lateral groove develops along the side of the body from the disc. Six flagella of varying lengths arise from the anterior end ... A recurrent flagellum is attached to the cell body by an undulating membrane and is free at the posterior end. The undulating ...

*Trichonympha

"Cartwheel Architecture of Trichonympha Basal Body". Science. 337 (6094): 553. Bibcode:2012Sci...337..553G. doi:10.1126/science. ... which always occurs at the broad ends of their bodies.[citation needed] As beguiling as a relationship between a wood-eating ...

*Centriole

Beisson, J; Wright, M (2003). "Basal body/centriole assembly and continuity". Current Opinion in Cell Biology. 15 (1): 96-104. ... which becomes the basal body. An inability of cells to use centrioles to make functional cilia and flagella has been linked to ...

*Flagellate

These arise from a basal body. In some flagellates, flagella direct food into a cytostome or mouth, where food is ingested. ...

*Basal (medicine)

Basal body temperature Types of Insulin. ... Basal when used in a medical sense refers to a minimal level ... As used by diabetics and health care professionals, it describes a low, continuous dosage of insulin (either as a basal rate ...

*Tektin

... s are thought to be involved in the assembly of the basal body. The study of tektins has also been found to be useful in ... They are also present in centrioles and basal bodies. They are polymeric in nature, and form filaments. They include TEKT1, ... during spermatogenesis suggest that it is involved in the development of the sperm tail basal body and axoneme". Eur. J. Cell ...

*Fertility testing

Basal body temperature changes during the menstrual cycle. Higher levels of progesterone released during the menstrual cycle ... A fertility monitor may analyze changes in hormone levels in urine, basal body temperature, electrical resistance of saliva and ... causes an abrupt increase in basal body temperature by 0.5 °C to 1 °C at the time of ovulation. This enables identification of ... the appearance of pubic hair and changes to body fat distribution. The end of a woman's fertile years typically comes somewhat ...

*Tetraselmis

Golgi bodies lie between the chloroplast and the basal bodies; cis-Golgi face the chloroplast and trans-Golgi face the basal ... The Golgi of Tetraselmis species has a distinct number of Golgi bodies usually within the range of 2-4, but species can have up ... The theca of most species closely encloses the cell body, but can become separated due to irregularities in cell shape. Theca ... See figure 1 for general features of the flagella and cell body of Tetraselmis species. They have a single large chloroplast, ...

*Evolution of flagella

Hall JL, Ramanis Z, Luck DJ (October 1989). "Basal body/centriolar DNA: molecular genetic studies in Chlamydomonas". Cell. 59 ( ... and in many cases is the basal body from which the cilium grows. An apparent intermediate stage between spindle and cilium ... first in the various early-branching single-celled eukaryotes that have a microtubule basal body, where microtubules on one end ...

*Sphaeropleales

All of these taxa have basal body core connections. With an increase in the number of taxa for which sequence data are ...

*CCDC28B

The product of this gene localizes to centrosomes and basal bodies. It interacts and colocalizes with several proteins ...

*Acrocoelus

The flagellae arise from parallel basal bodies in a flagellar pocket. The single nucleus has a single nucleolus. The cell wall ...

*Naegleria gruberi

This "transformation" includes de novo synthesis of basal bodies (or centrioles). It was first characterized in 1899, and the ...

*Leishmania donovani

The kinetoplast and basal body lie towards the anterior end. Promastigote is formed in the alimentary tract of the sandfly. It ... The nucleus lies at the centre, and in front of which are kinetoplast and basal body. Leishmania donovani is a digenetic ... After reading Leishman paper, Donovan confirmed on 17 June that the parasites (by then known as "Leishman bodies") were ... He gave the popular name "Leishman-Donovan bodies", and subsequently the valid binomial Leishmania donovani, thereby equally ...

*Kinetoplast

... as the daughter basal body will also rotate around the mother basal body in a timing and manner similar to the rotation of the ... The flagellar basal body begins replication, as does the kinetoplast. The association of the replicating kinetoplast to the two ... A pro-kDNA kinetoplast is a bundle-like structure found in the mitochondrial matrix proximal to the flagellar basal body. In ... A kinetoplast is usually adjacent to the organism's flagellar basal body, suggesting that it is tightly bound to the ...

*Secretion

It is homologous to the basal body in bacterial flagella. It is like a molecular syringe through which a bacterium (e.g. ... release via exosomes derived from multivesicular bodies. In addition, proteins can be released from cells by mechanical or ...

*Leishmania

The kinetoplast and basal body lie towards the anterior end. The promastigote form is found in the alimentary tract of ... The nucleus lies at the centre, and in front of it are the kinetoplast and the basal body. The details of the evolution of this ... They independently visualised microscopic single-celled parasites (later called Leishman-Donovan bodies) living within the ... A long flagellum (about the body length) is projected externally at the anterior end. ...

*Fertility awareness

Records of basal body temperatures, especially, but also of cervical mucus and position, can be used to accurately determine if ... Systems of fertility awareness rely on observation of changes in one or more of the primary fertility signs (basal body ... Because irregular sleep can interfere with the accuracy of basal body temperatures, shift workers and those with very young ... Symptoms-based methods involve tracking one or more of the three primary fertility signs: basal body temperature, cervical ...

*Pelagomonas calceolata

Microtubular roots, striated roots and a second basal body are absent. A thin organic theca surrounds most of the cell. There ... A single Golgi body with swelled cisternae lies beneath the flagellum, and each cell has an ejectile organelle that putatively ...

*Eubacterium

A typical flagellum consists of a basal body, filament, and hook. The long filament is the organ which helps eubacteria move. ...

*Negrito

Basal P* is rare outside the Aeta and some other groups within Maritime Southeast Asia. Genetic research has shown that the ... scant body hair, and occasional steatopygia. The claim that the Andamanese more closely resemble African pygmies than other ...
The life cycle o f the African trypanosome is divided between the mammal and the tsetse. Those life cycle stages which traverse between these two hosts appear to be pre-adopted for survival in their new habitat They are also non-dividing. Here, Keith Matthews and Keith Gull discuss how and why trypanosomes might enmesh the control o f their cell cycle with their regulation o f the transition between different life cycle forms.
Altogether, the six tables of Chapters 2-7 list a grand total of 465 enzymes, each of which during its catalytic cycle forms a covalent bond with its substrate or some fragment of it. These long...
difference: plants are multicellular, diatoms are unicellular, plants reproduce by meiosis where as diatoms by cell division, most plants live on land where as diatoms strictly live in wet environment. plants are more complex and larger whereas diatoms are smaller (microscopic), there are out layer differences: plants have cell wall made of cellulose where as diatoms have cell wall made of silica, plants dont form colonies where as diatoms can form colonies, also there is chlorophyll (pigment) differences: plants usually have green chlorophyll whereas diatoms have yellow and brown pigments, some diatoms are capable of movement where as plants can move, and some diatoms are heterotrophic where as plants are strictly autotrophic. diatoms have different life cycles (alteration of generation), diatoms reproduce asexually by mitosis. diatoms fossilize when they die as rocks at the bottom of water, plants normally get eaten by decomposers. diatoms are more closely related to bacteria where as plants ...
Mitsuha and Taki are two total strangers living completely different lives. After a wish, they become connected through their dreams.
To begin to understand the function of each newly identified basal body component, we determined the ultrastructural localization using immunoelectron microscopy (see Immunoelectron microscopy section in Materials and methods). Detailed localization data provide critical clues for function, and this is the first study describing protein localization to basal body domains in combination with a basal body proteome. Basal bodies consist of a highly conserved structure built on a core of nine symmetrically arrayed triplet microtubules with peripheral components necessary for microtubule nucleation, basal body anchoring to the plasma membrane, polarity establishment, and protein docking. Distinct regions exist for which few functions are known (Fig. 3 D). Assembly of the nascent organelle in ciliates reveals several intermediate structures in basal body formation (Dippell, 1968; Allen, 1969; Cavalier-Smith, 1974). Localization of a component to an intermediate structure implies not only a role at a ...
A major problem with breast cancer is that it tends to metastasize to the skeleton. At the metabolically active area in bones, a vicious cycle forms between breast carcinoma cells, osteoblasts (OBs) and osteoclasts (OCs) which disrupts the functional dynamic balance and usually results in bone loss. The inflammatory response of OBs triggered by breast cancer cells significantly affects the local microenviroment. Some cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 are involved in OC activation and tumor progression. Therefore, it is important to understand the mechanism of induction of OB inflammatory cytokines by breast cancer cells in order to try to decrease the reaction.. In previous studies, we found that the key regulator of the inflammatory response of OBs is NF-κB. We also found that methylseleninic acid (MSA), an immediate precursor of methylselenol, (CH3SeH) is capable of inhibiting NF-κB activation and the downstream inflammatory responses. MSA is a commonly used organic selenium compound ...
Life Enhancement Products, an innovative manufacturer of nutritional supplements with unique formulations for memory enhancement, blood sugar maintenance, thyroid support, weight control, gastrointestinal support, and more.
Originally Posted by HiddenPaw I agree totally....a new envrionment can give you such incentive to lead a different life...maybe its because the lack
Energy is the currency of life, where a surplus allows survival and reproduction and a long-standing debt leads to death; yet monitoring of energy expenditures in free-living animals has been relatively limited by available technology. Radio transmitters that have been specially modified to detect heart rate, however, allow for real-time estimation of energy expense in free-living, behaving animals. Red crossbills live at northern latitudes year-round and breed opportunistically throughout much of the year. They therefore offer a unique opportunity to examine the eco-physiology of different life cycle stages under drastically variable seasonal conditions. Here we present heart rate data, corticosterone levels and behavioral ecology of free-living, non-breeding red crossbills in the summer and winter, as well as molting red crossbills in the autumn. We discuss these variables in the context of red crossbills unique opportunistic and nomadic annual schedules and the highly seasonal conditions of ...
NdFeB permanent magnets have different life cycles, depending on the applications: from as short as 2-3 years in consumer electronics to 20-30 years in wind turbines. The size of the magnets ranges...
Introduction. Food requirements during different life stages Babys 0 to 6 months In the first year of a babys life they will grow more than in any other year of their life, growing in length by 50 percent and weight by 300 percent. Breast milk commonly supplies a baby with the required amounts of nutrients, fluids and energy until about 6 months of age. Breast milk is preferred to formula as it contains many protective and immunological factors not found in formulas that benefit the babys growth and development. Solid foods should be introduced at approximately 6 months of age, but depending on cultural beliefs and/or practices may change this. Wheat based cereal should be the first solid to be introduced, to reduce the risk of allergy to wheat. Fruit and vegetables should be introduced after the cereals, these are important for vitamin and mineral content and to introduce different tastes and textures of foods. ...read more. Middle. Adolescents Proper nutrition during the adolescent years is ...
We conducted the present study based on our earlier findings that the stable nitroxide tempol when administered i.p. led to radioprotection of murine salivary glands. We have examined the effects of tempol dose, the route of tempol administration, and the timing of tempol administration in this model. In the previous study, the dose used (275 mg/kg tempol) was 75% of the LD50 when administered i.p. Thus, we initially preformed studies to examine the tempol dose dependence of salivary gland radioprotection. We found equivalent irradiation protection of salivary output after tempol doses of 275 and 137.5 mg/kg body weight. There was no significant protection at lower doses.. Next, we evaluated the significance of the time of tempol i.p. administration. Of the three timepoints tested, only administration 10 minutes before irradiation was effective in protecting salivary gland function. Neither administration 5 minutes before irradiation nor 10 minutes after irradiation was useful. We speculate that ...
Previous studies indicate that FAL VAC-1, a recombinant multistage and multicomponent Plasmodium falciparum candidate vaccine containing 12 B cell and 9 T cell epitopes from 9 different antigens of different life cycle stages is immunogenic in animal models and that FAL VAC-1-induced antibodies produced significant antiparasite activities against both sporozoite and blood stages of the parasite. In preparation for vaccine trials in humans, a community based cross-sectional study in a malaria holoendemic area of western Kenya was conducted during April-August 1999, to characterise in vitro natural humoral and cellular immune responses to this candidate vaccine and their association with clinical protection against malaria in young children , 2 years old (N= 180) and their non-pregnant mothers aged 15-48 years (N=139). FAL VAC-1 antigen was used in antibody measurement by ELISA and in lymphoproliferative experiments. Prevalence and level of antibodies were significantly higher in adults than in ...
When you live in a body that is broken by chronic disease, there are obviously physical challenges but the hardest part of me, living in a body that wont cooperate, is not the physical discomfort, its the emotional strain of knowing I am not the same as I was before sarcoidosis decided to invade my…
There was a time when I lived a different life. We were isolated from the world, living in our small space.Playing by the rules of this particular place and time. Where the smallest item, luxury, sample of information, each indulgence; became currency. Homesick, some of us just plain sick, we would retire to our bunks…. ...
He told reporters, "Im a bad guy sometimes. I did a lot of bad things, and I want to be forgiven. So in order for me to be forgiven, I hope they can forgive me. I wanna change my life, I wanna live a different life now. I wanna live my sober life. I dont wanna die. Im on the verge of dying, because Im a vicious alcoholic ...
Wild turkeys and farm-raised turkeys have very different lives. Wild turkeys can live up to 12 years, weigh about 18 pounds, and spend their days foraging for food. By contrast, a male turkey on a factory farm lives about 136 days, weighs 35 pounds and is anything but a free bird.
Sam Shepards True West is a black comedy that tells the story of Austin and Lee, two brothers leading vastly different lives who meet unexpectedly at their mothers home in suburban Los Angeles, and through a series of ...
I finally decided to start doing basal body temp. I know to start at the first day of my cycle. but only the lord knows when that is.Im at 80 some days now. so
Synonyms for basal body temperature method of family planning in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for basal body temperature method of family planning. 1 synonym for basal body temperature method of family planning: basal body temperature method. What are synonyms for basal body temperature method of family planning?
Definition of eyespot in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of eyespot. What does eyespot mean? Information and translations of eyespot in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
Multi-ciliary arrays promote fluid flow and cellular motility using the polarized and coordinated beating of hundreds of motile cilia. Tetrahymena basal bodies (BBs) nucleate and position cilia, whereby BB-associated striated fibers (SFs) promote BB anchorage and orientation into ciliary rows. Mutants that shorten SFs cause disoriented BBs. In contrast to the cytotaxis model, we show that disoriented BBs with short SFs can regain normal orientation if SF length is restored. In addition, SFs adopt unique lengths by their shrinkage and growth to establish and maintain BB connections and cortical interactions in a ciliary force-dependent mechanism. Tetrahymena SFs comprise at least eight uniquely localizing proteins belonging to the SF-assemblin family. Loss of different proteins that localize to the SF base disrupts either SF steady-state length or ciliary force-induced SF elongation. Thus, the dynamic regulation of SFs promotes BB connections and cortical interactions to organize ciliary arrays. ...
Theres a whiplash feeling that catches you like a lasso when youre living a very different life than the one you were prepared for. I have that at least weekly, still. I have realized that we each contain multitudes. That we arent just one person. But people who werent allowed to freely develop have more…
The Importance of Basal Body Temperature:. As you might be already aware, there are various methods to determine whether you are fertile. One among these is your basal body temperature charting. The method of basal body temperature charting would help determine when you are likely to ovulate. So, how to use this method? Lets see here now:. While using this method, you will be tracking your bodys basal temperature. In simple terms, the basal body temperature can be defined as the lowest temperature that the body would experience in a 24-hour period. In order to note down your basal body temperature, you need to take the readings when your body is completely idle. This is why its advisable to track the basal body temperature immediately after waking up from your sleep.. Its to be noted here that your basal body temperature will be more or less stable with just some minor fluctuations. While this is the case during all the days of a menstrual cycle, you would see a slight, as well as steady ...
Download 22 Basal Body Temperature Chart Stock Illustrations, Vectors & Clipart for FREE or amazingly low rates! New users enjoy 60% OFF. 71,519,315 stock photos online.
The Basal Body Temperature (BBT) method is the observation of a persons daily waking temperature using a Basal Body Thermometer to pinpoint ovulation.
In an earlier post about planning for pregnancy, knowing your ovulation cycle was mentioned as one of the must-do. http://chewingonit.wordpress.com/2009/07/06/pregnancy-should-be-planned/. Heres a link on how you should chart your basal body temperature.. I used Omron Basal Thermometer, which costs about $20 and are sold at most pharmacies.. ...
You can use these free BBT fertility charts to keep track of your daily fertility signs - Basal body temperature, cervical fluid, and other fertility indicators.
... is one of the best methods of improving fertility of couples, It is also used as a birth control and contraception method.
Wide-ranging research shows that highly religious people lead markedly different lives than others: they can expect to be happier and healthier and to have stronger marriages and families.
October 2013 Update: Happy 2 Year Anniversary!! Im amazed at how different life is two years later. Though the hardest thing Ive ever been through in my life, Ive grown so much as a result of having overcome such terrifying and daunting medical issues. In a weird way, Im better for having experienced these hardships. Im more sure of myself these days and more confident I can face lifes challenges better ...
October 2013 Update: Happy 2 Year Anniversary!! Im amazed at how different life is two years later. Though the hardest thing Ive ever been through in my life, Ive grown so much as a result of having overcome such terrifying and daunting medical issues. In a weird way, Im better for having experienced these hardships. Im more sure of myself these days and more confident I can face lifes challenges better ...
We administered a large online version of the belief update task which applied these changes to the task design. Specifically, participants were asked to report how likely they thought different life events - a mix of everyday pleasant and unpleasant life events - were to occur to them in the next month. They were then shown information about the actual likelihood of these events occurring and asked to re-estimate how likely they thought the events were to occur to them. The results revealed that belief updating - the extent to which participants changed their beliefs - was optimistically biased once again; individuals adjusted beliefs more after receiving good news than they did after getting bad news. Note that in this design, good news could either constitute learning that a pleasant event (e.g., being invited to a party) was more likely to occur, or that an unpleasant event (e.g., catching a cold) was less likely to occur. The opposite cases - learning that a pleasant event was less or that ...
Immigration and the global movement of people is currently a hot and controversial topic. In one of two fictional programmes looking at such issues, here we look at people who are uprooted out of choice, whether as part of a culture or to experience a different life to better themselves.. Film running order:. DISTANCE Cristian Perez Scigliano 22 mins. DÁNIEL Dean Loxton 14 mins. SWALLOWS Sofia Bost 14 mins. SILENT ROOMS Katarina Complova 24 mins. SNARE WVLFCVB 24 mins 98 mins ...
I wouldnt give it up for the world and thankfully I dont have to. I send my heartfelt thanks out to the men and women in the military, fighting to allow us the freedom we often take for granted. Without them and those who came before them, we would be living very different lives. Heres a military video, just for fun. :) ...
The eyespot of a euglena detects light, according to Biology Cabinet. It lies at the front end of the organism and appears as reddish or brownish...
There are many things you can do to prepare for a life line screening. The majority of these screenings require little or no preparation. Some screenings will involve many hours of fasting or require you to wear loose clothes. Here are different life line screenings and what you need to do to prepare for them.. Carotid Artery Disease(Stroke). To prepare for a carotid artery disease screening you will need to wear a shirt that opens at the collar and has short sleeves. Make sure that you are not wearing a turtleneck.. Atrial Fibrillation(Stroke). For an atrial fibrillation screening, you will need to wear a comfy two-piece outfit that consists of loose clothing. Make sure that you do not wear a watch, pantyhose, lotion, or oil. Make sure that you keep your cell phone is turned off.. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm. To prepare for an abdominal aortic aneurysm screening wear comfy, loose fitting clothes. Do not eat or drink anything for 4 hours before your screening. If you are on medication, make sure ...
After a month of charting, you should be able to connect the dots to see the outline of a curve formed by a series of low points prior to ovulation and a series of high points following ovulation. This pattern should help you determine a significant information about your cycle including when you ovulate, the length of your luteal cycle (important for implantation), and whether you have fertile-like cervical fluid prior to ovulation as outlined in TCOYF.. If your BBT chart is difficult to decipher, I highly recommend that you take your chart to an acupuncturist or other medical professional familiar with trouble-shooting basal body temperature charts. Our bodies do not perform like robots, therefore, it is normal to have temperatures that are outliers but still considered part of a normal pattern. Someone that has looked at hundreds or thousands of basal body temperature will help you determine whether something is abnormal and eliminate the guess work for you.. Next week, we will discuss the ...
Basal body temperature is the lowest temperature attained by the body during rest (usually during sleep). It is generally measured immediately after awakening and before any physical activity has been undertaken, although the temperature measured at that time is somewhat higher than the true basal body temperature. In
Definition: A membrane-tethered, short cylindrical array of microtubules and associated proteins found at the base of a cilium that is similar in structure to a centriole and derives from it. The cilium basal body is the site of assembly and remodelling of the cilium and serves as a nucleation site for axoneme growth ...
Dr. Ingram responded: Determines ovulation. Bbt is a cheap way to help determine possible |a href="/topics/ovulation" track_data="{
PLEASE NOTE: The information provided on this site is intended to serve only as a supplement to your resources and is in no way to be considered medical advice, medical diagnosis or treatment. Always check with your obstetrician, physician, midwife, or other health care provider before choosing to do or not do any course of action.. ___________________________________________________________. ...
Due to the excessive fibrous content of things like celery and cabbage it takes quite a lot of power for the physique to burn them and remodel them into vitality. You possibly can withh consuming ought to be pleasing and pleasurable and this busy consuming hypotyroidism issue is simply too boring a plan to bear. By: William Onedge Sep twelfth 2009 - There may be not a must go in the marketplace and spend 4 hundred. Hyoothyroidism low in calories and also full of loads of fiber. It is worthwhile to know whether or not or not or not you wish to eat additional vitality or eat a lot much less energy or for those who happen to occur to stomach is staying the same. The idea is that this causes an absence of communication between cells and has an hostile effect on the relocation of the GLUT receptors. Do you may have a giant event developing that it is advisable reduce weight for. Such a food regimen had at various levels very restricted content of carbohydrates. With completely different life come ...
So, a major basal body temperature dip this morning- along with some heavy brown/pink spotting- has me convinced that the new cycle is really anxious to start. So I guess I will just stop the progesterone, because Im going to start whether I am still taking it or not ...
Using Basal Body Thermometer and temp is 96.6 for almost all of the times I tested. I thought it is suppose to be above 97 or above. When I am
Basal Body Temperature Chart: Android app (50 downloads) → Easily track all information about your menstrual cycle (temperature, period). The app generates a basal body...
Ciliogenesis is defined as the building of the cells antenna (primary cilia) or extracellular fluid mediation mechanism (motile cilium). It includes the assembly and disassembly of the cilia during the cell cycle. Cilia are important organelles of cells and are involved in numerous activities such as cell signaling, processing developmental signals, and directing the flow of fluids such as mucus over and around cells. Due to the importance of these cell processes, defects in ciliogenesis can lead to numerous human diseases related to non-functioning cilia. Ciliogenesis may also play a role in the development of left/right handedness in humans. Ciliogenesis occurs through an ordered set of steps. First, the basal bodies from centrioles must migrate to the surface of the cell and attach to the cortex. Along the way, the basal bodies attach to membrane vesicles and the basal body/membrane vesicle complex fuses with the plasma membrane of the cell. Fusion with the plasma membrane is likely what ...
... , reviews & savings with price history and detailed price comparisons with other top Digital Thermometers.
1150 words I was alerted to a NEEPS (Northeastern Evolutionary Psychology Society) conference paper, and one of the short abstracts of a talk had a bit about nerds, jocks, and differing life history strategies. Surprisingly, the results did not line up with current stereotypes about life outcomes for the two groups. The Life History of…
When DArcy Wentworth Thompsons On Growth and Form was published 100 years ago, it raised the question of how biological forms arise during development and across evolution. In light of the advances in molecular and cellular biology since then, a succinct modern view of the question states: how do genes encode geometry? Our new special issue is packed with articles that use mathematical and physical approaches to gain insights into cell and tissue patterning, morphogenesis and dynamics, and that provide a physical framework to capture these processes operating across scales.. Read the Editorial by guest editors Thomas Lecuit and L. Mahadevan, as they provide a perspective on the influence of DArcy Thompsons work and an overview of the articles in this issue.. ...
I commented to someone recently that I consider Kreeds life is so much more important than my own. Why? Because I think he has far, far more to teach others than I do. From his capacity of love and kindness, to how to experience and live this life. Sure, our life can be HARD. No doubt about it. Kreed is home for life- he doesnt get to drive, go out with friends, live on his own or go to college or work independently. That makes life harder for us than most. Some people hate the lack of freedom they have to live their own life away from their adult child. It is a different life and can be incredibly stressful and hard. I get it, I do. But for some reason instead of focusing on all of that, most of the time I try to focus on what we can do for Kreed and for others like Kreed. How do I make his life easier? Better? Happier? Because it is all about happiness. I just feel like he didnt have a choice in this life either- he didnt choose to be this way. He didnt choose to not be able to talk. He ...
You might not like what I am about to say, which I do not even have the right to say. Everyone I seem to meet from the New England States - Connecticut, Vermont, New Hampshire, seem to be very snobbish (not that there is nothing wrong with that). It just seems like all you people care about is material things. Who has the better of this or the better of that. We grew up on two different sides of the road. To me material things mean nothing. We live two different lives you and I. You live the life of the Rich and Famous. You are very well off I am very happy for you. I am just a poor, broke, country boy. I have lived a life of crime and danger... ...
Eyespot apparatus: | | ||| | Schematic representation of a ||Euglena|| cell wi... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled.
The 2007-2013 ENPI CBC Mediterranean Sea Basin Programme is a multilateral Cross-Border Cooperation initiative funded by the European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument (ENPI). The Programme objective is to promote the sustainable and harmonious cooperation process at the Mediterranean Basin level by dealing with the common challenges and enhancing its endogenous potential. It finances cooperation projects as a contribution to the economic, social, environmental and cultural development of the Mediterranean region. The following 14 countries participate in the Programme: Cyprus, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Italy, Jordan, Lebanon, Malta, Palestine, Portugal, Spain, Syria (participation currently suspended), Tunisia. The Joint Managing Authority (JMA) is the Autonomous Region of Sardinia (Italy). Official Programme languages are Arabic, English and French (www.enpicbcmed.eu ...
Pellicular fragments were isolated from ethanol-fixed cells of the holotrichous ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis by the action of digitonin. The isolated pellicles were further fragmented and the basal bodies of the cilia isolated from them by three methods. The preparations, examined in the electron microscope as embedded sections or negatively stained samples, consisted mainly of somewhat deformed pellicular material, the bulk of which was basal body. DNA was determined by the diphenylamine method and by reaction with DNase, and RNA, by the orcinol method. Nucleic acids were isolated by phenol extraction and analyzed spectrophotometrically and by reaction with RNase. The assays indicated 1.2 to 2.6 per cent RNA, similar to previously published work, but only 0.0 to 1.0 per cent DNA, near enough the sensitivity limits to render the presence of DNA in the preparations uncertain. Although the isolation procedure removed nuclear contents and ribosomes, the nucleic acids could still be a residual ...
From the desk of Jessica L. Molleur, Lic.Ac.DNBAO…. Many patients ask me about basal body temperature charting and whether they should try keeping a chart at home when trying to conceive. Basal body temping is one of the least invasive and least expensive (the cost is zero unless you need a new thermometer) ways to determine a significant amount of information about your body and your menstrual cycle without subjecting yourself to any invasive testing.. A BBT chart can help you time conception, determine whether you are ovulating or pregnant, as well as trouble shoot common issues related to your cycle or conception that many have gone unnoticed or undiagnosed. Its hard to believe that so much information can be determined just by using a thermometer and a piece of paper. If you have any doubts, pick up a copy of Toni Weschlers book, Taking Charge of Your Fertility.. What is BBT charting? Its the act of simply taking your temperature at approximately the same time every morning to help you ...
河南十一选五:(1) the basal body temperature monitoring: the basal body temperature refers to the body temperature is not active in the morning, have been low in the early stage of the ovulation, after ovulation si...
Update from Sydneys family:. "Kindly allow me to provide a final update on Sydney, as promised. She was spayed on March 13th and recovered without any problems at all. She has gained 15 pounds since I picked her up and she has settled in nicely. Shes a very sweet, loyal dog, who never gets very far away from me. She is, of course, very energetic, and she loves her early morning walks. She often takes the opportunity to "herd" our bulldog. We will have her at the vet later this month to weigh her again. Weve been getting a single heart worm/tick pill every month because of her rapid weight gain. Suffice it to say that she has a very different life, now, than the one she started out with, and we appreciate all the effort yall put in taking care of her until we found her.". ...

THE NUCLEIC ACIDS OF BASAL BODIES ISOLATED FROM TETRAHYMENA PYRIFORMIS | JCBTHE NUCLEIC ACIDS OF BASAL BODIES ISOLATED FROM TETRAHYMENA PYRIFORMIS | JCB

Hypotheses of basal body self-duplication, moreover, can be constructed both with and without nucleic acids. ... The isolated pellicles were further fragmented and the basal bodies of the cilia isolated from them by three methods. The ... THE NUCLEIC ACIDS OF BASAL BODIES ISOLATED FROM TETRAHYMENA PYRIFORMIS. Eugene J. Hoffman ... the bulk of which was basal body. DNA was determined by the diphenylamine method and by reaction with DNase, and RNA, by the ...
more infohttp://jcb.rupress.org/content/25/2/217

Does natural family planning work? | The Catholic WeeklyDoes natural family planning work? | The Catholic Weekly

The Sympto-Thermal Method involves observing both the basal body temperature and the cervical mucous. ...
more infohttps://www.catholicweekly.com.au/does-natural-family-planning-work/

Biomolecules  | Free Full-Text | The TOR Signaling Network in the Model Unicellular Green Alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii | HTMLBiomolecules | Free Full-Text | The TOR Signaling Network in the Model Unicellular Green Alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii | HTML

... the TOR and LST8 proteins seem to accumulate at the peri-basal body region and at discrete bodies in the cytoplasm [37]. The ... peri-basal body region is localized at the flagella base and may represent a region of the cell with a high demand of protein ... Goodson, C.; Roth, R.; Wang, Z.T.; Goodenough, U. Structural correlates of cytoplasmic and chloroplast lipid body synthesis in ... Wang, Z.T.; Ullrich, N.; Joo, S.; Waffenschmidt, S.; Goodenough, U. Algal lipid bodies: Stress induction, purification, and ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/2218-273X/7/3/54/htm

Analysis of the Tip Complex of the Type Iii Secretion Apparatus of Shigella Flexneri :: DissertationsAnalysis of the Tip Complex of the Type Iii Secretion Apparatus of Shigella Flexneri :: Dissertations

The type III secretion apparatus (T3SA) consists of a basal body, an extracellular needle, and a tip complex. As a part of the ...
more infohttp://dc.library.okstate.edu/cdm/ref/collection/Dissert/id/73913/

How to chart your basal body temperature	How to chart your basal body temperature

Everything you need to know about charting your basal body temperature-including why its falling out of favour with fertility ... How do you measure basal body temperature?. If you want to track your BBT, youll want to take it orally first thing in the ... How to chart your basal body temperature. Everything you need to know about charting your BBT-including why its falling out of ... Its one of the reasons why charting basal body temperature (BBT) was so promising when it was first connected with fertility ...
more infohttps://www.todaysparent.com/getting-pregnant/how-to-chart-your-basal-body-temperature/

Basal Body Temperature Chart - Android app on AppBrainBasal Body Temperature Chart - Android app on AppBrain

Basal Body Temperature Chart: Android app (50 downloads) → Easily track all information about your menstrual cycle (temperature ... Easily track all information about your menstrual cycle (temperature, period). The app generates a basal body temperature chart ... Easily track all information about your menstrual cycle (temperature, period). The app generates a basal body temperature chart ... period). The app generates a basal body... ...
more infohttp://www.appbrain.com/app/basal-body-temperature-chart/com.guillaumegranger.bbt

Basal body - definition of basal body by The Free DictionaryBasal body - definition of basal body by The Free Dictionary

basal body synonyms, basal body pronunciation, basal body translation, English dictionary definition of basal body. n. A ... Related to basal body: basal body temperature. basal body. n.. A cellular organelle that is similar to the centriole in ... Basal body - definition of basal body by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/basal+body ... One of the most common discussion topics was basal body temperature (BBT) and its relationship to thyroid disease.. Does basal ...
more infohttps://www.thefreedictionary.com/basal+body

Basal body | Journal of Cell ScienceBasal body | Journal of Cell Science

Choosing sides - asymmetric centriole and basal body assembly Chad G. Pearson. J Cell Sci 2014 127: 2803-2810; doi: 10.1242/jcs ... Intraflagellar transport protein IFT52 recruits IFT46 to the basal body and flagella Bo Lv, Lei Wan, Michael Taschner, Xi Cheng ... Basal body proteins regulate Notch signaling through endosomal trafficking Carmen C. Leitch, Sukanya Lodh, Victoria Prieto- ... ε-tubulin is essential in Tetrahymena thermophila for the assembly and stability of basal bodies Ian Ross, Christina Clarissa, ...
more infohttp://jcs.biologists.org/keyword/basal-body

Choosing a Basal Body Temperature ThermometerChoosing a Basal Body Temperature Thermometer

Charting Basal Body Temperature (BBT) is one of the more common and most accurate ways of predicting ovulation. Basal Body ... Temperature (BBT) is the base temperature of your body after a period of rest. A woman charting her BBT would do so first thing ... Home - Blogs - Kim Griffithss blog - Choosing a Basal Body Temperature Thermometer Choosing a Basal Body Temperature ... Basal Body Temperature (BBT) is the base temperature of your body after a period of rest. A woman charting her BBT would do so ...
more infohttps://www.fertilityauthority.com/blogger/kimatfertilityauthority/2013/3/08/choosing-basal-body-temperature-thermometer

Basal Body TemperatureBasal Body Temperature

BBT = Basal Body Temperature Basal = Base (or lowest temperature of the day that will tell you what "hormone" is dominant) ... More information about tracking BBT (basal temps). *Basal Body Temperature, the simple, inexpensive and reliable way to detect ... Therm = Thermometer Temp = Basal Body Temperature. Temp Ranges: Before Ovulation: 96.0 - 97.6 (Estrogen dominant). After ...
more infohttp://www.tryingtoconceive.com/bbt

Basal Body TemperatureBasal Body Temperature

Tags: Basal Body Temperature, Cervical Fluid, Cervical Mucus, cervical position, cervix, cycle, fertility, fertility signs, ... Most recent articles tagged with Basal Body Temperature. Natural Fertility Signs. One way to increase your odds of conceiving ... Basal Body Temperature Articles & Information at BabiesOnline.com. Babies Online has several thousand articles pertaining to ... Basal Body Temperature. While you can find our most recent articles listed below, we cant possibly post them all on one page! ...
more infohttps://www.babiesonline.com/articles/tag/basal-body-temperature

Drosophila melanogaster as a model for basal body research.  - PubMed - NCBIDrosophila melanogaster as a model for basal body research. - PubMed - NCBI

... pBB and dBB represent basal body, proximal basal body and distal basal body, respectively. Scale bars in a and b represent 100 ... When they function to template cilia, centrioles transition into basal bodies. The fruit fly has various types of basal bodies ... The variety of basal bodies found in Drosophila. a Representative electron micrographs of the cross section view of the basal ... in the fruit fly have unveiled new basal body components and revealed different modes of assembly and functions of basal bodies ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27382461?dopt=Abstract

Basal body - WikipediaBasal body - Wikipedia

The basal body differs from the mother centriole in at least 2 aspects. First, basal bodies have basal feet, which are anchored ... The basal body serves as a nucleation site for the growth of the axoneme microtubules. Centrioles, from which basal bodies are ... Basal Body Components Exhibit Differential Protein Dynamics during Nascent Basal Body Assembly. Mol Biol Cell. Feb 1; 20(3): ... the mother centriole differentiates into the basal body upon entry into G1 or quiescence. Thus, the basal body in such a cell ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basal_body

Basal Body Temperature | Cone HealthBasal Body Temperature | Cone Health

This allows you to note tiny changes in body heat.. Keeping track of basal body temperature may be helpful for women trying to ... Basal body temperature charting is done at home and is inexpensive. But to get an accurate record, a woman needs to track her ... The basal body temperature (BBT) is a persons at-rest temperature.. Natural cyclic changes in female hormones usually cause a ... Women who work varying shifts or who have irregular menstrual cycles may have difficulty getting a useful basal body ...
more infohttps://www.conehealth.com/patients-visitors/health-library/healthwise-document-viewer/?id=stb117006

What Are the Effects of an Elevated Basal Body Temperature?What Are the Effects of an Elevated Basal Body Temperature?

The main effects of an elevated basal body temperature generally depend on whats causing the elevation. For an elevation ... As a result, some women use their body temperature to give them cues about their fertility, because an elevated basal body ... I have a friend who had an elevated basal body temperature for seventeen days and she was not pregnant! So it can be tricky to ... An elevated basal body temperature may indicate different things for different people. For example, it could indicate an ...
more infohttps://www.wisegeek.com/what-are-the-effects-of-an-elevated-basal-body-temperature.htm

Basal Body Temperature (BBT) Charting
	
	
	
	

		 | UW Health | Madison, WIBasal Body Temperature (BBT) Charting | UW Health | Madison, WI

Basal Body Temperature (BBT) Charting. Topic Overview. The basal body temperature (BBT) is a persons at-rest temperature. ... What tools do you need to take your basal body temperature?. The change in your body temperature is very slight, so you need to ... A basal thermometer shows you the temperature in tenths of a degree. This allows you to note tiny changes in body heat. This ... Where can you get a basal thermometer?. You can find a basal thermometer or digital thermometer in a pharmacy or in the ...
more infohttps://www.uwhealth.org/health/topic/special/basal-body-temperature-bbt-charting/hw202058.html

Basal body temperature - WikipediaBasal body temperature - Wikipedia

Basal body temperature (BBT or BTP) is the lowest body temperature attained during rest (usually during sleep). It is usually ... Records of basal body temperature can be used to accurately determine if a woman is ovulating, and if the length of the post- ... Basal body temperature alone is most effective at preventing pregnancy if the couple abstains from intercourse from the ... There is limited evidence about the effectiveness of fertility awareness family planning methods, some of which use basal body ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basal_body_temperature

Basal Body TemperatureBasal Body Temperature

... What is Basal Body Temperature?. Basal Body Temperature (or BBT) is the temperature of the body when at ... Purchase a basal body temp (Basal Body Temperature)thermometer.. *Obtain a Basal Body Temperature chart from your doctor, or ... Tracking of the BBT by using this method requires charting your basal body temperature when youre body is completely at rest. ... Your Basal Body Temperature can be taken orally with a special BBT thermometer. Ideally, a larger thermometer that registers ...
more infohttps://www.kidsdirect.net/basal-body-temperature/

Why is Your Basal Body Temperature (BBT) Important?Why is Your Basal Body Temperature (BBT) Important?

What you are looking for is your bodys temperature soon after ovulation occurs. Your Basal Body Temperature should be lower ... The overall goal of charting your Basal Body Temperature (BBT) is to find out if and when you are ovulating. BBT is the ... Why is Your Basal Body Temperature (BBT) Important?. Status message. Active context: desktop ... Read more about your Basal Body Temperature below:. *How to Chart Your BBT ...
more infohttps://fertilityauthority.com/your-fertility/basal-body-temperature-bbt

Q&A: Whats a basal body temp themometer?Q&A: What's a basal body temp themometer?

Q&A: Whats a Basal Body Temp Themometer? Is there a significant difference between a BBT thermometer and a regular thermometer ... You can use a regular thermometer, but it wont give results as accurate or specific as a basal body temperature(BBT) ...
more infohttps://www.thebump.com/a/whats-a-basal-body-temperature-thermometer

Basal Body Temp Calculator HD by Gianluca NataliniBasal Body Temp Calculator HD by Gianluca Natalini

... of diagrams that illustrate the evolution over the time of their basal body temperature (measured near vaginal area upon waking ... Basal Body Temperature (BBT) Calculator is a program that helps women in the writing, understanding and archiving (for future ... Basal Body Temperature (BBT) Calculator is a program that helps women in the writing, understanding and archiving (for future ... "Basal Body Temperature (BBT) Calculator" is a program that helps women in the writing, understanding and archiving (for future ...
more infohttps://appadvice.com/app/basal-body-temp-calculator-hd/390053590

flgG flagellar basal body rod protein FlgG [Desulfovibrio vulgaris str. Hildenborough] - Gene - NCBIflgG flagellar basal body rod protein FlgG [Desulfovibrio vulgaris str. Hildenborough] - Gene - NCBI

flgG; flagellar basal body rod protein FlgG; Provisional. pfam00460. Location:5 → 35. Flg_bb_rod; Flagella basal body rod ... flagellar basal body rod protein FlgG. YP_009736.1. *makes up the distal portion of the flagellar basal body rod ... flagellar basal body rod protein FlgG. Locus tag. DVU0513. Gene type. protein coding. RefSeq status. REVIEWED. Organism. ... flgG flagellar basal body rod protein FlgG [ Desulfovibrio vulgaris str. Hildenborough ] Gene ID: 2794305, updated on 20-Aug- ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/2794305

Basal body temperature chart for ovulation - HuggiesBasal body temperature chart for ovulation - Huggies

... the lowest measurement of the bodys temperature, measured in the morning. Learn to chart your basal body temperature from ... Basal Body Temperature Chart. Measuring your bodys temperature on a regular basis may help you to know when you are about to ... What exactly is a basal body temperature?. This is the lowest measurement of the bodys temperature when it is taken first ... In terms of accuracy (which is critical when measuring basal body temperature) it is worthwhile buying a new thermometer. Basal ...
more infohttps://www.huggies.com.au/conception/ovulation/basal-body-temperature

Xenopus Anatomy Ontology: Summary for basal body 
	Xenopus Anatomy Ontology: Summary for basal body

Anatomy Term: basal body XAO ID: 0004615 Synonyms: ciliary basal body Definition: A membrane-tethered, short cylindrical array ... The cilium basal body is the site of assembly and remodelling of the cilium and serves as a nucleation site for axoneme growth ...
more infohttp://www.xenbase.org/anatomy/showanatomy.do?method=displayAnatomySummary&anatomyId=3663

Basal body temperature dips  - Trying to conceive - MadeForMums ChatBasal body temperature dips - Trying to conceive - MadeForMums Chat

Im just wondering if anyone has ever had a temperature dip before finding out they were pregnant? Iv been charting this month and partly last cycle too. Last month before AF my temperature dropped dramatically (36.7 down to 35.6) the day before I came on then it rose back up to 36.6. This month yesterday I had a fairly big drop in temperature (36.95 down to 36.5) so was kind of expecting my temperature to rise again today and for AF to make an appearance. Instead my temp dropped even more to 36.3 and no signs of AF. I have heard chances are AF will show in a couple of days, so i guess im holding out on the tiniest hope that there is still a chance that I could be pregnant and wondering if anyone charting has ever found their temp drop when pregnant? 2 early mc and been ttc for a year so its all starting to get me down I think. ...
more infohttp://www.madeformums.com/forum/trying-to-conceive/basal-body-temperature-dips/200270.html
  • Following the diversification of Ginkgo and cycads, all vestiges of basal bodies and flagella were lost in the remaining seed plants that utilize pollen tubes to deliver non-motile sperm to egg cells (Southworth and Cresti, 1997). (bio-protocol.org)
  • After the first trimester, the woman's body temperature drops to her pre-ovulatory normal as the placenta takes over functions previously performed by the corpus luteum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetics, cell biology and behaviour studies in the fruit fly have unveiled new basal body components and revealed different modes of assembly and functions of basal bodies that are conserved in many other organisms, including human, green algae and plasmodium. (nih.gov)
  • Each spermatocyte then undergoes two consecutive meiotic divisions without either DNA replication or basal body duplication. (nih.gov)
  • Each flagellum is generated from a basal body that originates de novo as a centriole in spermatogenous cell lineages. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Women in their childbearing years may notice that their body temperature is high for about half of their menstrual cycle, because fertility requires a biphasic pattern that results in a mix of high and low temperatures each month. (wisegeek.com)
  • medical citation needed] Charting of basal body temperatures is used in some methods of fertility awareness, such as the sympto-thermal method, and may be used to determine the onset of post-ovulatory infertility. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over the course of a regular 28 day menstrual cycle a normal body temperature is around 36.5 degrees Celsius. (huggies.com.au)
  • The structure of the oviduct basal body has been reconstructed from serial, oblique, and tangential sections This composite information has been used to construct a three-dimensional scale model of the organelle The walls are composed of nine equally spaced sets of three tubules, which run from base to apex pitched to the left at a 10 degrees -15 degrees angle to the longitudinal axis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The transverse axis of each triplet set at its basal end intersects a tangent to the lumenal circumference of the basal body at a 40 degrees angle (triplet angle). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Second, basal bodies have pinwheel-shaped transition fibers that originate from the appendages of mother centriole. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we describe the various basal bodies of Drosophila, what is known about their composition, structure and function. (nih.gov)
  • The first two weeks of the cycle are usually marked by a low temperature, because estrogen rules the body during this time. (wisegeek.com)
  • During the first two weeks of a woman's cycle, her body temperature is lower (97.0 to 97.5 F), due to the presence of estrogen. (kidsdirect.net)
  • It tells you that your estrogen is up and activating your cervix, and that your body is preparing to ovulate, and that you are very *likely* to ovulate. (fertilityauthority.com)
  • Strands of fibrous material extend from the basal end of each triplet to form a striated rootlet. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The first legitimate contraceptive smartphone app was recently introduced on the European market, with the digital processing based on measurements of the female user's basal body temperature (BBT). (diva-portal.org)