Structures which form the base of FLAGELLA and CILIA. They contain nine triplets of MICROTUBULES that are arranged around the periphery and that serve as the nucleation center for AXONEME assembly.
Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Self-replicating, short, fibrous, rod-shaped organelles. Each centriole is a short cylinder containing nine pairs of peripheral microtubules, arranged so as to form the wall of the cylinder.
A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A species of ciliate protozoa used in genetic and cytological research.
An organization of cells into an organ-like structure. Organoids can be generated in culture. They are also found in certain neoplasms.
A genus of ciliate protozoa that is often large enough to be seen by the naked eye. Paramecia are commonly used in genetic, cytological, and other research.
A genus GREEN ALGAE in the order VOLVOCIDA. It consists of solitary biflagellated organisms common in fresh water and damp soil.
A bundle of MICROTUBULES and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS forming the core of each CILIUM or FLAGELLUM. In most eukaryotic cilia or flagella, an axoneme shaft has 20 microtubules arranged in nine doublets and two singlets.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
A phylum of EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of cilia at some time during the life cycle. It comprises three classes: KINETOFRAGMINOPHOREA; OLIGOHYMENOPHOREA; and POLYMENOPHOREA.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A free-living soil amoeba pathogenic to humans and animals. It occurs also in water and sewage. The most commonly found species in man is NAEGLERIA FOWLERI which is the pathogen for primary amebic meningoencephalitis in primates.
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
A species of GREEN ALGAE. Delicate, hairlike appendages arise from the flagellar surface in these organisms.
A species of ciliate protozoa used extensively in genetic research.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).
Proteins found in any species of algae.
A genus of ciliate protozoa commonly used in genetic, cytological, and other research.
Conditions caused by abnormal CILIA movement in the body, usually causing KARTAGENER SYNDROME, chronic respiratory disorders, chronic SINUSITIS, and chronic OTITIS. Abnormal ciliary beating is likely due to defects in any of the 200 plus ciliary proteins, such as missing motor enzyme DYNEIN arms.
A tomographic technique for obtaining 3-dimensional images with transmission electron microscopy.
A class of endosymbiont EUKARYOTES, in the group PARABASALIDEA, that are obligate mutualists in the digestive tracts of wood-eating insects. Hypermastigotes produce CELLULASE that breaks down the cellulose in wood so that insects can metabolize it.
A heterogeneous group of hereditary and acquired disorders in which the KIDNEY contains one or more CYSTS unilaterally or bilaterally (KIDNEY, CYSTIC).
A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).
The bridge between the inner and the outer segments of a retinal rod or a cone photoreceptor cell. Through it, proteins synthesized in the inner segment are transported to the outer segment.
An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; POLYDACTYLY; OBESITY; MENTAL RETARDATION; hypogenitalism; renal dysplasia; and short stature. This syndrome has been distinguished as a separate entity from LAURENCE-MOON SYNDROME. (From J Med Genet 1997 Feb;34(2):92-8)
A species of gram-negative, halophilic bacteria, in the genus VIBRIO. It is considered part of normal marine flora and commonly associated with ear infections and superficial wounds exposed to contaminated water sources.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Method to determine the occurrence of OVULATION by direct or indirect means. Indirect methods examine the effects of PROGESTERONE on cervical mucus (CERVIX MUCUS), or basal body temperature. Direct ovulation detection, generally used in fertility treatment, involves analyses of circulating hormones in blood and ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
Hereditary diseases that are characterized by the progressive expansion of a large number of tightly packed CYSTS within the KIDNEYS. They include diseases with autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance.
A phylum of photosynthetic EUKARYOTA bearing double membrane-bound plastids containing chlorophyll a and b. They comprise the classical green algae, and represent over 7000 species that live in a variety of primarily aquatic habitats. Only about ten percent are marine species, most live in freshwater.
Tungsten hydroxide oxide phosphate. A white or slightly yellowish-green, slightly efflorescent crystal or crystalline powder. It is used as a reagent for alkaloids and many other nitrogen bases, for phenols, albumin, peptone, amino acids, uric acid, urea, blood, and carbohydrates. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Two syndromes of oral, facial, and digital malformations. Type I (Papillon-Leage and Psaume syndrome, Gorlin-Psaume syndrome) is inherited as an X-linked dominant trait and is found only in females and XXY males. Type II (Mohr syndrome) is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait.
Brain tissue herniation through a congenital or acquired defect in the skull. The majority of congenital encephaloceles occur in the occipital or frontal regions. Clinical features include a protuberant mass that may be pulsatile. The quantity and location of protruding neural tissue determines the type and degree of neurologic deficit. Visual defects, psychomotor developmental delay, and persistent motor deficits frequently occur.
DNA of kinetoplasts which are specialized MITOCHONDRIA of trypanosomes and related parasitic protozoa within the order KINETOPLASTIDA. Kinetoplast DNA consists of a complex network of numerous catenated rings of two classes; the first being a large number of small DNA duplex rings, called minicircles, approximately 2000 base pairs in length, and the second being several dozen much larger rings, called maxicircles, approximately 37 kb in length.
The study of the structure, behavior, growth, reproduction, and pathology of cells; and the function and chemistry of cellular components.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
A thin membrane that lines the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES and the central canal of the SPINAL CORD.
The functional hereditary units of protozoa.
The inner portion of a retinal rod or a cone photoreceptor cell, situated between the PHOTORECEPTOR CONNECTING CILIUM and the synapse with the adjacent neurons (RETINAL BIPOLAR CELLS; RETINAL HORIZONTAL CELLS). The inner segment contains the cell body, the nucleus, the mitochondria, and apparatus for protein synthesis.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The posterior filiform portion of the spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) that provides sperm motility.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The species Delphinapterus leucas, in the family Monodontidae, found primarily in the Arctic Ocean and adjoining seas. They are small WHALES lacking a dorsal fin.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Proteins found in the microtubules.
Ducts that serve exclusively for the passage of eggs from the ovaries to the exterior of the body. In non-mammals, they are termed oviducts. In mammals, they are highly specialized and known as FALLOPIAN TUBES.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
A plant family of the order Hydropteridales, class Filicopsida, division PTERIDOPHYTA. They are aquatic ferns with quatrifoliate leaves resembling four leaf clover, creeping rhizome, and bean shaped sporocarps.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A protein with a molecular weight of 40,000 isolated from bacterial flagella. At appropriate pH and salt concentration, three flagellin monomers can spontaneously reaggregate to form structures which appear identical to intact flagella.
Infections with protozoa of the phylum CILIOPHORA.
A subcategory of chaperonins found in ARCHAEA and the CYTOSOL of eukaryotic cells. Group II chaperonins form a barrel-shaped macromolecular structure that is distinct from GROUP I CHAPERONINS in that it does not utilize a separate lid like structure to enclose proteins.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
Osmium. A very hard, gray, toxic, and nearly infusible metal element, atomic number 76, atomic weight 190.2, symbol Os. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A method used to study the lateral movement of MEMBRANE PROTEINS and LIPIDS. A small area of a cell membrane is bleached by laser light and the amount of time necessary for unbleached fluorescent marker-tagged proteins to diffuse back into the bleached site is a measurement of the cell membrane's fluidity. The diffusion coefficient of a protein or lipid in the membrane can be calculated from the data. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995).
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
A class of natural contraceptive methods in which SEXUAL ABSTINENCE is practiced a few days before and after the estimated day of ovulation, during the fertile phase. Methods for determining the fertile period or OVULATION DETECTION are based on various physiological indicators, such as circulating hormones, changes in cervical mucus (CERVIX MUCUS), and the basal body temperature.
Photosensitive proteins in the membranes of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS such as the rods and the cones. Opsins have varied light absorption properties and are members of the G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS family. Their ligands are VITAMIN A-based chromophores.
A representation, generally small in scale, to show the structure, construction, or appearance of something. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
Techniques to alter a gene sequence that result in an inactivated gene, or one in which the expression can be inactivated at a chosen time during development to study the loss of function of a gene.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
An amorphous region of electron dense material in the cytoplasm from which the MICROTUBULES polymerization is nucleated. The pericentriolar region of the CENTROSOME which surrounds the CENTRIOLES is an example.
Diseases that affect the structure or function of the cerebellum. Cardinal manifestations of cerebellar dysfunction include dysmetria, GAIT ATAXIA, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.
Male germ cells derived from the haploid secondary SPERMATOCYTES. Without further division, spermatids undergo structural changes and give rise to SPERMATOZOA.
The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Compounds that contain the Cl(=O)(=O)(=O)O- structure. Included under this heading is perchloric acid and the salts and ester forms of perchlorate.
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
The technique of using a microtome to cut thin or ultrathin sections of tissues embedded in a supporting substance. The microtome is an instrument that hold a steel, glass or diamond knife in clamps at an angle to the blocks of prepared tissues, which it cuts in sections of equal thickness.
Proteins which participate in contractile processes. They include MUSCLE PROTEINS as well as those found in other cells and tissues. In the latter, these proteins participate in localized contractile events in the cytoplasm, in motile activity, and in cell aggregation phenomena.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
A bacterium which is one of the etiologic agents of bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY) and sometimes of infantile gastroenteritis.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Proteins that are involved in or cause CELL MOVEMENT such as the rotary structures (flagellar motor) or the structures whose movement is directed along cytoskeletal filaments (MYOSIN; KINESIN; and DYNEIN motor families).
A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Methods of preparing tissue for examination and study of the origin, structure, function, or pathology.
Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the eye; may also be hereditary.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The subfamily of myosin proteins that are commonly found in muscle fibers. Myosin II is also involved a diverse array of cellular functions including cell division, transport within the GOLGI APPARATUS, and maintaining MICROVILLI structure.
A complex signaling pathway whose name is derived from the DROSOPHILA Wg gene, which when mutated results in the wingless phenotype, and the vertebrate INT gene, which is located near integration sites of MOUSE MAMMARY TUMOR VIRUS. The signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of WNT PROTEINS to cells surface WNT RECEPTORS which interact with the AXIN SIGNALING COMPLEX and an array of second messengers that influence the actions of BETA CATENIN.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, as well as in manure, soil, and polluted waters. Its species are pathogenic, causing urinary tract infections and are also considered secondary invaders, causing septic lesions at other sites of the body.
Formation of differentiated cells and complicated tissue organization to provide specialized functions.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.
A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Streptomyces griseus.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).
A generic term for any circumscribed mass of foreign (e.g., lead or viruses) or metabolically inactive materials (e.g., ceroid or MALLORY BODIES), within the cytoplasm or nucleus of a cell. Inclusion bodies are in cells infected with certain filtrable viruses, observed especially in nerve, epithelial, or endothelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Animals not contaminated by or associated with any foreign organisms.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).

Dlic1 deficiency impairs ciliogenesis of photoreceptors by destabilizing dynein. (1/5)


epsilon-tubulin is essential in Tetrahymena thermophila for the assembly and stability of basal bodies. (2/5)


Independent localization of plasma membrane and chloroplast components during eyespot assembly. (3/5)


Two appendages homologous between basal bodies and centrioles are formed using distinct Odf2 domains. (4/5)


Distinct roles of a mitogen-activated protein kinase in cytokinesis between different life cycle forms of Trypanosoma brucei. (5/5)


Ciliary motility disorders can affect any part of the body where cilia are found, but they most commonly affect the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urogenital systems. These conditions can cause a range of symptoms, including recurring infections, chronic inflammation, and difficulty with breathing or swallowing.

Examples of ciliary motility disorders include primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), which is caused by defects in the structure and function of cilia, and other less common conditions such as ciliary abnormalities, which can be caused by genetic mutations or environmental factors.

Diagnosis of ciliary motility disorders typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment for these conditions often focuses on managing symptoms and preventing complications, and may involve medications, breathing exercises, or other interventions. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to correct anatomical abnormalities or remove blockages in the respiratory or gastrointestinal tracts.

There are several types of kidney diseases that are classified as cystic, including:

1. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD): This is the most common form of cystic kidney disease and is caused by a genetic mutation. It is characterized by the growth of numerous cysts in both kidneys, which can lead to kidney damage and failure.
2. Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD): This is a rare form of cystic kidney disease that is also caused by a genetic mutation. It is characterized by the growth of numerous cysts in both kidneys, as well as other organs such as the liver and pancreas.
3. Cystinosis: This is a rare genetic disorder that causes the accumulation of cystine crystals in the kidneys and other organs. It can lead to the formation of cysts and damage to the kidneys.
4. Medullary cystic kidney disease (MCKD): This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the medulla, the innermost layer of the kidney. It is characterized by the growth of cysts in the medulla, which can lead to kidney damage and failure.
5. Other rare forms of cystic kidney disease: There are several other rare forms of cystic kidney disease that can be caused by genetic mutations or other factors. These include hereditary cystic papillary necrosis, familial juvenile nephropathy, and others.

The symptoms of kidney diseases, cystic can vary depending on the specific type of disease and the severity of the condition. Common symptoms include:

* High blood pressure
* Proteinuria (excess protein in the urine)
* Hematuria (blood in the urine)
* Decreased kidney function
* Abdominal pain
* Weight loss
* Fatigue
* Swelling in the legs and ankles

If you suspect that you or your child may have a cystic kidney disease, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. A healthcare provider can perform a physical examination, take a medical history, and order diagnostic tests such as urinalysis, blood tests, and imaging studies (such as ultrasound or CT scans) to determine the cause of the symptoms.

Treatment for cystic kidney disease will depend on the specific type of disease and the severity of the condition. Treatment options may include:

* Medications to control high blood pressure and proteinuria
* Medications to slow the progression of kidney damage
* Dialysis or kidney transplantation in advanced cases
* Cyst aspiration or surgical removal of cysts in some cases

It is important to note that there is no cure for cystic kidney disease, and the best treatment approach is to slow the progression of the disease and manage its symptoms. Early detection and aggressive management can help improve quality of life and delay the need for dialysis or transplantation.

In addition to medical treatment, there are some lifestyle modifications that may be helpful in managing cystic kidney disease. These include:

* Maintaining a healthy diet with low salt and protein intake
* Staying hydrated by drinking plenty of water
* Engaging in regular physical activity
* Avoiding harmful substances such as tobacco and alcohol
* Monitoring blood pressure and weight regularly

It is important to note that cystic kidney disease can be a serious condition, and it is important to work closely with a healthcare provider to manage the disease and slow its progression. With appropriate treatment and lifestyle modifications, many people with cystic kidney disease are able to lead active and fulfilling lives.

1. Vision loss or blindness
2. Developmental delays and intellectual disability
3. Speech and language difficulties
4. Poor coordination and balance
5. Skeletal abnormalities such as short stature, short arms, and curved spine
6. Kidney problems
7. Hearing loss
8. Increased risk of infections
9. Cleft palate or other facial defects
10. Delayed puberty or absent menstruation in females

The syndrome is caused by mutations in the Bardet-Biedl genes, which are responsible for the development and function of the body's sensory and motor systems. It is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, meaning that a child must inherit two copies of the mutated gene - one from each parent - to develop the condition.

There is currently no cure for Bardet-Biedl Syndrome, but treatment and management options are available to help manage the symptoms and improve quality of life. These may include:

1. Vision aids such as glasses or contact lenses
2. Speech and language therapy
3. Physical therapy to improve coordination and balance
4. Occupational therapy to develop daily living skills
5. Medications to manage infections, seizures, or other complications
6. Surgery to correct physical abnormalities such as cleft palate or spinal deformities
7. Hormone replacement therapy for delayed puberty or absent menstruation in females.

The prognosis for individuals with Bardet-Biedl Syndrome varies depending on the severity of the symptoms and the presence of any additional health issues. With appropriate management and support, many individuals with the condition are able to lead fulfilling lives and achieve their goals. However, the syndrome can be associated with a higher risk of certain health complications, such as kidney disease or respiratory infections, which can impact life expectancy.

There are two main types of PKD: autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD). ADPKD is the most common form of PKD and accounts for about 90% of all cases. It is caused by mutations in the PKD1 or PKD2 genes, which are inherited from one's parents. ARPKD is less common and is caused by mutations in the PKHD1 gene.

The symptoms of PKD can vary depending on the severity of the disease and the age of onset. Common symptoms include high blood pressure, back pain, kidney stones, urinary tract infections, and frequent urination. As the cysts grow, they can also cause complications such as kidney damage, anemia, and electrolyte imbalances.

PKD is typically diagnosed through a combination of imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scans, and MRI, as well as genetic testing to identify the presence of the disease-causing mutations. There is no cure for PKD, but treatment options are available to manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. These may include medications to control high blood pressure, pain management, and dialysis in advanced cases.

In conclusion, polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a genetic disorder that affects the kidneys and can lead to chronic kidney disease and eventually kidney failure. It is important to be aware of the symptoms and risk factors for PKD, as well as to seek medical attention if they are present, in order to receive proper diagnosis and treatment.

* Cleft lip and/or palate
* Abnormal facial features such as short or deformed ears, small jaw, or widely spaced eyes
* Missing or deformed teeth
* Short or absent fingers or toes
* Congenital heart defects or other physical abnormalities

The symptoms of OFD can vary in severity and may include one or more of these features. The exact cause of OFD is not known, but it is thought to be related to genetic mutations that occur during fetal development. There is no cure for OFD, but treatment options may include surgery, dental care, and speech therapy to help manage the symptoms.

The term "orofaciodigital" refers to the oral (face and mouth) and digital (fingers and toes) aspects of the syndrome. The condition is usually diagnosed during infancy or childhood, and the prognosis can vary depending on the severity of the symptoms. With appropriate medical care and support, many individuals with OFD can lead active and fulfilling lives.

* Cerebral encephalocele: when the brain tissue protrudes through the skull.
* Meningoencephalocele: when the meninges (the protective covering of the brain and spinal cord) protrude through the skull along with the brain tissue.
* Mesenchymal encephalocele: when other tissues such as skin, muscle or bone protrude through the skull along with the brain tissue.

Symptoms of encephalocele can vary depending on the severity of the defect and can include:

* Protrusion of the brain or meninges through a opening in the skull
* Abnormal appearance of the head or face
* Delayed developmental milestones such as sitting, standing or walking
* Poor muscle tone
* Seizures
* Vision and hearing problems

Diagnosis of encephalocele is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, and genetic testing. Treatment for encephalocele usually involves surgery to repair the opening in the skull and relieve any pressure on the brain. In some cases, additional surgeries may be necessary to correct other defects such as hydrocephalus (fluid accumulation in the brain).

Encephalocele is a rare condition, but it can have serious consequences if left untreated. Early detection and intervention are important for improving outcomes and reducing the risk of complications.

Note: Ciliophora infections are relatively rare in developed countries but are a significant cause of gastrointestinal illness in developing nations.

Some common types of cerebellar diseases include:

1. Cerebellar atrophy: This is a condition where the cerebellum shrinks or degenerates, leading to symptoms such as tremors, muscle weakness, and difficulty with movement.
2. Cerebellar degeneration: This is a condition where the cerebellum deteriorates over time, leading to symptoms such as loss of coordination, balance problems, and difficulties with speech and language.
3. Cerebellar tumors: These are abnormal growths that develop in the cerebellum, which can cause a variety of symptoms depending on their size and location.
4. Cerebellar stroke: This is a condition where blood flow to the cerebellum is interrupted, leading to damage to the brain tissue and symptoms such as weakness or paralysis of certain muscle groups.
5. Cerebellar vasculature disorders: These are conditions that affect the blood vessels in the cerebellum, leading to symptoms such as transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) or strokes.
6. Inflammatory diseases: These are conditions that cause inflammation in the cerebellum, leading to symptoms such as tremors, ataxia, and weakness.
7. Infections: Bacterial, viral, or fungal infections can affect the cerebellum and cause a range of symptoms.
8. Trauma: Head injuries or other forms of trauma can damage the cerebellum and lead to symptoms such as loss of coordination, balance problems, and memory loss.
9. Genetic disorders: Certain genetic mutations can affect the development and function of the cerebellum, leading to a range of symptoms.
10. Degenerative diseases: Conditions such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease can cause degeneration of the cerebellum and lead to symptoms such as tremors, ataxia, and weakness.

It's important to note that this is not an exhaustive list, and there may be other causes of cerebellar symptoms not included here. A healthcare professional can help determine the underlying cause of your symptoms based on a thorough medical history and examination.

Some common types of eye abnormalities include:

1. Refractive errors: These are errors in the way the eye focuses light, causing blurry vision. Examples include myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness), astigmatism, and presbyopia (age-related loss of near vision).
2. Amblyopia: This is a condition where the brain favors one eye over the other, causing poor vision in the weaker eye.
3. Cataracts: A cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye that can cause blurry vision and increase the risk of glaucoma.
4. Glaucoma: This is a group of eye conditions that can damage the optic nerve and lead to vision loss.
5. Macular degeneration: This is a condition where the macula, the part of the retina responsible for central vision, deteriorates, leading to vision loss.
6. Diabetic retinopathy: This is a complication of diabetes that can damage the blood vessels in the retina and lead to vision loss.
7. Retinal detachment: This is a condition where the retina becomes separated from the underlying tissue, leading to vision loss.
8. Corneal abnormalities: These are irregularities in the shape or structure of the cornea, such as keratoconus, that can cause blurry vision.
9. Optic nerve disorders: These are conditions that affect the optic nerve, such as optic neuritis, that can cause vision loss.
10. Traumatic eye injuries: These are injuries to the eye or surrounding tissue that can cause vision loss or other eye abnormalities.

Eye abnormalities can be diagnosed through a comprehensive eye exam, which may include visual acuity tests, refraction tests, and imaging tests such as retinal photography or optical coherence tomography (OCT). Treatment for eye abnormalities depends on the specific condition and may include glasses or contact lenses, medication, surgery, or other therapies.

The basal body differs from the mother centriole in at least 2 aspects. First, basal bodies have basal feet, which are anchored ... The basal body serves as a nucleation site for the growth of the axoneme microtubules. Centrioles, from which basal bodies are ... Basal Body Components Exhibit Differential Protein Dynamics during Nascent Basal Body Assembly. Mol Biol Cell. Feb 1; 20(3): ... the mother centriole differentiates into the basal body upon entry into G1 or quiescence. Thus, the basal body in such a cell ...
... (BBT or BTP) is the lowest body temperature attained during rest (usually during sleep). It is usually ... Records of basal body temperature can be used to accurately determine if a woman is ovulating, and if the length of the post- ... Basal body temperature alone is most effective at preventing pregnancy if the couple abstains from intercourse from the ... Media related to Basal body temperature at Wikimedia Commons (All articles with unsourced statements, Articles with unsourced ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ALMS1 gene. This gene encodes ... "Entrez Gene: ALMS1, centrosome and basal body associated protein". Retrieved 2018-07-27. Collin GB, Marshall JD, Ikeda A, So WV ... "Subcellular localization of ALMS1 supports involvement of centrosome and basal body dysfunction in the pathogenesis of obesity ...
Basal bodies are present. Although hemosporidians and piroplasmids have normal triplets of microtubules in their basal bodies, ... The sporozoites escape from the oocyst and migrate within the body of the vector to the salivary glands where they are injected ... The apical complex consists of a set of spirally arranged microtubules (the conoid), a secretory body (the rhoptry) and one or ... The fertilized macrogamete forms a zygote that in its turn forms an oocyst that is normally released from the body. Syzygy, ...
"Basal Body Temperature". Pacific Fertility Center. Retrieved 6 March 2015. Benham, J. L.; Yamamoto, J. M.; Friedenreich, C. M ... Basal body temperatures are not reliable for predicting ovulation. Management of infertility in polycystic ovary syndrome ... A reason that insulin sensitizers work in increasing fertility is that they lower total insulin levels in body as metabolic ...
... where the axoneme and basal body meet) and the root system (microtubular or fibrilar structures that extend from the basal ... The basal body has several traits in common with some types of secretory pores, such as the hollow, rod-like "plug" in their ... Basal bodies are structurally identical to centrioles. The flagellum is encased within the cell's plasma membrane, so that the ... A shaft runs between the hook and the basal body, passing through protein rings in the cell's membrane that act as bearings. ...
The sixth flagellum emerges from a basal body the dorsal side of the body, independent of the basal body complex of the other ... Fibrillar appendages arise from the basal bodies. An axostyle also originates near the anterior basal bodies, passes through ... A lateral groove develops along the side of the body from the disc. Six flagella of varying lengths arise from the anterior end ... A recurrent flagellum is attached to the cell body by an undulating membrane and is free at the posterior end. The undulating ...
These basal bodies lie along the rostral tube and are made up of microtubules. The basal bodies are connected to a large Golgi ... Another key component of a Trichonympha cell is the basal body and parabasal fibres. Trichonympha has long basal bodies which ... The entire cell is covered in thousands of flagella which arise from basal bodies. There are several patterns of how the ... Guichard P, Gönczy P (December 2016). "Basal body structure in Trichonympha". Cilia. 5 (1): 9. doi:10.1186/s13630-016-0031-7. ...
... s are thought to be involved in the assembly of the basal body. The study of tektins has also been found to be useful in ... They are also present in centrioles and basal bodies. They are polymeric in nature, and form filaments. They include TEKT1, ... during spermatogenesis suggest that it is involved in the development of the sperm tail basal body and axoneme". Eur. J. Cell ...
The basal body was named by Theodor Wilhelm Engelmann in 1880. The pattern of centriole duplication was first worked out ... Beisson, J; Wright, M (2003). "Basal body/centriole assembly and continuity". Current Opinion in Cell Biology. 15 (1): 96-104. ... which becomes the basal body. An inability of cells to use centrioles to make functional flagella and cilia has been linked to ... The atypical distal centriole forms a dynamic basal complex (DBC) that, together with other structures in the sperm neck, ...
These arise from a basal body. In some flagellates, flagella direct food into a cytostome or mouth, where food is ingested. ...
Mutations in rotatin result in fewer, abnormally short cilia, with bulbous tips and multiple basal bodies. It is also involved ... Rotatin is involved in the maintenance of ciliary basal bodies. ...
... shaped green chromatophore and two flagella of equal length arising from the basal body and extending beyond the length of body ... One type connects to two basal bodies and one nucleus. The other type attaches to left and right plasma membrane at cell ...
Golgi bodies lie between the chloroplast and the basal bodies; cis-Golgi face the chloroplast and trans-Golgi face the basal ... The Golgi of Tetraselmis species has a distinct number of Golgi bodies usually within the range of 2-4, but species can have up ... The theca of most species closely encloses the cell body, but can become separated due to irregularities in cell shape. Theca ... See figure 1 for general features of the flagella and cell body of Tetraselmis species. They have a single large chloroplast, ...
"BBOF1 - Basal body-orientation factor 1 - Homo sapiens (Human) - BBOF1 gene & protein". "RecName: Full=Basal body-orientation ... Basal body-orientation factor 1 (BBOF1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the gene CCDC176, which is located on the ... This basal body protein has been shown in multiciliated cells to align and maintain cilia orientation in response to flow. This ... No other genes or proteins have been found that encode basal body orientation factors. A similar set of genes, tubulin tyrosine ...
The product of this gene localizes to centrosomes and basal bodies. It interacts and colocalizes with several proteins ...
... has four basal bodies (=kinetostomes) corresponding to its four flagella. Three parallel basal bodies are at the ... Parabasal filaments are observed between the nucleus and a disc-shaped parabasal body (which is the Golgi body), a synapomorphy ... situated close and anteriorally to the parabasal body which displays a common cisternae organization for Golgi bodies. ... Their body shape is roughly oval, measuring approximately 10 μm in length and 3 μm in width, although some specimen assume a ...
The flagellae arise from parallel basal bodies in a flagellar pocket. The single nucleus has a single nucleolus. The cell wall ...
This "transformation" includes de novo synthesis of basal bodies (or centrioles). It was first characterized in 1899, and the ...
The parabasal bodies consist of a Golgi body and a parabasal fiber, and are closely associated with the basal bodies of the ... the basal bodies are arranged tightly together within the flagellar bands, to such an extent that some basal bodies will ... Golgi bodies have been observed to overlap with parabasal fibers near the base of the nucleus. The basal bodies of a flagellar ... and specifically link basal bodies in triplets. KI fibers can change shape, which also changes the distance between basal ...
Basal body temperature changes during the menstrual cycle. Higher levels of progesterone released during the menstrual cycle ... A fertility monitor may analyze changes in hormone levels in urine, basal body temperature, electrical resistance of saliva and ... causes an abrupt increase in basal body temperature by 0.5 °C to 1 °C at the time of ovulation. This enables identification of ... "An elevated basal FSH reflects a quantitative rather than qualitative decline of the ovarian reserve". Human Reproduction ( ...
Along with their two flagella, they have two nearly parallel basal bodies. They also house discoid shaped mitochondrial cristae ... having a posterior flagellum attached to the body or free of it, and having an apical cytostome. Many Neobodo species derived ...
The microtubule skeleton is prominent along with the development of basal bodies. The entire flagellar structure consists of ... The pseudopodia are actin based extensions of the body and form at irregular regions of the cell. Movement occurs in this stage ...
The body is angular, the basal curvature very slight. It contains probably 10 whorls in the conch of the perfect adult. The ... The area in front of the fasciole is undulated by the axials, which number 14 on the body of the holotype but which run as low ... They become obsolete upon the base of the body. The spirals are low, flattened, and rather obscure, usually 3 upon the ... Ssecondaries are fortuitously introduced upon the base of the body. The fasciole exhibits an obscure spiral liration anteriorly ...
Hall JL, Ramanis Z, Luck DJ (October 1989). "Basal body/centriolar DNA: molecular genetic studies in Chlamydomonas". Cell. 59 ( ... and in many cases is the basal body from which the cilium grows. An intermediate stage between spindle and cilium would be a ... first in the various early-branching single-celled eukaryotes that have a microtubule basal body, where microtubules on one end ...
All of these taxa have basal body core connections. With an increase in the number of taxa for which sequence data are ...
Cilia and flagella always extend directly from a MTOC, in this case termed the basal body. The action of the dynein motor ... For example, cilia and flagella have MTOCs at their base termed basal bodies. In addition, work from the Kaverina group at ... such as the centrosome found in the center of many animal cells or the basal bodies of cilia and flagella, or the spindle pole ... MAP-2 proteins are located in the dendrites and in the body of neurons, where they bind with other cytoskeletal filaments. The ...
A system of tubules connects the basal bodies from which the macrocilia grow. The macrocilia move in unison. They are angled ... The body is melon or cone-shaped with a wide mouth and pharynx and a capacious gastrovascular cavity. Many meridional canals ... The sack-like body of the Beroe species may be cylindrical in cross section, or compressed to varying amounts according to ... The eight combs of cilia extend part way along the body in ribs. The combs are used in locomotion, with the cilia beating in ...
The actin is recruits IFT to basal bodies during the elongation of flagella; and without actin the flagellar length is lost. ...
It is often compound, with several fruit bodies arising from the basal portion. Fruit bodies may bruise reddish-brown where ... The fruit body is vase- or fan-shaped with wavy edges to its rim, and grows up to 15-16 cm (6-6+1⁄4 in) wide and 17 cm (6+3⁄4 ... The fruit body is up to 15 cm (6 in) wide and 17 cm (6+3⁄4 in) tall, fan-shaped with wavy edges. The upper surfaces of the ... Fruit bodies are easily missed because their colors blend with those of the forest floor. It is more common at elevations of ...
Characterized by a pair of frontal appendages and series of body flaps, the name of Dinocaridids comes from Greek, "deinos" and ... Dinocaridida is a proposed fossil taxon of basal arthropods that flourished in the Cambrian period with occasional Ordovician ... Dinocaridids were bilaterally symmetrical, with a mostly non-mineralized cuticle and a body divided into two major groupings of ... It is most likely paraphyletic, with Kerygmachela and Pambdelurion more basal than the clade compose of Opabiniidae, Radiodonta ...
... was a basal litoptern, a clade of mammals that diversified in South America during the Cenozoic. Protolipterna is ... It had a compact body and elongated and slender legs. Its general appearance was comparable to that of a modern chevrotain. Its ... the eponymous genus of Protolipternidae, a possibly paraphyletic family including some of the most basal members of Litopterna ...
Wen Wen; Qi-Yue Zhang; Chang-Yong Zhou; Jin-Yuan Huang; Zhong Qiang Chen; Michael J. Benton (2012). "A new genus of basal ... Alexandre F. Bannikov & Roberto Zorzin (2012). "A new genus and species of deep-bodies squamipinne-like percoid fish ( ... Alexandre F. Bannikov & Giorgio Carnevale (2012). "A long-bodied centriscoid fish from the basal Eocene of Kabardino-Balkaria, ...
... were again basal traits. The fused mandibular symphysis might indicate a relation with the Marginocephalia. Very basal ... of premaxillary body length; a dentary extending posteriorly almost to the posterior border of the angular; and the claw of the ... Later cladistic analyses have recovered a basal position in the (Eu)ornithopoda. The following cladogram was based on analysis ... Using the comparative method, they pointed out some similarities to basal Euornithopoda: a small antorbital fenestra; the ...
The presence of inclusion bodies known as Papp-Lantos bodies, in the movement, balance, and autonomic-control centres of the ... This is caused by progressive degeneration of neurons in several parts of the brain including the basal ganglia, inferior ... The conformation of the alpha-synuclein is different from that of alpha-synuclein in Lewy bodies. The disease probably starts ... Tau proteins have been found in some glial cytoplasmic inclusion bodies. Clinical diagnostic criteria were defined in 1998 and ...
The basal metabolic rate of an organism is the measure of the amount of energy consumed by all of these chemical reactions. A ... There is only a small amount of ATP in cells, but as it is continuously regenerated, the human body can use about its own ... As a result, after long-term starvation, vertebrates need to produce ketone bodies from fatty acids to replace glucose in ... About 99% of a human's body weight is made up of the elements carbon, nitrogen, calcium, sodium, chlorine, potassium, hydrogen ...
It adapted to the grassland with a more cursorial body plan than more basal entelodonts like Archaeotherium, losing their ...
Basal species, such as plants, form the first level and are the resource limited species that feed on no other living creature ... To maintain their bodies, grow, develop, and to reproduce, autotrophs produce organic matter from inorganic substances, ... The base or basal species in a food web are those species without prey and can include autotrophs or saprophytic detritivores ( ... Basal species can be autotrophs or detritivores, including "decomposing organic material and its associated microorganisms ...
The body's thin periphery is built up by very small marginal plates. One distinct characteristic of those in this family is the ... The rays are discrete with a wide basal end and taper distally to the rounded end. At a radial size of 4mm, the star may have ... Asterinid sea stars are typically quite small with an often pentagonal-shaped body, though there are exceptions. They are ...
Members of the group were armoured with scutes which covered large areas of the body. They first appeared in southern Pangea ... Recent cladistic analyses reveal that lanthanosuchids have a much more basal position in the Procolophonomorpha, and that the ... This dentition, together with the deep body, which may have housed an extensive digestive tract, are evidence of a herbivorous ... Schoch, Rainer R.; Sues, Hans-Dieter (2015). "A Middle Triassic stem-turtle and the evolution of the turtle body plan". Nature ...
For example, if a bee went to one flower and pollen was deposited on the far back of her body, but then it flew to another ... The flowering stems bear small bracts, dissimilar to the basal leaves-in some species the bracts are ornamental and showy. The ... the stigma is bent down in a general location that corresponds to where the pollen was deposited on the pollinator's body. The ... arm can be specialized to be different lengths so that the pollen is deposited on different parts of the pollinator's body. ...
estimate a total body length of 148.9 to 167.7 centimetres (4.89 to 5.50 ft) depending on the proportions used for the ... A phylogenetic analysis published alongside its initial description placed Gnatusuchus as the most basal member of the clade ... The upper estimates are based on the American Alligator, while a smaller body length was recovered using the proportions of ... Gnatusuchus shared its environment with 2 other taxa of durophagous caimans, the basal Kuttanacaiman and Caiman wannlangstoni, ...
The interior of the nacreous aperture is smooth, and has a flattened rib near the outer and basal margin. It differs from the ... These ribs are crossed by 2 spiral cords, with short, hollow scales, about 25 in number on the body whorl. On the last, rounded ... which forms a conspicuous angle with the basal margin. The parietal wall has a thin layer of enamel, forming a small projection ... allied species, by the rows of short scales, and from all the preceding species, by the rounded periphery of the body whorl. ...
The Simoselaps group which B. fasciolatus is a part of has a basal lineage to Australian oxyuranines. Whereas positioning of ... There are 17 rows of scales mid-body on average. Brachyurophis fasciolatusis one of eight currently recognised species within ... Its common names reflect its shovel nose specialization, burrowing behaviour and banded body colour. The narrow-banded shovel- ... a pale reddish-brown to cream coloured background and black-tipped scales that form 50 or more narrow bands across the body, ...
Roger B. J. Benson; Mark Evans & Patrick S. Druckenmiller (2012). "High Diversity, Low Disparity and Small Body Size in ... Pistosaurus is believed to be a transitional form linking plesiosaurs to their basal sauropterygian forebears. 1840 Owen ... Peggy Vincent & Roger B. J. Benson (2012). "Anningasaura, a basal plesiosaurian (Reptilia, Plesiosauria) from the Lower ... of mudstone and shale derived from sediments that once filled in a crustacean burrow system and were not even animal body ...
Different parts of the body may age at different rates. Two organisms of the same species can also age at different rates, ... which states that fast basal metabolic rate corresponds to short maximum life span. While there may be some validity to the ... In a 2007 analysis it was shown that, when modern statistical methods for correcting for the effects of body size and phylogeny ... Certain metal ions found in the body, such as copper and iron, may participate in the process. (In Wilson's disease, a ...
The body outline visible around the specimen is an artifact of preparation, not preservation; no remains of soft tissue were ... Smith & Dyke, 2008 were the first who found Hauffiosaurus to be basal pliosauroid. Benson, Ketchum, Noè and Gómez-Pérez who ... Benson suggested for the first time that many basal plesiosaurs and pliosauroids are members of Pliosauridae and ...
Females of this species are about 30mm long, with a pale yellow body and a red head; bearing 12-15 pleural pores; long, ... tapering antennae with sparse basal sections and rather hairy distal sections; and a labrum with four median tubercles bearing ...
They are characterised by the body wall and the lemnisci (which are a bundle of sensory nerve fibers), which have nuclei that ... basal). There are four orders in the class Archiacanthocephala: Apororhynchida Gigantorhynchida Moniliformida ... The worms are also characterised by the body wall and the lemnisci (which are a bundle of sensory nerve fibers), which have ...
This may include traumatic experience with their own bodies, dissatisfaction with body image, low-self esteem, anxiety, ... Basal cortisol levels and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is essential in diagnosing panhypopituitarism and enzymatic ... In most cases, surgical procedures result in permanent changes to the appearance and function of the patient's body. Therefore ... However, cases where surgical treatments were performed at an early age are recognised as mutilation of the body. Subsequently ...
"Age of Neoproterozoic Bilaterian Body and Trace Fossils, White Sea, Russia: Implications for Metazoan Evolution". Science. 288 ... and the polarity of morphological characters in basal deuterostomes". Palaeontology. 54 (3): 711-719. doi:10.1111/j.1475- ...
Legs and body beneath yellow. Female Larger than the male, with the yellow discal basal throughout in the posterior wings, but ... Body above brown, head and thorax interspersed with yellow hairs; abdomen narrowly banded with yellow; palpi black above, ... Underside sulphur-yellow; forewing with a broad darkbrown basal streak, a small spot at end of cell, and a large patch at ... Upperside blackish-brown; cilia yellow, slightly alternated with black; forewing with a gamboge-yellow basal streak, and a ...
A sub-basal line and an antemedial vinous and black band found with a line beyond it. The medial area vinous and black, with a ... Body grass green with black irrorations and more or less vinous reddish suffusion. Abdomen with black second segment. Forewings ...
The basal ventrite is very large. Species are generally found within mud and sand at the periphery of rivers and streams, but ... Georissidae are small beetles (length 1-2 mm). They have a broadly oval body whose outline is more or less interrupted between ...
The body is streamlined, without a dorsal ridge between the two dorsal fins. The first dorsal fin is moderately tall and ... Furthermore, the smooth hammerhead is among the more basal hammerhead species, indicating that the first hammerheads to evolve ... The cephalofoil is wide but short, measuring 26-29% of the body length across. The nostrils are located near the ends of the ...
As the basal lineage of bilateral animals, the Acoela provide interesting insights into early animal evolution and development ... This refers to the fact that acoels have a structure lacking a fluid-filled body cavity. Acoels are very small flattened worms ... Jimenez-Guri E, Paps J, Garcia-Fernandez J, Salo E (2006), "Hox and ParaHox genes in Nemertodermatida, a basal bilaterian clade ... the layer of tissue that fills the body. Digestion is accomplished by means of a syncytium that forms a vacuole around ingested ...
Vander's Human Physiology: The Mechanisms of Body Function. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education, 2016. Thomsen, L.; Robinson, T ... The basal electrical rhythm allows the smooth muscle cell to depolarize and contract rhythmically when exposed to hormonal ... The basal or basic electrical rhythm (BER) or electrical control activity (ECA) is the spontaneous depolarization and ... The basal electrical rhythm controls the frequency of contraction but additional neuronal and hormonal controls regulate the ...
Their thermoneutral body temperature is around (34.4 °C.) Penile morphology and molecular biology suggest that the Sandhill ... dunnart is a basal Sminthopsis, without a clear relationship to any other species. The Sandhill Dunnart's physiology also ... From an analysis of the sandhill dunnart's metabolic, thermal, and ventilatory physiology, the organism's body temperature ... with an adult body mass of 35g (females) to 44g (males); only the Julia Creek dunnart (S. douglasi; 40-70 g) is larger. ...
At the bottom of this reservoir lie the basal bodies (centrioles) from which the flagella extend. One flagellum is relatively ... body. However, because that name had already been applied to a genus of fungi, he amended the genus to Peranema, formed from ... and the paraflagellar body (photoreceptor) that is normally coupled with that organelle. However, while Peranema lack a ... took the flagellum for a necklike extension of the body, and placed it in the ciliate genus Trachelius. Peranema was correctly ...
The cell bodies of these primary neurons are located in the dorsal root ganglia. In the spinal cord, the axons synapse and the ... The alar plate and the basal plate are separated by the sulcus limitans. Additionally, the floor plate also secretes netrins. ... The spinal cord is continuous with the caudal portion of the medulla, running from the base of the skull to the body of the ... Although the spinal cord cell bodies end around the L1/L2 vertebral level, the spinal nerves for each segment exit at the level ...
Basal body temperature (BBT) charting may even identify pregnancy. ... Although your basal body temperature cant predict ovulation, you can determine if and when you ovulated a few days after it ... Basal body temperature charting is a great way to track your cycles and ovulation patterns. It can also help your healthcare ... This means your basal body temperature will drop too-unless youre pregnant, in which case your temperatures will remain higher ...
Scattered evidence indicates that a lower basal body temperature may be associated with prolonged health span, yet few studies ... Basal body temperature as a biomarker of healthy aging Eleanor M Simonsick 1 , Helen C S Meier 2 , Nancy Chiles Shaffer 3 , ... Basal body temperature as a biomarker of healthy aging Eleanor M Simonsick et al. Age (Dordr). 2016 Dec. ... Scattered evidence indicates that a lower basal body temperature may be associated with prolonged health span, yet few studies ...
ALMS1 centrosome and basal body associated protein (human). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds ... ALMS1 ALMS1 centrosome and basal body associated protein [Homo sapiens] ALMS1 ALMS1 centrosome and basal body associated ... ALMS1 centrosome and basal body associated proteinprovided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:428 See related. Ensembl: ... ALMS1 ALMS1 centrosome and basal body associated protein [ Homo sapiens (human) ] Gene ID: 7840, updated on 18-Aug-2023 ...
Basal Body Temperature Accuracy. To help in this process, we suggest using a basal body thermometer. You can find them at most ... Taking Your Basal Body Temperature. Your basal body temperature (BBT) changes throughout the month according to where you are ... Basal Body Temperature. Whether you are trying to prevent or achieve pregnancy, charting your cycle can help. As you go through ... Here are some tips to help you get an accurate reading for your basal body temperature:. *Keep the thermometer by your bedside. ...
The Fertilitae basal body thermometer is compatible with our free app. The app automatically graphs your data, allowing for ... You can use a basal body thermometer to detect your fertile window and confirm ovulation. ... You can use a basal body thermometer to detect your fertile window and confirm ovulation. The Fertilitae basal body thermometer ... "BLUETOOTH BASAL BODY THERMOMETER","public_title":null,"options":["Default Title"],"price":2900,"weight":0,"compare_at_price": ...
The basal body temperature (BBT) is the bodys lowest temperature during rest, and it is an important biomarker of a womans ... Fertility charting and fertility awareness methods rely on the tracking of basal body temperature to help confirm ovulation in ... Everything you need to know about charting Basal Body Temperature (BBT) for Fertility Awareness Method ...
... basal body temperature is key in using the fertility awareness method for avoiding pregnancy, getting pregnant, or charting ... It is a heck of a lot easier to stick with taking your basal body temperature. All you have to remember to do is put your ... With an oral basal body thermometer, your temperature can be impacted by any number of outside factors, such as ... Ensuring you are charting both cervical fluid and basal body temperature will give you a backup indicator of fertility if you ...
Basal bodies in sperm and Head-Tail linkage. Our lab is interested in the proper formation of basal bodies (centriole) that ... In recent years, we have focused on sperm basal bodies and how they properly attach to haploid nuclei. ... Drosophila Pericentrin requires interaction with Calmodulin for its function at centrosomes and neuronal basal bodies, but not ... at sperm basal bodies. Galletta BJ#, Guillen RX#, Fagerstrom CJ, Brownlee CW, Lerit DA, Megraw TL, Rogers GC, Rusan NM.. (# co- ...
Basal bodies in sperm and Head-Tail linkage. Our lab is interested in the proper formation of basal bodies (centriole) that ... In recent years, we have focused on sperm basal bodies and how they properly attach to haploid nuclei. ... Drosophila Pericentrin requires interaction with Calmodulin for its function at centrosomes and neuronal basal bodies, but not ... at sperm basal bodies. Galletta BJ#, Guillen RX#, Fagerstrom CJ, Brownlee CW, Lerit DA, Megraw TL, Rogers GC, Rusan NM.. (# co- ...
Clue Conceive is designed so you dont need to track basal body temperature (BBT) to get predictions for your fertile days. As ... Why cant I track basal body temperature (BBT) in Clue Conceive? Thiago Santos ... Clue Conceive is designed so you dont need to track basal body temperature (BBT) to get predictions for your fertile days. ...
Being healthy means understanding how your body works and what it needs to stay healthy. Learn the definition of some general ... Basal Body Temperature. Basal body temperature is your temperature at rest when you wake up in the morning. This temperature ... Body Mass Index. Body Mass Index (BMI) is an estimate of your body fat. It is calculated from your height and weight. It can ... Body Temperature. Body temperature is a measure of your bodys level of heat. Source: NIH MedlinePlus ...
Furthermore, pro-basal bodies formed under conditions conducive for 9+2 axoneme formation can form a 9+0 axoneme de novo. We ... conclude that pro-centrioles/pro-basal bodies are multipotent and not committed to form either a 9+2 or 9+0 axoneme. In an ... Furthermore, pro-basal bodies formed under conditions conducive for 9+2 axoneme formation can form a 9+0 axoneme de novo. We ... Basal body multipotency and axonemal remodelling are two pathways to a 9+0 flagellum. ...
Salmonella flagellar basal body refined in C1 map ... Salmonella flagellar basal body refined in C1 map Coordinates. ... Johnson, S. et al., Molecular structure of the intact bacterial flagellar basal body. Nat Microbiol (2021) Release Date. 2021- ...
Find out how to track ovulation using a period and ovulation tracker, the cervical mucus method, basal body temperature, or a ... thats known as taking your basal body temperature. Taking your basal body temperature every single day before you get out of ... Chart your basal body temperature. "Your body temperature rises when you are ovulating," explains Hackel. Most peoples ... "Using the basal body temperature method with the cervical mucus method is the best way to get an accurate idea if ovulation is ...
Charting your Basal Body Temperature - BBT July 30, 2010. * Overweight Women and Pregnancy: Useful Information November 10, ...
A rise in basal body temperature. *Increase in serum progesterone. *Menstruation following a shift in basal body temperature ... and stillborn pups at doses representing 5 and 41 times the lowest clinical dose of 75 International Units based on body ... not observed in dams and offspring dosed at a level 5 times the lowest clinical dose of 75 International Units based on body ... and prolonged parturition in all dams dosed at 41 times the lowest clinical dose of 75 International Units based on body ...
microtubule basal body A high resolution image of a dikinetid of Euplotes shows the transverse microtub... ... microtubule basal body Image of a dikinetid of Euplotes shows the transverse microtubular ribbon as wel... ...
... that is used by a body when it is at rest. Heredity, height, body composition, and ... Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the average daily amount of energy (calories) ... Heredity, height, body composition, and age determine a persons basal metabolic rate. It is also known as basal energy ... Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the average daily amount of energy (calories) that is used by a body when it is at rest. ...
MeSH Terms: Basal Bodies/metabolism; Cell Cycle; Cell Differentiation; Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/genetics*; Chlamydomonas ... Genes associated with complex structures and processes, including cell cycle control, flagella and basal bodies, ribosome ... flagella and basal body structure/function, cell growth and division, and many others. We combined a highly synchronous ... tool to classify and/or validate genes from other data sets related to the cell cycle and to flagella and basal bodies and to ...
... that arises from basal cells (ie, small, round cells found in the lower layer of the epidermis). The prognosis for patients ... Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a nonmelanocytic skin cancer (ie, an epithelial tumor) ... Body mass index, height and early-onset basal cell carcinoma in a case-control study. Cancer Epidemiol. 2017 Feb. 46:66-72. [ ... Pigmented basal cell carcinoma has features of nodular basal cell carcinoma with the addition of dark pigmentation from melanin ...
... tracking basal body temperature; and using ovulation predictor kits [200]. Basal body temperature monitoring is useful for ... Further testing is usually required and may include a hormonal work-up, hysterosalpingogram, basal body temperature (for three ... It is precisely this lack of metabolic fuel, coupled with depleted stores of body fat, that triggers sensors to cause the body ... increasing basal body temperature, and preventing uterine contractions and the development of new follicles [26]. If ...
BASAL BODY TEMPERATURE (BBT). The body temperature when taken at its lowest point, usually in the morning before getting out of ... A chemical substance that travels via the bloodstream and carries a signal from one part of the body to another. HUMAN ... Literally meaning "in glass," the term refers to fertilization that takes place outside the body in a small glass dish. This ... Use of high-frequency sound waves that are reflected off solid tissues to give an image of internal body structures. This ...
basal body - A structure that anchors the base of the flagellum and allows it to rotate.. capsule - A layer on the outside of ...
ALMS1: ALMS1 centrosome and basal body associated protein. *ALOX12B: arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase, 12R type ...
The basal ganglia help coordinate the movements of muscles throughout the body. Recent research has found abnormalities in ... Spasmodic dysphonia may occur along with other forms of dystonia that cause repeated spasms in other parts of the body, ... Spasmodic dysphonia is thought to be caused by abnormal functioning in an area of the brain called the basal ganglia. ...
The Natural Cycles app uses a fertility awareness method based on basal body temperature (BBT). Women enter their temperature ... Make sure patients know to use a basal thermometer, which is more sensitive than a regular thermometer. A basal thermometer is ...
Symptoms-based methods: FAB methods based on observation of fertility signs (e.g., cervical secretions or basal body ... Clarification: Elevated temperatures might make basal body temperature difficult to interpret but have no effect on cervical ... whether by observing fertility signs such as cervical secretions and basal body temperature or by monitoring cycle days (Box F1 ... Diseases that elevate body temperature. a. Chronic diseases. Caution. Accept. ...
  • You can use a basal body temperature (BBT) chart to conceive faster by determining your most fertile days. (
  • Here's everything you could want to know about basal body temperature charting. (
  • This means your basal body temperature will drop too- unless you're pregnant, in which case your temperatures will remain higher because progesterone will stay high. (
  • The first step to charting your basal body temperature is getting a chart to record your temperature. (
  • You can find sample charts in some fertility books, such as Take Charge of Your Fertility (Harper Perennial)-a book considered by many to be the go-to resource for basal body temperature charting guidance. (
  • Once you have something to record your temperature on, it's time to start taking your basal body temperature. (
  • There are thermometers made especially for tracking your body basal temperature. (
  • Scattered evidence indicates that a lower basal body temperature may be associated with prolonged health span, yet few studies have directly evaluated this relationship. (
  • Since excessive adiposity (body mass index ≥35 kg/m 2 or waist-to-height ratio ≥0.62) may alter temperature set point, associations were also examined within adiposity strata. (
  • Your basal body temperature (BBT) changes throughout the month according to where you are in your cycle. (
  • Basil body temperature is the temperature of a woman's body while at rest. (
  • Many people are aware that charting basil body temperature (BBT) is an important and helpful method of helping a woman determine when she is going to ovulate, thereby optimizing the best chance for pregnancy . (
  • Use a basil body temperature thermometer. (
  • A woman should continue to take her basil body temperature every day for the rest of her menstrual cycle. (
  • One thing a woman should look for as she continues to take her basil body temperature after ovulation is the implantation dip. (
  • Further, basil body temperature can be one of the first indicators that a woman is pregnant. (
  • Basil body temperature remains elevated when pregnancy has occurred. (
  • If basil body temperature remains elevated for 18 days after ovulation, a woman should consider taking a pregnancy test. (
  • Remember that basil body temperature measurement is not an exact science. (
  • Fertility charting and fertility awareness methods rely on the tracking of basal body temperature to help confirm ovulation in retrospect. (
  • The basal body temperature (BBT) is the body's lowest temperature during rest, and it is an important biomarker of a woman's menstrual cycle. (
  • As one of the main observable signs of your fertility status, basal body temperature (BBT) is key in using many fertility awareness methods for any family planning intention, or for charting your cycle for health. (
  • Ensuring you are charting both cervical fluid and basal body temperature will give you a backup indicator of fertility if you miss a day of temping. (
  • It is a heck of a lot easier to stick with taking your basal body temperature. (
  • This means that Tempdrop is smart enough to get your actual basal body temperature, even if you drink alcohol the night before, get up in the middle of the night, or travel to a different time zone. (
  • Basal body temperature is your temperature at rest when you wake up in the morning. (
  • Body temperature is a measure of your body's level of heat. (
  • Tracking the changes in your mucus during your cycle, along with changes in your basal body temperature, may help you figure out when you are ovulating. (
  • Why can't I track basal body temperature (BBT) in Clue Conceive? (
  • Clue Conceive is designed so you don't need to track basal body temperature (BBT) to get predictions for your fertile days. (
  • ELI5] Does Basal Metabolic Rate affect body surface temperature or is it the other way around? (
  • The body is capable of keeping temperature withing a narrow range even as metabolism and energy expenditure increases, however. (
  • This may seem to contrast with the idea that thyroid hormone increases metabolism *and* also increases body temperature. (
  • There is evidence that suggests that the increase in body temperature associated with thyroid hormone is not caused by the increased thermogenesis (heat generation) but rather by some other mechanism. (
  • The Natural Cycles app uses a fertility awareness method based on basal body temperature (BBT). (
  • Fertility awareness-based (FAB) methods of family planning involve identifying the fertile days of the menstrual cycle, whether by observing fertility signs such as cervical secretions and basal body temperature or by monitoring cycle days ( Box F1 ) ( Table F1 ). (
  • FAB methods based on observation of fertility signs (e.g., cervical secretions or basal body temperature) such as the cervical mucus method, the symptothermal method, and the TwoDay method. (
  • Monitors on the body measure heart rate, movement, and temperature. (
  • To help in this process, we suggest using a basal body thermometer. (
  • You can use a basal body thermometer to detect your fertile window and confirm ovulation. (
  • The Fertilitae basal body thermometer is compatible with our free app. (
  • Since the change during ovulation is only about 1/2 degree F (1/3 degree C), you should use a sensitive thermometer such as a basal body thermometer. (
  • Make sure patients know to use a basal thermometer, which is more sensitive than a regular thermometer. (
  • A basal thermometer is included with an annual subscription to Natural Cycles, or one can be purchased for less than $20 at most pharmacies. (
  • During ovulation, your body releases the hormone progesterone. (
  • But given how much information ovulation can tell you about both your reproductive and overall health, all uterus-owners can benefit from knowing when they're ovulating and what's going on with their body during that time. (
  • Furthermore, pro-basal bodies formed under conditions conducive for 9+2 axoneme formation can form a 9+0 axoneme de novo. (
  • We conclude that pro-centrioles/pro-basal bodies are multipotent and not committed to form either a 9+2 or 9+0 axoneme. (
  • Molecular structure of the intact bacterial flagellar basal body. (
  • Genes for the hook-basal body proteins of the flagellar apparatus in Escherichia coli. (
  • 1971) Attachment of Flagellar Basal Bodies to the Cell Envelope: Specific Attachment to the Outer, Lipopolysaccharide, Membrane and the Cytoplasmic Membrane, J. Bacteriology 105:396-407. (
  • DePamphilis, M.L. (1971) Dissociation and Reassembly of E. coli Outer Membrane and of Lipopolysaccharide, and their Reassembly onto Flagellar Basal Bodies, J. Bacteriology 105:1184-1199. (
  • Radiotherapy for cutaneous squamous and basal cell carcinomas of the head and neck. (
  • 9. Profiles of keratin proteins in basal and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin. (
  • 4. Granular cell basal cell carcinoma. (
  • Researchers at the National Eye Institute (NEI) have described the functions of a gene responsible for anchoring cilia - sensory hair-like extensions present on almost every cell of the body. (
  • They show in a mouse model that without the gene Cc2d2a, cilia throughout the body failed to grow, and the mice died during the embryonic stage. (
  • The finding adds to an expanding body of knowledge about ciliopathies, a class of genetic disorders that result from defects in the structure or function of cilia. (
  • On individual cells, cilia grow from the basal body, a circular dent on the outer membrane acting as a platform. (
  • Supporting structures called distal and subdistal appendages, which are like the flying buttresses supporting Notre Dame Cathedral, anchor the platform in the basal body, priming it for the growth of cilia. (
  • By continuing to study how these genes work and interact, Dr. Swaroop said he hopes to gain further insight into not just how defects in genes related to cilia development in the retina cause vision problems, but the wider impact of these defects across body system and organs. (
  • The basal bodies of CILIA . (
  • Charting your menstrual cycle may help you become pregnant more quickly by giving you a fertile window that is unique to your body. (
  • Residual bodies are dense basophilic, globular bodies comprising redundant organelles and excess cytoplasm shed from the elongating spermatid in its final steps of maturation. (
  • The lowest level of energy the body needs to function is called basal metabolic rate. (
  • Sub-study 2: to measure the effects of anti-obesity drugs on basal metabolic rate. (
  • Genes associated with complex structures and processes, including cell cycle control, flagella and basal bodies, ribosome biogenesis, and energy metabolism, all had distinct signatures of coexpression with strong predictive value for assigning and temporally ordering function. (
  • Coexpression was further used both as a data-mining tool to classify and/or validate genes from other data sets related to the cell cycle and to flagella and basal bodies and to assign isoforms of duplicated enzymes to their cognate pathways of central carbon metabolism. (
  • Background: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a type of fat in the body. (
  • 16. Inclusion body fibromatosis. (
  • Correlation of embryonic fusion planes with the anatomical distribution of basal cell carcinoma. (
  • With type 1 diabetes, an infection or another trigger causes the body to mistakenly attack the beta cells in the pancreas that make insulin. (
  • 3. Basal cell carcinoma with myoepithelial differentiation: a distinct plasmacytoid cell variant with hyaline inclusions. (
  • As you go through your menstrual cycle, your body gives you indications about when you are ovulating. (
  • 19. Expression of cytokeratin 8 in basal cell carcinoma: a comparative immunohistochemical and immunoelectron microscopy study. (
  • The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a useful model organism for investigating diverse biological processes, such as photosynthesis and chloroplast biogenesis, flagella and basal body structure/function, cell growth and division, and many others. (
  • Although basal cell carcinoma rarely metastasizes, a tumor can extend beneath the skin to the bone, causing considerable local damage due to tissue destruction. (
  • Basal cell carcinoma: Contemporary approaches to diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. (
  • Kim DP, Kus KJB, Ruiz E. Basal Cell Carcinoma Review. (
  • Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Dorsal Hand: An Update and Comprehensive Review of the Literature. (
  • Guideline] Dandurand M, Petit T, Martel P, Guillot B. Management of basal cell carcinoma in adults Clinical practice guidelines. (
  • Update of the European guidelines for basal cell carcinoma management. (
  • NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Basal Cell Skin Cancer. (
  • Ozyazgan I, Kontas O. Previous injuries or scars as risk factors for the development of basal cell carcinoma. (
  • Keyhani K, Ashenhurst M, Oryschak A. Periocular basal cell carcinoma arising in a site of previous trauma. (
  • Geisse J, Caro I, Lindholm J, Golitz L, Stampone P, Owens M. Imiquimod 5% cream for the treatment of superficial basal cell carcinoma: results from two phase III, randomized, vehicle-controlled studies. (
  • 1. Basal cell carcinoma with hyaline inclusions. (
  • 5. Immunofluorescent localization of cytokeratin intermediate filaments as a means of defining the presence of recurrent basal cell carcinoma. (
  • 7. [Cytoid bodies in basal cell epithelioma]. (
  • 15. [Recurrence of a basal cell carcinoma in a skin graft in spite of total excision. (
  • 18. Basal cell carcinoma--signet ring type. (
  • The phrase lives of a cell refers to the independent yet interrelated parts of a human cell including mitochondria, centrioles, and basal bodies that once led independent lives. (
  • Body Mass Index (BMI) is an estimate of your body fat. (
  • Eligibility: People ages 18-40 with a body mass index between 18 and 40 Design: Participants will be screened with: Medical history Physical exam Blood, urine, and heart tests Dietitian interview Participants will have an overnight baseline visit. (
  • That is how the body uses food and other nutrients for normal function and energy. (
  • Researchers want to see if BAT helps the body burn energy. (
  • Background: The body uses energy from calories for basic functions like breathing and digesting food. (
  • The body is unable to use the glucose for energy. (
  • Abnormally large residual bodies can sometimes be seen as an incidental background finding in mice or as a chemically induced degenerative change in mice and rats. (
  • When water on the skin evaporates, it cools the body. (
  • 2-amino-4-nitrophenol (predominant) and There are no recent monitoring data for for weight loss and body building by 4-amino-2-nitrophenol and then to levels of dinitrophenols in air. (
  • Figure Legend: Figure 1 Testis - Atypical residual bodies in a B6C3F1 mouse from a subchronic study. (
  • Dinitrophenols are used in the Dinitrophenols exist in both the vapor fetal/pup body weight and length. (
  • Testis - Atypical residual bodies region of the stage IX and X tubule, where they are phagocytized and disappear. (
  • This is a condition that occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys healthy body tissue. (