A species of gram-negative bacteria in which man is the primary host and the human body louse, Pediculus humanus, the principal vector. It is the etiological agent of TRENCH FEVER.
An intermittent fever characterized by intervals of chills, fever, and splenomegaly each of which may last as long as 40 hours. It is caused by BARTONELLA QUINTANA and transmitted by the human louse.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria characteristically appearing in chains of several segmenting organisms. It occurs in man and arthropod vectors and is found only in the Andes region of South America. This genus is the etiologic agent of human bartonellosis. The genus Rochalimaea, once considered a separate genus, has recently been combined with the genus Bartonella as a result of high levels of relatedness in 16S rRNA sequence data and DNA hybridization data.
Infections by the genus BARTONELLA. Bartonella bacilliformis can cause acute febrile anemia, designated Oroya fever, and a benign skin eruption, called verruga peruana. BARTONELLA QUINTANA causes TRENCH FEVER, while BARTONELLA HENSELAE is the etiologic agent of bacillary angiomatosis (ANGIOMATOSIS, BACILLARY) and is also one of the causes of CAT-SCRATCH DISEASE in immunocompetent patients.
A species of gram-negative bacteria that is the etiologic agent of bacillary angiomatosis (ANGIOMATOSIS, BACILLARY). This organism can also be a cause of CAT-SCRATCH DISEASE in immunocompetent patients.
Lice of the genus Pediculus, family Pediculidae. Pediculus humanus corporus is the human body louse and Pediculus humanus capitis is the human head louse.
A reactive vascular proliferation that is characterized by the multiple tumor-like lesions in skin, bone, brain, and other organs. Bacillary angiomatosis is caused by infection with gram-negative Bartonella bacilli (such as BARTONELLA HENSELAE), and is often seen in AIDS patients and other IMMUNOCOMPROMISED HOSTS.
An order of small, wingless parasitic insects, commonly known as lice. The suborders include ANOPLURA (sucking lice); AMBLYCERA; ISCHNOCERA; and Rhynchophthirina (elephant and warthog lice).
A self-limiting bacterial infection of the regional lymph nodes caused by AFIPIA felis, a gram-negative bacterium recently identified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and by BARTONELLA HENSELAE. It usually arises one or more weeks following a feline scratch, with raised inflammatory nodules at the site of the scratch being the primary symptom.
Persons who have no permanent residence. The concept excludes nomadic peoples.
The classic form of typhus, caused by RICKETTSIA PROWAZEKII, which is transmitted from man to man by the louse Pediculus humanus corporis. This disease is characterized by the sudden onset of intense headache, malaise, and generalized myalgia followed by the formation of a macular skin eruption and vascular and neurologic disturbances.
Arthropods, other than insects and arachnids, which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
A family of small gram-negative bacteria whose organisms are parasites of erythrocytes in man and other vertebrates and the etiologic agents of several diseases.
The type species of the genus BARTONELLA, a gram-negative bacteria found in humans. It is found in the mountain valleys of Peru, Ecuador, and Southwest Columbia where the sandfly (see PHLEBOTOMUS) vector is present. It causes OROYA FEVER and VERRUGA PERUANA.
Parasitic attack or subsistence on the skin by members of the order Phthiraptera, especially on humans by Pediculus humanus of the family Pediculidae. The hair of the head, eyelashes, and pubis is a frequent site of infestation. (From Dorland, 28th ed; Stedman, 26th ed)
A species of gram-negative bacteria transmitted by the flea Ctenocephalides felis, and known to infect CATS, oppossums, and humans.
Inflammation of the ENDOCARDIUM caused by BACTERIA that entered the bloodstream. The strains of bacteria vary with predisposing factors, such as CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS; HEART VALVE DISEASES; HEART VALVE PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION; or intravenous drug use.
A family of small, gram-negative organisms, often parasitic in humans and other animals, causing diseases that may be transmitted by invertebrate vectors.
The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.
The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Flaps of tissue that prevent regurgitation of BLOOD from the HEART VENTRICLES to the HEART ATRIA or from the PULMONARY ARTERIES or AORTA to the ventricles.
A species of gram-negative bacteria that grows preferentially in the vacuoles of the host cell. It is the etiological agent of Q FEVER.
Chloro(7,12-diethenyl-3,8,13,17-tetramethyl-21H,23H-porphine-2,18-dipropanoato(4-)-N(21),N(22),N(23),N(24)) ferrate(2-) dihydrogen.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
An order of parasitic, blood-sucking, wingless INSECTS with the common name of fleas.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.

Culture of Bartonella quintana and Bartonella henselae from human samples: a 5-year experience (1993 to 1998). (1/97)

Bartonella quintana and Bartonella henselae are fastidious gram-negative bacteria responsible for bacillary angiomatosis, trench fever, cat scratch disease, and endocarditis. During a 5-year period, we received 2,043 samples for culture of Bartonella sp. We found Bartonella sp. to be the etiologic agent in 38 cases of endocarditis, 78 cases of cat scratch disease, 16 cases of bacteremia in homeless people, and 7 cases of bacillary angiomatosis. We correlated the results of positive cultures with the clinical form of the disease, type of sample, culture procedure, PCR-based genomic detection, and antibody determination. Seventy-two isolates of B. quintana and nine isolates of B. henselae from 43 patients were obtained. Sixty-three of the B. quintana isolates and two of the B. henselae isolates, obtained from patients with no prior antibiotic therapy, were stably subcultured. The sensitivity of culture was low when compared with that of PCR-based detection methods in valves of patients with endocarditis (44 and 81%, respectively), skin biopsy samples of patients with bacillary angiomatosis (43 and 100%, respectively), and lymph nodes of cat scratch disease (13 and 30%, respectively). Serological diagnosis was also more sensitive in cases of endocarditis (97%) and cat scratch disease (90%). Among endocarditis patients, the sensitivity of the shell vial culture assay was 28% when inoculated with blood samples and 44% when inoculated with valvular biopsy samples, and the sensitivity of both was significantly higher than that of culture on agar (5% for blood [P = 0.045] and 4% for valve biopsy samples [P < 0.0005]). The most efficient culture procedure was the subculture of blood culture broth into shell vials (sensitivity, 71%). For patients with endocarditis, previous antibiotic therapy significantly affected results of blood culture; no patient who had been administered antibiotics yielded a positive blood culture, whereas 80% of patients with no previous antibiotic therapy yielded positive blood cultures (P = 0.0006). Previous antibiotic therapy did not, however, prevent isolation of Bartonella sp. from cardiac valves but did prevent the establishment of strains, as none of the 15 isolates from treated patients could be successfully subcultured. For the diagnosis of B. quintana bacteremia in homeless people, the efficiency of systematic subculture of blood culture broth onto agar was higher than that of direct blood plating (respective sensitivities, 98 and 10% [P < 10(-7)]). Nevertheless, both procedures are complementary, since when used together their sensitivity reached 100%. All homeless people with positive blood cultures had negative serology. The isolation rate of B. henselae from PCR-positive lymph nodes, in patients with cat scratch disease, was significantly lower than that from valves of endocarditis patients and skin biopsy samples from bacillary angiomatosis patients (13 and 33%, respectively [P = 0.084]). In cases of bacillary angiomatosis for which an agent was identified to species level, the isolation rate of B. henselae was lower than the isolation rate of B. quintana (28 and 64%, respectively [P = 0.003]). If culture is to be considered an efficient tool for the diagnosis of several Bartonella-related diseases, methodologies need to be improved, notably for the recovery of B. henselae from lymph nodes of patients with cat scratch disease.  (+info)

Seroprevalence of Bartonella henselae in cats in Germany. (2/97)

Bartonella henselae and B. quintana infections in man are associated with various clinical manifestations including cat-scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis and bacteraemia. While cats are the natural reservoir for B. henselae, the source of B. quintana is unclear. In this study, the sera of 713 cats from Germany were examined for the presence of antibodies against B. henselae, B. quintana or Afipia felis by an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Bartonella-specific antibody titres of > or =50 were found in 15.0% of the cats. There was substantial cross-reactivity among the various Bartonella antigens, although single sera showed high titres against B. henselae but not against B. quintana and vice versa. Antibodies against A. felis were not detected in any of these cats. Statistical analysis indicated that there is no correlation between Bartonella infections and the sex, age or breed of the cat or its hunting behavior. There was also no correlation between bartonella and toxoplasma infections in cats. However, whereas 16.8% of cats from northern Germany had B. quintana-specific antibodies, only 8.0% of cats from southern Germany were seropositive for B. quintana. No statistically significant difference was found for B. henselae. IFA-positive and IFA-negative sera were used for immunoblot analysis including B. henselae and B. quintana. Marked reactivity was observed with protein bands at 80, 76, 73, 65, 37, 33 and 15 kDa. The results of this study suggest that B. henselae, and possibly a B. quintana-related pathogen, but not A. felis, are common in cats in Germany, and that there are differences in the geographic distribution of bartonella infections in cats.  (+info)

Semiquantitative species-specific detection of Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana by PCR-enzyme immunoassay. (3/97)

Bartonella henselae is the main causative agent of cat-scratch disease, and both B. henselae and Bartonella quintana cause angioproliferative disorders such as bacillary angiomatosis. To increase the sensitivity of Bartonella detection by PCR and to improve the species differentiation, we developed a semiquantitative, species-specific PCR-based enzyme immunoassay (EIA). The 16S rRNA gene was selected as the target sequence. Internal nucleotide sequences derived from the amplified 16S rRNA region were used to develop species-specific oligonucleotide probes for B. henselae and B. quintana. Biotin-labeled PCR products were immobilized on streptavidin-coated microtiter plates, hybridized to a digoxigenin-labeled probe, and detected with antidigoxigenin peroxidase conjugate. No cross-hybridization with other Bartonella or non-Bartonella species was observed. This EIA was as sensitive as dot blot hybridization and was 10 times more sensitive than visualization of PCR products on agarose gels. Serial dilutions of B. henselae and B. quintana suspensions demonstrated that an optical density (OD) of approximately 0.200 was equivalent to 5 CFU in the reaction mixture. By comparing the OD of the bacterial dilutions with that obtained from clinical specimens we could determine that the number of CFU in clinical samples ranged from 10(3) to 10(6) CFU/ml. The PCR-EIA developed in the present study is a rapid, sensitive, and simple method for the diagnosis of B. henselae and B. quintana infections.  (+info)

Species-specific monoclonal antibodies for rapid identification of Bartonella quintana. (4/97)

Seven species-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to Bartonella quintana were produced and characterized. The MAbs were of the immunoglobulin G class and reacted only with 13 B. quintana strains in indirect microimmunofluorescence and Western immunoblotting assays. They did not react with eight other Bartonella spp., including Bartonella henselae, the most closely related species, and a selected MAb did also not react with nine other strains of gram-negative bacteria. The MAbs reacted mainly with a 34-kDa protein epitope of B. quintana which was shown to be species specific by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Four of five body lice experimentally infected with B. quintana were found to be positive for the organism in microimmunofluorescence assays with one MAb. These MAbs may provide a specific, simple, rapid, and low-cost tool for the identification of B. quintana and the diagnosis of infections due to the microorganism.  (+info)

In vitro activities of telithromycin (HMR 3647) against Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia conorii, Rickettsia africae, Rickettsia typhi, Rickettsia prowazekii, Coxiella burnetii, Bartonella henselae, Bartonella quintana, Bartonella bacilliformis, and Ehrlichia chaffeensis. (5/97)

In vitro activities of telithromycin compared to those of erythromycin against Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., Coxiella burnetii, and Ehrlichia chaffeensis were determined. Telithromycin was more active than erythromycin against Rickettsia, Bartonella, and Coxiella burnetii, with MICs of 0.5 microg/ml, 0.003 to 0.015 microg/ml, and 1 microg/ml, respectively, but was inactive against Ehrlichia chaffeensis.  (+info)

Bartonella quintana and urban trench fever. (6/97)

Contemporary Bartonella quintana infections have emerged in diverse regions of the world, predominantly involving socially disadvantaged persons. Available data suggest that the human body louse Pediculus humanus is the vector for transmission of B. quintana. Descriptions of the clinical manifestations associated with contemporary B. quintana infections have varied considerably and include asymptomatic infection, a relapsing febrile illness, headache, leg pain, "culture-negative" endocarditis, and, in human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons, bacillary angiomatosis. Laboratory diagnosis is most convincing when B. quintana is isolated in blood culture, but growth often takes 20-40 days; problems exist with both sensitivity and specificity of serological assays. On the basis of available information, use of doxycycline, erythromycin, or azithromycin to treat B. quintana infections is recommended. Treatment of uncomplicated B. quintana bacteremia for 4-6 weeks and treatment of B. quintana endocarditis (in a person who does not undergo valve surgery) for 4-6 months are recommended, with the addition of a bactericidal agent (such as a third-generation cephalosporin or an aminoglycoside) during the initial 2-3 weeks of therapy for endocarditis.  (+info)

Hemin-binding surface protein from Bartonella quintana. (7/97)

Bartonella quintana, the agent of trench fever and a cause of endocarditis and bacillary angiomatosis in humans, has the highest reported in vitro hemin requirement for any bacterium. We determined that eight membrane-associated proteins from B. quintana bind hemin and that a approximately 25-kDa protein (HbpA) was the dominant hemin-binding protein. Like many outer membrane proteins, HbpA partitions to the detergent phase of a Triton X-114 extract of the cell and is heat modifiable, displaying an apparent molecular mass shift from approximately 25 to 30 kDa when solubilized at 100 degrees C. Immunoblots of purified outer and inner membranes and immunoelectron microscopy with whole cells show that HbpA is strictly located in the outer membrane and surface exposed, respectively. The N-terminal sequence of mature HbpA was determined and used to clone the HbpA-encoding gene (hbpA) from a lambda genomic library. The hbpA gene is 816 bp in length, encoding a predicted immature protein of approximately 29.3 kDa and a mature protein of 27.1 kDa. A Fur box homolog with 53% identity to the Escherichia coli Fur consensus is located upstream of hbpA and may be involved in regulating expression. BLAST searches indicate that the closest homologs to HbpA include the Bartonella henselae phage-associated membrane protein, Pap31 (58.4% identity), and the OMP31 porin from Brucella melitensis (31.7% identity). High-stringency Southern blots indicate that all five pathogenic Bartonella spp. possess hbpA homologs. Recombinant HbpA can bind hemin in vitro; however, it does not confer a hemin-binding phenotype upon E. coli. Intact B. quintana treated with purified anti-HbpA Fab fragments show a significant (P < 0.004) dose-dependent decrease in hemin binding relative to controls, suggesting that HbpA plays an active role in hemin acquisition and therefore pathogenesis. HbpA is the first potential virulence determinant characterized from B. quintana.  (+info)

Use of rpoB gene analysis for detection and identification of Bartonella species. (8/97)

Identification of Bartonella species is of increasing importance as the number of infections in which these bacteria are involved increases. To date, these gram-negative bacilli have been identified by various serological, biochemical, and genotypic methods. However, the development of alternative tools is required, principally to circumvent a major risk of contamination during sample manipulation. The aim of our study was to investigate the possible identification of various Bartonella species by comparison of RNA polymerase beta-subunit gene (rpoB) sequences. This approach has previously been shown to be useful for the identification of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae (C. M. Mollet, M. Drancourt, and D. Raoult, Mol. Microbiol. 26:1005-1011, 1997). Following PCR amplification with specific oligonucleotides, a 825-bp region of the rpoB gene was sequenced from 13 distinct Bartonella strains. Analysis of these sequences allowed selection of three restriction enzymes (ApoI, AluI, and AflIII) useful for discerning the different strains by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. To confirm the potential value of such an approach for identification of Bartonella, the rpoB PCR was then applied to 94 clinical samples, and the results obtained were identical to those obtained by our reference PCR method. Twenty-four isolates were also adequately identified by PCR-RFLP analysis. In all cases, our results were in accordance with those of the reference method. Moreover, conserved regions of DNA were chosen as suitable primer targets for PCR amplification of a 439-bp fragment which can be easily sequenced.  (+info)

What are some ways that modern medicine has improved upon the treatment of trench fever from World War I?
Modern medicine has made significant improvements in the treatment of trench fever since World War I. Here are some of the key advancements:

1. Antibiotics: During World War I, sulfonamides were used to treat trench fever, but these drugs were not very effective and often caused allergic reactions. Today, we have a range of more effective antibiotics, such as doxycycline and ciprofloxacin, which can effectively treat trench fever.

2. Supportive care: In World War I, supportive care was limited, and patients often had to endure severe symptoms with little relief. Today, supportive care has improved significantly, including the use of pain management techniques, hydration, and nutritional support to help manage symptoms and speed up recovery.

3. Diagnostic advancements: In World War I, trench fever was often misdiagnosed or undiagnosed, leading to inadequate treatment. Today, we have more sophisticated diagnostic tools, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests, which can quickly and accurately diagnose trench fever.

4. Better understanding of the disease: We now know more about the bacteria that cause trench fever and how it spreads, which has led to improved prevention and control measures. This includes the use of insecticides to kill body lice and the development of vaccines to protect against Bartonella infections.

5. Improved sanitation and hygiene: Good sanitation and hygiene practices are critical in controlling the spread of trench fever. In World War I, these practices were often lacking, leading to the spread of disease. Today, we have a much greater emphasis on proper handwashing, clean water, and waste disposal, which helps reduce the risk of infection.

In conclusion, while trench fever is still a serious illness today, advances in medicine and public health have significantly improved our ability to prevent, diagnose, and treat it. This has saved countless lives and reduced the impact of this disease on military personnel and civilian populations alike.

The symptoms of angiomatosis, bacillary can vary depending on the location and size of the angiomas, but they may include:

* Red or purple discoloration of the skin
* Swelling or lumps under the skin
* Pain or tenderness in the affected area
* Warmth or redness around the angioma

Angiomatosis, bacillary is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests (such as blood tests or biopsies). Treatment typically involves antibiotics to eradicate the bacterial infection. In some cases, surgical removal of the angioma may be necessary.

Prevention of angiomatosis, bacillary is aimed at avoiding contact with cat scratches or bites, and good hygiene practices (such as washing hands frequently) can help reduce the risk of infection. Vaccination against Bartonella henselae is not currently available for humans, but it is recommended for cats to prevent the spread of the bacteria.

The prognosis for angiomatosis, bacillary is generally good if treated promptly and effectively. However, in rare cases, the condition can progress to more severe forms, such as cat scratch disease or bartonellosis, which can have serious complications if left untreated.

In more detail, the definition of 'Cat-Scratch Disease' in the medical field can be broken down into the following components:

1. Cat scratch or bite: The disease is transmitted to humans through the scratch or bite of an infected cat.
2. Bartonella henselae: The bacteria that causes the disease is Bartonella henselae.
3. Infected cats: The disease is typically found in domestic and wild cats, as well as in their fleas and lice.
4. Variety of symptoms: CDS can cause a range of symptoms including fever, headache, swollen lymph nodes, and skin lesions.
5. Diagnosis based on clinical presentation and laboratory tests: The diagnosis is based on a combination of the patient's symptoms, laboratory tests such as blood cultures and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and serology.
6. Supportive treatment: Treatment for CDS is primarily supportive, with antibiotics reserved for severe cases or those with complications.
7. More common in children: Children are more susceptible to CDS than adults, as they are more likely to come into contact with infected cats and have a weaker immune system.

A group of infectious diseases caused by Rickettsia prowazekii and transmitted to humans through the bite of infected body lice. The three forms of epidemic typhus are:

1. Classic typhus fever, which is characterized by a sudden onset of fever, headache, myalgia, and a rash that appears on the fourth or fifth day of illness.
2. Brilliant's disease, which is similar to classic typhus fever but with a more rapid onset and a higher mortality rate.
3. Endemic typhus, which is a mild form of the disease that occurs in areas where the disease is constantly present.

Epidemic louse-borne typhus has been known to occur in areas of poverty, poor hygiene, and overcrowding, such as refugee camps, homeless shelters, and prisons. The disease is typically treated with antibiotics, and prevention measures include using insecticides to kill body lice and improving living conditions to reduce the risk of transmission.

Lice infestations refer to the presence of parasitic insects, known as lice, on the human body. These infestations can affect both children and adults and are typically caused by head lice, body lice, or pubic lice. Lice feed on human blood and can cause itching, inflammation, and skin irritation.

There are three main types of lice infestations:

1. Head lice infestations: These are the most common type of lice infestation and affect the hair and scalp. Head lice are small, wingless insects that feed on human blood.
2. Body lice infestations: These affect the skin and clothing, and are typically found in areas where hygiene is poor or where individuals are unable to keep their bodies clean.
3. Pubic lice infestations: These affect the pubic area and are typically spread through sexual contact.

Lice infestations can be treated with over-the-counter or prescription medications, such as permethrin or ivermectin. In addition to treating the infestation, it is important to also treat any underlying conditions that may be contributing to the infestation, such as poor hygiene or malnutrition.

In addition to these medical definitions, there are also several slang terms and phrases that are used to describe lice infestations, including "cooties," "nitwits," and "pediculosis." These terms are often used in a derogatory manner to refer to individuals who have lice infestations.

It's important to note that lice infestations can be a source of embarrassment and stigma, and individuals who have them may be subject to social exclusion or discrimination. However, it is important to remember that lice infestations are a common condition that can affect anyone, regardless of their background or socioeconomic status.

Overall, the medical definition of lice infestations refers to the presence of parasitic insects on the human body, and the condition can be treated with medication and good hygiene practices. It's important to approach individuals with lice infestations with compassion and understanding, rather than stigma or discrimination.

Causes and risk factors:

The most common cause of bacterial endocarditis is a bacterial infection that enters the bloodstream and travels to the heart. This can occur through various means, such as:

* Injecting drugs or engaging in other risky behaviors that allow bacteria to enter the body
* Having a weakened immune system due to illness or medication
* Having a previous history of endocarditis or other heart conditions
* Being over the age of 60, as older adults are at higher risk for developing endocarditis


The symptoms of bacterial endocarditis can vary depending on the severity of the infection and the location of the infected area. Some common symptoms include:

* Fever
* Chills
* Joint pain or swelling
* Fatigue
* Shortness of breath
* Heart murmurs or abnormal heart sounds


Bacterial endocarditis is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as:

* Blood cultures to identify the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream
* Echocardiogram to visualize the heart and detect any abnormalities
* Chest X-ray to look for signs of infection or inflammation in the lungs or heart
* Electrocardiogram (ECG) to measure the electrical activity of the heart


The treatment of bacterial endocarditis typically involves a combination of antibiotics and surgery. Antibiotics are used to kill the bacteria and reduce inflammation, while surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged heart tissue. In some cases, the infected heart tissue may need to be removed.


Preventing bacterial endocarditis involves good oral hygiene, regular dental check-ups, and avoiding certain high-risk activities such as unprotected sex or sharing of needles. People with existing heart conditions should also take antibiotics before dental or medical procedures to reduce the risk of infection.


The prognosis for bacterial endocarditis is generally good if treatment is prompt and effective. However, delays in diagnosis and treatment can lead to serious complications such as heart failure, stroke, or death. Patients with pre-existing heart conditions are at higher risk for complications.


Bacterial endocarditis is a relatively rare condition, affecting approximately 2-5 cases per million people per year in the United States. However, people with certain risk factors such as heart conditions or prosthetic heart valves are at higher risk for developing the infection.


Bacterial endocarditis can lead to a number of complications, including:

* Heart failure
* Stroke or brain abscess
* Kidney damage or failure
* Pregnancy complications
* Nerve damage or peripheral neuropathy
* Skin or soft tissue infections
* Bone or joint infections
* Septicemia (blood poisoning)


Preventive measures for bacterial endocarditis include:

* Good oral hygiene and regular dental check-ups to reduce the risk of dental infections
* Avoiding high-risk activities such as unprotected sex or sharing of needles
* Antibiotics before dental or medical procedures for patients with existing heart conditions
* Proper sterilization and disinfection of medical equipment
* Use of antimicrobial prophylaxis (prevention) in high-risk patients.

Emerging Trends:

Newly emerging trends in the management of bacterial endocarditis include:

* The use of novel antibiotics and combination therapy to improve treatment outcomes
* The development of new diagnostic tests to help identify the cause of infection more quickly and accurately
* The increased use of preventive measures such as antibiotic prophylaxis in high-risk patients.

Future Directions:

Future directions for research on bacterial endocarditis may include:

* Investigating the use of novel diagnostic techniques, such as genomics and proteomics, to improve the accuracy of diagnosis
* Developing new antibiotics and combination therapies to improve treatment outcomes
* Exploring alternative preventive measures such as probiotics and immunotherapy.

In conclusion, bacterial endocarditis is a serious infection that can have severe consequences if left untreated. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are crucial to improving patient outcomes. Preventive measures such as good oral hygiene and antibiotic prophylaxis can help reduce the risk of developing this condition. Ongoing research is focused on improving diagnostic techniques, developing new treatments, and exploring alternative preventive measures.

Bacteremia can occur when bacteria enter the bloodstream through various means, such as:

* Infected wounds or surgical sites
* Injecting drug use
* Skin infections
* Respiratory tract infections
* Urinary tract infections
* Endocarditis (infection of the heart valves)

The symptoms of bacteremia can vary depending on the type of bacteria and the severity of the infection. Some common symptoms include:

* Fever
* Chills
* Headache
* Muscle aches
* Weakness
* Confusion
* Shortness of breath

Bacteremia is diagnosed by blood cultures, which involve collecting blood samples and inserting them into a specialized container to grow the bacteria. Treatment typically involves antibiotics and supportive care, such as intravenous fluids and oxygen therapy. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the infection.

Prevention measures for bacteremia include:

* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly
* Avoiding sharing personal items like toothbrushes or razors
* Properly cleaning and covering wounds
* Getting vaccinated against infections that can lead to bacteremia
* Following proper sterilization techniques during medical procedures

Overall, bacteremia is a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention to prevent complications and ensure effective treatment.

1. Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV): This is a highly contagious virus that weakens the immune system, making cats more susceptible to other infections and cancer.
2. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV): Similar to HIV in humans, this virus attacks the immune system and can lead to a range of secondary infections and diseases.
3. Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP): A viral disease that causes fluid accumulation in the abdomen and chest, leading to difficulty breathing and abdominal pain.
4. Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease (FLUTD): A group of conditions that affect the bladder and urethra, including urinary tract infections and kidney stones.
5. Feline Diabetes: Cats can develop diabetes, which can lead to a range of complications if left untreated, including urinary tract infections, kidney disease, and blindness.
6. Feline Hyperthyroidism: An overactive thyroid gland that can cause weight loss, anxiety, and heart problems if left untreated.
7. Feline Cancer: Cats can develop various types of cancer, including lymphoma, leukemia, and skin cancer.
8. Dental disease: Cats are prone to dental problems, such as tartar buildup, gum disease, and tooth resorption.
9. Obesity: A common problem in cats, obesity can lead to a range of health issues, including diabetes, arthritis, and heart disease.
10. Behavioral disorders: Cats can develop behavioral disorders such as anxiety, stress, and aggression, which can impact their quality of life and relationships with humans.

It's important to note that many of these diseases can be prevented or managed with proper care, including regular veterinary check-ups, vaccinations, parasite control, a balanced diet, exercise, and mental stimulation. Additionally, early detection and treatment can significantly improve the outcome for cats with health issues.

... , originally known as Rochalimaea quintana, and "Rickettsia quintana", is a bacterium transmitted by the ... "Bartonella quintana". NCBI Taxonomy Browser. 803. Type strain of Bartonella quintana at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity ... "Bartonella quintana". National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved November 10, 2013. "Definition of Bartonella ... Li H, Tong Y, Huang Y, Bai J, Yang H, Liu W, Cao W (2012). "Complete Genome Sequence of Bartonella quintana, a Bacterium ...
Bartonella quintana, causative agent of "Trench Fever"; and Bartonella bacilliformis, causative agent of Carrion's Disease. ... Bartonella apis is a bacterium from the genus Bartonella. Bartonella apis was first isolated from the gut of the honey bee ( ... Parte, A.C. "Bartonella". LPSN. "Bartonella apis". www.uniprot.org. Kešnerová, Lucie; Moritz, Roxane; Engel, Philipp (1 January ... Bartonella apis is less numerous than other members of the honey bee gut microbiota, however it is still considered to be among ...
... with Descriptions of Bartonella quintana comb. nov., Bartonella vinsonii comb. nov., Bartonella henselae comb. nov., and ... Bartonella species have been infecting humans for thousands of years, as demonstrated by Bartonella quintana DNA in a 4000-year ... Drancourt M, Tran-Hung L, Courtin J, Lumley H, Raoult D (2005). "Bartonella quintana in a 4000-year-old human tooth". J. Infect ... At least eight Bartonella species or subspecies are known to infect humans. Bartonella henselae is the organism responsible for ...
Rickettsia quintana), found in the stomach walls of the body louse. Bartonella quintana is closely related to Bartonella ... and Heinrich Werner). The disease is caused by the bacterium Bartonella quintana (older names: Rochalimea quintana, ... Bartonella quintana is transmitted by contamination of a skin abrasion or louse-bite wound with the faeces of an infected body ... "Facts about Bartonella quintana infection ('trench fever')". European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Retrieved 11 ...
... with Descriptions of Bartonella quintana comb. nov., Bartonella vinsonii comb. nov., Bartonella henselae comb. nov., and ... Bartonella vinsonii is a gram-negative bacteria from the genus Bartonella which was isolated from dogs Rochalimaea vinsonii was ... Straininfo of Bartonella vinsonii "Taxonomy - Bartonella vinsonii (Rochalimaea vinsonii)". The Universal Protein Resource ( ... nov., Isolated from Dogs; Bartonella vinsonii subsp. vinsonii; and Emended Description of Bartonella vinsonii". International ...
It is caused by either Bartonella henselae or B. quintana. B. henselae is most often transmitted through a cat scratch or bite ... B. quintana is usually transmitted by lice. It can manifest in people with AIDS and rarely appears in those who are ... Bacillary angiomatosis (BA) is a form of angiomatosis associated with bacteria of the genus Bartonella. Cutaneous BA is ... December 1997). "Molecular epidemiology of bartonella infections in patients with bacillary angiomatosis-peliosis". N. Engl. J ...
Bernard La Scola; Didier Raoult (17 March 1999). "Culture of Bartonella quintana and Bartonella henselae from Human Samples: a ... Bartonella henselae at NCBI Taxonomy Browser Type strain of Bartonella henselae at BacDive, the Bacterial Diversity ... Bartonella henselae is a member of the genus Bartonella, one of the most common types of bacteria in the world.[specify] It is ... Bartonella henselae infection can appear up to 10 days after exposure to the microbe. Symptoms start with a papule at the site ...
"The louse-borne human pathogen Bartonella quintana is a genomic derivative of the zoonotic agent Bartonella henselae". ... Bartonella henselae is a gram-negative bacterial pathogen of humans and animals. Like other members of the alphaproteobacteria ... Bartonella henselae: BH11960. KEGG Database. Werner, Jonathan A.; Feng, Sunlian; Kasten, Rickie W.; Hodzic, Emir; Chomel, Bruno ... Bartonella henselae hypothetical protein 11960 (BH11960) is encoded by the BH11960 gene. This hypothetical protein is conserved ...
In Ethiopia, head lice appear to be able to spread louse-born epidemic typhus and Bartonella quintana. In Europe, the head lice ...
2004). "The louse-borne human pathogen Bartonella quintana is a genomic derivative of the zoonotic agent Bartonella henselae". ...
Cat-scratch disease is caused by Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana, which are transmitted by fleas that are endemic ...
Comparison of the proliferation and excretion of Bartonella quintana between body and head lice following oral challenge: ...
Along with Rickettsia prowazekii and Bartonella quintana, Borrelia recurrentis is one of three pathogens of which the body ...
... and Bartonella quintana (causes trench fever). Epidemic typhus can be treated with one dose of doxycycline, but if left ...
The bacterium is a close relative of Bartonella quintana, the microbe which caused trench fever in thousands of soldiers during ... Bartonella rochalimae is a recently discovered strain of Gram-negative bacteria in the genus Bartonella, isolated by ... "Bartonella rochalimae and other Bartonella spp. in fleas, Chile". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 15 (7): 1150-2. doi:10.3201/ ... In July 2009, Bartonella rochalimae was also identified in fleas from cats and dogs from Chile. The organisms was detected by ...
Bartonella Bartonella henselae Bartonella quintana Bordetella Bordetella bronchiseptica Bordetella pertussis Borrelia ... psittaci Rickettsia quintana Rickettsia rickettsii Rickettsia trachomae Rochalimaea Rochalimaea henselae Rochalimaea quintana ...
... in Bartonella species (i.e. B. henselae, B. clarridgeiae, B. tribocorum, B. quintana, B. bacilliformis, B. grahamii), in ... Bartonella species (i.e. B. henselae, B. clarridgeiae, B. tribocorum, B. quintana, B. bacilliformis, B. grahamii). All these ... In Bartonella species the αr45 upstream gene was always found to code for a protein containing a rhodanase domain. In the ... This analysis also revealed an extended conserved sequence stretch among the promoters of the Brucella and Bartonella αr45 sRNA ...
Brouqui P, Lascola B, Roux V, Raoult D (January 1999). "Chronic Bartonella quintana bacteremia in homeless patients". N. Engl. ... Maurin M, Raoult D (July 1996). "Bartonella (Rochalimaea) quintana infections". Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 9 (3): 273-92. doi: ... Bartonellosis is an infectious disease produced by bacteria of the genus Bartonella.Bartonella species cause diseases such as ... In 1993, Dolan isolated Rochalimae henselae (now called Bartonella henselae) from lymph nodes of patients with CSD. Bartonella ...
Bartonella bacilliformis MeSH B03.440.090.100.350 - Bartonella henselae MeSH B03.440.090.100.650 - Bartonella quintana MeSH ... Bartonella bacilliformis MeSH B03.660. - Bartonella henselae MeSH B03.660. - Bartonella quintana ...
... a Cuban fish species in the monotypic genus Quintana Bartonella quintana, or Rochalimaea quintana, a bacterium that causes ... Look up quintana in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Quintana may refer to: Quintana is a Spanish surname, associated with: ... Spain Quintana (Bernedo), a council area in the Basque Country in Spain Quintana (Madrid), a ward in Madrid, Spain Quintana de ... Colombia Quintana (Madrid Metro), a station on Line 5 Quintana Roo Tigres, a Mexican baseball team Academia Quintana, a Puerto ...
Bartonella henselae is a fastidious, intracellular, Gram-negative bacterium. The cat was recognized as the natural reservoir of ... People who are immunocompromised are susceptible to other conditions associated with B. henselae and B. quintana, such as ... Cat-scratch disease is caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae which is believed to be spread by the cat's saliva. Young ... Cryptic Bartonella infection may be a much larger problem than previously thought, constituting an unrecognized occupational ...
Another pathogenic bacterium, Bartonella, is known from Georgia marsh rice rats. The 2016 IUCN Red List assesses the ... ISBN 978-0-8229-5393-7 Milazzo, M.L., Cajimat, M.N., Hanson, J.D., Bradley, R.D., Quintana, M., Sherman, C., Velásquez, R.T. ... Distribution, diversity, and host specificity of Bartonella in rodents from the southeastern United States. American Journal of ...
Webster CL, Waldron FM, Robertson S, Crowson D, Ferrari G, Quintana JF, et al. (July 2015). "The Discovery, Distribution, and ... Bowman DD (November 2011). "Introduction to the alpha-proteobacteria: Wolbachia and Bartonella, Rickettsia, Brucella, Ehrlichia ...
Ambrosioni J, Hernandez-Meneses M, Téllez A, Pericàs J, Falces C, Tolosana JM, Vidal B, Almela M, Quintana E, Llopis J, Moreno ... Less commonly reported bacteria responsible for so called "culture negative endocarditis" include Bartonella, Chlamydia ...
The three most common are cat scratch disease, caused by B. henselae; trench fever, caused by B. quintana; and Carrións ... homeBartonella Home. *Bartonella henselae infection or cat scratch disease (CSD)plus icon *Bartonella henselae or cat scratch ... People can get Bartonella quintana from the bite of the human body louse. Body lice spread by close physical contact or by ... As with many Bartonella species, B. quintana can sometimes cause infection of the heart valves (endocarditis). In many cases, ...
ORourke LG, Pitulle C, Hegarty BC, Kraycirik S, Killary KA, Grosenstein P, Bartonella quintana in cynomolgus monkey (Macaca ... High.prevalence of Bartonella quintana endocarditis in Sfax, Tunisia. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005;72:503-7.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of Bartonella quintana and Bartonella henselae endocarditis: a study of 48 patients. ... Bartonella quintana in domestic cat. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:1287-9.PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
This was associated with B. quintana bacteremia. Although no outbreaks of typhus have been notified yet in the homeless ... a louse-borne disease caused by Bartonella quintana, is reemerging in homeless persons. Epidemic typhus is another life- ... Chronic Bartonella quintana bacteremia in homeless patients. N Engl J Med 340 :184-189. ... Emergence of Bartonella quintana infection among homeless persons. Emerg Infect Dis 2 :141-144. ...
Bartonellosis comprises infections caused by the emerging pathogens in the genus Bartonella. In 1909, A. ... La Scola B, Raoult D. Serological cross-reactions between Bartonella quintana, Bartonella henselae, and Coxiella burnetii. J ... Bartonella tamiae, Bartonella rochalimae,Bartonella elizabethae, Bartonellakoehlerae, Bartonella grahamii, and Bartonella ... New Bartonella species that may cause human disease include Bartonella vinsonii subspecies berkhoffii, Bartonella clarridgeiae ...
... proliferative form of Bartonella infection that occurs primarily in immunocompromised persons. It was first described in 1983 ... Occurrence of Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana among human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Ann N Y Acad ... Refractory Bartonella quintana bacillary angiomatosis following chemotherapy for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. J Med Microbiol ... Antiangiogenic effect of erythromycin: an in vitro model of Bartonella quintana infection. J Infect Dis. 2006 Feb 1. 193(3):380 ...
We report here the presence of Bartonella quintana in a demodex. Demodex are arthropods associated with acnea. Bartonella ... Bartonella quintana may parasite several arthropods and not only lice.. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd ... Bartonella quintana detection in Demodex from erythematotelangiectatic rosacea patients.. Murillo N1, Mediannikov O1, Aubert J2 ... Bartonella, Francisella, Coxiella, Borrelia, Salmonella, Erysipelothrix and Serratia. Significant differences in bacterial ...
Bartonella quintana / isolation & purification* Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ...
Bartonella (Rochalimaea) quintana infections. Maurin M, Raoult D. Maurin M, et al. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1996 Jul;9(3):273-92. ...
Bartonella quintana and Coxiella burnetii as Causes of Endocarditis, India [PDF - 106 KB - 2 pages] N. Balakrishnan et al. Cite ... Bartonella quintana and Coxiella burnetii as Causes of Endocarditis, India. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(7):1168-1169 ... Balakrishnan N, Menon T, Fournier P, Raoult D. Bartonella quintana and Coxiella burnetii as Causes of Endocarditis, India. ... Balakrishnan, N., Menon, T., Fournier, P., & Raoult, D. (2008). Bartonella quintana and Coxiella burnetii as Causes of ...
Bartonella Henselae and Quintana IFA IgG. IFA for the detection of Bartonella Henselae and Quintana IgG ... Bartonella Henselae and Quintana IFA IgG. IFA for the detection of Bartonella Henselae and Quintana IgG ... BARTONELLA HENSELAE VIRCLIA IgM Monotest. CLIA Montest System for Infectious Disease Serology Other VirClia Products ...
Bartonella quintana Preferred Term Term UI T054892. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1995). ... Bartonella [B03.660.050.030.040] * Bartonella bacilliformis [B03.660.] * Bartonella henselae [B03.660.050.030. ... Bartonella quintana Preferred Concept UI. M0027642. Registry Number. txid803. Scope Note. A species of gram-negative bacteria ... Bartonella quintana. Tree Number(s). B03.440.090.100.650. B03.660. Unique ID. D018413. RDF Unique Identifier. ...
Culture of Bartonella quintana and Bartonella henselae from human samples: a 5-year experience (1993 to 1998).. La Scola B; ... Bartonella infection].. Miftode E; Luca V. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi; 2001; 105(3):486-9. PubMed ID: 12092178. [TBL] ... 7. [Bartonella henselae and its infections].. Celebi B. Mikrobiyol Bul; 2008 Jan; 42(1):163-75. PubMed ID: 18444576. [TBL] ... 9. [Bartonella henselae, an ubiquitous agent of proteiform zoonotic disease].. Edouard S; Raoult D. Med Mal Infect; 2010 Jun; ...
Bedbugs are capable of completing the natural transmission cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi and Bartonella quintana (2,14). Only a ...
Bartonella bacilliformis B03.660. Bartonella henselae B03.660. Bartonella quintana B03.660. ... Bartonella bacilliformis B03.440.090.100.350 Bartonella henselae B03.440.090.100.650 Bartonella quintana B03.440.097 ... Bartonella Infections C01.252.400.126.100.050 Angiomatosis, Bacillary C01.252.400.126.100.150 Cat-Scratch Disease C01.252. ...
Bartonella quintana - Preferred Concept UI. M0027642. Scope note. A species of gram-negative bacteria in which man is the ... Rickettsia quintana Rochalimaea quintana Scope note:. Especie de bacterias gramnegativas en la que el hombre es el huésped ... Bartonella quintana Spanish from Spain Descriptor. Bartonella quintana. Entry term(s). ... Bartonella quintana Entry term(s):. Rickettsia quintana. Rochalimaea quintana. Tree number(s):. B03.440.090.100.650. B03.660. ...
Bartonella quintana Preferred Term Term UI T054892. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1995). ... Bartonella [B03.660.050.030.040] * Bartonella bacilliformis [B03.660.] * Bartonella henselae [B03.660.050.030. ... Bartonella quintana Preferred Concept UI. M0027642. Registry Number. txid803. Scope Note. A species of gram-negative bacteria ... Bartonella quintana. Tree Number(s). B03.440.090.100.650. B03.660. Unique ID. D018413. RDF Unique Identifier. ...
"In the last set of experiments, we performed similar studies in a related bacterium called Bartonella quintana, the bacterium ... Bartonella bacteria can cause lesions to pop up in the skin and internal organs. To provide themselves with a safe habitat, the ... They have also named this protein as Bartonella angiogenic factor A, or "BafA" for short. This is the very first report of a ... Reference: "The Bartonella autotransporter BafA activates the host VEGF pathway to drive angiogenesis" by Kentaro Tsukamoto, ...
An infection that is caused by Bartonella henselae or Bartonella quintana, which occurs primarily in immunocompromised persons ... C84586 Bartonella Infection Bartonellosis Bartonella Infection A gram-negative bacterial infection caused by Bartonella ... An infection that is caused by Bartonella henselae, which is transmitted to humans from a scratch, bite, or lick from an ... An infection that is caused by Bartonella species; it is transmitted by ticks, flies, and mosquitoes. C128453 Pediatric ...
The causative agent is Bartonella quintana. The disease is rarely encountered in industrialized nations, except among the ...
Bartonella henselae, Bartonella quintana, Borrelia recurrentis, Brucella spp, Campylobacter jejuni, Chlamydia psittaci, ... Bartonellosis due to Bartonella bacilliformis. *Gram negative microorganisms (eg, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, ... Propionibacterium acnes, Actinomyces israelii, Acinetobacter spp, Bacillus anthracis, Bacteroides spp., Bartonella ...
Bartonella quintana *Trench fever. *Either B. henselae or B. quintana *Bacillary angiomatosis ...
Bartonella Quintana. Epidemic Typhus. Rickettsia Prowazekii. Relapsing Fever. Borrelia Recurrentis. Treatment. Permethrin ...
Bartonella quintana (organism) Code System Concept Status. Published. Code System Preferred Concept Name. Bartonella quintana ( ...
Bartonella quintana... 154 1e-35 gi,49235049,ref,ZP_00329125.1, COG0277: FAD/FMN-containing dehyd... 153 2e-35 gi,15595514,ref, ... Bartonella henselae... 160 1e-37 gi,22997496,ref,ZP_00041726.1, COG0277: FAD/FMN-containing dehyd... 160 1e-37 gi,24216160,ref, ...
Bartonella quintana , Dermatite , Endocardite , Humanos , Bartonella quintana/genética , Israel/epidemiologia , Epidemiologia ... BACKGROUND: Bartonella quintana is an important cause of culture-negative endocarditis. Although humans have been considered as ... Molecular epidemiology of Bartonella quintana endocarditis in patients from Israel and Eastern Africa. ... quintana from distinct geographic regions. METHODS: Eleven patients with B. quintana endocarditis, 6 from Eastern Africa and 5 ...
West Nile virus (WNV) is a member of the Flavivirus genus and can cause neurological disease and death in people. However, approximately 80% of people who are infected will not show any symptoms. WNV is commonly found in Africa, Europe, the Middle East, North America and West Asia. WNV is maintained in nature in a cycle involving transmission between birds and mosquitoes. Humans, horses and other mammals can be infected. West Nile virus can be diagnosed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay.. ...
Amplriun Bartonella Henselae DNA. PCR Amplirun Bartonella Quintana DNA. PCR Amplirun BK Virus DNA ...
We detected novel or uncommon Bartonella spp. in 9 patients. Molecular diagnostic testing can identify Bartonella spp. ... We identified B. henselae in 77%, B. quintana in 13%, B. clarridgeiae in 1%, B. vinsonii in 1%, and B. washoensis in 1% of ... Bartonella spp. Infections Identified by Molecular Methods, United States [PDF - 2.16 MB - 10 pages] D. W. McCormick et al. ... B. quintana was detected in 83% of cardiac specimens; B. henselae was detected in 34% of lymph node specimens. ...
  • berkhoffii ( 2 ), B. clarridgeiae ( 3 ), and B. washoensis ( 4 ) cause endocarditis in dogs, B. henselae and B. quintana are the most common species that cause endocarditis in humans ( 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Bartonella henselae causes cat scratch disease (CSD) and peliosis of the liver (often called bacillary peliosis). (medscape.com)
  • [ 3 ] Both B henselae and B quintana may cause bacillary angiomatosis , infections in homeless populations, and infections in patients with HIV. (medscape.com)
  • Because lysis-centrifugation blood cultures show enhanced isolation of B henselae and B quintana, intracellular forms are most likely present in humans. (medscape.com)
  • B henselae and B quintana may stain positively with a specific antiserum against the cat scratch bacillus. (medscape.com)
  • Molecular detection of Bartonella henselae for the diagnosis of cat scratch disease and bacillary angiomatosis of the conjunctiva. (medscape.com)
  • 2. [Bartonellosis: I. Bartonella henselae]. (nih.gov)
  • 7. [Bartonella henselae and its infections]. (nih.gov)
  • 9. [Bartonella henselae, an ubiquitous agent of proteiform zoonotic disease]. (nih.gov)
  • 11. Bartonella henselae-mediated disease in solid organ transplant recipients: two pediatric cases and a literature review. (nih.gov)
  • 12. Beyond cat scratch disease: widening spectrum of Bartonella henselae infection. (nih.gov)
  • 14. Bartonella henselae infections in solid organ transplant recipients: report of 5 cases and review of the literature. (nih.gov)
  • 16. Culture of Bartonella quintana and Bartonella henselae from human samples: a 5-year experience (1993 to 1998). (nih.gov)
  • Previous studies on Bartonella henselae (B. henselae for short), the bacterium responsible for the cat-scratch disease, have shown that it can directly "inject" proteins that inhibit programmed cell death (apoptosis) into the endothelial cells. (scitechdaily.com)
  • We report that cat or dog ownership is not associated with an increased seroprevalence of antibodies to Anaplasma phagozytophilum , Coxiella burnetii , and Bartonella henselae in symptom-free persons in Styria, Austria. (cdc.gov)
  • Examples for such infections include human granulocytic ehrlichiosis ( Anaplasma phagocytophilum ), cat-scratch disease (CSD, Bartonella henselae ), and Q fever ( Coxiella burnetii ). (cdc.gov)
  • Bartonellosis comprises infections caused by pathogens in the genus Bartonella . (medscape.com)
  • [ 1 ] Candidatus Bartonella mayotimonensis and Candidatus Bartonella melophagi were respectively isolated from the aortic valve of a patient with culture-negative endocarditis and the blood of two patients with symptoms consistent with bartonellosis. (medscape.com)
  • Bacteria of the genus Bartonella are parasites that can be transmitted to humans via insect bites and animal scratches, resulting in an infection known as "bartonellosis. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Cat-scratch disease and trench fever are forms of bartonellosis caused by different Bartonella species infecting humans. (scitechdaily.com)
  • The name Bartonia, later Bartonella bacilliformis, was used for the only member of the group identified before 1993. (medscape.com)
  • The transmission of Bartonella species occurs by traumatic contact with infected animals or by vectors like cat fleas or other blood-sucking arthropods (eg, sand fly, Phlebotomus for B bacilliformis ). (medscape.com)
  • The organisms causing bacillary angiomatosis resemble the agent of verruga peruana and Oroya fever, Bartonella bacilliformis, in producing a histologically similar vascular proliferation, in having a gram-negative wall structure (as observed using electron microscopy), and in tending to grow in clumps visible by light microscopy. (medscape.com)
  • Bartonella (Rochalimaea) quintana infections. (nih.gov)
  • 10. [Bartonella (Rochalimaea) infections: cat-scratch disease and bacillary angiomatosis]. (nih.gov)
  • 20. Bartonella (Rochalimaea) infections: beyond cat scratch. (nih.gov)
  • Although a variety of bacteria can be isolated with routine blood cultures, Bartonella spp. (cdc.gov)
  • Although these organisms were originally thought to be rickettsiae, Bartonella bacteria can be grown on artificial media, unlike rickettsiae. (medscape.com)
  • Scientists gain insights into how pathogenic bacteria of the genus Bartonella give rise to lesions in the human body, opening new avenues in modern medicine. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Bartonella bacteria can cause lesions to pop up in the skin and internal organs. (scitechdaily.com)
  • This study identifies the molecular mechanism by which Bartonella bacteria cause lesions to appear over a patient's body. (scitechdaily.com)
  • As with many Bartonella species, B. quintana can sometimes cause infection of the heart valves (endocarditis). (cdc.gov)
  • Serology can aid the diagnosis of B. quintana, although cross-reactivity with other Bartonella species may limit interpretation. (cdc.gov)
  • Providers should be aware that serological tests do not reliably differentiate among Bartonella species and positive results may persist for years even after effective treatment. (cdc.gov)
  • Almost 20 species belong to the genus Bartonella . (medscape.com)
  • [ 1 ] Three Bartonella species are currently considered important causes of human disease, but other significant human pathogens in this genus were found to causes disease in humans occasionally. (medscape.com)
  • [ 6 ] Numerous other Bartonella species that can potentially cause human disease have been discovered in ticks. (medscape.com)
  • Erythrocytes may serve as a reservoir for Bartonella species. (medscape.com)
  • 3. [Cat-scratch disease and other infections caused by Bartonella species]. (nih.gov)
  • During the first World War, infection with B. quintana was referred to as "trench fever" due to the many cases among soldiers who lived in crowded trenches in poor hygienic conditions. (cdc.gov)
  • Bartonella quintana causes trench fever . (medscape.com)
  • In the last set of experiments, we performed similar studies in a related bacterium called Bartonella quintana, the bacterium that causes trench fever, and we found that it produces its own version of BafA that also causes human endothelial cells to multiply," explains Dr. Tsukamoto. (scitechdaily.com)
  • For patients with suspected B. quintana bacteremia, PCR testing can also be performed on blood. (cdc.gov)
  • Chronic Bartonella quintana bacteremia in homeless patients. (ajtmh.org)
  • Bartonella quintana Bacteremia among homeless people. (ajtmh.org)
  • Molecular detection of Bartonella spp. (cdc.gov)
  • Detection of Bartonella quintana from body lice ( Anoplura: Pediculidae ) infesting homeless people in Tokyo by molecular technique. (ajtmh.org)
  • Survey of the seroprevalence of Bartonella quintana in homeless people. (ajtmh.org)
  • B. quintana is a fastidious, slow-growing bacterium. (cdc.gov)
  • Candidatus Bartonella ancashi was isolated from the blood of a patient with verruga peruana in Peru. (medscape.com)
  • Persons who are indigent in inner-city Seattle were evaluated for antibodies to B quintana . (medscape.com)
  • B quintana is emerging as a recognized cause of disease among homeless persons and persons with AIDS. (medscape.com)
  • Bartonella-related pseudomembranous angiomatous papillomatosis of the oral cavity associated with allogeneic bone marrow transplantation and oral graft-versus-host disease. (medscape.com)
  • B. quintana infection occurs worldwide. (cdc.gov)
  • 13. Disseminated Bartonella infection following liver transplantation. (nih.gov)
  • We provide the first evidence that Bartonella quintana can infect dogs and cause typical signs of endocarditis. (cdc.gov)
  • Using PCR and sequencing, we identified B. quintana in the blood of a dog from the United States with aortic valve endocarditis and probably also in the mitral valve of a dog from New Zealand with endocarditis. (cdc.gov)
  • People can get Bartonella quintana from the bite of the human body louse. (cdc.gov)
  • B. quintana infection is most commonly associated with body louse infestations in areas of high population density and poor sanitation. (cdc.gov)
  • B quintana also invades endothelial cells and forms bacterial aggregates that are taken internally by the invasome, a unique phagosomal structure. (medscape.com)
  • It is often helpful for providers to alert the microbiology laboratory that B. quintana is suspected to optimize conditions for growth. (cdc.gov)
  • Infection with B. quintana requires antibiotic treatment. (cdc.gov)
  • Walls T, Moshal K, Trounce J, Hartley J, Harris K, Davies G. Broad-range polymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of Bartonella henselae endocarditis. (medscape.com)
  • We identified a Bartonella quintana strain by polymerase chain reaction amplification, cloning, and sequencing of DNA extracted from lysed erythrocytes and cultured colonies grown from peripheral blood collected from a captive-bred cynomolgus monkey ( Macaca fascicularis ). (cdc.gov)
  • This study reports on the validation of a real-time polymerase chain reaction test targeting the vomp region of Bartonella quintana. (cdc.gov)
  • Although poverty and chronic alcoholism have been associated with modern cases of trench fever and bacteremia due to B. quintana in Europe and the United States, vectors for B. quintana have not been clearly identified and B. quintana has not been isolated from modern-day lice. (nih.gov)
  • Bartonella quintana , transmitted by the human body louse ( Pediculus humanis ), is the etiologic agent for trench fever. (cdc.gov)
  • Bartonella quintana causes trench fever . (medscape.com)
  • B. quintana infection. (cdc.gov)
  • This report describes naturally acquired B. quintana infection in a nonhuman primate. (cdc.gov)
  • 50 years ago, we report the first naturally occurring infection with B. quintana in a nonhuman primate ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • 13. Disseminated Bartonella infection following liver transplantation. (nih.gov)
  • 18. [Bartonella infection]. (nih.gov)
  • Molecular diagnosis of Bartonella quintana can aid clinical treatment during acute infection. (cdc.gov)
  • In vitro experiments have shown that B. quintana survives within endothelial cells and stimulates cell proliferation. (nih.gov)
  • B quintana also invades endothelial cells and forms bacterial aggregates that are taken internally by the invasome, a unique phagosomal structure. (medscape.com)
  • Although intra- and extra-erythrocytic bacterial organisms were confirmed by TEM, and SEM identified numerous pits, the morphologic characteristics were not unique identifiers for Bartonella spp. (cdc.gov)
  • A range of bacterial ( Bartonella spp, Mycoplasma spp. (bvsalud.org)
  • Recent molecular biology approaches have allowed dramatic extension of the spectrum of Bartonella infections. (nih.gov)
  • Freeze- radically in urban areas, mainly among homeless persons, thawed blood samples were spread onto chocolate agar drug-addicted persons, and HIV-positive patients in Europe plates ( 8 ) for isolation of Bartonella spp. (cdc.gov)
  • The name Bartonia, later Bartonella bacilliformis, was used for the only member of the group identified before 1993. (medscape.com)
  • Sequence comparison analysis demonstrated a 100% identity to B. quintana . (medscape.com)
  • During July 2011-April 2014, a total of 45 blood samples locus sequence typing of the isolates revealed that Japanese macaques were infected with a new and specific B. quintana were collected in EDTA-containing collection tubes from sequence type. (cdc.gov)
  • B with the Wildlife Protection and Proper Hunting Act, by artonella quintana is the causative agent of trench using large hand-made cage traps and commercial cage fever, which is characterized in humans by headache, traps (no. (cdc.gov)
  • Then, CFUs as the only competent vector for B. quintana in humans, 2 per milliliter of blood were calculated. (cdc.gov)
  • Bartonella -specific PCRs that targeted the gltA ( 9 ) and Humans were thought to be the unique natural reser- rpoB ( 10 ) genes and the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic tran- voir for B. quintana ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • These observations, together with the finding that lesions may regress when antibiotic therapy is administered, strongly suggest that B. quintana itself stimulates angiogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • Candidatus Bartonella ancashi was isolated from the blood of a patient with verruga peruana in Peru. (medscape.com)