Infections by the genus BARTONELLA. Bartonella bacilliformis can cause acute febrile anemia, designated Oroya fever, and a benign skin eruption, called verruga peruana. BARTONELLA QUINTANA causes TRENCH FEVER, while BARTONELLA HENSELAE is the etiologic agent of bacillary angiomatosis (ANGIOMATOSIS, BACILLARY) and is also one of the causes of CAT-SCRATCH DISEASE in immunocompetent patients.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria characteristically appearing in chains of several segmenting organisms. It occurs in man and arthropod vectors and is found only in the Andes region of South America. This genus is the etiologic agent of human bartonellosis. The genus Rochalimaea, once considered a separate genus, has recently been combined with the genus Bartonella as a result of high levels of relatedness in 16S rRNA sequence data and DNA hybridization data.
A species of gram-negative bacteria that is the etiologic agent of bacillary angiomatosis (ANGIOMATOSIS, BACILLARY). This organism can also be a cause of CAT-SCRATCH DISEASE in immunocompetent patients.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in which man is the primary host and the human body louse, Pediculus humanus, the principal vector. It is the etiological agent of TRENCH FEVER.
A reactive vascular proliferation that is characterized by the multiple tumor-like lesions in skin, bone, brain, and other organs. Bacillary angiomatosis is caused by infection with gram-negative Bartonella bacilli (such as BARTONELLA HENSELAE), and is often seen in AIDS patients and other IMMUNOCOMPROMISED HOSTS.
A self-limiting bacterial infection of the regional lymph nodes caused by AFIPIA felis, a gram-negative bacterium recently identified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and by BARTONELLA HENSELAE. It usually arises one or more weeks following a feline scratch, with raised inflammatory nodules at the site of the scratch being the primary symptom.
An intermittent fever characterized by intervals of chills, fever, and splenomegaly each of which may last as long as 40 hours. It is caused by BARTONELLA QUINTANA and transmitted by the human louse.
Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
The type species of the genus BARTONELLA, a gram-negative bacteria found in humans. It is found in the mountain valleys of Peru, Ecuador, and Southwest Columbia where the sandfly (see PHLEBOTOMUS) vector is present. It causes OROYA FEVER and VERRUGA PERUANA.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
An order of parasitic, blood-sucking, wingless INSECTS with the common name of fleas.
A family of small gram-negative bacteria whose organisms are parasites of erythrocytes in man and other vertebrates and the etiologic agents of several diseases.

Bartonella koehlerae sp. nov., isolated from cats. (1/269)

Two of the 25 Bartonella isolates recovered during a prevalence study of Bartonella henselae bacteremia in domestic cats from the greater San Francisco Bay region were found to differ phenotypically and genotypically from all prior B. henselae isolates. These isolates, C-29 and C-30, which were recovered from the blood of two pet cats belonging to the same household, grew on chocolate agar as pinpoint colonies following 14 days of incubation at 35 degrees C in a candle jar but failed to grow on heart infusion agar supplemented with 5% rabbit blood. Additional phenotypic characteristics distinguished the isolates C-29 and C-30 from other feline B. henselae isolates. The restriction patterns obtained for C-29 and C-30 by citrate synthase PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis as well as by genomic RFLP could not be distinguished from each other but were distinctly different from that of the B. henselae type strain. In reciprocal reactions, DNAs from strains C-29 and C-30 were 97 to 100% related under optimal and stringent DNA reassociation conditions, with 0 to 0.5% divergence within related sequences. Labeled DNA from the type strain of B. henselae was 61 to 65% related to unlabeled DNAs from strains C-29 and C-30 in 55 degrees C reactions, with 5.0 to 5.5% divergence within the related sequences, and 31 to 41% related in stringent, 70 degrees C reactions. In reciprocal reactions, labeled DNAs from strains C-29 and C-30 were 68 to 92% related to those of the B. henselae type strain and other B. henselae strains, with 5 to 7% divergence. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain C-29 was 99.54% homologous to that of the type strain of B. henselae. On the basis of these findings, the two isolates C-29 and C-30 are designated a new species of Bartonella, for which we propose the name Bartonella koehlerae. The type strain of Bartonella koehlerae is strain C-29 (ATCC 700693).  (+info)

Clinical and pathologic evaluation of chronic Bartonella henselae or Bartonella clarridgeiae infection in cats. (2/269)

Human Bartonella infections result in diverse medical presentations, whereas many cats appear to tolerate chronic bacteremia without obvious clinical abnormalities. Eighteen specific-pathogen-free cats were inoculated with Bartonella henselae- and/or Bartonella clarridgeiae-infected cat blood and monitored for 454 days. Relapsing bacteremia did not correlate with changes in protein profiles or differences in antigenic protein recognition. Intradermal skin testing did not induce a delayed type hypersensitivity reaction to cat scratch disease skin test antigen. Thirteen cats were euthanatized at the end of the study. Despite persistent infection, clinical signs were minimal and gross necropsy results were unremarkable. Histopathology revealed peripheral lymph node hyperplasia (in all of the 13 cats), splenic follicular hyperplasia (in 9 cats), lymphocytic cholangitis/pericholangitis (in 9 cats), lymphocytic hepatitis (in 6 cats), lymphoplasmacytic myocarditis (in 8 cats), and interstitial lymphocytic nephritis (in 4 cats). Structures suggestive of Bartonella were visualized in some Warthin-Starry stained sections, and Bartonella DNA was amplified from the lymph node (from 6 of the 13 cats), liver (from 11 cats) heart (from 8 cats), kidney (from 9 cats), lung (from 2 cats), and brain (from 9 cats). This study indicates that B. henselae or B. clarridgeiae can induce chronic infection following blood transfusion in specific-pathogen-free cats and that Bartonella DNA can be detected in blood, brain, lymph node, myocardium, liver, and kidney tissues of both blood culture-positive cats and blood culture-negative cats. Detection of histologic changes in these cats supports a potential etiologic role for Bartonella species in several idiopathic disease processes in cats.  (+info)

Survey of Bartonella species infecting intradomicillary animals in the Huayllacallan Valley, Ancash, Peru, a region endemic for human bartonellosis. (3/269)

The natural cycle of Bartonella bacilliformis remains uncertain, and the suspected existence of animal reservoirs for the bacterium has never been convincingly demonstrated. We conducted a survey of Bartonella species infecting intradomicillary animals in a bartonellosis-endemic region of Peru, obtaining blood from 50 animals living in the homes of 11 families whose children had recently had bartonellosis. Bartonella-like bacteria were recovered from four of nine small rodents included in the study, but from none of the 41 domesticated animals. Identification and comparison of these isolates, and two Bartonella-like isolates obtained from Phyllotis mice in a different endemic region of Peru using serologic and genotypic methods indicated that although none were strains of B. bacilliformis, five were probably representatives of three previously unrecognized Bartonella species and one was a likely strain of the pathogenic species B. elizabethae.  (+info)

Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae infection in domestic cats from The Philippines. (4/269)

One hundred seven domestic cats from The Philippines were serologically tested to establish the prevalence of Bartonella infection. A subset of 31 of these cats also had whole blood collected to tentatively isolate Bartonella strains. Bartonella henselae and B. clarridgeiae were isolated from 19 (61%) of these cats. Bartonella henselae type I was isolated from 17 (89%) of the 19 culture-positive cats. Six cats (31%) were infected with B. clarridgeiae, of which four were coinfected with B. henselae. Sixty-eight percent (73 of 107) and 65% (70 of 107) of the cats had antibodies to B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae, respectively, detected by an immunofluorescence antibody (IFA) test at a titer > or = 1:64. When tested by enzyme immunoassay (EIA), 67 cats (62.6%) had antibodies to B. henselae and 71 cats (66.4%) had antibodies to B. clarridgeiae. Compared with the IFA test, the B. henselae EIA had a sensitivity of 90.4% and a specificity of 97%, with positive and negative predictive values of 98.5% and 82.5%, respectively. Similarly, the B. clarridgeiae EIA had a sensitivity of 97% and a specificity of 92% specificity, with positive and negative predictive values of 95.8% and 94.4%, respectively. The presence of antibodies to Bartonella was strongly associated with flea infestation. Domestic cats represent a large reservoir of Bartonella infection in the Philippines.  (+info)

Rats of the genus Rattus are reservoir hosts for pathogenic Bartonella species: an Old World origin for a New World disease? (5/269)

Bartonella species were isolated from the blood of 63 of 325 Rattus norvegicus and 11 of 92 Rattus rattus from 13 sites in the United States and Portugal. Infection in both Rattus species ranged from 0% (e.g., 0/87) to approximately 60% (e.g., 35/62). A 337-bp fragment of the citrate synthase (gltA) gene amplified by polymerase chain reaction was sequenced from all 74 isolates. Isolates from R. norvegicus were most similar to Bartonella elizabethae, isolated previously from a patient with endocarditis (93%-100% sequence similarity), followed by Bartonella grahamii and other Bartonella species isolated from Old World rodents (Clethrionomys species, Mus musculus, and Rattus species). These data suggest that Rattus species are a reservoir host for pathogenic Bartonella species and are consistent with a hypothesized Old World origin for Bartonella species recovered from Rattus species introduced into the Americas.  (+info)

Isolation of a new subspecies, Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis, from a cattle rancher: identity with isolates found in conjunction with Borrelia burgdorferi and Babesia microti among naturally infected mice. (6/269)

Bacteremia with fever due to a novel subspecies of Bartonella vinsonii was found in a cattle rancher. The subspecies shared major characteristics of the genus Bartonella in terms of most biochemical features and cellular fatty acid profile, but it was distinguishable from other subspecies of B. vinsonii by good growth on heart infusion agar supplemented with X factor and by its pattern of enzymatic hydrolysis of peptide substrates. DNA relatedness studies verified that the isolate belonged to the genus Bartonella and that it was genotypically related to B. vinsonii. The highest level of relatedness was observed with recently characterized strains from naturally infected mice that were coinfected with Borrelia burgdorferi and Babesia microti. We propose the name Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis subsp. nov. as the new subspecies to accommodate these human and murine isolates.  (+info)

An outbreak of acute bartonellosis (Oroya fever) in the Urubamba region of Peru, 1998. (7/269)

During May 1998, we conducted a case-control study of 357 participants from 60 households during an outbreak of acute bartonellosis in the Urubamba Valley, Peru, a region not previously considered endemic for this disease. Blood and insect specimens were collected and environmental assessments were done. Case-patients (n = 22) were defined by fever, anemia, and intra-erythrocytic coccobacilli seen in thin smears. Most case-patients were children (median age = 6.5 years). Case-patients more frequently reported sand fly bites than individuals of neighboring households (odds ratio [OR] = 5.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2-39.2), or members from randomly selected households > or = 5 km away (OR = 8.5, 95% CI = 1.7-57.9). Bartonella bacilliformis isolated from blood was confirmed by nucleotide sequencing (citrate synthase [g/tA], 338 basepairs). Using bacterial isolation (n = 141) as the standard, sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of thin smears were 36%, 96%, and 44%, respectively. Patients with clinical syndromes compatible with bartonellosis should be treated with appropriate antibiotics regardless of thin-smear results.  (+info)

Seroprevalence of Bartonella henselae in cats in Germany. (8/269)

Bartonella henselae and B. quintana infections in man are associated with various clinical manifestations including cat-scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis and bacteraemia. While cats are the natural reservoir for B. henselae, the source of B. quintana is unclear. In this study, the sera of 713 cats from Germany were examined for the presence of antibodies against B. henselae, B. quintana or Afipia felis by an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Bartonella-specific antibody titres of > or =50 were found in 15.0% of the cats. There was substantial cross-reactivity among the various Bartonella antigens, although single sera showed high titres against B. henselae but not against B. quintana and vice versa. Antibodies against A. felis were not detected in any of these cats. Statistical analysis indicated that there is no correlation between Bartonella infections and the sex, age or breed of the cat or its hunting behavior. There was also no correlation between bartonella and toxoplasma infections in cats. However, whereas 16.8% of cats from northern Germany had B. quintana-specific antibodies, only 8.0% of cats from southern Germany were seropositive for B. quintana. No statistically significant difference was found for B. henselae. IFA-positive and IFA-negative sera were used for immunoblot analysis including B. henselae and B. quintana. Marked reactivity was observed with protein bands at 80, 76, 73, 65, 37, 33 and 15 kDa. The results of this study suggest that B. henselae, and possibly a B. quintana-related pathogen, but not A. felis, are common in cats in Germany, and that there are differences in the geographic distribution of bartonella infections in cats.  (+info)

Bartonella infections are a group of diseases caused by bacteria belonging to the Bartonella genus. These gram-negative bacteria can infect humans and animals, causing various symptoms depending on the specific Bartonella species involved. Some common Bartonella infections include:

1. Cat scratch disease (Bartonella henselae): This is the most common Bartonella infection, usually transmitted through contact with a cat's scratch or saliva. The primary symptom is a tender, swollen lymph node near the site of the scratch. Other symptoms may include fever, fatigue, and headache.
2. Trench fever (Bartonella quintana): This infection was first identified during World War I among soldiers living in trenches, hence its name. It is primarily transmitted through the feces of body lice. Symptoms include fever, severe headaches, muscle pain, and a rash.
3. Carrion's disease (Bartonella bacilliformis): This infection is endemic to South America, particularly in the Andean regions of Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia. It is transmitted through the bite of sandflies. The acute phase of the disease, known as Oroya fever, is characterized by high fever, severe anemia, and potentially life-threatening complications. The chronic phase, known as verruga peruana, presents with skin lesions resembling warts or boils.

Diagnosis of Bartonella infections typically involves blood tests to detect antibodies against the bacteria or direct detection of the bacterial DNA using PCR techniques. Treatment usually consists of antibiotics such as azithromycin, doxycycline, or rifampin, depending on the specific infection and severity of symptoms.

"Bartonella" is a genus of gram-negative bacteria that are facultative intracellular pathogens, meaning they can live and multiply inside host cells. They are the cause of several emerging infectious diseases in humans and animals. Some species of Bartonella are associated with clinical syndromes such as cat scratch disease, trench fever, and Carrion's disease. The bacteria are transmitted to humans through the bites or feces of insect vectors (such as fleas, lice, and sandflies) or through contact with infected animals. Once inside the host, Bartonella can evade the immune system and cause chronic infection, which can lead to a variety of clinical manifestations, including fever, fatigue, lymphadenopathy, endocarditis, and neurological symptoms.

The medical definition of 'Bartonella' is: A genus of fastidious, gram-negative bacteria that are facultative intracellular pathogens. Bartonella species are the cause of several emerging infectious diseases in humans and animals. The bacteria are transmitted to humans through the bites or feces of insect vectors (such as fleas, lice, and sandflies) or through contact with infected animals. Bartonella species can evade the immune system and cause chronic infection, leading to a variety of clinical manifestations, including fever, fatigue, lymphadenopathy, endocarditis, and neurological symptoms.

'Bartonella henselae' is a gram-negative bacterium that is the primary cause of cat scratch disease (CSD) in humans. The bacteria are transmitted through the scratch or bite of an infected cat, or more rarely, through contact with cat saliva on a wound or mucous membrane.

Infected individuals may experience mild to severe symptoms, including fever, headache, fatigue, and lymph node swelling near the site of infection. In some cases, the bacteria can spread to other parts of the body, causing more serious complications such as endocarditis (inflammation of the inner lining of the heart), encephalopathy (brain damage), or neurological symptoms.

Diagnosis of Bartonella henselae infection typically involves a combination of clinical symptoms, serological testing, and sometimes molecular methods such as PCR. Treatment usually consists of antibiotics, with doxycycline being the first-line therapy for adults and macrolides for children. In severe cases, intravenous antibiotics may be necessary.

Preventive measures include avoiding contact with cats' claws and saliva, particularly if you have a weakened immune system, and practicing good hygiene after handling cats or their litter boxes.

Bartonella quintana is a gram-negative, aerobic bacillus that is the causative agent of trench fever, a disease first described during World War I. The bacterium is primarily transmitted to humans through the feces of body lice, and it can also cause endocarditis and other systemic infections.

The name "quintana" refers to the characteristic fever pattern of the disease, which features recurring episodes every fifth day. Other symptoms of trench fever include headache, muscle pain, and a rash. The disease is typically treated with antibiotics, such as doxycycline or azithromycin.

Bartonella quintana is also known to cause cat scratch disease in immunocompromised individuals. It can be transmitted through the scratches or bites of cats infected with the bacterium. The symptoms of cat scratch disease include fever, swollen lymph nodes, and fatigue.

Overall, Bartonella quintana is a significant public health concern, particularly in populations with poor hygiene and crowded living conditions, such as homeless individuals and refugees.

Bacillary angiomatosis is a medical condition caused by infection with the bacteria Bartonella henselae or Bartonella quintana. It is characterized by the growth of blood vessel tissue in various parts of the body, leading to the formation of lesions or tumors. These lesions can appear as red papules or nodules on the skin, and can also affect internal organs such as the liver, spleen, and lymph nodes.

The condition is typically seen in individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS, and can be treated with antibiotics. It is important to note that bacillary angiomatosis should not be confused with other forms of angiomatosis or vascular tumors, which have different causes and treatments.

Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is a bacterial infection caused by Bartonella henselae. It is typically transmitted through contact with a cat, especially when the animal scratches or bites a person and then introduces the bacteria into the wound. The incubation period for CSD is usually 7-14 days after exposure.

The most common symptoms of CSD include:

* A small, raised bump (called a papule) that develops at the site of the scratch or bite within a few days of being scratched or bitten by a cat. This bump may be tender and can sometimes form a crust or pustule.
* Swollen lymph nodes (also called lymphadenopathy) near the site of the infection, which usually develop 1-2 weeks after the initial scratch or bite. These swollen lymph nodes are often painful and may be warm to the touch.
* Fatigue, fever, headache, and muscle aches are also common symptoms of CSD.

In most cases, cat-scratch disease is a mild illness that resolves on its own within a few weeks or months. However, in some cases, it can cause more severe complications, such as infection of the heart valves (endocarditis), inflammation of the brain (encephalitis), or damage to the eyes (retinitis).

Treatment for cat-scratch disease typically involves supportive care, such as pain relief and anti-inflammatory medications. Antibiotics may be prescribed in some cases, particularly if the infection is severe or if the patient has a weakened immune system. Preventive measures include washing hands after handling cats, avoiding rough play with cats, and promptly treating cat bites and scratches.

Trench fever is a historical medical condition that primarily affected soldiers during World War I. It is caused by Bartonella quintana, a type of bacterium that is transmitted through the feces of body lice. The name "trench fever" comes from the fact that it was common among soldiers living in trenches, where poor hygiene and crowded conditions facilitated the spread of the disease.

Symptoms of trench fever include sudden onset of fever, severe headache, muscle pain, and a rash. The fever typically lasts for about five days and then recurs every four to six days, which is why it was also known as "five-day fever" or "recrudescence fever." Other symptoms can include fatigue, anemia, and swelling of the spleen and liver.

Trench fever is treated with antibiotics such as doxycycline or azithromycin. Prevention measures include good personal hygiene, such as regular bathing and changing clothes, as well as environmental controls to reduce louse populations, such as delousing stations and insecticides.

While trench fever is no longer a major public health concern, it remains an important historical medical condition that highlights the importance of hygiene and infection control in military settings.

There are many diseases that can affect cats, and the specific medical definitions for these conditions can be quite detailed and complex. However, here are some common categories of feline diseases and examples of each:

1. Infectious diseases: These are caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites. Examples include:
* Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), also known as feline parvovirus, which can cause severe gastrointestinal symptoms and death in kittens.
* Feline calicivirus (FCV), which can cause upper respiratory symptoms such as sneezing and nasal discharge.
* Feline leukemia virus (FeLV), which can suppress the immune system and lead to a variety of secondary infections and diseases.
* Bacterial infections, such as those caused by Pasteurella multocida or Bartonella henselae, which can cause abscesses or other symptoms.
2. Neoplastic diseases: These are cancerous conditions that can affect various organs and tissues in cats. Examples include:
* Lymphoma, which is a common type of cancer in cats that can affect the lymph nodes, spleen, liver, and other organs.
* Fibrosarcoma, which is a type of soft tissue cancer that can arise from fibrous connective tissue.
* Squamous cell carcinoma, which is a type of skin cancer that can be caused by exposure to sunlight or tobacco smoke.
3. Degenerative diseases: These are conditions that result from the normal wear and tear of aging or other factors. Examples include:
* Osteoarthritis, which is a degenerative joint disease that can cause pain and stiffness in older cats.
* Dental disease, which is a common condition in cats that can lead to tooth loss, gum inflammation, and other problems.
* Heart disease, such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), which is a thickening of the heart muscle that can lead to congestive heart failure.
4. Hereditary diseases: These are conditions that are inherited from a cat's parents and are present at birth or develop early in life. Examples include:
* Polycystic kidney disease (PKD), which is a genetic disorder that causes cysts to form in the kidneys and can lead to kidney failure.
* Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), which can be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait in some cats.
* Progressive retinal atrophy (PRA), which is a group of genetic disorders that cause degeneration of the retina and can lead to blindness.

A disease reservoir refers to a population or group of living organisms, including humans, animals, and even plants, that can naturally carry and transmit a particular pathogen (disease-causing agent) without necessarily showing symptoms of the disease themselves. These hosts serve as a source of infection for other susceptible individuals, allowing the pathogen to persist and circulate within a community or environment.

Disease reservoirs can be further classified into:

1. **Primary (or Main) Reservoir**: This refers to the species that primarily harbors and transmits the pathogen, contributing significantly to its natural ecology and maintaining its transmission cycle. For example, mosquitoes are the primary reservoirs for many arboviruses like dengue, Zika, and chikungunya viruses.

2. **Amplifying Hosts**: These hosts can become infected with the pathogen and experience a high rate of replication, leading to an increased concentration of the pathogen in their bodies. This allows for efficient transmission to other susceptible hosts or vectors. For instance, birds are amplifying hosts for West Nile virus, as they can become viremic (have high levels of virus in their blood) and infect feeding mosquitoes that then transmit the virus to other animals and humans.

3. **Dead-end Hosts**: These hosts may become infected with the pathogen but do not contribute significantly to its transmission cycle, as they either do not develop sufficient quantities of the pathogen to transmit it or do not come into contact with potential vectors or susceptible hosts. For example, humans are dead-end hosts for many zoonotic diseases like rabies, as they cannot transmit the virus to other humans.

Understanding disease reservoirs is crucial in developing effective strategies for controlling and preventing infectious diseases, as it helps identify key species and environments that contribute to their persistence and transmission.

'Bartonella bacilliformis' is a type of bacterium that causes a rare and severe infectious disease known as Carrion's disease, which is prevalent in certain regions of South America, particularly in Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia. The bacteria are transmitted to humans through the bite of infected sandflies.

Carrion's disease has two distinct clinical phases: the acute phase, also known as Oroya fever, which is characterized by fever, severe anemia, and systemic infection; and the chronic phase, called verruga peruana, which presents with skin lesions or wart-like bumps that can ulcerate and bleed.

Early diagnosis and treatment of Carrion's disease are crucial to prevent complications and reduce mortality rates. Antibiotics such as chloramphenicol, azithromycin, and gentamicin are commonly used for the treatment of this condition. Preventive measures include using insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and avoiding sandfly-infested areas during peak activity times.

"Cat" is a common name that refers to various species of small carnivorous mammals that belong to the family Felidae. The domestic cat, also known as Felis catus or Felis silvestris catus, is a popular pet and companion animal. It is a subspecies of the wildcat, which is found in Europe, Africa, and Asia.

Domestic cats are often kept as pets because of their companionship, playful behavior, and ability to hunt vermin. They are also valued for their ability to provide emotional support and therapy to people. Cats are obligate carnivores, which means that they require a diet that consists mainly of meat to meet their nutritional needs.

Cats are known for their agility, sharp senses, and predatory instincts. They have retractable claws, which they use for hunting and self-defense. Cats also have a keen sense of smell, hearing, and vision, which allow them to detect prey and navigate their environment.

In medical terms, cats can be hosts to various parasites and diseases that can affect humans and other animals. Some common feline diseases include rabies, feline leukemia virus (FeLV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and toxoplasmosis. It is important for cat owners to keep their pets healthy and up-to-date on vaccinations and preventative treatments to protect both the cats and their human companions.

Bacterial antibodies are a type of antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection caused by bacteria. These antibodies are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the bacterial cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Bacterial antibodies can be classified into several types based on their structure and function, including IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE. They play a crucial role in the body's defense against bacterial infections and provide immunity to future infections with the same bacteria.

Siphonaptera is the scientific order that includes fleas. Fleas are small, wingless insects with laterally compressed bodies and strong legs adapted for jumping. They are external parasites, living by hematophagy off the blood of mammals and birds. Fleas can be a nuisance to their hosts, and some people and animals have allergic reactions to flea saliva. Fleas can also transmit diseases, such as bubonic plague and murine typhus, and parasites like tapeworms.

Bartonellaceae is a family of gram-negative bacteria that includes several species known to cause human diseases. The most well-known member of this family is Bartonella henselae, which causes cat scratch disease, as well as other illnesses such as trench fever (caused by Bartonella quintana) and Carrion's disease (caused by Bartonella bacilliformis).

Bartonella species are facultative intracellular pathogens that can infect a variety of cells, including erythrocytes, endothelial cells, and immune cells. They are transmitted to humans through the bites or feces of arthropod vectors such as fleas, lice, and sandflies, or through contact with infected animals such as cats.

The clinical manifestations of Bartonella infections can vary widely depending on the specific species involved and the immune status of the host. In addition to cat scratch disease and trench fever, Bartonella infections have been linked to a variety of other symptoms and conditions, including endocarditis, encephalopathy, and chronic fatigue syndrome.

Diagnosis of Bartonella infections can be challenging due to the nonspecific nature of many of the symptoms and the difficulty of culturing the bacteria from clinical samples. Molecular methods such as PCR and serological tests are often used to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, with the choice of drug depending on the specific Bartonella species involved and the severity of the infection.

2007). "Bartonella quintana Lipopolysaccharide Is a Natural Antagonist of Toll-Like Receptor 4". Infection and Immunity. 75 (10 ... Jackson, Lisa A.; Spach, David H. (1996). "Emergence of Bartonella quintana Infection among Homeless Persons". Emerging ... B. quintana infection has subsequently been seen in every continent except Antarctica. Local infections have been associated ... "Bartonella quintana". NCBI Taxonomy Browser. 803. Type strain of Bartonella quintana at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity ...
A pan-Bartonella PCR detection is non-invasive and uses blood or biopsies to diagnose. Bartonella henselae infection can appear ... "Bartonella henselae infection or cat scratch disease (CSD) , Bartonella , CDC". 2022-01-19. Retrieved 2023-04-10. ... "Bartonella infections diagnosed in the French reference center, 2014-2019, and focus on infections in the immunocompromised". ... Angelakis E, Raoult D. Pathogenicity and treatment of Bartonella infections. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2014;44:16-25. " ...
All current Bartonella species identified in canines are human pathogens. Bartonella infections are remarkable in the wide ... nov., Bartonella vinsonii comb. nov., Bartonella henselae comb. nov., and Bartonella elizabethae comb. nov., and To Remove the ... Jacomo V, Kelly PJ, Raoult D (2002). "Natural history of Bartonella infections (an exception to Koch's postulate)". Clin. Diagn ... Comer JA, Diaz T, Vlahov D, Monterroso E, Childs JE (2001). "Evidence of rodent-associated Bartonella and Rickettsia infections ...
"Is pyogenic granuloma associated with Bartonella infection?". Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 53 (6): 1065-1066 ... It is also not truly pyogenic (pus-producing), as the cause is hormonal or traumatic and has no association with infection or ... Pyogenic granulomas are caused by proliferation of capillaries and are not caused by infection or cancer.[citation needed] A ... One study has suggested a correlation between pyogenic granulomas and Bartonella seropositivity. However, this association has ...
Cryptic Bartonella infection may be a much larger problem than previously thought, constituting an unrecognized occupational ... Endocarditis associated with Bartonella infection has a particularly high mortality. Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome is the ... Symptoms typically begin within 3-14 days following infection. Cat-scratch disease is caused by the bacterium Bartonella ... Florin TA, Zaoutis TE, Zaoutis LB (2008). "Beyond cat scratch disease: widening spectrum of Bartonella henselae infection". ...
Welc-Falęciak, Renata; Grono, Krzysztof (2013). "The first cases of Bartonella bovis infection in cattle from Central Europe". ... "Bartonella bovis" at the Encyclopedia of Life LPSN The Western Producer article Type strain of Bartonella bovis at BacDive - ... 2002). "Bartonella bovis sp. nov. and Bartonella capreoli sp. nov., isolated from European ruminants". Int J Syst Evol ... A fourth Bartonella species, Bartonella weissii, species nova, isolated from domestic cats. 15th Meeting of the American ...
Comparative Epidemiology of Bartonella Infection in Dogs and Humans. ProQuest, 2007. "Bartonella capreoli" at the Encyclopedia ... 2002). "Bartonella bovis Bermond et al. sp. nov. and Bartonella capreoli sp. nov., isolated from European ruminants". Int J ... Bartonella capreoli is a pathogenic bacteria first isolated from European ruminants. It is small, fastidious, aerobic, oxidase- ... Bai, Ying; Cross, Paul C.; Malania, Lile; Kosoy, Michael (2011). "Isolation of Bartonella capreoli from elk". Veterinary ...
Jacomo V, Kelly PJ, Raoult D (January 2002). "Natural history of Bartonella infections (an exception to Koch's postulate)". ... Such infections, according to the theory, were not passed between individuals but would affect those within a locale that gave ... Or even, as may be the case, the infection remains suspended in the air itself; and when, as we breathe, we inhale the air ... It held that diseases such as cholera, chlamydia infection, or the Black Death were caused by a miasma (μίασμα, Ancient Greek ...
"Bartonella Infection (Cat Scratch Disease, Trench Fever, and Carrión's Disease)". Retrieved 2016-10-17. " ... Carrion's disease is an infectious disease produced by Bartonella bacilliformis infection. It is named after Daniel Alcides ... Carrion's disease is caused by Bartonella bacilliformis. Recent investigations show that Bartonella ancashensis may cause ... 2013). "Novel Bartonella agent as cause of verruga peruana". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 19 (7): 1111-1114. doi:10.3201/ ...
Widening Spectrum of Bartonella henselae Infection". Pediatrics. 121 (5): e1413-e1425. doi:10.1542/peds.2007-1897. ISSN 0031- ... Cats' claws and mouths contain bacteria that can lead to infection, so it is wise to clean and treat any wounds with an ...
Bartonella infections are also known to cause fever of unknown origin. Human herpes viruses are a common cause of fever of ... of people presenting with co-infection (infection with two or more human herpes viruses). Infectious mononucleosis, most ... Worldwide, infection is the leading cause of FUO with prevalence varying by country and geographic region. Extrapulmonary ... But in those with AIDS, with high viral loads, viral replication and immune-compromise; cancers and opportunistic infection are ...
Infections: HIV, bacillary peliosis (caused by genus Bartonella, bacteria responsible for cat-scratch disease which are ... "Molecular epidemiology of bartonella infections in patients with bacillary angiomatosis-peliosis". N. Engl. J. Med. 337 (26): ... Peliosis hepatis is associated with infections, cancers, organ transplantation, blood disorders, autoimmune conditions, and ... and other chronic infections Malignancy: Monoclonal gammopathies (multiple myeloma and Waldenström's macroglobulinemia), ...
Schaller, JL; Burkland, GA; Langhoff, PJ (2007). "Do bartonella infections cause agitation, panic disorder, and treatment- ... Infections associated with diseases are those infections that are associated with possible infectious etiologies that meet the ... The history of infection and disease were observed in the 1800s and related to the one of the tick-borne diseases, Rocky ... COMMON INFECTIONS AND UNCOMMON DISEASE: ELUSIVE ASSOCIATIONS OF ENTEROVIRUSES AND TYPE I DIABETES MELLITUS". In Knobler, Stacey ...
December 1997). "Molecular epidemiology of bartonella infections in patients with bacillary angiomatosis-peliosis". N. Engl. J ... Bacillary peliosis is a form of peliosis hepatis that has been associated with bacteria in the genus Bartonella. Koehler JE, ...
December 1997). "Molecular epidemiology of bartonella infections in patients with bacillary angiomatosis-peliosis". N. Engl. J ... If the infection is serious, then a bactericidal medication may be coupled with the antibiotics[citation needed] If a cat is ... carrying Bartonella henselae, then it may not exhibit any symptoms. Cats may be bacteremic for weeks to years, but infection is ... However, if the infection does not respond to either of these, the medication is usually changed to tetracycline. ...
"Molecular documentation of Bartonella infection in dogs in Greece and Italy". Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 47 (5): 1565-7 ... Bartonella rochalimae is a recently discovered strain of Gram-negative bacteria in the genus Bartonella, isolated by ... "Bartonella rochalimae and other Bartonella spp. in fleas, Chile". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 15 (7): 1150-2. doi:10.3201/ ... In July 2009, Bartonella rochalimae was also identified in fleas from cats and dogs from Chile. The organisms was detected by ...
"Candidatus Bartonella melophagi" is a candidatus species of Bartonella that causes infection in humans. North Carolina State ... Ricardo G. Maggi; Michael Kosoy; Melanie Mintzer; Edward B. Breitschwerdt (2009). "Isolation of Candidatus Bartonella melophagi ... University (January 6, 2009). "New Bartonella species that infects humans discovered". ScienceDaily. Retrieved March 22, 2012. ...
"Facts about Bartonella quintana infection ('trench fever')". European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Rolain, J. M ... "Facts about Bartonella quintana infection ('trench fever')". European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Retrieved 11 ... Bartonella quintana is closely related to Bartonella henselae, the agent of cat scratch fever and bacillary angiomatosis. The ... "Recommendations for Treatment of Human Infections Caused by Bartonella Species". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 48 (6 ...
"Expressive Aphasia as a Presentation of Encephalitis with Bartonella henselae Infection in an Immunocompetent Adult". The Yale ... Bartonella henselae) Metabolic disease (e.g., hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state) The most common cause of expressive aphasia is ... tumor Brain trauma Autoimmune disease Paraneoplastic syndrome Micrometastasis neurodegenerative disorders Certain infections (e ...
Bacterial, fungal and viral infections including Bartonella, Staphylococcal, Granulomatous, Adenoviral and Lyme disease are all ... A majority of reported cases in children are usually caused by infections or benign etiologies. In one study, 628 patients ... even without development of an infection.[medical citation needed] Clinically, follicular hyperplasia lymphadenopathy is ...
"Bartonella and Rickettsia Infections in Haematophagous Spinturnix myoti Mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) and their Bat Host, Myotis ...
Janecek E, Mietze A, Goethe R, Schnieder T, Strube C (October 2012). "Bartonella spp. infection rate and B. grahamii in ticks ... South-central Bartonella: Bartonella transmission rates to humans via tick bite are not well established but Bartonella is ... For an individual to acquire infection, the feeding tick must also be infected. Not all ticks are infected. In most places in ... They are caused by infection with a variety of pathogens, including rickettsia and other types of bacteria, viruses, and ...
Other uses include cat scratch disease and other infections due to bartonella, cryptosporidiosis, as a second line agent in ... It is effective against upper and lower respiratory tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections and helicobacter pylori ... This includes strep throat, pneumonia, skin infections, H. pylori infection, and Lyme disease, among others. Clarithromycin can ... Clarithromycin, sold under the brand name Biaxin among others, is an antibiotic used to treat various bacterial infections. ...
Beyond cat scratch disease: a case report of bartonella infection mimicking vasculitic disorder. Case Rep Infect Dis. 2012;2012 ... Spinella found that one patient with bartonella henselae also had anti-cardiolipin antibodies, suggesting that bartonella may ... Chronic fatigue syndrome is debilitating illness of unknown cause that often follows an acute viral infection. According to one ... Bartonellosis is a serious chronic bacterial infection shared by both cats and humans. ...
Bartonella spp. often evade an immune response, thus antibodies may not be detected even concurrent with an infection, ... Treatment of infections caused by Bartonella species include: Some authorities recommend the use of azithromycin. Carrión's ... IFA can generally be used to confirm a diagnosis of Bartonella infection, but is limited by antibody cross-reactivity with ... It is endemic in some areas of Peru, is caused by infection with the bacterium Bartonella bacilliformis, and transmitted by ...
The study found the most prevalent infection to be Bartonella henselae, the cause of cat-scratch disease in humans, with 33.6% ... as the infection in humans can cause significant health problems, and cats who are not otherwise transmitting the infection can ... Researchers studying 553 feral cats in North Florida in the United States tested them for a number of infections that could be ... Lee, I. T.; Levy, J. K.; Gorman, S. P.; Crawford, P. C.; Slater, M. R. (2002). "Prevalence of feline leukemia virus infection ...
Bartonella-Associated Infections - CDC Bartonella species - List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature UniProt ... Bartonella tribocorum is a bacterium. As with other Bartonella species, it can cause disease in animals. This particular ... "Bartonella tribocorum sp. nov., a new Bartonella species isolated from the blood of wild rats". International Journal of ... entry Type strain of Bartonella tribocorum at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (Articles with short ...
Mascarelli, Patricia E. "Bartonella henselae and B. koehlerae DNA in Birds." Bartonella-Associated Infections - CDC Bartonella ... Bartonella koehlerae is a bacterium first isolated from cats. Its genome consists of 1.7-1.8 Mb. Bartonella doshiae Bartonella ... 2004). "Bartonella koehlerae, a new cat-associated agent of culture-negative human endocarditis". J Clin Microbiol. 42 (8): ... at the Encyclopedia of Life Type strain of Bartonella koehlerae at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e ( ...
Bartonella-Associated Infections - CDC Bartonella species - List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature v t e ( ... nov., and Three New Species, Bartonella grahamii sp. nov., Bartonella taylorii sp. nov., and Bartonella doshiae sp. nov". ... "Proposals To Unify the Genera Grahamella and Bartonella, with Descriptions of Bartonella talpae comb, nov., Bartonella ... Bartonella peromysci, formerly belonging to the Grahamella genus, is a bacterium. As with other Bartonella species, it can ...
Bartonella-Associated Infections - CDC Bartonella species - List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature "Bartonella ... Bartonella alsatica is a bacterium. Like other Bartonella species, it can cause disease in animals. It is small, aerobic, ... "Bartonella alsatica sp. nov., a new Bartonella species isolated from the blood of wild rabbits". International Journal of ... Jeanclaude, D.; Godmer, P.; Leveiller, D.; Pouedras, P.; Fournier, P.-E.; Raoult, D.; Rolain, J.-M. (2009). "Bartonella ...
Each variation of Bartonella infection has distinct recommended treatments.. Bartonella quintana Infection. Doxycycline plus ... Bartonella quintana Infection. B. quintana infection can be diagnosed by serology, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing, or ... Bartonella quintana Infection. Symptoms of B. quintana infection include fever, headache, transient rash, and bone pain, mainly ... Angelakis E, Raoult D. Pathogenicity and treatment of Bartonella infections. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2014;44(1):16-25. ...
Bartonellosis comprises infections caused by the emerging pathogens in the genus Bartonella. In 1909, A. ... Bartonella tamiae, Bartonella rochalimae,Bartonella elizabethae, Bartonellakoehlerae, Bartonella grahamii, and Bartonella ... encoded search term (Bartonellosis (Bartonella Infection)) and Bartonellosis (Bartonella Infection) What to Read Next on ... Chronic vasculitis and polyneuropathy due to infection with Bartonella henselae. Infection. 2007 Apr. 35(2):107-9. [QxMD ...
This report describes severe cases of Bartonella quintana infection, a rare but serious disease transmitted by body lice, ... This report describes severe cases of Bartonella quintana infection, a rare but serious disease transmitted by body lice, ... Bartonella quintana infection is a vectorborne disease transmitted by the human body louse (1). In the United States, ... Notes from the Field: Severe Bartonella quintana Infections Among Persons Experiencing Unsheltered Homelessness - New York City ...
Bartonella quintana Infections in Captive Monkeys, China Ruting Huang1, Qiyong Liu1. , Genping Li, Dongmei Li, Xiuping Song, ... Phylogenetic dendrogram of Bartonella spp., inferred from alignment of concatenated sequence data (4,007 bp) by using a maximum ... Bartonella quintana Infections in Captive Monkeys, China. ...
Overview of Bartonella Infections - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the MSD Manuals - ... They cause several uncommon diseases (see table Some Bartonella Infections Some Bartonella Infections ): ... Overview of Bartonella Infections (Bartonellosis). By Larry M. Bush , MD, FACP, Charles E. Schmidt College of Medicine, Florida ... Bartonella infection (bartonellosis) is usually acquired by humans via an insect vector. ...
Alleles Animals Animals, Domestic Bartonella Bartonella Infections Cattle Geography Host Specificity Internationality Molecular ... Global Distribution of Bartonella Infections in Domestic Bovine and Characterization of Bartonella bovis Strains Using Multi- ... Global Distribution of Bartonella Infections in Domestic Bovine and Characterization of Bartonella bovis Strains Using Multi- ... "Global Distribution of Bartonella Infections in Domestic Bovine and Characterization of Bartonella bovis Strains Using Multi- ...
Bacterial Respiratory Infections. Bacterial Enteric Infections. Infection with Bartonella (Formerly Rochalimaea). Candidiasis. ... Bartonella infection (CIII). (9) Testing cats for toxoplasmosis (EII) or Bartonella infection (DII) is not recommended. Birds ( ... because of the risks of toxoplasmosis and Bartonella infection, as well as enteric infections (CIII). Those who elect to obtain ... infection transmitted by the sandfly) and several fungal infections (e.g., Penicillium marneffei infection, coccidioidomycosis ...
2007). "Bartonella quintana Lipopolysaccharide Is a Natural Antagonist of Toll-Like Receptor 4". Infection and Immunity. 75 (10 ... Jackson, Lisa A.; Spach, David H. (1996). "Emergence of Bartonella quintana Infection among Homeless Persons". Emerging ... B. quintana infection has subsequently been seen in every continent except Antarctica. Local infections have been associated ... "Bartonella quintana". NCBI Taxonomy Browser. 803. Type strain of Bartonella quintana at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity ...
At 3 months after the treatment initiation for Bartonella infection, the placoid lesions became atrophic and hyperpigmented, ... Presumed acute posterior multifocal placoid pigmentary epitheliopathy associated with Bartonella infection. Sousa, Maianna ... Infecções por Bartonella/complicações; Infecções por Bartonella/patologia; Doença Aguda ... Infecções por Bartonella; Doenças Retinianas; Síndrome dos Pontos Brancos; Feminino; Humanos; Adulto; Doenças Retinianas/ ...
Cat-scratch disease is an infection with bartonella bacteria. It is transmitted by cat scratches, cat bites, or flea bites. ... The Bartonella henselae immunofluorescence assay (IFA) blood test can detect the infection caused by these bacteria. The ... Rolain JM, Raoult D. Bartonella infections. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... Cat-scratch disease is an infection with bartonella bacteria. It is transmitted by cat scratches, cat bites, or flea bites. ...
My co infections include bartonella henselae. i have positive testing for this illness. You do not get this illness unless you ... Sometimes those catheter-associated infections result in fatal sepsis, as in the case above. Infections are less common than ... and Bartonella infection by a local physician. Despite multiple courses of oral antibiotics, her symptoms worsened, and a ... burgdorferi infection, objective signs of infection, or a history of possible tick exposure in an area with endemic Lyme ...
Infection of Domestic Dogs in Peru by Zoonotic Bartonella Species: A Cross-Sectional Prevalence Study of 219 Asymptomatic Dogs ... Infection of Domestic Dogs in Peru by Zoonotic Bartonella Species: A Cross-Sectional Prevalence Study of 219 Asymptomatic Dogs. ... Infection of Domestic Dogs in Peru by Zoonotic Bartonella Species : A Cross-Sectional Prevalence Study of 219 Asymptomatic Dogs ... T1 - Infection of Domestic Dogs in Peru by Zoonotic Bartonella Species. T2 - A Cross-Sectional Prevalence Study of 219 ...
... of the BadA stalk from Bartonella henselae reveals domain-specific and domain-overlapping functions in the host cell infection ... of the BadA stalk from Bartonella henselae reveals domain-specific and domain-overlapping functions in the host cell infection ...
Expert Insights on Clinical Considerations in Bartonella Infection 0.5 CME / CE / ABIM MOC Credits ... Including COVID-19, influenza, sinusitis, upper respiratory infection, and other respiratory infections.. ¶Other respiratory ... Discussions with clinicians in multiple states raised concerns about a possible increase in pediatric intracranial infections, ... upper respiratory infection.. *Percentages calculated using nonmissing data.. †Other underlying conditions included: Alice in ...
Identification of Bartonella Infections in Febrile Human Patients from Thailand and Their Potential Animal Reservoirs ... Evaluation of the Impact of Overseas Pre-departure Treatment for Infection with Intestinal Parasites among Montagnard Refugees ...
Expert Insights on Clinical Considerations in Bartonella Infection 0.5 CME / CE / ABIM MOC Credits ... Metronidazole added when infections develop after 72 h.. ¶Linezolid toxicity limits utility when used for ,2 weeks duration.. # ... 2Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Department of Wound Infections 503 Robert Grant Ave., Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA. † ... Infections in penetrating trauma are proportional to object velocity, hence war injuries (e.g., assault rifles and bombs) have ...
Bartonella henselae Bloodstream Infection in a Boy With Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome. ByCanLyme Team April ... New Podcast: Exploring co-infections, Bartonella, and mental health effects of Lyme disease. ByCanLyme Team September 29, 2020 ... Read More Bartonella henselae Bloodstream Infection in a Boy With Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome. ... Read More New Podcast: Exploring co-infections, Bartonella, and mental health effects of Lyme disease. ...
Expert Insights on Clinical Considerations in Bartonella Infection 0.5 CME / CE / ABIM MOC Credits ... MicroRNA expression profile in exosome discriminates extremely severe infections from mild infections for hand, foot and mouth ... Breastfeeding, previous Epstein-Barr virus infection, Enterovirus 71 infection, and rural residence are associated with the ... Infections usually occur as isolated events, but epidemics occur regularly. An outbreak of HFMD in China during 2003 was caused ...
Expert Insights on Clinical Considerations in Bartonella Infection 0.5 CME / CE / ABIM MOC Credits ... It is often mistaken for a wound infection or irritation from the appliance. ...
Increased Risk of Bartonella Infections in Humans (Articles) Bogdanka Andric, Aleksandar Velkovski, Milan Jovanovic, Mosa ...
Bartonella infections (cat scratch disease, trench fever, and Carrion's disease). (2019). ... Bacterial infections. Most bacterial infections cause a high count of neutrophils, another type of white blood cell. However, ... Lymphocytosis has various potential causes ranging from minor infections to cancers.. Viral infections. Various viral ... Bartonella henselae is a type of bacteria that can cause CSD. The name refers to its typical cause, a cat scratch. Symptoms of ...
Categories: Bartonella Infections Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Bartonella Infections in Animals: Clinical Signs. *English Bartonella Infections in Humans: Clinical Signs. *English ...
Treatment does not always eliminate infection and re-infection can occur. To attempt to prevent feline hemoplasma infections, ... Because Bartonella spp., Hemoplasma spp., and R. felis infections of fleas are so common and because significant illness can ... However, Bartonella spp. infection of cats has also been associated directly or indirectly with a variety of clinical ... How often cats become ill from Bartonella spp. infections is unknown and more information is needed. However, it can be ...
Common infections include syphilis, tuberculosis, Lyme disease, Bartonella, herpetic disease, West Nile virus, and HIV. ... CRION is a diagnosis of exclusion and all other causes of ON; demyelination, autoimmune disease, and infection should be ruled ... It is important to do a microbiological examination to rule out infection in general and tuberculosis in particular, ... The major side effect is bradycardia; others include macular edema, pulmonary dysfunction, increased risk of infection, and ...
These include flea allergy dermatitis, flea anemia, Bartonella, or even tapeworm infections.* ... or other parasitic infections in dogs and cats. ...
Expert Insights on Clinical Considerations in Bartonella Infection 0.5 CME / CE / ABIM MOC Credits ... 2] Therefore, specific infections in the oral cavity may create foci of infection that may affect systemic health. [3] ... which becomes more challenging as it also possesses a higher risk of infection. [2] DM patients are more prone to infections ... infections of oral cavity may be partly responsible for the development of respiratory diseases as potential foci of infection. ...
Serological survey in persons occupationally exposed to tick-borne pathogens in cases of co-infections with Borrelia ... burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Bartonella spp. and Babesia microti. Jolanta Chmielewska-Badora, Anna Moniuszko, ...
Lyme Disease along with its co-infections, Babesiosis, Bartonella and Erlichiosis are understood by very few. These excellent ... I also have the tick-borne co-infections that often accompany Lyme. Ive had this disease for at least 19 years and was ... Lyme Disease along with its co-infections, Babesiosis, Bartonella and Erlichiosis are understood by very few. These excellent ... I also have the tick-borne co-infections that often accompany Lyme. Ive had this disease for at least 19 years and was ...
Failure to identify an association between serologic or molecular evidence of Bartonella infection and idiopathic rhinitis in ... Accurate diagnosis of co-infections (simultaneous infection with multiple vector-borne organisms) will facilitate early and ... Role of NK-Like CD8+ T Cells during Asymptomatic Borrelia burgdorferi Infection. Infection and Immunity, 90(5), e00555-21. ... All can have serious health consequences, and infection rates have been on the rise over the past five years. The feeding time ...
  • B. henselae infections also can cause prolonged fever. (
  • Bartonella henselae causes cat scratch disease (CSD) and peliosis of the liver (often called bacillary peliosis). (
  • [ 3 ] Both B henselae and B quintana may cause bacillary angiomatosis , infections in homeless populations, and infections in patients with HIV. (
  • Cat scratch disease caused by B henselae infection occurs in approximately 1 per 10,000 persons. (
  • Cat-Scratch Disease Cat-scratch disease is infection caused by the gram-negative bacterium Bartonella henselae . (
  • Bacillary Angiomatosis Bacillary angiomatosis is skin infection caused by the gram-negative bacteria Bartonella henselae or B. quintana . (
  • The Bartonella henselae immunofluorescence assay (IFA) blood test can detect the infection caused by these bacteria. (
  • Bartonella henselae is a type of bacteria that can cause CSD. (
  • Bartonella henselae is a gram-negative organism that replicates within erythrocytes and endothelial cells. (
  • Bartonella henselae is transmitted between cats by fleas. (
  • Bartonella henselae survives in flea feces for days after passed by infected C. felis . (
  • Bacillary angiomatosis is a rare opportunistic bacterial infection due to Bartonella henselae . (
  • The most well-studied and most common Bartonella organism is Bartonella henselae . (
  • Infection with Bartonella henselae in an immunocompetent person (i.e., a normal, healthy person) person leads to cat scratch disease. (
  • It was only relatively recently discovered (1992) that cats themselves were more than simple carriers of Bartonella henselae and that they could actually become actively infected themselves. (
  • Bartonella henselae, a gram-negative rod, is considered the principal etiologic agent. (
  • Bacillary angiomatosis is usually present as tumor-like masses due to infections with gram-negative bacteria such as Bartonella henselae or Bartonella quintana . (
  • On the other hand, bacillary angiomatosis is trigged by bacteria such as Bartonella henselae or Bartonella quintana . (
  • Almost 20 species belong to the genus Bartonella . (
  • [ 1 ] Three Bartonella species are currently considered important causes of human disease, but other significant human pathogens in this genus were found to causes disease in humans occasionally. (
  • [ 6 ] Numerous other Bartonella species that can potentially cause human disease have been discovered in ticks. (
  • The transmission of Bartonella species occurs by traumatic contact with infected animals or by vectors like cat fleas or other blood-sucking arthropods (eg, sand fly, Phlebotomus for B bacilliformis ). (
  • Erythrocytes may serve as a reservoir for Bartonella species. (
  • however, cross-reactivity with other Bartonella species (e.g. (
  • Bartonella species are gram-negative bacteria previously classified as Rickettsiae. (
  • [ 1 ] Pediatric bacterial brain abscesses, epidural empyemas, and subdural empyemas, rare complications of respiratory infections and sinusitis, are often caused by Streptococcus species but might also be polymicrobial or caused by other genera, such as Staphylococcus . (
  • Bartonella species are emerging infectious organisms transmitted by arthropods capable of causing long-lasting infection in mammalian hosts. (
  • The objective of this study was to determine the serological and/or molecular prevalence of Bartonella species in asymptomatic dogs in Peru in order to indirectly evaluate the potential for human exposure to zoonotic Bartonella species. (
  • This study identifies for the first time a population of dogs exposed to or infected with zoonotic Bartonella species, suggesting that domestic dogs may be the natural reservoir of these zoonotic organisms. (
  • Not only it is important in using products like Easy Spot to prevent flea bite anemia in cats, and unsightly tapeworms, but in recent years, fleas have been shown to carry an increasing number of serious diseases and infections, including Bartonella species, amongst others. (
  • Research from Breitschwerdt's laboratory and others has led to the discovery of more than 30 new Bartonella species, as well as numerous chronically infected animal "reservoirs" for the bacteria and a variety of insects that can transmit Bartonella to both humans and animals. (
  • Bartonella species are "stealth pathogens" - that is, bacteria that can survive undetected for years in the human body. (
  • Because Bartonella species can survive for such a long time within the blood stream and tissues, the symptoms of bartonellosis can take very divergent paths, resulting in "nonspecific" symptoms and an infection that is quite difficult to diagnose, let alone treat. (
  • There are 24 Bartonella species, 14 of which can infect humans and five of which are harbored by cats. (
  • The five Bartonella species harbored by cats are spread by fleas. (
  • The short answer is yes, though the species they get is Bartonella vinsonii rather than Bartonella henslae . (
  • Since that time, the number of Bartonella species identified has increased from one to 24, and 10 of these bacteria are associated with human disease. (
  • Virtually every mammal harbors one or more Bartonella species and their transmission typically involves a hematophagous arthropod vector. (
  • infections, including uncommon and undescribed species, and might be particularly useful for patients who have culture-negative endocarditis or lymphadenitis. (
  • Bartonellosis comprises infections caused by pathogens in the genus Bartonella . (
  • Gram-positive organisms, for example, Streptococcus pyogenes and S. aureus , historically were major causes of morbidity and mortality following penetrating trauma in the pre-antibiotic era and remain initial pathogens for many infection types. (
  • Serological survey in persons occupationally exposed to tick-borne pathogens in cases of co-infections with Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Bartonella spp. (
  • She explains Lyme, as well as the pathogens causing Babesiosis, Erlichiosis and Bartonella. (
  • Current grants explore better methods to detect tick-borne diseases and recognize new pathogens, plus improve our understanding of how ticks locate dog hosts and how the canine immune system responds to tick-borne infections. (
  • Although Bartonella is the only genus that infects human erythrocytes and triggers pathological angiogenesis in the vascular bed, the group remains understudied compared with most other bacterial pathogens. (
  • A handful of studies have shown that bartonellae are highly-adapted pathogens whose parasitic strategy has evolved to cause persistent infections of the host. (
  • This incident highlighted the risk of exposure to exotic zoonotic pathogens and the need for infection control precautions in veterinary medicine. (
  • Rarely, bite and scratch wounds may result in serious systemic infections caused by invasive pathogens such as Capnocytophaga canimorsus, Bergeyella zoohelcum, CDC group NO-1, and Bartonella spp. (
  • Several gram-negative bacteria in the genus Bartonella cause human disease through various transmission routes. (
  • Although these organisms were originally thought to be rickettsiae, Bartonella bacteria can be grown on artificial media, unlike rickettsiae. (
  • Cat-scratch disease is an infection with bartonella bacteria. (
  • Discussions with clinicians in multiple states raised concerns about a possible increase in pediatric intracranial infections, particularly those caused by Streptococcus bacteria, during the past year and the possible contributing role of SARS-CoV-2 infection. (
  • CanLyme Note: Bartonella bacteria can be transmitted by ticks, cat scratches, dog saliva, etc. (
  • Infection with the Lyme bacteria is frequently accompanied by co-infections that require different antibiotics as well as more aggressive treatment. (
  • Tetracyclines are used principally in the treatment of infections caused by susceptible Rickettsia, Chlamydia, Mycoplasma, and a variety of uncommon gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. (
  • Because of the development of resistance, tetracyclines are rarely used for the treatment of infections caused by common gram-negative or gram-positive bacteria unless other appropriate anti-infectives are contraindicated or are ineffective and in vitro susceptibility tests indicate that the causative organisms are susceptible to the drugs. (
  • Rifampin is used to reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and other antibacterial drugs--used only to treat or prevent infections proven or strongly suggested to be caused by bacteria. (
  • North Carolina State University (USA) Bartonellosis: Diagnosing a Stealth Pathogen - April 23, 2013 "NC State professor of veterinary internal medicine Ed Breitschwerdt has spent the last couple of decades working with Bartonella, bacteria historically associated with "cat scratch disease. (
  • In fact, it involves infection by bacteria of the genus Bartonella . (
  • Bartonella infection (bartonellosis) is usually acquired by humans via an insect vector. (
  • Since dogs are epidemiological sentinels, Peruvian humans may be exposed to infections with B. rochalimae or B. v. berkhoffii. (
  • However, a study from China in 2011 showed that the neutralizing antibody response was not correlated with disease severity, suggesting that cellular immune response, besides neutralizing antibodies, could play a critical role in controlling the outcome of enterovirus 71 infection in humans. (
  • Babesia, Ehrlichia, and Bartonella are three bacterial infections that are known to cause a variety of health problems in humans. (
  • Studies have shown that Babesia infection can lead to damage to the blood-brain barrier, which is the protective barrier that separates the brain from the bloodstream. (
  • In some cases, antibodies to Babesia, Ehrlichia, and Bartonella may cross-react with other infections, leading to false positives on diagnostic tests. (
  • The name Bartonia, later Bartonella bacilliformis, was used for the only member of the group identified before 1993. (
  • Oroya Fever and Verruga Peruana Oroya fever and verruga peruana are infections caused by the gram-negative bacterium Bartonella bacilliformis . (
  • Another interest is research in Bartonella bacilliformis, a bacterial infection common in the Andean region, and other common tropical infections prevalent in Latin America. (
  • [ 1 ] Candidatus Bartonella mayotimonensis and Candidatus Bartonella melophagi were respectively isolated from the aortic valve of a patient with culture-negative endocarditis and the blood of two patients with symptoms consistent with bartonellosis. (
  • To report a unique case of acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy ( APMPPE ) in a patient with positive serology for Bartonella , presenting with ocular signs and symptoms not attributable to other diseases . (
  • Alternative medicine practitioners claim that Lyme infection can become chronic and attribute a vague constellation of symptoms not unlike the vague constellation of symptoms attributed to adrenal fatigue to chronic Lyme infection, a condition they commonly refer to as chronic Lyme disease . (
  • Now, there is a condition known as posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome, which is the proper term for patients with a verified previous B. burgdorferi infection who experience fatigue, arthralgias, or other symptoms six months or more after antibiotic treatment when all other conditions have been ruled out. (
  • However, there is no evidence that this syndrome is caused by chronic B. burgdorferi infection, nor is there any good evidence that prolonged treatment with antibiotics benefits patients with persistent symptoms after treatment for Lyme disease-quite the contrary, actually. (
  • The presence of combined infections typically causes more severe symptoms than Bb by itself. (
  • After completing all Year I study aims, we continued to work on improvements in immunohistochemistry and FISH localization of Bartonella organisms within various cell types. (
  • The Bartonella organisms are highly adapted to live in the feline body without causing disease, and it is only in rare situations that cats actually experience issues from this infection. (
  • Many people who are affected by the some of these infections are immunocompetent, but disseminated bartonellosis tends to occur in immunocompromised people. (
  • Epidemic hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) viral infections are usually caused by members of the Enterovirus genus, most commonly, coxsackievirus A16, A6, or enterovirus 71. (
  • To have a definite diagnosis of infection with B. quintana requires either serological cultures or nucleic acid amplification techniques. (
  • These potential complications have been illustrated in a recent article in the CDC's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), Serious Bacterial Infections Acquired During Treatment of Patients Given a Diagnosis of Chronic Lyme Disease . (
  • B. quintana infection can be diagnosed by serology, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing, or blood culture. (
  • one received a positive Bartonella polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test result not specific to B. quintana . (
  • In response, USPHS/IDSA developed comprehensive guidelines for health-care providers and patients that consolidated information pertaining to the prevention of opportunistic infections in persons infected with HIV. (
  • The response to the 1995 guidelines (e.g., the many requests for reprints and observations from health-care providers) suggests that they have served as a valuable reference against which local policies regarding prevention of opportunistic infections could be compared. (
  • 1997 USPHS/IDSA guidelines for the prevention of opportunistic infections in persons infected with human immuno- deficiency virus. (
  • For example, in recent studies of stomatitis, seizures, and uveitis in cats, the prevalence rates for Bartonella spp. (
  • Research Update CHF 02519 Final: Prevalence of Bartonella spp. (
  • In 1994, the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) recognized that, although strategies were available to reduce the frequency of opportunistic infections in patients who have human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, information regarding prevention of both exposure and disease often was published in journals not regularly reviewed by health-care providers. (
  • infection of cats has also been associated directly or indirectly with a variety of clinical manifestations like fever, lethargy, lymphadenopathy, uveitis, gingivitis, and neurological diseases. (
  • Flowchart showing the possible mechanisms linking oral/dental infections to systemic diseases. (
  • [ 5 , 7 ] Although the underlying mechanisms are complex, the chronic inflammatory state and microbial burden in people with periodontal disease may predispose them to cardiovascular diseases in ways proposed for other infections. (
  • What starts out as a simple itch can potentially lead to a wide range of skin conditions, flea-borne diseases, or other parasitic infections in dogs and cats. (
  • SCD patients should also receive counselling on hygiene, barrier protection against vectors, routine chemoprophylaxis for locally endemic diseases, and immunization for vaccine-preventable infections as a long-term preventive strategy against IAH. (
  • As well as notifications of the infectious diseases specified below, the 2010 regulations also require GMPs to notify cases of 'other infections or of contamination which they believe present, or could present, a significant risk to human health', e.g. emerging or new infections, or cases of contamination (such as with chemicals or radiation) - particularly if there is a risk of transmission to others. (
  • Bartonella quintana causes trench fever . (
  • Trench Fever Trench fever is a louse-borne disease caused by the gram-negative bacterium Bartonella quintana and observed originally in military populations during World Wars I and II. (
  • Bartonella quintana, originally known as Rochalimaea quintana, and "Rickettsia quintana", is a bacterium transmitted by the human body louse that causes trench fever. (
  • The infection caused by this microorganism, trench fever, was first documented in soldiers during World War I, but has now been seen Europe, Asia, and North Africa. (
  • Tetracyclines are used for the treatment of rickettsial infections and are considered drugs of choice for Rocky Mountain spotted fever, epidemic (louse-borne) typhus, Brill-Zinsser disease, endemic (murine) typhus, scrub typhus, Q fever, and rickettsialpox. (
  • Most people know very little about this infection other than it involves a fever spread by cat scratches. (
  • Several illnesses seem to have been associated with Bartonella infection (fever, deep eye inflammation, lymph node enlargement, muscle pain, reproductive failure, and bacterial heart valve deposits called endocarditis), but these seem to be isolated cases for the most part. (
  • Catscratch disease (CSD), also known as catscratch fever or subacute regional lymphadenitis, is a bacterial infection affecting lymph nodes that drain the sites of inoculation. (
  • I also have chronic tick borne infections, and possibly bartonella is causing some of my issues. (
  • Some patients who present with acute Lyme are, unwittingly, suffering from chronic tick-borne infections that were acquired at some time in the past. (
  • It has been nearly two decades since the discovery of Bartonella as an agent of bacillary angiomatosis in AIDS patients and persistent bacteremia and 'nonculturable' endocarditis in homeless people. (
  • Infection of immunocompromised patients with the same organism leads to a very different disease, bacillary angiomatosis-peliosis. (
  • Bartonella quintana infection is a vectorborne disease transmitted by the human body louse ( 1 ). (
  • In the United States, homelessness is the principal risk factor for B. quintana infection ( 2 ), likely attributable to limited access to hygiene facilities ( 1 ). (
  • In January and April 2023, the New York City (NYC) Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) was alerted to two cases of B. quintana infection that occurred during 2022 among persons who had experienced unsheltered homelessness in NYC and later died (one died because of the infection, and the other because of an unrelated cause). (
  • One patient died from complications of traumatic injury not related to B. quintana infection. (
  • B. quintana infection can result in severe outcomes, including death, and incur substantial health care costs from prolonged hospitalizations and surgical interventions. (
  • A major role in B. quintana infection is its lipopolysaccharide covering which is an antagonist of the toll-like receptor 4. (
  • B. quintana infection has subsequently been seen in every continent except Antarctica. (
  • Serological evidence of B. quintana infection showed, of hospitalized homeless patients, 16% were infected, as opposed to 1.8% of nonhospitalized homeless persons, and 0% of blood donors at large. (
  • The clinical manifestations of B. quintana infection are highly variable. (
  • Rarely is B. quintana infection fatal, unless endocarditis develops and goes untreated. (
  • Compendium of veterinary standard precautions for zoonotic disease prevention in veterinary personnel: National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians Veterinary Infection Control Committee 2010. (
  • This particle contains a 14-kb linear DNA segment, but its function in Bartonella pathophysiology is still unknown. (
  • Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) can suppress the immune system, resulting in per-sistent infection. (
  • Гострий бактеріальний менінгіт Acute bacterial meningitis is rapidly progressive bacterial infection of the meninges and subarachnoid space. (
  • Innovative biomaterials provide a stimulating and adaptable platform for the implementation of new and more effective methods to prevent bacterial infection. (
  • Short of an actual blood transfusion from an infected cat, fleas or ticks are needed to spread the infection. (
  • Fleas may carry the infection as they do for cats, plus it appears that ticks may also be carriers. (
  • infections, which are difficult to diagnose by using culture or serology. (
  • Bacterial infections are often diagnosed on clinical grounds, supported by smears, culture, testing for immune responses (serology) and, increasingly, examining for nucleic acids. (
  • A group of physicians who like to refer to themselves as "Lyme literate" physicians describe patients whom they believe have persistent B. burgdorferi infection, claiming that the condition requires long-term antibiotic treatment. (
  • A prospective trial is not feasible in military patients owing to dangerous conditions of injury but a trial examining infection pathogenesis and bacterial pathogen-specific outcomes by evaluating host immune response using modern genomic and proteomic molecular techniques would provide valuable information and could be carried out at a large academic trauma center. (
  • Virtually all patients with Lyme disease complex are co-infected, and treatment of persistent infection with Bb will be unsuccessful unless therapy is also directed at these co-infections. (
  • Because of its low renal clearance, doxycycline may not be as effective as other currently available tetracyclines for the treatment of urinary tract infections in patients with normal or impaired renal function. (
  • In one limited study in patients with confirmed C. burnetti infection and chronic endocarditis, a regimen of doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine was associated with a lower relapse rate than a regimen of doxycycline and ofloxacin. (
  • Endocarditis caused by Bartonella spp. (
  • Notably, endocarditis is a new manifestation of the infection, not seen in World War I troops. (
  • DOHMH conducted retrospective active surveillance within clinical laboratories of five large NYC hospital networks to identify additional cases with culture, molecular, or serologic laboratory results for B. quintana or Bartonella spp. (
  • Published in the Jounral of Central Nervous System Disease, March 18th, Edward B Breitshwerdt et al Abstract Background: With the advent of more sensitive culture and molecular diagnostic testing modalities, Bartonella spp. (
  • Molecular methods can enable rapid identification of Bartonella spp. (
  • Molecular diagnostic testing can identify Bartonella spp. (
  • Sarah speaks with Dr. Thomas Moorcroft, a physician from Connecticut who specializes in Lyme disease and Lyme-related infections. (
  • He explains what co-infections are and differentiates between infections that are contracted from a tick bite, and concurrent infections that people with Lyme disease may experience. (
  • I also have the tick-borne co-infections that often accompany Lyme. (
  • Lyme Disease along with it's co-infections, Babesiosis, Bartonella and Erlichiosis are understood by very few. (
  • LLMDs treat Lyme and their tick-related co-infections: Babesiosis, Bartonella and Erlichiosis. (
  • A "protocol" is the way doctors treat Lyme Disease and tick borne co-infections. (
  • The standard treatment recommended for acute Lyme disease is inade-quate for eradicating the infection in many people. (
  • Rather, their Lyme disease complex* often includes other tick-borne infections, referred to as co-infec-tions. (
  • In fact, co-infection of ticks is the rule rather than the exception. (
  • Since there are numerous infectious agents spread by ticks and it is not unusual for a dog to have multiple tick-borne infections, it is difficult to determine which infection is causing which signs. (
  • Simultaneously, results obtained in 2010 were compared to infection rates from 2005 to evaluate the development of B. burgdorferi s.l. infection rates in Hanoverian ticks. (
  • Overall, 22.7% (476/2,100) of collected ticks were tested positive for B. burgdorferi s.l. infections. (
  • Adult ticks showed an infection rate of 33.3% (124/372), subdivided into 29.6% (58/196) positive males and 37.5% (66/176) positive females. (
  • Comparing infection rates of Hanoverian ticks between years, a significant increase (P = 0.002) could be observed for larvae with 1.7% positives (2/60) in 2005 and 25.8% positives (8/31) in 2010. (
  • Comparing B. burgdorferi s.l . infections in Hanoverian I. ricinus ticks in 2010 with data from 2005, a statistically significant increase of infected larvae was noted, whereas the other stages revealed no statistically significant differences. (
  • Dr. Ugarte-Gil´s work is focused on respiratory infections such as Tuberculosis, COVID-19, Influenza and others. (
  • Tetracyclines are highly effective in the treatment of most chlamydial infections, including urogenital infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, respiratory tract infections caused by C. pneumoniae, respiratory tract infections caused by C. psittaci (psittacosis), and lymphogranuloma venereum caused by invasive serovars of C. trachomatis. (
  • other clinical syndromes (e.g., encephalitis, ocular disease, osteomyelitis) due to Bartonella spp. (
  • In HIV-infected men who have sex with men, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), toxoplasmic encephalitis, fungal infections, and disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease have decreased in incidence (9). (
  • Most attention was focused on recent data related to chemoprophylaxis against disseminated MAC disease, cytomegalovirus (CMV), and fungal infections and to immunization against Streptococcus pneumoniae. (
  • Bartonella , including cat-scratch disease. (
  • Administration of doxycycline, amoxicillin-clavulanate, erythromycin, or fluoroquinolones can limit bacteremia but does not cure infection in all cats and has not been shown to lessen the risk of cat scratch disease. (
  • The host response to this infection is an important factor in determining the extent and severity of the disease. (
  • Testing would be a good idea for any cat that may become a blood donor, for the rare sick cat where Bartonella -related disease is actually being considered if a human in the home has been diagnosed with a Bartonella -related disease, or if there is an immune-compromised person in the home, in which case testing is actually important. (
  • Sickle cell disease (SCD) is associated with chronic haemolysis, immuno-suppression and suscepti- bility to infections, which may trigger infection-associated haemolysis (IAH). (
  • What happened in the early 1970s, which might have caused a sudden rise in the rate of dangerous insect borne disease infections? (
  • A worldwide ban on agricultural use was formalized under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, but its limited and still-controversial use in disease vector control continues, because of its effectiveness in reducing malarial infections, balanced by environmental and other health concerns. (
  • The proper officers are required weekly to inform the Health Protection Agency (HPA) Centre for Infections (CfI) of the details of each case of each disease that has been notified. (
  • Presumed acute posterior multifocal placoid pigmentary epitheliopathy associated with Bartonella infection. (
  • Transmissible causes of lymphocytosis are usually acute viral infections . (
  • Bartonella is increasingly recognized as a cause of persistent intravascular infection that can result in severe health effects. (
  • PARTICIPANTS: Hospital epidemiologists and infection preventionist members of the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) Research Network. (
  • It is also still also still unclear as to why some cats develop Bartonella associated illness and others do not. (
  • A range of bacterial ( Bartonella spp, Mycoplasma spp. (
  • Based on seroprevalence studies in cats, exposure to Bartonella spp. (
  • Lymphocytes play an essential role in the immune system and can spike during infections. (
  • The spike in lymphocytes is necessary for the body to fight infections. (
  • The lymph nodes are small glands that make white blood cells (lymphocytes), which fight infection. (
  • If the results of Bartonella tests are negative in a clinically ill cat, the organism is not likely the cause of the clinical syndrome unless the infection was peracute and serological testing was used as the diagnostic test. (
  • One of the most common viral infections that can cause lymphocytosis is the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV). (
  • The reason this infection might persist is because this organism also results in monocytes overproducing interleukin-10 (IL-10), thus weakening the immune response. (
  • Cite this: Prophylaxis and Treatment of Infections Associated with Penetrating Traumatic Injury - Medscape - Jan 01, 2011. (
  • Because minocycline and, to a lesser extent, doxycycline penetrate most body tissues and fluids better than do other currently available tetracyclines, some clinicians prefer these derivatives in the treatment of infections of the CNS, eye, or prostate. (
  • Trials optimizing timing of antibiotic administration with regard to known antimicrobial pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties (e.g., prolonging infusion times of β-lactams to reduce bacterial resistance) should also assist in improving outcomes in penetrating traumatic infections, which are increasingly antibiotic resistant. (
  • We detected novel or uncommon Bartonella spp. (
  • OBJECTIVE: To ascertain opinions regarding etiology and preventability of hospital-onset bacteremia and fungemia (HOB) and perspectives on HOB as a potential outcome measure reflecting quality of infection prevention and hospital care. (
  • Lymph nodes may trap the germs that are causing an infection. (
  • If the results of Bartonella tests are positive, the agent remains on the differential list, but other causes of the clinical syndrome must also be excluded. (
  • If no other cause of the clinical syndrome can be determined, a therapeutic trial with a drug with presumed anti- Bartonella activity could be started. (
  • We analyzed clinical test results of PCR that targeted bacterial 16S rRNA hypervariable V1-V2 regions only or in parallel with PCR of Bartonella-specific ribC gene. (
  • We identified 430 clinical specimens infected with Bartonella spp. (
  • Clinical Microbiology and Infection. (
  • These infections can also cross-react with other infections, leading to false positives on diagnostic tests. (