A species of gram-negative bacteria that is the etiologic agent of bacillary angiomatosis (ANGIOMATOSIS, BACILLARY). This organism can also be a cause of CAT-SCRATCH DISEASE in immunocompetent patients.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria characteristically appearing in chains of several segmenting organisms. It occurs in man and arthropod vectors and is found only in the Andes region of South America. This genus is the etiologic agent of human bartonellosis. The genus Rochalimaea, once considered a separate genus, has recently been combined with the genus Bartonella as a result of high levels of relatedness in 16S rRNA sequence data and DNA hybridization data.
Infections by the genus BARTONELLA. Bartonella bacilliformis can cause acute febrile anemia, designated Oroya fever, and a benign skin eruption, called verruga peruana. BARTONELLA QUINTANA causes TRENCH FEVER, while BARTONELLA HENSELAE is the etiologic agent of bacillary angiomatosis (ANGIOMATOSIS, BACILLARY) and is also one of the causes of CAT-SCRATCH DISEASE in immunocompetent patients.
A self-limiting bacterial infection of the regional lymph nodes caused by AFIPIA felis, a gram-negative bacterium recently identified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and by BARTONELLA HENSELAE. It usually arises one or more weeks following a feline scratch, with raised inflammatory nodules at the site of the scratch being the primary symptom.
A reactive vascular proliferation that is characterized by the multiple tumor-like lesions in skin, bone, brain, and other organs. Bacillary angiomatosis is caused by infection with gram-negative Bartonella bacilli (such as BARTONELLA HENSELAE), and is often seen in AIDS patients and other IMMUNOCOMPROMISED HOSTS.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in which man is the primary host and the human body louse, Pediculus humanus, the principal vector. It is the etiological agent of TRENCH FEVER.
Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
An intermittent fever characterized by intervals of chills, fever, and splenomegaly each of which may last as long as 40 hours. It is caused by BARTONELLA QUINTANA and transmitted by the human louse.
The type species of the genus BARTONELLA, a gram-negative bacteria found in humans. It is found in the mountain valleys of Peru, Ecuador, and Southwest Columbia where the sandfly (see PHLEBOTOMUS) vector is present. It causes OROYA FEVER and VERRUGA PERUANA.
An order of parasitic, blood-sucking, wingless INSECTS with the common name of fleas.
A vascular disease of the LIVER characterized by the occurrence of multiple blood-filled CYSTS or cavities. The cysts are lined with ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; the cavities lined with hepatic parenchymal cells (HEPATOCYTES). Peliosis hepatis has been associated with use of anabolic steroids (ANABOLIC AGENTS) and certain drugs.
A family of small gram-negative bacteria whose organisms are parasites of erythrocytes in man and other vertebrates and the etiologic agents of several diseases.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A genus of FLEAS in the family Pulicidae. It includes the cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis), one of the most common species on earth.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
An island of the West Indies. Its capital is St. George's. It was discovered in 1498 by Columbus who called it Concepcion. It was held at different times by the French and the British during the 18th century. The British suppressed a native uprising in 1795. It was an associate state of Great Britain 1967-74 but became an independent nation within the British Commonwealth in 1974. The original name referred to the Feast of the Immaculate Conception but it was later renamed for the Spanish kingdom of Granada. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p467 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p219)
The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.
Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
Diseases of LYMPH; LYMPH NODES; or LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Infestations by PARASITES which live on, or burrow into, the surface of their host's EPIDERMIS. Most ectoparasites are ARTHROPODS.
Inflammation of the ENDOCARDIUM caused by BACTERIA that entered the bloodstream. The strains of bacteria vary with predisposing factors, such as CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS; HEART VALVE DISEASES; HEART VALVE PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION; or intravenous drug use.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
A tribe of gram-negative bacteria of the family RICKETTSIACEAE whose organisms are found in arthropods and are pathogenic for man and certain other vertebrate hosts.
Inflammation in which both the anterior and posterior segments of the uvea are involved and a specific focus is not apparent. It is often severe and extensive and a serious threat to vision. Causes include systemic diseases such as tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, and syphilis, as well as malignancies. The intermediate segment of the eye is not involved.
A neoplastic disease of cats frequently associated with feline leukemia virus infection.
A family of small, gram-negative organisms, often parasitic in humans and other animals, causing diseases that may be transmitted by invertebrate vectors.
Bacterial, viral, or parasitic diseases transmitted to humans and animals by the bite of infected ticks. The families Ixodidae and Argasidae contain many bloodsucking species that are important pests of man and domestic birds and mammals and probably exceed all other arthropods in the number and variety of disease agents they transmit. Many of the tick-borne diseases are zoonotic.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).
The ability of lymphoid cells to mount a humoral or cellular immune response when challenged by antigen.

Cat-scratch disease with paravertebral mass and osteomyelitis. (1/275)

The case of a 9-year-old girl with cat-scratch disease (CSD) complicated by development of a paravertebral mass and osteomyelitis is presented. Following multiple scratches and inguinal lymphadenopathy, she developed back pain, and imaging demonstrated a paravertebral mass with evidence of osteomyelitis involving vertebra T9. The diagnosis was made on the basis of detection of Bartonella henselae by use of molecular techniques on an aspirate from the vertebral column and supportive serology for infection with B. henselae. Eleven other cases of this unusual manifestation associated with CSD have been reported in the literature and are reviewed. The patient was treated with gentamicin, followed by rifampicin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, orally and made a favorable recovery over 7 months. This is comparable with other case reports, regardless of the choice of antibiotic therapy. CSD in immunocompetent hosts is not always self-limiting, and tissues beyond the lymph nodes can be involved.  (+info)

Detection of Bartonella henselae DNA by two different PCR assays and determination of the genotypes of strains involved in histologically defined cat scratch disease. (2/275)

Cat scratch disease (CSD) is a common cause of subacute regional lymphadenopathy, not only in children but also in adults. Serological and molecular studies demonstrated that Bartonella henselae is the etiologic agent in most cases of CSD. Amplification of B. henselae DNA in affected tissue and detection of antibodies to B. henselae are the two mainstays in the laboratory diagnosis of CSD. We designed a retrospective study and investigated formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lymph nodes from 60 patients (25 female, 35 male) with histologically suspected CSD by PCR amplification. The sensitivities of two different PCR assays were compared. The first primer pair amplified a 296-bp fragment of the 16S rRNA gene in 36 of the 60 samples, corresponding to a sensitivity of 60%. The second primer pair amplified a 414-bp fragment of the htrA gene in 26 of the 60 lymph nodes, corresponding to a sensitivity of 43.3%. Bartonella DNA could be detected in a total of 39 (65%) of the 60 lymph nodes investigated. However, histopathologic findings are typical but not specific for CSD and cannot be considered as a "gold standard" for diagnosis of CSD. The sensitivity of the PCR assays increased from 65 to 87% if two criteria (histology and serology) were used in combination for diagnosis of CSD. Two genotypes (I and II) of B. henselae are described as being involved in CSD. Genotype I was found in 23 (59%) and genotype II was found in 9 (23%) of the 39 PCR-positive lymph nodes. Seven (18%) lymph nodes were negative in both type-specific PCR assays. Thirty (50%) of our 60 patients were younger than 20 years old (15 were younger than 10 years), 20 (33%) were between 21 and 40 years old, and 10 (17%) patients were between 41 and 84 years old. Our data suggest that detection of Bartonella DNA in patients' samples might confirm the histologically suspected diagnosis of CSD.  (+info)

Culture of Bartonella quintana and Bartonella henselae from human samples: a 5-year experience (1993 to 1998). (3/275)

Bartonella quintana and Bartonella henselae are fastidious gram-negative bacteria responsible for bacillary angiomatosis, trench fever, cat scratch disease, and endocarditis. During a 5-year period, we received 2,043 samples for culture of Bartonella sp. We found Bartonella sp. to be the etiologic agent in 38 cases of endocarditis, 78 cases of cat scratch disease, 16 cases of bacteremia in homeless people, and 7 cases of bacillary angiomatosis. We correlated the results of positive cultures with the clinical form of the disease, type of sample, culture procedure, PCR-based genomic detection, and antibody determination. Seventy-two isolates of B. quintana and nine isolates of B. henselae from 43 patients were obtained. Sixty-three of the B. quintana isolates and two of the B. henselae isolates, obtained from patients with no prior antibiotic therapy, were stably subcultured. The sensitivity of culture was low when compared with that of PCR-based detection methods in valves of patients with endocarditis (44 and 81%, respectively), skin biopsy samples of patients with bacillary angiomatosis (43 and 100%, respectively), and lymph nodes of cat scratch disease (13 and 30%, respectively). Serological diagnosis was also more sensitive in cases of endocarditis (97%) and cat scratch disease (90%). Among endocarditis patients, the sensitivity of the shell vial culture assay was 28% when inoculated with blood samples and 44% when inoculated with valvular biopsy samples, and the sensitivity of both was significantly higher than that of culture on agar (5% for blood [P = 0.045] and 4% for valve biopsy samples [P < 0.0005]). The most efficient culture procedure was the subculture of blood culture broth into shell vials (sensitivity, 71%). For patients with endocarditis, previous antibiotic therapy significantly affected results of blood culture; no patient who had been administered antibiotics yielded a positive blood culture, whereas 80% of patients with no previous antibiotic therapy yielded positive blood cultures (P = 0.0006). Previous antibiotic therapy did not, however, prevent isolation of Bartonella sp. from cardiac valves but did prevent the establishment of strains, as none of the 15 isolates from treated patients could be successfully subcultured. For the diagnosis of B. quintana bacteremia in homeless people, the efficiency of systematic subculture of blood culture broth onto agar was higher than that of direct blood plating (respective sensitivities, 98 and 10% [P < 10(-7)]). Nevertheless, both procedures are complementary, since when used together their sensitivity reached 100%. All homeless people with positive blood cultures had negative serology. The isolation rate of B. henselae from PCR-positive lymph nodes, in patients with cat scratch disease, was significantly lower than that from valves of endocarditis patients and skin biopsy samples from bacillary angiomatosis patients (13 and 33%, respectively [P = 0.084]). In cases of bacillary angiomatosis for which an agent was identified to species level, the isolation rate of B. henselae was lower than the isolation rate of B. quintana (28 and 64%, respectively [P = 0.003]). If culture is to be considered an efficient tool for the diagnosis of several Bartonella-related diseases, methodologies need to be improved, notably for the recovery of B. henselae from lymph nodes of patients with cat scratch disease.  (+info)

Acute clinical disease in cats following infection with a pathogenic strain of Bartonella henselae (LSU16). (4/275)

Bartonella henselae is the causative agent of human cat scratch disease as well as several serious sequelae of infections, including bacillary angiomatosis and bacillary peliosis. Conflicting reports describe the pathogenesis of B. henselae in the cat. In this study, we characterized a strain of B. henselae termed LSU16. This strain was isolated on rabbit blood agar from a naturally infected 10-month-old female cat during a recurrent episode of bacteremia. The bacterial species was confirmed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Nine cats were infected intradermally with 5 x 10(7) CFU of LSU16, and clinical signs, antibody responses, and bacteremia were monitored. All nine cats developed raised, erythematous areas at the site of inoculation within 72 h postinoculation; the swelling peaked at 14 days postinfection and was not palpable by 28 days postinfection. Fever developed in all nine cats between 6 and 16 days postinfection and lasted for 1 to 8 days. Between 6 and 16 days postinfection, all nine cats experienced lethargy which persisted 5 to 18 days. Seven of nine cats were bacteremic by day 7, and all nine cats had become bacteremic by 14 days postinfection. Bacteremia peaked at 14 to 28 days postinfection in all cats. In six of the nine infected cats, bacterial numbers reached nondetectable levels during the 7th week postinfection; however, a single animal maintained bacteremia to 18 weeks postinfection. All nine cats developed strong antibody responses to B. henselae, as determined by Western blot analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Subsequently, three naive cats were injected intradermally with blood from cats infected with LSU16 from a pure culture, and five naive cats were injected with feces from fleas which had been feeding on cats infected with a pure culture of LSU16. These cats developed signs similar to those described in the previous experiment and were euthanized at 5 weeks postinfection. We conclude that B. henselae LSU16 is a virulent strain of B. henselae in cats and propose that the virulence of B. henselae in cats is strain dependent.  (+info)

Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae infection in domestic cats from The Philippines. (5/275)

One hundred seven domestic cats from The Philippines were serologically tested to establish the prevalence of Bartonella infection. A subset of 31 of these cats also had whole blood collected to tentatively isolate Bartonella strains. Bartonella henselae and B. clarridgeiae were isolated from 19 (61%) of these cats. Bartonella henselae type I was isolated from 17 (89%) of the 19 culture-positive cats. Six cats (31%) were infected with B. clarridgeiae, of which four were coinfected with B. henselae. Sixty-eight percent (73 of 107) and 65% (70 of 107) of the cats had antibodies to B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae, respectively, detected by an immunofluorescence antibody (IFA) test at a titer > or = 1:64. When tested by enzyme immunoassay (EIA), 67 cats (62.6%) had antibodies to B. henselae and 71 cats (66.4%) had antibodies to B. clarridgeiae. Compared with the IFA test, the B. henselae EIA had a sensitivity of 90.4% and a specificity of 97%, with positive and negative predictive values of 98.5% and 82.5%, respectively. Similarly, the B. clarridgeiae EIA had a sensitivity of 97% and a specificity of 92% specificity, with positive and negative predictive values of 95.8% and 94.4%, respectively. The presence of antibodies to Bartonella was strongly associated with flea infestation. Domestic cats represent a large reservoir of Bartonella infection in the Philippines.  (+info)

Presumed ocular bartonellosis. (6/275)

BACKGROUND: The spectrum of diseases caused by Bartonella henselae continues to expand and ocular involvement during this infection is being diagnosed with increasing frequency. METHODS: The clinical features and visual prognosis for 13 patients with intraocular inflammatory disease and laboratory evidence of bartonellosis were investigated. There were nine patients with neuroretinitis and four with panuveitis with positive antibody titres against B henselae determined by an enzyme immunoassay (IgG exceeding 1:900 and/or IgM exceeding 1:250). RESULTS: Positive IgG levels were found for eight patients and positive IgM levels for five. Despite animal exposure of 10 patients, only two (IgG positive) cases had systemic symptoms consistent with the diagnosis of cat scratch disease. Pathological fluorescein leakage of the optic disc was observed in all affected eyes. At 6 months' follow up, 3/18 (17%) affected eyes had a visual acuity of less than 20/100, owing to optic disc atrophy and cystoid macular oedema. 12 patients (17 eyes) were treated with antibiotics; visual acuity improved two or more Snellen lines for 9/17 (53%) eyes. CONCLUSIONS: The possibility of B henselae infection should be considered in patients with neuroretinitis and panuveitis (especially in cases with associated optic nerve involvement) even in the absence of systemic symptoms typical for cat scratch disease.  (+info)

Identification of Bartonella-specific immunodominant antigens recognized by the feline humoral immune system. (7/275)

The seroreactivities of both naturally and experimentally infected cats to Bartonella henselae was examined. Serum samples collected weekly from nine cats experimentally infected with B. henselae LSU16 were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot analysis. The magnitude and isotype of the antibody response were investigated by ELISA. Western blot analysis allowed the identification of at least 24 Bartonella-specific antigens recognized by the cats during infection. Antibody titers to specific antigens, as determined by Western blot analysis, ranged from 10 to 640 and varied among the different antibody-antigen interactions. Absorption of sera from an experimentally infected cat, using whole cells and cell lysates of various Bartonella species and other bacteria that commonly colonize cats, supported the identification of those Bartonella-specific antigens recognized by the experimentally infected cats. Furthermore, a number of possible species- and type-specific antigens were identified. Finally, sera obtained from cats at local animal shelters were screened for the presence of antibodies directed against the Bartonella-specific bands identified in the experimentally infected cats. A number of Bartonella-specific antigens have been identified to which strong antibody responses are generated in both experimentally and naturally infected cats, some of which may be useful in diagnosing species- and/or type-specific infections. In addition, the results from these experiments will lead to the development of monoclonal antibodies targeted against those genus-, species-, and type-specific antigens.  (+info)

Characterization of Bartonella henselae-specific immunity in BALB/c mice. (8/275)

BALB/c mice were inoculated with Bartonella henselae by both systemic and mucosal routes. Culture analysis of tissues from mice infected intraperitoneally with a high dose of B. henselae yielded positive results 24 hr after infection. However, culture analysis of blood taken between 6 hr and 7 days after infection from groups receiving live B. henselae were negative. Following intraperitoneal infection, B. henselae was detected by polymerase chain reaction in liver and mesenteric lymph nodes by 6 hr and up to 7 days after infection in liver, kidney and spleen tissue. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of serum samples collected as early as 13 days after infection indicated humoral immune responses to B. henselae. Specific humoral responses remained through week 6. Analysis of faecal samples revealed induction of B. henselae-specific immunoglobulin A by day 28 after infection. In addition, B. henselae-specific cellular responses were indicated by a positive delayed-type hypersensitivity and a T helper 1 (Th1) (CD4+ T cell)-type cytokine response following in vitro stimulation of splenocytes. The significance and implications of these data in relation to B. henselae infections are discussed.  (+info)

'Bartonella henselae' is a gram-negative bacterium that is the primary cause of cat scratch disease (CSD) in humans. The bacteria are transmitted through the scratch or bite of an infected cat, or more rarely, through contact with cat saliva on a wound or mucous membrane.

Infected individuals may experience mild to severe symptoms, including fever, headache, fatigue, and lymph node swelling near the site of infection. In some cases, the bacteria can spread to other parts of the body, causing more serious complications such as endocarditis (inflammation of the inner lining of the heart), encephalopathy (brain damage), or neurological symptoms.

Diagnosis of Bartonella henselae infection typically involves a combination of clinical symptoms, serological testing, and sometimes molecular methods such as PCR. Treatment usually consists of antibiotics, with doxycycline being the first-line therapy for adults and macrolides for children. In severe cases, intravenous antibiotics may be necessary.

Preventive measures include avoiding contact with cats' claws and saliva, particularly if you have a weakened immune system, and practicing good hygiene after handling cats or their litter boxes.

"Bartonella" is a genus of gram-negative bacteria that are facultative intracellular pathogens, meaning they can live and multiply inside host cells. They are the cause of several emerging infectious diseases in humans and animals. Some species of Bartonella are associated with clinical syndromes such as cat scratch disease, trench fever, and Carrion's disease. The bacteria are transmitted to humans through the bites or feces of insect vectors (such as fleas, lice, and sandflies) or through contact with infected animals. Once inside the host, Bartonella can evade the immune system and cause chronic infection, which can lead to a variety of clinical manifestations, including fever, fatigue, lymphadenopathy, endocarditis, and neurological symptoms.

The medical definition of 'Bartonella' is: A genus of fastidious, gram-negative bacteria that are facultative intracellular pathogens. Bartonella species are the cause of several emerging infectious diseases in humans and animals. The bacteria are transmitted to humans through the bites or feces of insect vectors (such as fleas, lice, and sandflies) or through contact with infected animals. Bartonella species can evade the immune system and cause chronic infection, leading to a variety of clinical manifestations, including fever, fatigue, lymphadenopathy, endocarditis, and neurological symptoms.

Bartonella infections are a group of diseases caused by bacteria belonging to the Bartonella genus. These gram-negative bacteria can infect humans and animals, causing various symptoms depending on the specific Bartonella species involved. Some common Bartonella infections include:

1. Cat scratch disease (Bartonella henselae): This is the most common Bartonella infection, usually transmitted through contact with a cat's scratch or saliva. The primary symptom is a tender, swollen lymph node near the site of the scratch. Other symptoms may include fever, fatigue, and headache.
2. Trench fever (Bartonella quintana): This infection was first identified during World War I among soldiers living in trenches, hence its name. It is primarily transmitted through the feces of body lice. Symptoms include fever, severe headaches, muscle pain, and a rash.
3. Carrion's disease (Bartonella bacilliformis): This infection is endemic to South America, particularly in the Andean regions of Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia. It is transmitted through the bite of sandflies. The acute phase of the disease, known as Oroya fever, is characterized by high fever, severe anemia, and potentially life-threatening complications. The chronic phase, known as verruga peruana, presents with skin lesions resembling warts or boils.

Diagnosis of Bartonella infections typically involves blood tests to detect antibodies against the bacteria or direct detection of the bacterial DNA using PCR techniques. Treatment usually consists of antibiotics such as azithromycin, doxycycline, or rifampin, depending on the specific infection and severity of symptoms.

Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is a bacterial infection caused by Bartonella henselae. It is typically transmitted through contact with a cat, especially when the animal scratches or bites a person and then introduces the bacteria into the wound. The incubation period for CSD is usually 7-14 days after exposure.

The most common symptoms of CSD include:

* A small, raised bump (called a papule) that develops at the site of the scratch or bite within a few days of being scratched or bitten by a cat. This bump may be tender and can sometimes form a crust or pustule.
* Swollen lymph nodes (also called lymphadenopathy) near the site of the infection, which usually develop 1-2 weeks after the initial scratch or bite. These swollen lymph nodes are often painful and may be warm to the touch.
* Fatigue, fever, headache, and muscle aches are also common symptoms of CSD.

In most cases, cat-scratch disease is a mild illness that resolves on its own within a few weeks or months. However, in some cases, it can cause more severe complications, such as infection of the heart valves (endocarditis), inflammation of the brain (encephalitis), or damage to the eyes (retinitis).

Treatment for cat-scratch disease typically involves supportive care, such as pain relief and anti-inflammatory medications. Antibiotics may be prescribed in some cases, particularly if the infection is severe or if the patient has a weakened immune system. Preventive measures include washing hands after handling cats, avoiding rough play with cats, and promptly treating cat bites and scratches.

Bacillary angiomatosis is a medical condition caused by infection with the bacteria Bartonella henselae or Bartonella quintana. It is characterized by the growth of blood vessel tissue in various parts of the body, leading to the formation of lesions or tumors. These lesions can appear as red papules or nodules on the skin, and can also affect internal organs such as the liver, spleen, and lymph nodes.

The condition is typically seen in individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS, and can be treated with antibiotics. It is important to note that bacillary angiomatosis should not be confused with other forms of angiomatosis or vascular tumors, which have different causes and treatments.

Bartonella quintana is a gram-negative, aerobic bacillus that is the causative agent of trench fever, a disease first described during World War I. The bacterium is primarily transmitted to humans through the feces of body lice, and it can also cause endocarditis and other systemic infections.

The name "quintana" refers to the characteristic fever pattern of the disease, which features recurring episodes every fifth day. Other symptoms of trench fever include headache, muscle pain, and a rash. The disease is typically treated with antibiotics, such as doxycycline or azithromycin.

Bartonella quintana is also known to cause cat scratch disease in immunocompromised individuals. It can be transmitted through the scratches or bites of cats infected with the bacterium. The symptoms of cat scratch disease include fever, swollen lymph nodes, and fatigue.

Overall, Bartonella quintana is a significant public health concern, particularly in populations with poor hygiene and crowded living conditions, such as homeless individuals and refugees.

There are many diseases that can affect cats, and the specific medical definitions for these conditions can be quite detailed and complex. However, here are some common categories of feline diseases and examples of each:

1. Infectious diseases: These are caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites. Examples include:
* Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), also known as feline parvovirus, which can cause severe gastrointestinal symptoms and death in kittens.
* Feline calicivirus (FCV), which can cause upper respiratory symptoms such as sneezing and nasal discharge.
* Feline leukemia virus (FeLV), which can suppress the immune system and lead to a variety of secondary infections and diseases.
* Bacterial infections, such as those caused by Pasteurella multocida or Bartonella henselae, which can cause abscesses or other symptoms.
2. Neoplastic diseases: These are cancerous conditions that can affect various organs and tissues in cats. Examples include:
* Lymphoma, which is a common type of cancer in cats that can affect the lymph nodes, spleen, liver, and other organs.
* Fibrosarcoma, which is a type of soft tissue cancer that can arise from fibrous connective tissue.
* Squamous cell carcinoma, which is a type of skin cancer that can be caused by exposure to sunlight or tobacco smoke.
3. Degenerative diseases: These are conditions that result from the normal wear and tear of aging or other factors. Examples include:
* Osteoarthritis, which is a degenerative joint disease that can cause pain and stiffness in older cats.
* Dental disease, which is a common condition in cats that can lead to tooth loss, gum inflammation, and other problems.
* Heart disease, such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), which is a thickening of the heart muscle that can lead to congestive heart failure.
4. Hereditary diseases: These are conditions that are inherited from a cat's parents and are present at birth or develop early in life. Examples include:
* Polycystic kidney disease (PKD), which is a genetic disorder that causes cysts to form in the kidneys and can lead to kidney failure.
* Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), which can be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait in some cats.
* Progressive retinal atrophy (PRA), which is a group of genetic disorders that cause degeneration of the retina and can lead to blindness.

"Cat" is a common name that refers to various species of small carnivorous mammals that belong to the family Felidae. The domestic cat, also known as Felis catus or Felis silvestris catus, is a popular pet and companion animal. It is a subspecies of the wildcat, which is found in Europe, Africa, and Asia.

Domestic cats are often kept as pets because of their companionship, playful behavior, and ability to hunt vermin. They are also valued for their ability to provide emotional support and therapy to people. Cats are obligate carnivores, which means that they require a diet that consists mainly of meat to meet their nutritional needs.

Cats are known for their agility, sharp senses, and predatory instincts. They have retractable claws, which they use for hunting and self-defense. Cats also have a keen sense of smell, hearing, and vision, which allow them to detect prey and navigate their environment.

In medical terms, cats can be hosts to various parasites and diseases that can affect humans and other animals. Some common feline diseases include rabies, feline leukemia virus (FeLV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and toxoplasmosis. It is important for cat owners to keep their pets healthy and up-to-date on vaccinations and preventative treatments to protect both the cats and their human companions.

Trench fever is a historical medical condition that primarily affected soldiers during World War I. It is caused by Bartonella quintana, a type of bacterium that is transmitted through the feces of body lice. The name "trench fever" comes from the fact that it was common among soldiers living in trenches, where poor hygiene and crowded conditions facilitated the spread of the disease.

Symptoms of trench fever include sudden onset of fever, severe headache, muscle pain, and a rash. The fever typically lasts for about five days and then recurs every four to six days, which is why it was also known as "five-day fever" or "recrudescence fever." Other symptoms can include fatigue, anemia, and swelling of the spleen and liver.

Trench fever is treated with antibiotics such as doxycycline or azithromycin. Prevention measures include good personal hygiene, such as regular bathing and changing clothes, as well as environmental controls to reduce louse populations, such as delousing stations and insecticides.

While trench fever is no longer a major public health concern, it remains an important historical medical condition that highlights the importance of hygiene and infection control in military settings.

'Bartonella bacilliformis' is a type of bacterium that causes a rare and severe infectious disease known as Carrion's disease, which is prevalent in certain regions of South America, particularly in Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia. The bacteria are transmitted to humans through the bite of infected sandflies.

Carrion's disease has two distinct clinical phases: the acute phase, also known as Oroya fever, which is characterized by fever, severe anemia, and systemic infection; and the chronic phase, called verruga peruana, which presents with skin lesions or wart-like bumps that can ulcerate and bleed.

Early diagnosis and treatment of Carrion's disease are crucial to prevent complications and reduce mortality rates. Antibiotics such as chloramphenicol, azithromycin, and gentamicin are commonly used for the treatment of this condition. Preventive measures include using insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and avoiding sandfly-infested areas during peak activity times.

Siphonaptera is the scientific order that includes fleas. Fleas are small, wingless insects with laterally compressed bodies and strong legs adapted for jumping. They are external parasites, living by hematophagy off the blood of mammals and birds. Fleas can be a nuisance to their hosts, and some people and animals have allergic reactions to flea saliva. Fleas can also transmit diseases, such as bubonic plague and murine typhus, and parasites like tapeworms.

Peliosis hepatis is a rare condition characterized by the presence of numerous blood-filled cavities or sinusoids in the liver. These cavities can vary in size and are usually distributed throughout the liver parenchyma. The term "peliosis" comes from the Greek word "pelios," which means "bluish-black."

In peliosis hepatis, these blood-filled spaces can rupture, leading to bleeding into the liver tissue or even into the abdominal cavity. This condition is often asymptomatic but may present with nonspecific symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, abdominal pain, or liver dysfunction.

Peliosis hepatis has been associated with various conditions, including blood disorders (such as leukemia and lymphoma), use of anabolic steroids, immunosuppressive therapy, chronic infections (such as HIV and tuberculosis), and certain malignancies. In many cases, the cause remains unknown, and the condition is referred to as idiopathic peliosis hepatis.

Diagnosis of peliosis hepatis typically requires imaging studies such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which can demonstrate the presence of multiple, round, blood-filled spaces in the liver. In some cases, a liver biopsy may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis and evaluate the severity of the condition. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include discontinuation of any offending medications or treatment of any underlying conditions.

Bartonellaceae is a family of gram-negative bacteria that includes several species known to cause human diseases. The most well-known member of this family is Bartonella henselae, which causes cat scratch disease, as well as other illnesses such as trench fever (caused by Bartonella quintana) and Carrion's disease (caused by Bartonella bacilliformis).

Bartonella species are facultative intracellular pathogens that can infect a variety of cells, including erythrocytes, endothelial cells, and immune cells. They are transmitted to humans through the bites or feces of arthropod vectors such as fleas, lice, and sandflies, or through contact with infected animals such as cats.

The clinical manifestations of Bartonella infections can vary widely depending on the specific species involved and the immune status of the host. In addition to cat scratch disease and trench fever, Bartonella infections have been linked to a variety of other symptoms and conditions, including endocarditis, encephalopathy, and chronic fatigue syndrome.

Diagnosis of Bartonella infections can be challenging due to the nonspecific nature of many of the symptoms and the difficulty of culturing the bacteria from clinical samples. Molecular methods such as PCR and serological tests are often used to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, with the choice of drug depending on the specific Bartonella species involved and the severity of the infection.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

Ctenocephalides is a genus of parasitic insects in the family Pulicidae, commonly known as fleas. There are two main species within this genus that are of medical importance: Ctenocephalides canis (the dog flea) and Ctenocephalides felis (the cat flea). These flea species are vectors for various disease-causing pathogens and parasites, which can affect both animals and humans. They can cause irritation, allergic reactions, and transmit bacterial infections such as murine typhus and endemic typhus. Proper identification and control of Ctenocephalides infestations are essential for preventing the spread of these diseases.

Bacterial antibodies are a type of antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection caused by bacteria. These antibodies are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the bacterial cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Bacterial antibodies can be classified into several types based on their structure and function, including IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE. They play a crucial role in the body's defense against bacterial infections and provide immunity to future infections with the same bacteria.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Grenada" is not a medical term. It is a country, specifically an island nation in the Caribbean. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help answer those!

Bacteremia is the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream. It is a medical condition that occurs when bacteria from another source, such as an infection in another part of the body, enter the bloodstream. Bacteremia can cause symptoms such as fever, chills, and rapid heart rate, and it can lead to serious complications such as sepsis if not treated promptly with antibiotics.

Bacteremia is often a result of an infection elsewhere in the body that allows bacteria to enter the bloodstream. This can happen through various routes, such as during medical procedures, intravenous (IV) drug use, or from infected wounds or devices that come into contact with the bloodstream. In some cases, bacteremia may also occur without any obvious source of infection.

It is important to note that not all bacteria in the bloodstream cause harm, and some people may have bacteria in their blood without showing any symptoms. However, if bacteria in the bloodstream multiply and cause an immune response, it can lead to bacteremia and potentially serious complications.

A disease reservoir refers to a population or group of living organisms, including humans, animals, and even plants, that can naturally carry and transmit a particular pathogen (disease-causing agent) without necessarily showing symptoms of the disease themselves. These hosts serve as a source of infection for other susceptible individuals, allowing the pathogen to persist and circulate within a community or environment.

Disease reservoirs can be further classified into:

1. **Primary (or Main) Reservoir**: This refers to the species that primarily harbors and transmits the pathogen, contributing significantly to its natural ecology and maintaining its transmission cycle. For example, mosquitoes are the primary reservoirs for many arboviruses like dengue, Zika, and chikungunya viruses.

2. **Amplifying Hosts**: These hosts can become infected with the pathogen and experience a high rate of replication, leading to an increased concentration of the pathogen in their bodies. This allows for efficient transmission to other susceptible hosts or vectors. For instance, birds are amplifying hosts for West Nile virus, as they can become viremic (have high levels of virus in their blood) and infect feeding mosquitoes that then transmit the virus to other animals and humans.

3. **Dead-end Hosts**: These hosts may become infected with the pathogen but do not contribute significantly to its transmission cycle, as they either do not develop sufficient quantities of the pathogen to transmit it or do not come into contact with potential vectors or susceptible hosts. For example, humans are dead-end hosts for many zoonotic diseases like rabies, as they cannot transmit the virus to other humans.

Understanding disease reservoirs is crucial in developing effective strategies for controlling and preventing infectious diseases, as it helps identify key species and environments that contribute to their persistence and transmission.

Lymphatic diseases refer to a group of conditions that affect the lymphatic system, which is an important part of the immune and circulatory systems. The lymphatic system consists of a network of vessels, organs, and tissues that help to transport lymph fluid throughout the body, fight infection, and remove waste products.

Lymphatic diseases can be caused by various factors, including genetics, infections, cancer, and autoimmune disorders. Some common types of lymphatic diseases include:

1. Lymphedema: A condition that causes swelling in the arms or legs due to a blockage or damage in the lymphatic vessels.
2. Lymphoma: A type of cancer that affects the lymphatic system, including Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
3. Infections: Certain bacterial and viral infections can affect the lymphatic system, such as tuberculosis, cat-scratch disease, and HIV/AIDS.
4. Autoimmune disorders: Conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and scleroderma can cause inflammation and damage to the lymphatic system.
5. Congenital abnormalities: Some people are born with abnormalities in their lymphatic system, such as malformations or missing lymph nodes.

Symptoms of lymphatic diseases may vary depending on the specific condition and its severity. Treatment options may include medication, physical therapy, surgery, or radiation therapy. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience symptoms of a lymphatic disease, as early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes.

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a type of RNA that combines with proteins to form ribosomes, which are complex structures inside cells where protein synthesis occurs. The "16S" refers to the sedimentation coefficient of the rRNA molecule, which is a measure of its size and shape. In particular, 16S rRNA is a component of the smaller subunit of the prokaryotic ribosome (found in bacteria and archaea), and is often used as a molecular marker for identifying and classifying these organisms due to its relative stability and conservation among species. The sequence of 16S rRNA can be compared across different species to determine their evolutionary relationships and taxonomic positions.

Ectoparasitic infestations refer to the invasion and multiplication of parasites, such as lice, fleas, ticks, or mites, on the outer surface of a host organism, typically causing irritation, itching, and other skin disorders. These parasites survive by feeding on the host's blood, skin cells, or other bodily substances, leading to various health issues if left untreated.

Ectoparasitic infestations can occur in humans as well as animals and may require medical intervention for proper diagnosis and treatment. Common symptoms include redness, rash, inflammation, and secondary bacterial or viral infections due to excessive scratching. Preventive measures such as personal hygiene, regular inspections, and avoiding contact with infested individuals or environments can help reduce the risk of ectoparasitic infestations.

Bacterial endocarditis is a medical condition characterized by the inflammation and infection of the inner layer of the heart, known as the endocardium. This infection typically occurs when bacteria enter the bloodstream and attach themselves to damaged or abnormal heart valves or other parts of the endocardium. The bacteria can then multiply and cause the formation of vegetations, which are clusters of infected tissue that can further damage the heart valves and lead to serious complications such as heart failure, stroke, or even death if left untreated.

Bacterial endocarditis is a relatively uncommon but potentially life-threatening condition that requires prompt medical attention. Risk factors for developing bacterial endocarditis include pre-existing heart conditions such as congenital heart defects, artificial heart valves, previous history of endocarditis, or other conditions that damage the heart valves. Intravenous drug use is also a significant risk factor for this condition.

Symptoms of bacterial endocarditis may include fever, chills, fatigue, muscle and joint pain, shortness of breath, chest pain, and a new or changing heart murmur. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, blood cultures, and imaging tests such as echocardiography. Treatment usually involves several weeks of intravenous antibiotics to eradicate the infection, and in some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to repair or replace damaged heart valves.

Seroepidemiologic studies are a type of epidemiological study that measures the presence and levels of antibodies in a population's blood serum to investigate the prevalence, distribution, and transmission of infectious diseases. These studies help to identify patterns of infection and immunity within a population, which can inform public health policies and interventions.

Seroepidemiologic studies typically involve collecting blood samples from a representative sample of individuals in a population and testing them for the presence of antibodies against specific pathogens. The results are then analyzed to estimate the prevalence of infection and immunity within the population, as well as any factors associated with increased or decreased risk of infection.

These studies can provide valuable insights into the spread of infectious diseases, including emerging and re-emerging infections, and help to monitor the effectiveness of vaccination programs. Additionally, seroepidemiologic studies can also be used to investigate the transmission dynamics of infectious agents, such as identifying sources of infection or tracking the spread of antibiotic resistance.

The Fluorescent Antibody Technique (FAT), Indirect is a type of immunofluorescence assay used to detect the presence of specific antigens in a sample. In this method, the sample is first incubated with a primary antibody that binds to the target antigen. After washing to remove unbound primary antibodies, a secondary fluorescently labeled antibody is added, which recognizes and binds to the primary antibody. This indirect labeling approach allows for amplification of the signal, making it more sensitive than direct methods. The sample is then examined under a fluorescence microscope to visualize the location and amount of antigen based on the emitted light from the fluorescent secondary antibody. It's commonly used in diagnostic laboratories for detection of various bacteria, viruses, and other antigens in clinical specimens.

Rickettsiae is a genus of Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are obligate intracellular parasites. They are the causative agents of several important human diseases, including typhus fever, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and scrub typhus. Rickettsiae are transmitted to humans through the bites of infected arthropods, such as ticks, fleas, and lice. The bacteria infect endothelial cells in the host's body, causing vasculitis, which can lead to serious complications such as damage to internal organs, neurological symptoms, and even death if left untreated. Rickettsiae are sensitive to a variety of antibiotics, including tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones, and early treatment is essential for a favorable outcome.

Panuveitis is a medical term that refers to inflammation that affects the entire uveal tract, including the iris, ciliary body, and choroid. The uveal tract is the middle layer of the eye between the inner retina and the outer fibrous tunic (sclera). Panuveitis can also affect other parts of the eye, such as the vitreous, retina, and optic nerve.

The symptoms of panuveitis may include redness, pain, light sensitivity, blurred vision, floaters, and decreased visual acuity. The condition can be caused by various factors, including infections, autoimmune diseases, trauma, or unknown causes (idiopathic). Treatment typically involves the use of corticosteroids to reduce inflammation, as well as addressing any underlying cause if identified. If left untreated, panuveitis can lead to complications such as cataracts, glaucoma, and retinal damage, which can result in permanent vision loss.

Feline Leukemia (FeLV) is a retroviral infection that affects cats, causing a variety of potential symptoms and health problems. It is the most common cause of cancer in cats and can also lead to immune suppression, making the cat more susceptible to other infections. The virus is transmitted through close contact with infected cats, especially through saliva and nasal secretions. There is no known cure for FeLV, but supportive care and medications can help manage the symptoms and secondary infections. Regular testing and vaccination of at-risk cats is recommended to control the spread of this disease.

Rickettsiaceae is a family of Gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacteria that are primarily parasitic in arthropods and mammals. They are the causative agents of several important human diseases, including typhus fever, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and rickettsialpox. These bacteria are typically transmitted to humans through the bites of infected arthropods such as ticks, fleas, or lice.

The bacteria in Rickettsiaceae are small, non-motile, and have a unique bipolar appearance with tapered ends. They can only replicate inside host cells, where they manipulate the host cell's machinery to create a protective niche for themselves. This makes them difficult to culture and study outside of their hosts.

Rickettsiaceae bacteria are divided into several genera based on their genetic and antigenic characteristics, including Rickettsia, Orientia, and Coxiella. Each genus contains several species that can cause different diseases in humans. For example, Rickettsia rickettsii is the causative agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, while Rickettsia prowazekii causes epidemic typhus.

Overall, Rickettsiaceae bacteria are important pathogens that can cause serious and sometimes fatal diseases in humans. Prompt diagnosis and treatment with appropriate antibiotics is essential for a successful outcome.

Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) are a group of illnesses that can be transmitted to humans and animals through the bite of infected ticks. These diseases are caused by various pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. Some common TBDs include Lyme disease, Anaplasmosis, Babesiosis, Ehrlichiosis, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, and Tularemia. The symptoms of TBDs can vary widely depending on the specific disease but may include fever, rash, fatigue, muscle aches, and headaches. Early recognition, diagnosis, and treatment are crucial to prevent potential long-term complications associated with some TBDs. Preventive measures such as using insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and checking for ticks after being outdoors can help reduce the risk of TBDs.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

The ribosomal spacer in DNA refers to the non-coding sequences of DNA that are located between the genes for ribosomal RNA (rRNA). These spacer regions are present in the DNA of organisms that have a nuclear genome, including humans and other animals, plants, and fungi.

In prokaryotic cells, such as bacteria, there are two ribosomal RNA genes, 16S and 23S, separated by a spacer region known as the intergenic spacer (IGS). In eukaryotic cells, there are multiple copies of ribosomal RNA genes arranged in clusters called nucleolar organizer regions (NORs), which are located on the short arms of several acrocentric chromosomes. Each cluster contains hundreds to thousands of copies of the 18S, 5.8S, and 28S rRNA genes, separated by non-transcribed spacer regions known as internal transcribed spacers (ITS) and external transcribed spacers (ETS).

The ribosomal spacer regions in DNA are often used as molecular markers for studying evolutionary relationships among organisms because they evolve more rapidly than the rRNA genes themselves. The sequences of these spacer regions can be compared among different species to infer their phylogenetic relationships and to estimate the time since they diverged from a common ancestor. Additionally, the length and composition of ribosomal spacers can vary between individuals within a species, making them useful for studying genetic diversity and population structure.

Immunocompetence is the condition of having a properly functioning immune system that can effectively respond to the presence of foreign substances, such as pathogens (like bacteria, viruses, and parasites) and other potentially harmful agents. It involves the ability of the immune system to recognize, attack, and eliminate these foreign substances while also maintaining tolerance to self-tissues and promoting tissue repair.

Immunocompetence is essential for overall health and wellbeing, as it helps protect the body from infections and diseases. Factors that can affect immunocompetence include age, genetics, stress, nutrition, sleep, and certain medical conditions or treatments (like chemotherapy or immunosuppressive drugs) that can weaken the immune system.

New England Bartonella henselae at NCBI Taxonomy Browser Type strain of Bartonella henselae at BacDive, the Bacterial Diversity ... A pan-Bartonella PCR detection is non-invasive and uses blood or biopsies to diagnose. Bartonella henselae infection can appear ... Bartonella henselae, formerly Rochalimæa henselae, is a bacterium that is the causative agent of cat-scratch disease ( ... Parte, A.C. "Bartonella". LPSN. Cotté, Violaine, et al. "Transmission of Bartonella henselae by Ixodes ricinus." Emerging ...
"Bartonella henselae" (PDF). Dramsi, Shaynoor; Cossart, Pascale (2002-03-18). "Listeriolysin O". The Journal of Cell Biology. ... Bacterial examples include: Bartonella henselae Francisella tularensis Listeria monocytogenes Salmonella Typhi Brucella ...
nov., Bartonella vinsonii comb. nov., Bartonella henselae comb. nov., and Bartonella elizabethae comb. nov., and To Remove the ... Berkhoffii and Bartonella henselae bacteremia in a father and daughter with neurological disease" (PDF). Parasites & Vectors. 3 ... Bartonella vinsonii is a gram-negative bacteria from the genus Bartonella which was isolated from dogs. Rochalimaea vinsonii ... "Straininfo of Bartonella vinsonii". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2014-06-07. "Taxonomy - Bartonella ...
nov., Bartonella vinsonii comb. nov., Bartonella henselae comb. nov., and Bartonella elizabethae comb. nov., and To Remove the ... At least eight Bartonella species or subspecies are known to infect humans. Bartonella henselae is the organism responsible for ... "etymologia: Bartonella henselae". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 14 (6): 980. June 2008. doi:10.3201/eid1406.080980. ISSN 1080- ... Bartonella species have been infecting humans for thousands of years, as demonstrated by Bartonella quintana DNA in a 4000-year ...
"The louse-borne human pathogen Bartonella quintana is a genomic derivative of the zoonotic agent Bartonella henselae". ... Bartonella henselae is a gram-negative bacterial pathogen of humans and animals. Like other members of the alphaproteobacteria ... Bartonella henselae: BH11960. KEGG Database. Werner, Jonathan A.; Feng, Sunlian; Kasten, Rickie W.; Hodzic, Emir; Chomel, Bruno ... Bartonella henselae hypothetical protein 11960 (BH11960) is encoded by the BH11960 gene. This hypothetical protein is conserved ...
Axel Schmidt (1998). Bartonella and Afipia species emphasizing Bartonella henselae. Basel, New York: Karger. ISBN 3-8055-6649-2 ...
Axel Schmidt (1998). Bartonella and Afipia species emphasizing Bartonella henselae. Basel, New York: Karger. ISBN 3-8055-6649-2 ...
Axel Schmidt (1998). Bartonella and Afipia species emphasizing Bartonella henselae. Basel, New York: Karger. ISBN 3-8055-6649-2 ...
Axel Schmidt (1998). Bartonella and Afipia species emphasizing Bartonella henselae. Basel, New York: Karger. ISBN 3-8055-6649-2 ...
Axel Schmidt (1998). Bartonella and Afipia species emphasizing Bartonella henselae. Basel, New York: Karger. ISBN 3-8055-6649-2 ...
"Bartonella henselae or cat scratch disease (CSD) FAQs , Bartonella , CDC". www.cdc.gov. 2022-01-14. Retrieved 2023-03-23. "Cat ... "Bartonella henselae or cat scratch disease (CSD) FAQs , Bartonella , CDC". 14 January 2022. "Declawing of Cats Is Banned in ...
Lyme disease or Bartonella henselae may also cause encephalitis.[citation needed] Other bacterial pathogens, like Mycoplasma ...
Mexas AM, Hancock SI, Breitschwerdt EB (December 2002). "Bartonella henselae and Bartonella elizabethae as potential canine ... Bartonella-Associated Infections - CDC Bartonella species - List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature "Bartonella ... Bartonella elizabethae, formerly known as Rochalimaea elizabethae, is a bacterium. As with other Bartonella species, it can ... elizabethae" at the Encyclopedia of Life Type strain of Bartonella elizabethae at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity ...
... henselae (originally known as Rochalimea henselae before the genera Bartonella and Rochalimea were combined) and B. ... Bartonella henselae is a fastidious, intracellular, Gram-negative bacterium. The cat was recognized as the natural reservoir of ... Cat-scratch disease is caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae which is believed to be spread by the cat's saliva. Young ... Higgins JA, Radulovic S, Jaworski DC, Azad AF (1996). "Acquisition of the cat scratch disease agent Bartonella henselae by cat ...
Widening Spectrum of Bartonella henselae Infection". Pediatrics. 121 (5): e1413-e1425. doi:10.1542/peds.2007-1897. ISSN 0031- ...
Mascarelli, Patricia E. "Bartonella henselae and B. koehlerae DNA in Birds." Bartonella-Associated Infections - CDC Bartonella ... Bartonella koehlerae is a bacterium first isolated from cats. Its genome consists of 1.7-1.8 Mb. Bartonella doshiae Bartonella ... 2004). "Bartonella koehlerae, a new cat-associated agent of culture-negative human endocarditis". J Clin Microbiol. 42 (8): ... at the Encyclopedia of Life Type strain of Bartonella koehlerae at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e ( ...
It is caused by either Bartonella henselae or B. quintana. B. henselae is most often transmitted through a cat scratch or bite ... If a cat is carrying Bartonella henselae, then it may not exhibit any symptoms. Cats may be bacteremic for weeks to years, but ... Bacillary angiomatosis (BA) is a form of angiomatosis associated with bacteria of the genus Bartonella. Cutaneous BA is ... December 1997). "Molecular epidemiology of bartonella infections in patients with bacillary angiomatosis-peliosis". N. Engl. J ...
... s can transmit Rickettsia typhi, Rickettsia felis, Bartonella henselae, and the myxomatosis virus.: 73 They can carry ...
The BadA protein is another example of a TAA found in Bartonella henselae bacteria. Bartonella henselae is the causative agent ... Neisseria meningitidis UspA1 and A2 of Moraxella catarrhalis Hia and Hsf of Haemophilus influenzae BadA of Bartonella henselae ... 2008). Ghosh P (ed.). "Structure of the head of the Bartonella adhesin BadA". PLOS Pathog. 4 (8): e1000119. doi:10.1371/journal ... Harms A, Dehio C (2012). "Intruders below the radar: molecular pathogenesis of Bartonella spp". Clin Microbiol Rev. 25 (1): 42- ...
... of Bartonella henselae". Infect. Immun. 73 (7): 4205-13. doi:10.1128/IAI.73.7.4205-4213.2005. PMC 1168562. PMID 15972511. " ... A similar factor has been identified in Bartonella henselae. The CAMP test can be used to identify Streptococcus agalactiae. ...
Bartonella henselae) Metabolic disease (e.g., hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state) The most common cause of expressive aphasia is ... "Expressive Aphasia as a Presentation of Encephalitis with Bartonella henselae Infection in an Immunocompetent Adult". The Yale ...
It is also important for confirmation of Bartonella henselae, a causative organism in cat-scratch disease. Warthin-Starry ...
Bartonella quintana is closely related to Bartonella henselae, the agent of cat scratch fever and bacillary angiomatosis. The ... Bartonella quintana is transmitted by contamination of a skin abrasion or louse-bite wound with the faeces of an infected body ... "Facts about Bartonella quintana infection ('trench fever')". European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Rolain, J. M ... "Facts about Bartonella quintana infection ('trench fever')". European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Retrieved 11 ...
2004). "The louse-borne human pathogen Bartonella quintana is a genomic derivative of the zoonotic agent Bartonella henselae". ...
Bacterial causes associated with TM include Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Bartonella henselae, and the types of Borrelia that cause ...
USA carrying Bartonella clarridgeiae, Bartonella henselae and Rickettsia sp. RF2125". Veterinary Parasitology, Regional Studies ...
Spinella found that one patient with bartonella henselae also had anti-cardiolipin antibodies, suggesting that bartonella may ... Beyond cat scratch disease: a case report of bartonella infection mimicking vasculitic disorder. Case Rep Infect Dis. 2012;2012 ...
Acute hepatitis is caused by Neisseria meningitidis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Bartonella henselae, Borrelia burgdorferi, ...
Cat-scratch disease is caused by Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana, which are transmitted by fleas that are endemic ...
Bartonella henselae Francisella tularensis Herpes simplex virus type 1 Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Diagnostic tests vary by ...
New England Bartonella henselae at NCBI Taxonomy Browser Type strain of Bartonella henselae at BacDive, the Bacterial Diversity ... A pan-Bartonella PCR detection is non-invasive and uses blood or biopsies to diagnose. Bartonella henselae infection can appear ... Bartonella henselae, formerly Rochalimæa henselae, is a bacterium that is the causative agent of cat-scratch disease ( ... Parte, A.C. "Bartonella". LPSN. Cotté, Violaine, et al. "Transmission of Bartonella henselae by Ixodes ricinus." Emerging ...
Prolonged Bartonella henselae Bacteremia Caused by Reinfection in Cats Cite CITE. Title : Prolonged Bartonella henselae ... Animals Bacteria Bacterial Typing Techniques Bartonella Henselae Bartonella Infections Cat-scratch Disease Cat Diseases Cats ... 2008). Prolonged Bartonella henselae Bacteremia Caused by Reinfection in Cats. 14(1). Arvand, Mardjan and Viezens, Juliane and ... "Prolonged Bartonella henselae Bacteremia Caused by Reinfection in Cats" vol. 14, no. 1, 2008. Export RIS Citation Information. ...
CSD is caused by a bacterium called Bartonella henselae. Up to 30% of cats carry B. henselae in their blood, although most cats ... B. henselae infection may also develop in the mouth, urinary system, or eyes. Your veterinarian may find that some of your ... CDCs Bartonella page. Cat-scratch disease in children-Texas, September 2000-August 2001. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report ... Kittens younger than 1 year are more likely to have B. henselae infection and to spread the germ to people. Kittens are also ...
It is reported that up to 95% of patients with Cat Scratch Disease present antibodies against Bartonella henselae antigens. ... Through a type IV secretory system, B. henselae proteins are transported into the host cells. The encoding gene of outer ... membrane protein p26 has significant nucleotide identity with orthologs in Brucella spp., Bartonella spp., and several plant- ...
Bartonella henselae (formerly known as Rochalimaea henselae), is an aerobic proteobacterium, slow growing and Gram-negative rod ... B. henselae is a bacterium that infects both cats and humans. When cats are infected, ... The BarHen dtec-qPCR comprises a series of specific targeted reagents designed for Bartonella henselae detection by using qPCR ... Bartonella henselae (formerly known as Rochalimaea henselae), is an aerobic proteobacterium, slow growing and Gram-negative rod ...
Hey, Im B. henselae.. Im a Gram Negative bacteria.. You can find me on cats and I get into you through scratches, licks or ...
Note: These kits are not intended for diagnosing or treatment.
Bartonella clarridgeiae and B. henselae in Dogs, Gabon Cite CITE. Title : Bartonella clarridgeiae and B. henselae in Dogs, ... Animals Bartonella Bartonella Henselae Bartonella Infections Bird Diseases Birds Disease Reservoirs DNA, Bacterial Humans ... "Bartonella henselae and B. koehlerae DNA in Birds" 20, no. 3 (2014). Mascarelli, Patricia E. et al. "Bartonella henselae and B ... 2004). Bartonella clarridgeiae and B. henselae in Dogs, Gabon. 10(12). Gundi, Vijay A.K.B. et al. "Bartonella clarridgeiae and ...
Bartonella henselae (see Bartonella). Borrelia burgdoferi (see Lyme disease). Borrelia hermsii (see tickborne relapsing fever) ...
Bartonella henselae. * Borrelia burgdorferi. Gianotti-Crosti syndrome has also been reported to occur after vaccination for the ...
Infecções por Bartonella; Bartonella henselae; Doença da Arranhadura de Gato; Hanseníase; Animais; Doença da Arranhadura de ... Infecções por Bartonella / Doença da Arranhadura de Gato / Bartonella henselae / Hanseníase Tipo de estudo: Estudo diagnóstico ... Infecções por Bartonella / Doença da Arranhadura de Gato / Bartonella henselae / Hanseníase Tipo de estudo: Estudo diagnóstico ... we investigated the presence of a Bartonella sp. infection. Bartonella henselae DNA was detected in a skin fragment obtained ...
My co infections include bartonella henselae. i have positive testing for this illness. You do not get this illness unless you ... A woman in her late 30s with fatigue and joint pain received a diagnosis of chronic Lyme disease, babesiosis, and Bartonella ... Further, there are also numerous other diseases the ticks are carrying, like Bartonella, which can suppress immune function, ...
Bartonella Henselae antistoffen. * * Basisdiagnostiek aangeboren stofwisselingsziekten. * * Basisdiagnostiek aangeboren ...
Analysis of the BadA stalk from Bartonella henselae reveals domain-specific and domain-overlapping functions in the host cell ... Analysis of the BadA stalk from Bartonella henselae reveals domain-specific and domain-overlapping functions in the host cell ...
Bartonella henselaebacteria cause cat scratch disease. They live in infected cats saliva, but dont make the animals sick. ...
Bartonella henselae Bloodstream Infection in a Boy With Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome. ByCanLyme Team April ... Bartonella henselae and B. koehlerae DNA in Birds. ByTeam February 27, 2014. April 21, 2023. ... Read More Bartonella henselae Bloodstream Infection in a Boy With Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome. ... Volume 20, Number 3-March 2014 Emerging Infectious Disease Bartonella henselae and B. koehlerae DNA in Birds To the Editor: ...
Bartonella henselae. *Neuroretinitis, macular edema ("star").. *Tuberculosis. *Neuroretinitis, macular edema ("star").. * ... Bartonella testing, ANA, ENA, and Lyme testing.4 Testing should be expanded depending on relevant history and findings, as ...
Serologic studies for Bartonella henselae. History of cat exposure. Drug-related uveitis. Any location. Rare. Can be associated ...
Cat-scratch disease is an infection with bartonella bacteria. It is transmitted by cat scratches, cat bites, or flea bites. ... The Bartonella henselae immunofluorescence assay (IFA) blood test can detect the infection caused by these bacteria. The ... Cat-scratch disease is caused by the bacteria Bartonella henselae. The disease is spread through contact with an infected cat ( ... Bartonella, including cat-scratch disease. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennetts Principles ...
Bartonella henselae is a type of bacteria that can cause CSD. The name refers to its typical cause, a cat scratch. Symptoms of ... Bartonella infections (cat scratch disease, trench fever, and Carrion's disease). (2019). https://www.cdc.gov/bartonella/ ...
Bartonella Infections in Animals: Clinical Signs. *English Bartonella Infections in Humans: Clinical Signs. *English ...
Bacterial infections, including Staphylococcus aureus, Bartonella henselae, mycobacteria, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and ...
The causative agent is Bartonella henselae, a gram-negative rickettsial organism. The disease is usually self-limiting and ... Expert Insights on Clinical Considerations in Bartonella Infection 0.5 CME / CE / ABIM MOC Credits ...
Rickettsia felis, Bartonella henselae, and B. clarridgeiae, New Zealand. Emerg Infect Dis 10: 967-968. ... Rickettsia felis, Bartonella henselae, and B. clarridgeiae, New Zealand. Emerg Infect Dis 10: 967-968. ... Bartonella henselae. , and B. clarridgeiae. , New Zealand. . Emerg Infect Dis 10. : 967. -. 968. .. ), false ... Bartonella henselae. , and B. clarridgeiae. , New Zealand. . Emerg Infect Dis 10. : 967. -. 968. .. ), false ...
Categories: Bartonella henselae Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted ...
Bacterial infections, including Staphylococcus aureus, Bartonella henselae, mycobacteria, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and ...
Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana, amplified probe technique.". On April 20, 2020, AMA created two additional CPT ...
  • Bartonella henselae is a member of the genus Bartonella, one of the most common types of bacteria in the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bartonella henselae (formerly known as Rochalimaea henselae), is an aerobic proteobacterium, slow growing and Gram-negative rod belonging to the Bartonellaceae family and one of the most common types of bacteria in the world. (geneticpcr.com)
  • CanLyme Note: Bartonella bacteria can be transmitted by ticks, cat scratches, dog saliva, etc. (canlyme.com)
  • Cat-scratch disease is an infection with bartonella bacteria. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cat-scratch disease is caused by the bacteria Bartonella henselae . (medlineplus.gov)
  • The Bartonella henselae immunofluorescence assay (IFA) blood test can detect the infection caused by these bacteria. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Bartonella henselae is a type of bacteria that can cause CSD. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • These are loaded with bacteria and are histologically similar to HIV related bacillary angiomatosis lesions caused by the related organisms B. henselae and B. quintana . (uab.edu)
  • Induction of IDO by DCs is a cell-autonomous response to Listeria monocytogenes infection and was also observed in other granulomatous infections with intracellular bacteria, such as Bartonella henselae. (jci.org)
  • In fact, it involves infection by bacteria of the genus Bartonella . (vin.com)
  • Overview of Bartonella Infections Bartonella species are gram-negative bacteria previously classified as Rickettsiae. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Bacillary Angiomatosis Bacillary angiomatosis is skin infection caused by the gram-negative bacteria Bartonella henselae or B. quintana . (msdmanuals.com)
  • Bartonella henselae infection can appear up to 10 days after exposure to the microbe. (wikipedia.org)
  • these children got endocarditis from B. henselae infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • In rare cases, osteomyelitis, an infection in the bone, can be a manifestation of B. henselae. (wikipedia.org)
  • B. henselae infection in humans exhibits a vari- within 3 distinct lineages (Marseille, Houston-1, and Ber- ety of clinical syndromes including the most common, cat- lin-2), and the 16S rRNA gene was not a sensitive marker scratch disease (CSD) ( 5 ), endocarditis ( 6 ), bacillary angi- of the clonal divisions of B. henselae . (cdc.gov)
  • Up to 30% of cats carry B. henselae in their blood, although most cats with this infection show NO signs of illness. (cdc.gov)
  • Kittens younger than 1 year are more likely to have B. henselae infection and to spread the germ to people. (cdc.gov)
  • Most cats with B. henselae infection show NO signs of illness, but on rare occasions this disease can cause inflammation of the heart-making cats very sick with labored breathing. (cdc.gov)
  • B. henselae infection may also develop in the mouth, urinary system, or eyes. (cdc.gov)
  • Chronic type 2 reaction possibly triggered by an asymptomatic Bartonella henselae infection in a leprosy patient. (bvsalud.org)
  • Bartonella henselae infection usually presents with non-tender papule in the scratch line followed by subsequent onset of regional lymphadenopathy eventually associated with systemic symptoms. (medicoebambino.com)
  • Bacillary angiomatosis is a rare opportunistic bacterial infection due to Bartonella henselae . (dermnetnz.org)
  • Editorial Note: CSD is caused by infection with Bartonella (formerly Rochalimaea) henselae, an organism that has been associated with bacillary angiomatosis in immunocompromised persons. (cdc.gov)
  • Uncommon manifestations of B. henselae infection include Parinaud oculoglandular syndrome, relapsing bacteremia, and endocarditis and bacillary peliosis (2). (cdc.gov)
  • B. henselae infection in cats is asymptomatic. (cdc.gov)
  • Infection with Bartonella henselae in an immunocompetent person (i.e., a normal, healthy person) person leads to cat scratch disease. (vin.com)
  • Several illnesses seem to have been associated with Bartonella infection (fever, deep eye inflammation, lymph node enlargement, muscle pain, reproductive failure, and bacterial heart valve deposits called endocarditis), but these seem to be isolated cases for the most part. (vin.com)
  • The Bartonella organisms are highly adapted to live in the feline body without causing disease, and it is only in rare situations that cats actually experience issues from this infection. (vin.com)
  • It has been suggested that Bartonella infection may be at the root of numerous chronic inflammatory conditions of the cat. (vin.com)
  • Bartonella henselae, formerly Rochalimæa henselae, is a bacterium that is the causative agent of cat-scratch disease (bartonellosis). (wikipedia.org)
  • In immunocompetent individuals, B. henselae can cause cat-scratch disease (bartonellosis). (geneticpcr.com)
  • The acute form of bartonellosis due to Bartonella bacilliformis . (uab.edu)
  • The distribution of Bartonella bacilliformis , which is transmitted by the bite of the Lutzomyia verrucarum sandfly is restricted to the inter-Andean valleys of Perú and Ecuador. (uab.edu)
  • Oroya fever and verruga peruana are infections caused by the gram-negative bacterium Bartonella bacilliformis . (msdmanuals.com)
  • Indirect fluorescent-antibody testing at CDC detected elevated antibody titers to Bartonella henselae, the etiologic agent for CSD, in all five patients ( Table 1 , page 915). (cdc.gov)
  • Bartonella henselae, a gram-negative rod, is considered the principal etiologic agent. (medscape.com)
  • Initially, Bartonella henselae , fi rst identifi ed in 1990 and charac- B. henselae isolates were classifi ed within 2 16S rRNA- terized as a new species in 1992, is a gram-negative, based genotypes, I and II, and 2 serotypes, Marseille and fastidious bacterium associated with cats. (cdc.gov)
  • CSD is caused by a bacterium called Bartonella henselae . (cdc.gov)
  • B. henselae is a bacterium that infects both cats and humans. (geneticpcr.com)
  • Angelakis E, Raoult D. Pathogenicity and treatment of Bartonella infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infections , even when asymptomatic, can trigger leprosy reactions and Bartonella spp. (bvsalud.org)
  • Rolain JM, Raoult D. Bartonella infections. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The most well-studied and most common Bartonella organism is Bartonella henselae . (vin.com)
  • Because B. henselae has a complex and expanding host with cat-scratch disease (CSD), in cardiac valve specimens or reservoir system and has been associated with a rapidly from 2 patients with endocarditis, and in 3 human isolates increasing spectrum of clinical syndromes ( 12 ), epidemi- from patients with bacillary angiomatosis, CSD, and endo- ologic survey and exploration of population structure of carditis. (cdc.gov)
  • It is reported that up to 95% of patients with Cat Scratch Disease present antibodies against Bartonella henselae antigens. (bbisolutions.com)
  • Bartonella , including cat-scratch disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Bartonella henselae is also the agent of cat-scratch disease. (uab.edu)
  • Examples include murine typhus, caused by Rickettsia typhi, and Bartonella henselae, which leads to cat scratch disease. (insecta-inspecta.com)
  • Cat scratch disease is a bacterial disease caused by Bartonella henselae . (kingcounty.gov)
  • Ctenocephalides felis is capable of transmitting Rickettsia typhi, Rickettsia felis, Bartonella hensalae, Dipylidium caninum, and Acanthocheilonema (Dipetalonema) reconditum . (capcvet.org)
  • There are 24 Bartonella species, 14 of which can infect humans and five of which are harbored by cats. (vin.com)
  • The five Bartonella species harbored by cats are spread by fleas. (vin.com)
  • The short answer is yes, though the species they get is Bartonella vinsonii rather than Bartonella henslae . (vin.com)
  • Ctenocephalides felis ( 3 ), and to humans by cat scratches gether, B. henselae isolates were found to be distributed or bites ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • available genotyping methods, with a maximum of only 7 genotypes identifi ed ( 27 ), and the small number of human PCR Amplifi cation and Sequencing isolates studied prevented the population structure and the ITS and pap 31 gene PCR amplifi cations were per- genetic relationship between cat and human isolates of B. formed by using the previously described conditions and henselae to be reliably investigated. (cdc.gov)
  • A range of bacterial ( Bartonella spp, Mycoplasma spp. (bvsalud.org)
  • Therefore, it is recommended to include Bartonella henselae serology in the diagnostic evaluation of erythema nodosum. (medicoebambino.com)
  • Bacteriostatic antibiotics are not able to easily get through to intracellular Bartonella, so they are not recommended. (wikipedia.org)
  • A pan-Bartonella PCR detection is non-invasive and uses blood or biopsies to diagnose. (wikipedia.org)
  • The BarHen dtec-qPCR comprises a series of specific targeted reagents designed for Bartonella henselae detection by using qPCR. (geneticpcr.com)
  • Cats can get infected with B. henselae from flea bites and flea dirt (droppings) getting into their wounds. (cdc.gov)
  • Transmission ing (MLST) were congruent with serotypes, but not with of B. henselae among cats may be mediated by the cat fl ea, genotype I and II classifi cation ( 13 , 22 - 24 , 27 - 29 ). (cdc.gov)
  • B. may be facilitated by the coexistence of several strains in henselae has also been detected in various domestic or wild the blood of cats ( 27 ). (cdc.gov)
  • CSD is associated with exposure to cats infected with B. henselae. (cdc.gov)
  • It was only relatively recently discovered (1992) that cats themselves were more than simple carriers of Bartonella henselae and that they could actually become actively infected themselves. (vin.com)
  • Some patients had hepatosplenic involvement, myalgia, and arthritis after exposure to B. henselae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Published in the Jounral of Central Nervous System Disease, March 18th, Edward B Breitshwerdt et al Abstract Background: With the advent of more sensitive culture and molecular diagnostic testing modalities, Bartonella spp. (canlyme.com)
  • Since coinfections can trigger type 2 reactions and the patient had close contact with animals and ticks , we investigated the presence of a Bartonella sp. (bvsalud.org)
  • Testing would be a good idea for any cat that may become a blood donor, for the rare sick cat where Bartonella -related disease is actually being considered if a human in the home has been diagnosed with a Bartonella -related disease, or if there is an immune-compromised person in the home, in which case testing is actually important. (vin.com)
  • specify] The specific name henselae honors Diane Marie Hensel (b. 1953), a clinical microbiology technologist at University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, who collected numerous strains and samples of the infective agent during an outbreak in Oklahoma in 1985. (wikipedia.org)
  • No definite treatment regimen is known for a patient infected with B. henselae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leprosy reactions improved following the treatment for B. henselae. (bvsalud.org)
  • Through a type IV secretory system, B. henselae proteins are transported into the host cells. (bbisolutions.com)