Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Health: The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Community Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Delivery of Health Care, Integrated: A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Community Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Comprehensive Health Care: Providing for the full range of personal health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up and rehabilitation of patients.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Patient Care Team: Care of patients by a multidisciplinary team usually organized under the leadership of a physician; each member of the team has specific responsibilities and the whole team contributes to the care of the patient.Health Services, Indigenous: Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.Regional Health Planning: Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Health Literacy: Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.SwedenPreventive Health Services: Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Primary Nursing: The primary responsibility of one nurse for the planning, evaluation, and care of a patient throughout the course of illness, convalescence, and recovery.Health Services Administration: The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Health Plan Implementation: Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.Allied Health Personnel: Health care workers specially trained and licensed to assist and support the work of health professionals. Often used synonymously with paramedical personnel, the term generally refers to all health care workers who perform tasks which must otherwise be performed by a physician or other health professional.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Urban Health Services: Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Catchment Area (Health): A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.Public Health Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.Nurses: Professionals qualified by graduation from an accredited school of nursing and by passage of a national licensing examination to practice nursing. They provide services to patients requiring assistance in recovering or maintaining their physical or mental health.Electronic Health Records: Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.Quality Indicators, Health Care: Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.Primary Care Nursing: Techniques or methods of patient care used by nurses as primary careproviders.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.IndiaHealth Facility Planning: Areawide planning for health care institutions on the basis of projected consumer need.Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Great BritainPhysicians, Family: Those physicians who have completed the education requirements specified by the American Academy of Family Physicians.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.General Practitioners: Physicians whose practice is not restricted to a specific field of MEDICINE.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Communication Barriers: Those factors, such as language or sociocultural relationships, which interfere in the meaningful interpretation and transmission of ideas between individuals or groups.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)BrazilHealth Facility Administration: Management of the organization of HEALTH FACILITIES.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Medically Underserved Area: A geographic location which has insufficient health resources (manpower and/or facilities) to meet the medical needs of the resident population.Blood-Retinal Barrier: A specialized transport barrier, in the EYE, formed by the retinal pigment EPITHELIUM, and the ENDOTHELIUM of the BLOOD VESSELS of the RETINA. TIGHT JUNCTIONS joining adjacent cells keep the barrier between cells continuous.Clinical Governance: A framework through which the United Kingdom's National Health Service organizations are accountable for continually improving the quality of their services and safeguarding high standards of care by creating an environment in which excellence in clinical care will flourish. (Scally and Donaldson, BMJ (4 July 1998): 61-65)Health Services for the Aged: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.Reproductive Health: The physical condition of human reproductive systems.Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.LithuaniaNeeds Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.EnglandHealth Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Nurse Practitioners: Nurses who are specially trained to assume an expanded role in providing medical care under the supervision of a physician.Models, Organizational: Theoretical representations and constructs that describe or explain the structure and hierarchy of relationships and interactions within or between formal organizational entities or informal social groups.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Ontario: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)Maternal-Child Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to mothers and children.Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Blood-Air Barrier: The barrier between capillary blood and alveolar air comprising the alveolar EPITHELIUM and capillary ENDOTHELIUM with their adherent BASEMENT MEMBRANE and EPITHELIAL CELL cytoplasm. PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE occurs across this membrane.Financing, Organized: All organized methods of funding.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Adolescent Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to adolescents, ages ranging from 13 through 18 years.Efficiency, Organizational: The capacity of an organization, institution, or business to produce desired results with a minimum expenditure of energy, time, money, personnel, materiel, etc.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Universal Coverage: Health insurance coverage for all persons in a state or country, rather than for some subset of the population. It may extend to the unemployed as well as to the employed; to aliens as well as to citizens; for pre-existing conditions as well as for current illnesses; for mental as well as for physical conditions.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Public Sector: The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Interinstitutional Relations: The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.IraqPhysician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.Community Health Workers: Persons trained to assist professional health personnel in communicating with residents in the community concerning needs and availability of health services.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Local Government: Smallest political subdivisions within a country at which general governmental functions are carried-out.Organizational Case Studies: Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.Health Planning Councils: Organized groups serving in advisory capacities related to health planning activities.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Community Mental Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.General Practice: Patient-based medical care provided across age and gender or specialty boundaries.Community-Institutional Relations: The interactions between members of a community and representatives of the institutions within that community.GreeceProcess Assessment (Health Care): An evaluation procedure that focuses on how care is delivered, based on the premise that there are standards of performance for activities undertaken in delivering patient care, in which the specific actions taken, events occurring, and human interactions are compared with accepted standards.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.National Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.Organizational Innovation: Introduction of changes which are new to the organization and are created by management.State Health Plans: State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Public Health Informatics: The systematic application of information and computer sciences to public health practice, research, and learning.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.FinlandContinuity of Patient Care: Health care provided on a continuing basis from the initial contact, following the patient through all phases of medical care.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.QatarBlood-Testis Barrier: A specialized barrier, in the TESTIS, between the interstitial BLOOD compartment and the adluminal compartment of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. The barrier is formed by layers of cells from the VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM of the capillary BLOOD VESSELS, to the SEMINIFEROUS EPITHELIUM of the seminiferous tubules. TIGHT JUNCTIONS form between adjacent SERTOLI CELLS, as well as between the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.Oceanic Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the islands of the central and South Pacific, including Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and traditionally Australasia.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.Counseling: The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Ambulatory Care Facilities: Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.Rwanda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA, east of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, west of TANZANIA. Its capital is Kigali. It was formerly part of the Belgian trust territory of Ruanda-Urund.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Community Health Nursing: General and comprehensive nursing practice directed to individuals, families, or groups as it relates to and contributes to the health of a population or community. This is not an official program of a Public Health Department.Health Records, Personal: Longitudinal patient-maintained records of individual health history and tools that allow individual control of access.Leadership: The function of directing or controlling the actions or attitudes of an individual or group with more or less willing acquiescence of the followers.Inservice Training: On the job training programs for personnel carried out within an institution or agency. It includes orientation programs.Health Planning Guidelines: Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.Ambulatory Care: Health care services provided to patients on an ambulatory basis, rather than by admission to a hospital or other health care facility. The services may be a part of a hospital, augmenting its inpatient services, or may be provided at a free-standing facility.Health Care Coalitions: Voluntary groups of people representing diverse interests in the community such as hospitals, businesses, physicians, and insurers, with the principal objective to improve health care cost effectiveness.Personnel Delegation: To entrust to the care or management of another, to transfer or to assign tasks within an organizational or administrative unit or structureGuideline Adherence: Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Tight Junctions: Cell-cell junctions that seal adjacent epithelial cells together, preventing the passage of most dissolved molecules from one side of the epithelial sheet to the other. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, p22)Vulnerable Populations: Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.Consumer Satisfaction: Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.United Arab Emirates: A federation of seven states on the southeast portion of the Arabian peninsula: Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharjah and Umm al-Qaiwain. In 1820 a treaty of peace was concluded between Great Britain and native rulers. During the 19th century the rulers agreed to suppression of the slave trade and restriction of foreign relations to Great Britain. The Trucial Council was established in 1952 and defense treaties with Great Britain terminated. In 1971 an independent six-member federation was formed, with Ras al-Khaimah joining the federation in 1972. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1250)Professional-Patient Relations: Interactions between health personnel and patients.Interdisciplinary Communication: Communication, in the sense of cross-fertilization of ideas, involving two or more academic disciplines (such as the disciplines that comprise the cross-disciplinary field of bioethics, including the health and biological sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences and law). Also includes problems in communication stemming from differences in patterns of language usage in different academic or medical disciplines.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Mobile Health Units: Movable or portable facilities in which diagnostic and therapeutic services are provided to the community.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Men's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of men.Health Maintenance Organizations: Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Diffusion of Innovation: The broad dissemination of new ideas, procedures, techniques, materials, and devices and the degree to which these are accepted and used.
  • European Directive EN 13795-3:2006: The European harmonized standard specifying requirements for single-use and reusable gowns, drapes and clean air suits used as medical devices for patients, clinical staff and equipment and intended to prevent the transmission of infective agents between patients and clinical staff during invasive surgical procedures. (molnlycke.sg)
  • Sign up for Insight Alerts highlighting editor-chosen studies with the greatest impact on clinical care. (aappublications.org)
  • Interactive health technologies (IHTs), whether used as an adjunct to clinical care or as a stand-alone program, provide a means to efficiently deliver both standardized information and tailored health interventions to a large number of patients. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 1 - 3 Whether used to enhance clinical care or as a stand-alone tool, they simultaneously offer an efficient means of implementation and individualized tailoring for care delivery. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Of 201 eligible providers, 107 (53%) completed a self-administered questionnaire ascertaining attitudes, perceived barriers, and clinical practices related to assessing and managing breast cancer risk. (nih.gov)
  • Moves towards establishing a standardised and generic system of quality measurement in mental health care in England began in the 1990s when the Clinical Standards Advisory Group focused on both the management of schizophrenia 2 and depression 3 and, with the latter, moved towards examining the quality of provision in primary as well as secondary care. (bmj.com)
  • Employers and plans should recognize and reward investments in infrastructure that will enhance quality, including clinical information systems and measurable integration of clinical services within health care organizations. (commonwealthfund.org)
  • Harmonization and integration of guidelines is becoming increasingly important for multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary and interprofessional clinical care teams. (cmaj.ca)
  • The importance of integrating family health history with an individual's medical record will increase as our understanding of the genome evolves because it will be more essential to put detailed personal genetic information into a clinical context. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Veterinary practitioners have extensive knowledge of animal health from their day-to-day observations of clinical patients. (frontiersin.org)
  • While the concept of using veterinary clinical data and electronic medical records for animal health surveillance is not new ( 2 ), considerable advances have recently been made to improve compliance, for example, through the development of web-based data collection systems ( 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • We discuss implications for community health worker training and clinical support in primary care. (annfammed.org)
  • Primary care, the largest health care delivery platform in the United States, is widely regarded as a natural point of integration and coordination between clinical care and public health, behavioral health, and community services. (annfammed.org)
  • This review provides an overview of promising optical imaging technologies, the infrastructure needed to integrate them into widespread clinical use, and the challenges that must be addressed to harness the potential of these technologies to improve health care systems around the world. (sciencemag.org)
  • The knowledge of diabetes care and the clinical experience of general practitioners may not meet the needs of their T1D patients and it is difficult to get enough clinical experience if the number of T1D patients under their follow-up care is very limited. (springermedizin.de)
  • We collected data concerning CVR factors and sexual health inquiry through interviews and clinical records and we used the International Index of Erectile Function to evaluate ED. Logistic regression models were used to study the association between ED and CVR factors. (elsevier.es)
  • UK-focused review for Britain's National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence of what impedes or promotes the implementation of brief alcohol interventions at the level of the organisation, the staff doing the work, and the patients targeted by the programme. (findings.org.uk)
  • AAMI is the US reference standard establishing a system of classification for protective apparel and drapes based on their liquid barrier performance and specifies related labelling requirements and standardised test methods. (molnlycke.sg)
  • This studywastherefore designed to investigate barriers to effective HIV testing services and strategies for its promotion at the primary health care facilities in Ibadan.Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among health care providers in primary health care facilities in five local government areas in Ibadan metropolis, Nigeria. (who.int)
  • Although much of the literature on the chronic care model focuses on medical rather than mental health conditions and on adults rather than children with mental illness, 5 , 6 the task force recognizes the applicability of chronic care methods to children with mental health problems and the potential importance of these methods in creating a "medical home" for children who experience mental health problems ( Fig 1 ). (aappublications.org)
  • Methods Data from SoFIE-Health (wave 3), which is an add-on to the Statistics New Zealand-led longitudinal Survey of Family, Income and Employment (SoFIE) (N=18 320), were analysed using logistic regression, adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic, health behaviour and health variables. (bmj.com)
  • AMA recruited 26 primary care practices and health systems in 17 US communities to implement point-of-care and retrospective methods (or a combination of both) for screening, testing, and referral of Medicare patients with prediabetes. (cdc.gov)
  • All approaches showed increased enrollment with point-of-care methods being most successful. (cdc.gov)
  • Topics addressed at the meeting included current practices, needs, and barriers for use of family history information in pediatric primary care and public health. (aappublications.org)
  • The linkage programs and activities and their effect and the barriers, benefits, and opportunities for building linkages identified in this study can be used to shape stronger and broader local and national practices for future collaborations and system integration. (cdc.gov)
  • We surveyed primary care providers to evaluate breast cancer risk assessment and management practices. (nih.gov)
  • Most practices will not be able to implement quickly all or even most of the elements of the chronic care model. (aappublications.org)
  • These indicators were categorised into 21 aspects of care, 11 relating to general practices and 10 relating to health authorities or primary care groups/trusts. (bmj.com)
  • 9 The challenge for this assessment is the vast differences in practices' classification schemas for integration and the lack of a national database that clearly encapsulates the practices that are integrating primary care and behavioral health on site. (jabfm.org)
  • What is not so obvious is the extent to which PCPs in smaller practices share space with behavioral health providers. (jabfm.org)
  • The authors conducted a pilot study of four North Carolina primary care practices (two pediatric and two family medicine) participating in a larger year-long quality improvement collaborative. (rwjf.org)
  • These results are consistent with previous case reports that suggest that OA is both feasible and effective for improving access to and quality of care in primary care practices. (rwjf.org)
  • This pilot project is an important step toward developing a national surveillance system for companion animals and equines that moves beyond emerging infectious disease detection to provide important animal health information that can be used by a wide range of stakeholder groups, including participating veterinary practices. (frontiersin.org)
  • The only study that was based in a primary care setting was in paediatrician-led US practices which may not be relevant to systems where general practitioners provide 'cradle to grave' primary care. (bmj.com)
  • the results suggests the need to ease the health professionals' attributions, facilitate the integration between the professionals' practices and optimizing their work, especially in remote and unassisted regions, in order to be in favor of expanding the access and problem solving in APS. (scielo.br)
  • Therefore, we interviewed community vaccinators about their 2009 experience with workplace vaccination against seasonal influenza virus and pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus, their business practices, barriers encountered, and delivery of other adult vaccines. (cdc.gov)
  • The outcome of IHE initiatives is providing better information for developing health policy and best medical practices. (ihe.ca)
  • Practices (n = 12) that used retrospective (ie, electronic medical record [EMR]) systems to identify eligible Medicare patients via a registry referred more people (n = 4,601) to the YMCA DPP than practices (n = 10) that used a point-of-care method alone (n = 437 patients) or practices (n = 4) that used a combination of these approaches (n = 602 patients). (cdc.gov)
  • World Health Organization & United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Assessing Mental Health and Psychosocial Needs and Resources: Toolkit for Humanitarian Settings (Geneva: WHO, 2012). (odihpn.org)
  • To provide effective mental health services, the World Health Organization emphasizes the integration of mental health into primary health care (PHC). (who.int)
  • PHC was formally adapted by the World Health Organization (WHO), and they have since invested enormous amounts of resources across the globe to ensure that integration of mental health services into PHC works. (biomedcentral.com)
  • email: [email protected]). The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. (who.int)
  • The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers' products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. (who.int)
  • All reasonable precautions have been taken by the World Health Organization to verify the information contained in this publication. (who.int)
  • In no event shall the World Health Organization be liable for damages arising from its use. (who.int)
  • A study of 21 countries with the World Health Organization (WHO) Mental Health Surveys found that 52.6% of persons with depressive disorder in low-income countries received any treatment in the past 12 months, and only 20.5% of persons with depressive disorder received minimally adequate treatment [ 5 ]. (plos.org)
  • 3 The World Health Organization defines SDH as "the conditions in which people are born, grow, work, live and age and the wider set of forces and systems shaping the conditions of daily life. (annfammed.org)
  • East Mediterr Health J. 2018;24(2):146-153. (who.int)
  • Revenue was estimated by analyzing Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes for BHNP visits from the Epic electronic health record and corresponding relative value units (RVUs), based on 135% of 2018 nationally unadjusted Medicare rates. (ajmc.com)
  • The use of family history information to determine risk of disease and promote prevention on the basis of this risk is a key public health initiative. (aappublications.org)
  • Background:HIV testing services (HTS) act as a critical entry point to HIV care, treatment and prevention services, and offer the opportunity for specially-trained health care providers to encourage avoidance of high risk sexual behaviour among both HIV negative andHIV-positive individuals. (who.int)
  • The aim of evidence based health care is to provide the means by which current best evidence from research can be judiciously and conscientiously applied in the prevention, detection, and care of health disorders. (bmj.com)
  • Faculty are addressing chronic diseases from a variety of vantage points, including health economics, obesity prevention programs and new technologies tailored for higher-risk populations to manage weight-loss. (duke.edu)
  • A fundamental flaw, the report says, is how the U.S. health-care system prioritizes intervention over prevention . (nationalgeographic.com)
  • While Canadian's may not fully understand all the details of what primary health care means, recurrent themes in the consultations and opinion polls conducted by the Commission fully underline the importance they place on health promotion and prevention (Romanow, 2002). (bartleby.com)
  • To do this, CHCs deliver primary care services in combination with health promotion and illness prevention services. (canadahelps.org)
  • In order to understand the structural and institutional factors affecting the implementation of PHC in rural Thailand, a qualitative study, utilising individual interviews with national and provincial policy decision makers, community health directors, heads of hospital primary care units, chiefs of district health offices, heads of health centres and community representatives, from one rural province was undertaken. (wiley.com)
  • The success of the implementation of any guidelines depends on consideration of existing barriers and adequately addressing them. (beds.ac.uk)
  • thus the need to adapt the UCG into local context, have cues to enforce implementation, and optimize the available expertize (mental healthcare providers) in the process. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The findings will be useful to a wide array of stakeholders involved in the implementation of the mental health integration into PHC. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The primary objectives are to evaluate the effectiveness, the cost-effectiveness and an implementation strategy of a complex multiple risk intervention to promote healthy behaviours in people between 45 to 75 years attended in PHC. (springer.com)
  • EIRA study will determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a complex multiple risk intervention and will provide a better understanding of implementation processes of health promotion interventions in PHC setting. (springer.com)
  • It may contribute to increase knowledge about the individual and structural barriers that affect implementation of these interventions and to quantify the contextual factors that moderate the effectiveness of implementation. (springer.com)
  • The benefits of collaborative care for behavioral health have been tested in research trials, but costs and revenue potential in real-world implementation are unknown. (ajmc.com)
  • This challenge created by multiple guidelines inhibits implementation, understanding and adherence, and hinders the delivery of clinically effective guideline-based care. (cmaj.ca)
  • Even subtle differences in recommendations between guidelines have been identified as barriers to implementation. (cmaj.ca)
  • Even if CHWs are as varied as the health systems in which they work, more work must be done in terms of the design and implementation of the CHW programs for them to realize their potential. (ajtmh.org)
  • What barriers need to be overcome in pediatric settings to facilitate the use of family history information? (aappublications.org)
  • Design thinking, a tool that encourages intervention designers to consider the emotional experience of the end user (3), can adapt effective interventions such as problem-solving therapy (4) to overcome such common barriers. (cdc.gov)
  • Overcome barriers to successful adoption of e-prescribing. (ahrq.gov)
  • In partnership with health center staff and local communities, HB develops and implements management models that fit the facility's needs and overcome specific operational challenges. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, although PHC needs to be acknowledged and implemented by all stakeholders within the health industry and government, the roles and responsibilities of the stakeholders in health services management at the district level need to be clarified. (wiley.com)
  • At Mölnlycke Health Care we have a long-standing commitment to make our activities have as little effect as possible on the environment, without compromising the efficiency and reliability of our products and services. (molnlycke.sg)
  • However, the organization of their activity uncritically replicates the routines adopted in the daily routine of health services located in urban spaces, proving to be inadequate for providing healthcare strategies capable of mitigating social and health inequalities faced by the users. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Over the last decade, International Medical Corps, a non-governmental humanitarian organisation, has run programmes in six of the CAR's 16 prefectures, working with healthcare providers and providing emergency relief and protection services. (odihpn.org)
  • In Pakistan, there is high prevalence of mental health disorders, but mental health services to address these are not well developed. (who.int)
  • Although there was general support among all the stakeholders for integration of mental health services within PHC, there were also a number of reservations. (who.int)
  • In addition, resistance at the PHC level is likely as staff are already burdened with other preventive care services. (who.int)
  • On the other hand, hearing healthcare has failed to ameliorate the overwhelming psychological (e.g., reduced self-esteem, anger, depression, increased anxiety) and psychosocial (e.g., social withdrawal, socially inappropriate behavior or responses, lack of concentration) consequences of decreased hearing sensitivity into higher adoption rates of audiologic services and technology. (hearinghealthmatters.org)
  • So how does hearing healthcare reverse its misfortune into increased adoption rates of audiologic services and technology? (hearinghealthmatters.org)
  • HIV testing services health care providers. (who.int)
  • Some respondents added there were laboratory services and linkages to other care and support services for those tested positive to HIV. (who.int)
  • However, most of the respondents reported insufficient consumables, insufficient staff, no privacy, lack of infrastructures as barriers to effective HIV testing services. (who.int)
  • IMSEAR is the collaborative product of Health Literature, Library and Information Services (HELLIS) Network Member Libraries in the WHO South-East Asia Region. (who.int)
  • Integrating mental health services into primary health care (PHC) is the most viable way of closing the treatment gap and ensuring that people get the mental health care they need. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Synthesizing evidence from countries across the globe will provide useful insights into the experiences of integrating mental health services into PHC and how the barriers and challenges have been handled. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Within a quasi-criminalised prostitution environment, this study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of occupational stigma associated with sex work and its relationship to barriers to accessing health services. (wordpress.com)
  • Of a total of 252 women, 141 (58.5%) reported occupational sex work stigma (defined as hiding occupational sex work status from family, friends and/or home community), while 125 (49.6%) reported barriers to accessing health services in the previous six months. (wordpress.com)
  • Gaps in insurance also can have negative effects on individuals' health, including increased use of expensive hospital services . (nashp.org)
  • 4. Adolescent health services. (who.int)
  • Moreover, most studies have shown decreases in the cost of care or reductions in the use of health services. (aappublications.org)
  • Uses this three-level framework to analyze a range of integration models (the medical home, collaborative and stepped care, task shifting, screening and brief intervention, and co-location of services). (jhsph.edu)
  • No statement in this report should be construed as an official position of AHRQ or of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (ahrq.gov)
  • as designated by the Department of Health and Human Services). (rrh.org.au)
  • To identify a generic set of face valid quality indicators for primary care mental health services which reflect a multi-stakeholder perspective and can be used for facilitating quality improvement. (bmj.com)
  • The quality indicators represent consensus among key stakeholder groups in defining quality of care within primary care mental health services. (bmj.com)
  • 1 However, ensuring the quality of primary mental health care remains a challenge in both developed and developing nations and, even in countries such as the UK with well established primary care and mental health services, there is considerable geographical variation in the quality of care delivered. (bmj.com)
  • The implied development of protocols within primary care as part of Standard 2 of the National Service Framework indicates the very low baseline from which issues of quality within primary care mental health services start. (bmj.com)
  • 4 Many have written extensively about the need for increased and improved integration of primary care and behavioral health, which includes mental health and substance use services. (jabfm.org)
  • The development of care models based on PHC, with intersectoral actions, and with the necessary human, financial and technological resources, is fundamental to eliminate inequities and achieve universal health in the Region," said Dr. James Fitzgerald, Director of the Health Systems and Services Department at PAHO. (paho.org)
  • Poor road conditions also prevent ambulances from reaching communities in need, making it especially difficult to seek health services that require regular appointments (such as antenatal care). (doctorswithoutborders.org)
  • Men regularly go to Yatta, the nearest town, to buy and sell goods and can seek health services there. (doctorswithoutborders.org)
  • We hope that some national organizations or the Palestinian Ministry of Health will soon have the capacity and the funding to provide services again to the communities living in areas like Masafer Yatta," said Katharina Lange, MSF's Hebron project coordinator. (doctorswithoutborders.org)
  • Polls also reveal Canadians hope for strong and accessible primary health care services, and their desire to have a long-lasting and extremely trusting relationship with any type of health care professional needed (Roamnow, 2002) Knowing this, the question the Romanow report (2002) suggests is not whether primary health care is the right approach to take, but rather removing the obstacles which lie in its way and actually making it happen. (bartleby.com)
  • We define community health workers in primary care (CHW-PCs) as trained individuals with limited to no formal medical education who provide patient-facing support and services in primary care. (annfammed.org)
  • People experiencing homelessness have multiple complex health conditions yet are typically disengaged from primary health care services and place a significant burden on the acute health system. (mja.com.au)
  • The Atenção Primária em Saúde (APS) (Primary Health Care) in several countries has gone through significant changes with respect to the number and types of health professionals and their roles in the health services. (scielo.br)
  • We combined the 10 US Department of Health and Human Services regions to create 5 study regions. (cdc.gov)
  • The primary care sector provides at least one half of all U.S. mental health services. (aafp.org)
  • PDF of a PowerPoint presentation by Dr. Richard Lewanczuk, Alberta Health Services. (ihe.ca)
  • PDF of a PowerPoint presentation by Ms. Cathy Pryce, Alberta Health Services. (ihe.ca)
  • Settings which might also implement such programmes include medical services other than primary care, probation centres, and colleges, but how this might be done is under-researched. (findings.org.uk)
  • 1 It is estimated that by 2020, more than half of the American adult population will have either diabetes or prediabetes, with associated health care costs approaching $500 billion. (jabfm.org)
  • With its T-cut design the BARRIER Surgical Gown Primary gives surgeons and nurses desired mobility and flexibility. (molnlycke.sg)
  • Medscape, LLC is jointly accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME), the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE), and the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC), to provide continuing education for the healthcare team. (cdc.gov)
  • Our sample comprised 5 national vaccinators, 7 local vaccinators serving urban and rural workplaces, a mobile-clinic vaccinator, a visiting nurses association, and an occupational health specialist. (cdc.gov)
  • Low levels of motivation were observed among participants, linked to feelings of powerlessness, negative attitudes of HCWs, poor district health support, and general health system challenges. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Two online surveys of US women aged 55 to 65, the Women's Voices in the Menopause (2009) and Vaginal Health: Insights Views, & Attitudes (VIVA, 2010), found that approximately half of postmenopausal women (43% and 48%, respectively) had experienced symptoms related to VVA. (medscape.com)
  • Diabetes is a chronic condition best managed with continuous, quality care. (jabfm.org)
  • Chronic diseases represent a huge personal, social and economic burden and one of the greatest challenges for health systems. (springer.com)
  • In support of improving patient care, this activity has been planned and implemented by Medscape, LLC and Preventing Chronic Disease . (cdc.gov)
  • Among children, and especially among adolescents, increased life expectancy due to improvements in nutrition, hygiene and control of infec- tious diseases are producing an epidemiological transition in which noncommunicable diseases includ- ing chronic diseases and disability are emerging as major health problems. (who.int)
  • Growing evidence and understanding of an inherited component to several common, chronic diseases has led to an increase in the importance of information about family health history, and the integration of this information with other risk factors for common diseases, like lifestyle risk factors. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The review highlights the need for more rigorous intervention studies to guide improved integration of primary and specialised care during transition and better define the role of primary care providers in facilitating an effective transition for youth with chronic conditions. (bmj.com)
  • Objective To describe the association between ex-prisoner primary care physician contact within 1 month of prison release and health service utilisation in the 6 months following release. (bmj.com)
  • OBJECTIVE The discrepancy of diabetes incidence and care between socioeconomic statuses has seldom been studied concurrently in nations with universal health coverage. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Research has shown children living with HIV to know about their HIV status that making schools HIV friendly is one of the best ways by the time they reach adolescence as it enhances their to provide children living with HIV a safe, protective, adherence to antiretroviral (ARV) medication, participa- caring, and supportive environment . (scribd.com)
  • Identifying injection drug use and estimating population size of people who inject drugs using healthcare administrative datasets. (nih.gov)
  • The effectiveness of the actions of the FMU proved to be adequate for conditions such as antenatal care for low-risk pregnancy, which require periodic consultations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As a result, routine primary care such as antenatal care has recurrent levels of insufficiency and inadequacy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Assessment studies of antenatal care have been conducted in Brazil since 2004, showing that the states in the Northern region had the lowest adequacy of antenatal care compared to other Brazilian regions [ 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Antenatal care service utilization has a positive effect on postnatal care service utilization. (medworm.com)
  • Policymakers and programmers better considered more antenatal care service use as one strategy of enhancing the utilization of postnatal care service. (medworm.com)
  • This study aimed to assess the views of key stakeholders about integration of mental health into PHC in Karachi, Pakistan. (who.int)
  • The study suggests that strong political commitment, adequate human and financial resources, and strong advocacy are needed for the integration of mental health into PHC in Pakistan. (who.int)
  • This study is a cluster randomised controlled hybrid type 2 trial with two parallel groups comparing a complex multiple risk behaviour intervention with usual care. (springer.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to characterize the proximity of primary care and behavioral health service delivery sites in the United States and factors influencing their colocation. (jabfm.org)
  • A study just published in JAMA Pediatrics looked at how children with asthma obtained care under different levels of cost-sharing, and how much stress their families were under financially because of their child's illness. (balloon-juice.com)
  • The aim of this study was to assess the treatment gap among adults with depressive disorder (DD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) and to examine possible barriers to initiation and continuation of mental health treatment in Nepal. (plos.org)
  • This study is an output of the PRogramme for Improving Mental health carE Powered by Editorial Manager® and ProduXion Manager® from Aries Systems Corporation (PRIME) funded by UKaid from the UK Government, however, the views expressed do not necessarily reflect the UK Government's official policies. (plos.org)
  • 2 studies used case managers to facilitate referrals to primary care, and the remaining study was the only 1 situated in a primary care setting. (bmj.com)
  • This study examines emergency and outpatient department use after the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) coverage expansion. (rwjf.org)
  • This was a retrospective cohort study using data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) and the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS). (rwjf.org)
  • Profiling the quality of care in twelve communities: results from the CQI study. (ahrq.gov)
  • in the policy statement "The Future of Pediatrics: Mental Health Competencies for Pediatric Primary Care," 4 the task force collaborated with the AAP Committee on Psychosocial Aspects of Child and Family Health to outline these competencies and propose strategies for achieving them. (aappublications.org)
  • Mental health items were assessed by using the Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4) (6), and loneliness was assessed by using a modified version of the UCLA Three-Item Loneliness Scale (7). (cdc.gov)
  • Presence of DD and AUD were identified with validated versions of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT). (plos.org)
  • International Medical Corps' intervention in Haute Kotto aims to build the capacity of general healthcare providers in the identification, management and treatment of common mental health concerns. (odihpn.org)
  • This article describes the benefits and drawbacks to the use of read-only memory compact disks (CD-ROMs) to facilitate diabetes self-management, using the experience from two efficacy trials with CD-ROMs as the primary modality for intervention. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Lessons learned from these two studies are shared to answer the question: does the use of CD-ROMs as an intervention tool address the key barriers to using a self-management approach in primary care? (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Despite evidence of effectiveness, many service providers in primary and emergency care settings do not conduct alcohol screening and brief intervention programmes. (findings.org.uk)
  • This chapter aims to describe the concept of the development of the heath care and professional training based on current achievements within technology, education, E-Health and patient-tailored therapy. (igi-global.com)
  • In doing so, HB aims to not only ensure locally managed health care, but also give local communities an opportunity to prosper. (wikipedia.org)
  • The participants then completed surveys about diabetic health, socioeconomic status, and general demographics. (jabfm.org)
  • 2 The prevalence of diabetes and the rate of complications resulting from poor diabetic health are highest among those who are uninsured, have a lower socioeconomic status (SES), and are of a minority race. (jabfm.org)
  • Although social determinants of health play a key role, and there is an important social gradient in the prevalence of risk factors, it is an essential issue to develop effective strategies to cope with them especially in people of low socioeconomic status. (springer.com)
  • 1 - 4 Historically, these frontline health workers have been particularly effective when they share ethnicity, language, socioeconomic status, and life experiences with communities they serve, 5 reflecting peer support. (annfammed.org)
  • In these times of rising health care costs and more stringent reimbursement policies, IHTs may be cost-effective supplements to "usual" care, helping to inform patient-clinician interactions when staff time is constrained or knowledge of a particular area is limited. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Medical student volunteers counseled participants on the importance of primary care. (jabfm.org)
  • In Haute Kotto prefecture in the east of the country, International Medical Corps has been implementing mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) activities since 2015, with a focus on providing direct consultations and building the capacity of local staff to meet mental health needs. (odihpn.org)
  • The strategy was reoriented to focus on direct consultation by International Medical Corps MHPSS staff, including our programme psychiatrist and a Central African nurse with mental health experience, until formal training and subsequent supervision of prescribers could take place. (odihpn.org)
  • This article reports on a project, undertaken in 2002 in the regional city of Toowoomba, Queensland, Australia, that investigated the viability of establishing an after-hours primary medical care (AHPMC) service. (rrh.org.au)
  • This project, undertaken in 2002 in Toowoomba, Queensland, Australia investigated the viability of establishing an after hours primary medical care (AHPMC) service within the grounds of St Andrew's Toowoomba Hospital (SATH). (rrh.org.au)
  • Overview of the pharmaceutical and medical devices market of the UK including the market size, market segmentation, key drivers and barriers. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The key players covered for the medical devices market are Medtronic, Siemens Healthcare, Essilor Internaltional, Hoffmann-La Roche, and Coloplast. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Analysis includes details of the healthcare reimbursement process, the regulatory agencies and the approval processes for new drugs and medical devices. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Drive revenue by understanding the key trends, and reimbursement and regulatory policies, pharmaceutical and medical devices market segments and companies likely to impact the the UK healthcare market in the future. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Our teams include a medical doctor, a nurse, a midwife, a mental health specialist and a health promoter. (doctorswithoutborders.org)
  • replace unnecessary use of hospital, emergency, and costly medical treatments with comprehensive primary health care available to Canadians 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. (bartleby.com)
  • According to tion in ongoing medical care, and psychosocial resili- the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural ence, and lessens the risk of passing their infection to Organisation (UNESCO), schools should provide educa- others through sexual contact [2, (scribd.com)
  • 13 Even so, attempts to address SDH in medical care settings have been limited and, for the most part, ineffective. (annfammed.org)
  • 16 Recognition of and attention to non-medical factors that influence health are not new concepts in primary care. (annfammed.org)
  • Collaborative Care Combines Medical, Behavioral Health Treatment. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Montefiore Health System's collaborative care model integrates medical care with treatment for behavioral health issues that can be handled in a primary care setting. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The proportion of persons living in families with high a out-ofpocket burden associated with medical spending relative to income, defining high healthcare burden as spending on healthcare greater than 20% of income and high total burden as spending on healthcare and insurance premiums greater than 20% of income. (ajmc.com)
  • Dr. Flores is associate professor (with tenure) of pediatrics, epidemiology, and health policy at the Medical College of Wisconsin. (commonwealthfund.org)