Mountaineering: A sport involving mountain climbing techniques.Acclimatization: Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.Tibet: An autonomous region located in central Asia, within China.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Atmospheric Pressure: The pressure at any point in an atmosphere due solely to the weight of the atmospheric gases above the point concerned.Atmosphere Exposure Chambers: Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.Athletic Performance: Carrying out of specific physical routines or procedures by one who is trained or skilled in physical activity. Performance is influenced by a combination of physiological, psychological, and socio-cultural factors.BoliviaNepalPulmonary Edema: Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Aircraft: A weight-carrying structure for navigation of the air that is supported either by its own buoyancy or by the dynamic action of the air against its surfaces. (Webster, 1973)Aerospace Medicine: That branch of medicine dealing with the studies and effects of flight through the atmosphere or in space upon the human body and with the prevention or cure of physiological or psychological malfunctions arising from these effects. (from NASA Thesaurus)Acetazolamide: One of the CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)Decompression: Decompression external to the body, most often the slow lessening of external pressure on the whole body (especially in caisson workers, deep sea divers, and persons who ascend to great heights) to prevent DECOMPRESSION SICKNESS. It includes also sudden accidental decompression, but not surgical (local) decompression or decompression applied through body openings.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)PeruRespiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Indians, South American: Individual members of South American ethnic groups with historic ancestral origins in Asia.Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Ranunculus: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE that contains protoanemonin, anemonin, and ranunculin.Skiing: A snow sport which uses skis to glide over the snow. It does not include water-skiing.Erythrocyte Volume: Volume of circulating ERYTHROCYTES . It is usually measured by RADIOISOTOPE DILUTION TECHNIQUE.Hypocapnia: Clinical manifestation consisting of a deficiency of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.Air Pressure: The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors: A class of compounds that reduces the secretion of H+ ions by the proximal kidney tubule through inhibition of CARBONIC ANHYDRASES.Wind: The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.Soccer: A game in which a round inflated ball is advanced by kicking or propelling with any part of the body except the hands or arms. The object of the game is to place the ball in opposite goals.Hematocrit: The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.Radar: A system using beamed and reflected radio signals to and from an object in such a way that range, bearing, and other characteristics of the object may be determined.ColoradoRunning: An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.Decompression Sickness: A condition occurring as a result of exposure to a rapid fall in ambient pressure. Gases, nitrogen in particular, come out of solution and form bubbles in body fluid and blood. These gas bubbles accumulate in joint spaces and the peripheral circulation impairing tissue oxygenation causing disorientation, severe pain, and potentially death.Lagomorpha: An order of small mammals comprising two families, Ochotonidae (pikas) and Leporidae (RABBITS and HARES). Head and body length ranges from about 125 mm to 750 mm. Hares and rabbits have a short tail, and the pikas lack a tail. Rabbits are born furless and with both eyes and ears closed. HARES are born fully haired with eyes and ears open. All are vegetarians. (From Nowak, Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p539-41)Polycythemia: An increase in the total red cell mass of the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)Physical Endurance: The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.Flight, Animal: The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Oximetry: The determination of oxygen-hemoglobin saturation of blood either by withdrawing a sample and passing it through a classical photoelectric oximeter or by electrodes attached to some translucent part of the body like finger, earlobe, or skin fold. It includes non-invasive oxygen monitoring by pulse oximetry.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Medicare Part A: The compulsory portion of Medicare that is known as the Hospital Insurance Program. All persons 65 years and older who are entitled to benefits under the Old Age, Survivors, Disability and Health Insurance Program or railroad retirement, persons under the age of 65 who have been eligible for disability for more than two years, and insured workers (and their dependents) requiring renal dialysis or kidney transplantation are automatically enrolled in Medicare Part A.Skating: Using ice skates, roller skates, or skateboards in racing or other competition or for recreation.Lepidium: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE growing in Peru mountains. It is the source of maca root.Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Bicycling: The use of a bicycle for transportation or recreation. It does not include the use of a bicycle in studying the body's response to physical exertion (BICYCLE ERGOMETRY TEST see EXERCISE TEST).Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.AustriaCell Engineering: Methods and techniques used to modify or select cells and develop conditions for growing cells for biosynthetic production of molecules (METABOLIC ENGINEERING), for generation of tissue structures and organs in vitro (TISSUE ENGINEERING), or for other BIOENGINEERING research objectives.Pulmonary Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.South AmericaHypertension, Pulmonary: Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.Meteorology: The science of studying the characteristics of the atmosphere such as its temperature, density, winds, clouds, precipitation, and other atmospheric phenomena and aiming to account for the weather in terms of external influences and the basic laws of physics. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Travel Medicine: Multidisciplinary field focusing on prevention of infectious diseases and patient safety during international TRAVEL. Key element of patient's pre-travel visit to the physician is a health risk assessment.Sports Medicine: The field of medicine concerned with physical fitness and the diagnosis and treatment of injuries sustained in exercise and sports activities.Abies: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. Balm of Gilead is a common name more often referring to POPULUS and sometimes to COMMIPHORA.Plasma Volume: Volume of PLASMA in the circulation. It is usually measured by INDICATOR DILUTION TECHNIQUES.Retinal Hemorrhage: Bleeding from the vessels of the retina.Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Saxifragaceae: The saxifrage plant family of the order ROSALES, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. The leaves are alternate and sometimes deeply lobed or form rosettes. The flowers have both male and female parts and 4 or 5 sepals and petals; they are usually in branched clusters. The fruit is a capsule with many seeds.Topography, Medical: The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks.GeesePulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Anaerobic Threshold: The oxygen consumption level above which aerobic energy production is supplemented by anaerobic mechanisms during exercise, resulting in a sustained increase in lactate concentration and metabolic acidosis. The anaerobic threshold is affected by factors that modify oxygen delivery to the tissues; it is low in patients with heart disease. Methods of measurement include direct measure of lactate concentration, direct measurement of bicarbonate concentration, and gas exchange measurements.Fascioliasis: Liver disease caused by infections with parasitic flukes of the genus FASCIOLA, such as FASCIOLA HEPATICA.Saturn: The sixth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its twelve natural satellites include Phoebe and Titan.Sleep Apnea, Central: A condition associated with multiple episodes of sleep apnea which are distinguished from obstructive sleep apnea (SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE) by the complete cessation of efforts to breathe. This disorder is associated with dysfunction of central nervous system centers that regulate respiration.Frostbite: Damage to tissues as the result of low environmental temperatures.Senecio: A species of toxic plants of the Compositae. The poisonous compounds are alkaloids which cause cattle diseases, neoplasms, and liver damage and are used to produce cancers in experimental animals.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Spacecraft: Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Cyperaceae: The sedge plant family of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons)EcuadorSolar Activity: Any type of variation in the appearance of energy output of the sun. (NASA Thesaurus, 1994)Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Acid-Base Equilibrium: The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.Sports: Activities or games, usually involving physical effort or skill. Reasons for engagement in sports include pleasure, competition, and/or financial reward.Mouth FloorSwitzerlandPoa: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that contains the Poa p Ia allergen and allergen C KBGP.Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Snow: Frozen water crystals that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Hypoxia, Brain: A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Environment, Controlled: A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)Temazepam: A benzodiazepine that acts as a GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID modulator and anti-anxiety agent.Trifolium: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.Splenic Infarction: Insufficiency of arterial or venous blood supply to the spleen due to emboli, thrombi, vascular torsion, or pressure that produces a macroscopic area of necrosis. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Fontan Procedure: A procedure in which total right atrial or total caval blood flow is channeled directly into the pulmonary artery or into a small right ventricle that serves only as a conduit. The principal congenital malformations for which this operation is useful are TRICUSPID ATRESIA and single ventricle with pulmonary stenosis.YemenChina: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Oxyhemoglobins: A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.Extraterrestrial Environment: The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.Physical Education and Training: Instructional programs in the care and development of the body, often in schools. The concept does not include prescribed exercises, which is EXERCISE THERAPY.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Peromyscus: A genus of the subfamily SIGMODONTINAE consisting of 49 species. Two of these are widely used in medical research. They are P. leucopus, or the white-footed mouse, and P. maniculatus, or the deer mouse.Erythropoietin: Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Rest: Freedom from activity.Fetal Hypoxia: Deficient oxygenation of FETAL BLOOD.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Animal Distribution: A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.Oxygen Inhalation Therapy: Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Blood Volume: Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.KyrgyzstanEnvironment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Carbolines: A group of pyrido-indole compounds. Included are any points of fusion of pyridine with the five-membered ring of indole and any derivatives of these compounds. These are similar to CARBAZOLES which are benzo-indoles.Cold Climate: A climate characterized by COLD TEMPERATURE for a majority of the time during the year.Cosmic Radiation: High-energy radiation or particles from extraterrestrial space that strike the earth, its atmosphere, or spacecraft and may create secondary radiation as a result of collisions with the atmosphere or spacecraft.SicilyFresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Spatial Analysis: Techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties.Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.TajikistanHypercapnia: A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.Apnea: A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.American Native Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continents of the Americas.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Hypertrophy, Right Ventricular: Enlargement of the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is often attributed to PULMONARY HYPERTENSION and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.Sheep, Domestic: A species of sheep, Ovis aries, descended from Near Eastern wild forms, especially mouflon.Glycopyrrolate: A muscarinic antagonist used as an antispasmodic, in some disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, and to reduce salivation with some anesthetics.Hemoglobinometry: Measurement of hemoglobin concentration in blood.Cardiovascular Physiological Processes: Biological actions and events that support the functions of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Yin-Yang: In Chinese philosophy and religion, two principles, one negative, dark, and feminine (yin) and one positive, bright, and masculine (yang), from whose interaction all things are produced and all things are dissolved. As a concept the two polar elements referred originally to the shady and sunny sides of a valley or a hill but it developed into the relationship of any contrasting pair: those specified above (female-male, etc.) as well as cold-hot, wet-dry, weak-strong, etc. It is not a distinct system of thought by itself but permeates Chinese life and thought. A balance of yin and yang is essential to health. A deficiency of either principle can manifest as disease. (Encyclopedia Americana)Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Dyssomnias: A broad category of sleep disorders characterized by either hypersomnolence or insomnia. The three major subcategories include intrinsic (i.e., arising from within the body) (SLEEP DISORDERS, INTRINSIC), extrinsic (secondary to environmental conditions or various pathologic conditions), and disturbances of circadian rhythm. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity: The amount of a gas taken up, by the pulmonary capillary blood from the alveolar gas, per minute per unit of average pressure of the gradient of the gas across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Weather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.Acceleration: An increase in the rate of speed.Caryophyllaceae: A plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. The species are diverse in appearance and habitat; most have swollen leaf and stem joints.Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Bambusa: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. Young shoots are eaten in Asian foods while the stiff mature stems are used for construction of many things. The common name of bamboo is also used for other genera of Poaceae including Phyllostachys, SASA, and Dendrocalamus.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Middle Cerebral Artery: The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-Proline Dioxygenases: Dioxygenase enzymes that specifically hydroxylate a PROLINE residue on the HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1, ALPHA SUBUNIT. They are OXYGEN-dependent enzymes that play an important role in mediating cellular adaptive responses to HYPOXIA.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Endemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Hyperventilation: A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.Reticulocyte Count: The number of RETICULOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. The values are expressed as a percentage of the ERYTHROCYTE COUNT or in the form of an index ("corrected reticulocyte index"), which attempts to account for the number of circulating erythrocytes.Polysomnography: Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Doping in Sports: Illegitimate use of substances for a desired effect in competitive sports. It includes humans and animals.Blood Circulation Time: Determination of the shortest time interval between the injection of a substance in the vein and its arrival at some distant site in sufficient concentration to produce a recognizable end result. It represents approximately the inverse of the average velocity of blood flow between two points.Remote Sensing Technology: Observation and acquisition of physical data from a distance by viewing and making measurements from a distance or receiving transmitted data from observations made at distant location.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Madagascar: One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)Fagaceae: A plant family of the order Fagales subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida.Glucose 1-Dehydrogenase: A glucose dehydrogenase that catalyzes the oxidation of beta-D-glucose to form D-glucono-1,5-lactone, using NAD as well as NADP as a coenzyme.Cardiac Complexes, Premature: A group of cardiac arrhythmias in which the cardiac contractions are not initiated at the SINOATRIAL NODE. They include both atrial and ventricular premature beats, and are also known as extra or ectopic heartbeats. Their frequency is increased in heart diseases.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Work of Breathing: RESPIRATORY MUSCLE contraction during INHALATION. The work is accomplished in three phases: LUNG COMPLIANCE work, that required to expand the LUNGS against its elastic forces; tissue resistance work, that required to overcome the viscosity of the lung and chest wall structures; and AIRWAY RESISTANCE work, that required to overcome airway resistance during the movement of air into the lungs. Work of breathing does not refer to expiration, which is entirely a passive process caused by elastic recoil of the lung and chest cage. (Guyton, Textbook of Medical Physiology, 8th ed, p406)Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Tricuspid Atresia: Absence of the orifice between the RIGHT ATRIUM and RIGHT VENTRICLE, with the presence of an atrial defect through which all the systemic venous return reaches the left heart. As a result, there is left ventricular hypertrophy (HYPERTROPHY, LEFT VENTRICULAR) because the right ventricle is absent or not functional.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Plethysmography, Impedance: Recording changes in electrical impedance between electrodes placed on opposite sides of a part of the body, as a measure of volume changes in the path of the current. (Stedman, 25th ed)Maximal Expiratory Flow-Volume Curves: Curves depicting MAXIMAL EXPIRATORY FLOW RATE, in liters/second, versus lung inflation, in liters or percentage of lung capacity, during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviation is MEFV.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.VenezuelaPhonocardiography: Graphic registration of the heart sounds picked up as vibrations and transformed by a piezoelectric crystal microphone into a varying electrical output according to the stresses imposed by the sound waves. The electrical output is amplified by a stethograph amplifier and recorded by a device incorporated into the electrocardiograph or by a multichannel recording machine.Aviation: Design, development, manufacture, and operation of heavier-than-air AIRCRAFT.SulfonesInfant Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of infants.Catecholamines: A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.Physical Fitness: The ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities in a highly functional state, often as a result of physical conditioning.Camelids, New World: Ruminant mammals of South America. They are related to camels.Elephantiasis: Hypertrophy and thickening of tissues from causes other than filarial infection, the latter being described as ELEPHANTIASIS, FILARIAL.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Arterial Pressure: The blood pressure in the ARTERIES. It is commonly measured with a SPHYGMOMANOMETER on the upper arm which represents the arterial pressure in the BRACHIAL ARTERY.Carboxyhemoglobin
"High altitude barometric pressure". Apex (Altitude Physiology Expeditions). Hartmann, W.K. A Traveler's Guide to Mars: The ... Even so, high-altitude orographic clouds frequently drift over the Olympus Mons summit, and airborne Martian dust is still ... demonstrated that the altitude of these features greatly exceeded that of any mountain found on Earth, as astronomers expected ...
Atmospheric density decreases as the altitude increases. This variation can be approximately modeled using the barometric ... Still another region of increasing temperature with altitude occurs at very high altitudes, in the aptly-named thermosphere ... Temperature decreases with altitude starting at sea level, but variations in this trend begin above 11 km, where the ... Geometric altitude vs. temperature, pressure, density, and the speed of sound derived from the 1962 U.S. Standard Atmosphere. " ...
The altitude was calculated from the barometric formula from the air pressure and temperature. To make these measurements, the ... Aviators breathed in oxygen through tubes from steel gas cylinders during high-altitude flights to avoid altitude sickness. The ... It reached an altitude of almost 8,000 m. Only by breathing in pure oxygen that they brought with them could Groß and Berson ... It was also clear that the M. W. was too heavy, and could only reach an altitude of 1800 m when only two people were in the ...
The bombs would be detonated with a clockwork timer rather than a barometric switch. This meant that they had to be dropped ... Play media At an altitude of 8,000 feet (2,400 m), the fireball would not touch the ground, thereby minimising fallout. ...
Atmospheric hypoxia occurs naturally at high altitudes. Total atmospheric pressure decreases as altitude increases, causing a ... The partial pressure of oxygen in the atmosphere is 20.9% of the total barometric pressure. In water however, oxygen levels are ... Hypoxia can occur throughout the water column and also at high altitudes as well as near sediments on the bottom. It usually ... Atmospheric hypoxia is also the basis of altitude training which is a standard part of training for elite athletes. Several ...
An altimeter measures ambient air pressure, which decreases with increasing altitude following the barometric formula. It then ... At low altitudes, the altimeter is commonly set to show the altitude above sea-level, which can be directly compared to the ... The transition altitude (TA) is the altitude above sea level at which aircraft change from the use of local barometer derived ... Flight levels are described by a number, which is this nominal altitude (or, pressure altitude) in hecto-feet, while being a ...
The reference alludes to the propensity for nasal hemorrhage at high altitudes, usually owing to lower barometric pressure. ...
The altitude specified by the device is not the indicated altitude of the standard barometric altimeter. A radar altimeter ... The altitude above the ground is calculated from the radio waves' travel time and the speed of light. Radar altimeters normally ... The radio altimeter would drop the bombs and pull the Stuka out of the dive at the set altitude to a level flight. This was ... Then, if the F-111 ever dips below the preset minimum altitude (for example, 15 meters) for any reason, its automatic pilot is ...
... caused by both the lack of barometric pressure and the decrease in oxygen as the body rises. With exposure at higher altitudes ... barometric pressure is 523 mmHg, and at 15.240 mts, the barometric pressure is 87 mmHg. As the barometric pressure decreases, ... For example, barometric pressure is different at different heights. At sea level barometric pressure is 760 mmHg; at 3.048 mts ... In an altitude of 3040 meters, arterial saturation of oxygen elevates to 90%, but over this altitude arterial saturation of ...
High-power rocket designs can vary widely as do anticipated altitudes and performance, but altitudes of 10,000 ft and ... The most common varieties of altimeter use accelerometers, barometric sensors or a combination of both. Model rocket Amateur ... High-power rockets are frequently flown with sophisticated electronic devices used for recording flight data (altitude, ... At an altitude predetermined by the hobbyist, an altimeter deploys a main parachute that slows the rocket to a safe recovery ...
Air density increases with decreasing altitude, at about 1% per 80 metres (260 ft) (see barometric formula). For objects ... though he achieved this velocity at high altitude, where extremely thin air presents less drag force. The biologist J. B. S. ...
It is adjustable for local barometric pressure which must be set correctly to obtain accurate altitude readings. As the ... At higher altitude a MACH-meter is used instead, to prevent the aircraft from overspeed. An instrument called true airspeed, or ... The altimeter may be adjusted to show an altitude of zero feet on the runway, but far more common is to adjust the altimeter to ... At higher altitudes, the window will disappear. The airspeed indicator shows the aircraft's speed (usually in knots ) relative ...
For example, any air data computer will provide the barometric altitude of the aircraft as label 203. This allows some degree ...
For higher altitudes within the troposphere, the following equation (the barometric formula) relates atmospheric pressure p to ... altitude h p. =. p. 0. ⋅. (. 1. −. L. ⋅. h. T. 0. ). g. ⋅. M. R. 0. ⋅. L. =. p. 0. ⋅. (. 1. −. g. ⋅. h. c. p. ⋅. T. 0. ). c. p ... Kollsman-type barometric aircraft altimeter (as used in North America) displaying an altitude of 80 ft (24 m). ... Barometric formula - Formula used to model how air pressure varies with altitude ...
It is also called exopause and 'critical altitude' as this is the altitude where barometric conditions no longer apply. ... Atmospheric temperature becomes nearly a constant above this altitude. On Earth, the altitude of the exobase ranges from about ...
Barometric altimeters could have accumulated error while the crew was unable to maintain constant visual control of the ... As was officially communicated by TASS, the crash was due to poor visibility and insufficient flight altitude. The conclusions ... altitude. The accident was a severe blow to the Soviet airship program which was eventually terminated in 1940. Data from[ ...
Mani, N (1966). "Paul Bert as politician, educator and founder of the physiology of altitude". Gesnerus. 23 (1): 109-16. PMID ... Dejours, P; Dejours S (October 1992). "The effects of barometric pressure according to Paul Bert: the question today". ... Rudolph, G (1993). "In memory of Paul Bert (1833-1886) and the development of high altitude physiology in Switzerland". ... Bert, Paul (1943) [First published in French in 1878]. Barometric pressure: Researches in Experimental Physiology. Columbus, OH ...
The missile had no altitude or speed control, continuing to fly as fast as possible, climbing as the fuel load was burned off, ... Should the radio altimeter fail, a backup barometric detonator was used. Should that fail, there was an impact detonator. As ... Operating altitude: 43,000 ft (11,000 m) Warhead Warhead: 20 kiloton W5 fission bomb United States Air Force portal Related ... This aircraft would fly over the launch pad at very low altitude and then simulate the flight profile of the missile under the ...
Although the first officer questioned the barometric altitude, the captain agreed that the first officer had heard the read- ... The pilot in command cannot excuse his act by alleging the air traffic controller directed him to descend to an altitude of ... In descending below the safe indicated altitude, he knowingly placed the plane in a dangerous situation. He then proceeded to ... During that transmission, a trainee controller had also transmitted an incorrect QNH (barometric altimeter setting) that was 9 ...
... temperature and barometric altitude data. Ram air pressure and static pressures used in calculating airspeed are measured by ... An air data reference (ADR) fault will cause the loss of airspeed and altitude information on the affected display. In either ... "NTSB investigating two recent incidents involving possible A-330 speed and altitude indication anomalies" (Press release). NTSB ... "Air France 447-Two A330 airspeed and altitude incidents under NTSB scrutiny". aviationnewsrelease. 28 June 2009. " ...
Altitude. Main article: Altitude sickness. Atmospheric pressure reduces with altitude and with it, the amount of oxygen.[ ... By increasing the concentration of oxygen in the air, the effects of lower barometric pressure are countered and the level of ... "Altitude oxygen calculator". Apex (Altitude Physiology Expeditions). Archived from the original on 2017-06-11. Retrieved 2006- ... Generalized hypoxia occurs in healthy people when they ascend to high altitude, where it causes altitude sickness leading to ...
Climatotherapy: Treatment which exploits local climatic features such as temperature, humidity, sunshine, barometric pressure ... "Rehabilitation of hypoxemic patients with COPD at low altitude at the Dead Sea, the lowest place on earth" (PDF). Chest. 113 ... This barometric measure is about 5% higher than sea level standard atmospheric pressure of 1013.25 hPa, which is the global ... Barometric pressures at the Dead Sea were measured between 1061 and 1065 hPa and clinically compared with health effects at ...
... causing a leaning of the mixture as altitude increases. Once airborne and having reached the cruising altitude, the pilot moves ... It measures air density, barometric pressure, and air flow into the carburetor. It is mounted directly in the air flow at the ... The fuel mixture is automatically altitude-controlled by the automatic mixture control. It operates by bleeding higher pressure ... The needle valve is controlled by an aneroid bellows that senses barometric pressure, ...
The path can either be based on stored database altitudes as displayed on the altimetry system ("baro VNAV"), or as corrected ... as barometric altimetry provides. An ILS glide slope signal originating from the landing point provides needed vertical ... Future systems will derive altitudes from GPS, however, raw GPS elevations are referenced to worldwide average sea-level. Local ... During final landing approach, altitude must be controlled more accurately than heights referenced to mean sea level (MSL) ...
Note that the Lapse Rates cited in the table are given as °C per kilometer of geopotential altitude, not geometric altitude. ... It does not provide a rigorous meteorological model of actual atmospheric conditions (for example, changes in barometric ... geopotential altitude is calculated from a mathematical model that adjusts the altitude to include the variation of gravity ... Thus the temperature effects on them are considered to be much less important than the effect of altitude.) Hot day, Cold day, ...
... for barometric and blood pressure were developed or propagated, some of which incorporated standard gravity in their ... It also varies with altitude or depth (distance from Earth's centre). Derived unitsEdit. Main article: SI derived unit ...
Because pressure changes with altitude you can also use it as an altimeter! The sensor is soldered onto a PCB with a 3.3V ... This precision sensor from Bosch is the best low-cost sensing solution for measuring barometric pressure and temperature. ... fun DIY electronics and kits BMP180 Barometric Pressure/Temperature/Altitude Sensor- 5V ready ID: 1603 - ... Because pressure changes with altitude you can also use it as an altimeter! The sensor is soldered onto a PCB with a 3.3V ...
... barometric, absolute, piezoresistive, water pressure, fuel tank pressure, etc. measuring device. Many sensor manufacturers to ... Sense altitude, Water pressure sensors, optical pressure sensor, barometric, oil - A full selection of pressure sensors that ... can be used to design an air pressure, oil pressure, MEMS, digital, barometric, absolute, piezoresistive, water pressure, fuel ...
... on replacement Barometric Pressure Altitude Sensor for Mazda cars & trucks! High quality parts, in stock & shipping now. ... 2003-2007 6 Barometric Pressure Altitude Sensor. 1998-2002 626 Barometric Pressure Altitude Sensor. 1990-2005 Miata Barometric ... 1999-2003 Protege Barometric Pressure Altitude Sensor. 2002-2003 Protege5 Barometric Pressure Altitude Sensor. 2004-2007 RX-8 ... Barometric Pressure Altitude Sensor performance is essential for your ride.. Car Parts Discount works tirelessly to be your ...
... + , Barometric altitude + , Barometric altitude + , Barometric altitude + Categories. Flight , Navigation ... Barometric altitude Definition Geopotential altitude in the Earths atmosphere above mean standard sea level pressure datum ... Retrieved from "https://ext.eurocontrol.int/lexicon/index.php/Special:Browse/Barometric-20altitude" ...
The altitude determined by a barometric altimeter by reference to a pressure level and calculated according to the standard ... barometric altitude - barometrinis aukštis statusas T sritis fizika atitikmenys: angl. barometric altitude; barometric height; ... barometric altitude. The altitude determined by a barometric altimeter by reference to a pressure level and calculated ... barometric altitude - The altitude determined by a barometric altimeter pressure level and calculated according to the standard ...
... is lowest at high altitudes. However, barometric pressure also varies according to the weather. The lowest barometric pressures ... Barometric pressure, or air pressure, is lowest at high altitudes. However, barometric pressure also varies according to the ... The lowest barometric pressures have been recorded during strong tropical cyclones.. The lowest barometric pressure ever ... Sometimes very low barometric pressure occurs outside the tropics. In January 1993, scientists measured very low barometric ...
Altitude affects climate in that the higher up you get, the more the temperature drops. The temperature goes down roughly 4 ... What is considered low barometric pressure?. * Q: What are desert climate zones?. ... Altitude is the subjects distance from the sea. This is why a lot of high-up places such as mountaintops often get snow for ... Altitude affects climate in that the higher up you get, the more the temperature drops. The temperature goes down roughly 4 ...
These factors are WIND, ALTITUDE, TEMPERATURE, HUMIDITY, and BAROMETRIC PRESSURE. OF these WIND is by far the MOST SIGNIFICANT. ... is graded against a standard temperature/barometric (air) pressure. The standard temperature is 59 degrees F at sea level and ...
Adafruit Barometric Pressure, Altitude, Temperature I2C Sensor -. An easy to set up sensor for your... Read More ...
"High Altitude Medicine Guide. Thomas E. Dietz. Retrieved 2012-11-10.. *^ Kenneth Baillie; Alistair Simpson. "Barometric ... "Why do low oxygen levels cause altitude sickness?". Altitude.org.. *^ "The Lake Louise Consensus on the Definition of Altitude ... High-altitude flatus expulsion (HAFE). References. *^ a b c Roach, James M.; Schoene, Robert B. (2002). "High-Altitude ... Luks, AM (2008). "Do we have a best practice for treating high altitude pulmonary edema?". High Altitude Medicine & Biology. ...
Working at high altitude. Peter JG Forster. Flying and spaceflight. Mike Gibson, David Gradwell and Alyson Calder. Section Five ... Section Four: Barometric Pressure. Diving and work at increased pressure. Stephen Watt and Andrew Colvin. ... working at high altitude and major chemical incidents, many of which are highly topical. The Tenth Edition of Hunters Diseases ...
Device for measuring altitude and barometric pressure. US5277197 *. Jul 22, 1992. Jan 11, 1994. Physical Health Device, Inc.. ...
... where much high altitude research has been undertaken. At this altitude barometric pressure is 450 mmHg and without ... Barometric pressure falls progressively with increasing altitude. Up to about 2,500 m there are few if any effects of hypoxia. ... Studies of "spontaneous" baroreflex gain have indicated that it decreases at altitude or simulated altitude [5, 6, 7, 63]. ... This review is concerned with the effects of the altitude on visitors and the ways by which the permanent high altitude ...
You can use the barometric pressure to predict or analyze the weather. In a real-world situation, youll use a barometer to ... Know that atmospheric pressure decreases more or less exponentially with altitude. The higher you go, the lower the pressure. ... v4-460px-Calculate-Barometric-Pressure-Step-6-Version-2.jpg","bigUrl":"\/images\/thumb\/a\/a0\/Calculate-Barometric-Pressure- ... v4-460px-Calculate-Barometric-Pressure-Step-2-Version-2.jpg","bigUrl":"\/images\/thumb\/d\/d8\/Calculate-Barometric-Pressure- ...
Altitude measurements became more precise for devices with barometric altimeter. * Main screen was slightly redesigned and now ... Line Chart for particular history ride for Altitude and Speed (turn phone sideways). * For Pothole option ability to report New ... Fixed problem displaying maximum altitude on a ride chart if Metric units are used ...
DA Calculator - Density Altitude Calculator This calculator will calculate the Density Altitude (DA) from the given weather ... Density Altitude: feet. Relative Density: %. If you like this calculator use the Google +1 button:. ... obtain Density Altitude and use other great DragTimes functions on your mobile device. ...
BMP280 I2C or SPI Barometric Pressure & Altitude Sensor (Loose Headers) (ID: 2651) Adafruit ... DESCRIPTION This DPS310 sensor is a high precision barometric sensor, perfect for measuring altitude changes with up to ±0.002 ... DESCRIPTION We stock a few barometric pressure sensors, great for altitude and weather measurements. This pressure sensor is ... BMP388 - Precision Barometric Pressure and Altimeter (ID:3966) Adafruit Original Price £11.99 inc VAT ...
QNE - Barometric altitude on altimeter set on 760 scale.. QFE- Atmospheric pressure at aerodrome elevation (or at runway ... QNH - Barometric pressure as reported by a particular station. QNE - Barometric pressure used for the standard altimeter ... Each person operating an aircraft into or out of the United States on B-369 SHALL operate the transponder, including altitude ... Authorized Minimum and Maximum Route Altitudes: 1500-3000 meters Route is available for operations 2100/0400 UTC Winter, 2000/ ...
... such as altitude or relative altitude data, barometric pressure data, heart rate data, temperature data, alarm data, goal data ... Device for measuring altitude and barometric pressure. 1993-06-29. Nitta et al.. ... Portable altimeter and altitude computing method. 2004-01-13. Tsuji. 6620078. Fitness triage system and nutrition gets personal ... Barometric floor level indicator. 2007-01-09. Levi et al.. 20060287883. Interactive, internet supported health and fitness ...
... and extreme high altitude are defined as follows: Moderate altitude = 5000-8000 ft (1524-2438 m) above sea level High altitude ... 8000-14,000 ft (2438-4267 m) Very high altitude = 14,000-18,000 ft (4267-5486 m) Extreme high altitude = 18,000-29,028 ft (5486 ... As the altitude increases, barometric pressure decreases. This decrease in barometric pressure affects the partial pressure of ... The decrease in barometric pressure with increasing altitude reduces PAO2. PAO2 decreases from 103 mm Hg at sea level to 81 mm ...
You know it may have something to do with altitude too... or barometric pressure where you were. I noticed an improvement in ... Weather as well as altitude can have an affect like Pam noted.....be advised, do not over do when u feel good, bcuz u will slip ...
Live in a Large Barometric Chamber. Large steel chambers that can be evacuated to simulate high-altitude flying may be ... But the upper limit of altitude is set by the side effects of altitude exposure. A short-term effect is altitude sickness ( ... We have not dealt with strategies of altitude exposure and altitude training for competition at altitude. That topic may be the ... return from altitude. Living and training at altitude is less effective than living at altitude and training near sea level, ...
Prediction of barometric pressures at high altitude with the use of model atmospheres. J Appl Physiol. 1996 Oct. 81(4):1850-4. ... High-Altitude Retinal Hemorrhage. High-altitude retinal hemorrhages (HARHs) are relatively common at high altitude, occurring ... Barometric pressures at extreme altitudes on Mt. Everest: physiological significance. J Appl Physiol. 1983 May. 54(5):1188-94. ... High-Altitude Pulmonary Edema. HAPE is a serious and potentially life-threatening manifestation of altitude illness.  Early ...
"High altitude barometric pressure". Apex (Altitude Physiology Expeditions). Hartmann, W.K. A Travelers Guide to Mars: The ... Even so, high-altitude orographic clouds frequently drift over the Olympus Mons summit, and airborne Martian dust is still ... demonstrated that the altitude of these features greatly exceeded that of any mountain found on Earth, as astronomers expected ...
Combined GPS & barometric altitude*, FusedAlti *Sunrise/sunset *LED backlight *Button lock *Display resolution: 320 x 300 ... barometric altitude with FusedAlti and compass. With dozens of sport modes to choose from you can get the most out of the data ...
AltimeterMeasuring barometric pressureSensorSleeping at high altitudesTemperature and barometric pressureDecreases with increasiSensorsBAROMETERCurrent barometric pressureLower altitudesAscentDescentHypoxiaCompassEffects of AltitudeHAPEMetersReadingsHigher altitudes2500IncreasesExposed to high altitudePartial pressureHACE2,500MeasurementsEarth'sIllnessHigh-altitude exposureIncrease in altitudeHeliumMeasuresAtmosphereDecreaseFractionCalculationNorth AmericaLive at altitudeVary with altitudeChange in altitudeArrival at altitudeExposure to altitudeSymptomsSicknessMmHgLevelMeasurement2000Climb3000ElevationPreciseLiving at moderatePhysiologicalAffectsLess oxygenAtmospheric pressurePressuresAmbientAscendLowlanders
- Because pressure changes with altitude you can also use it as an altimeter! (adafruit.com)
- Geopotential altitude in the Earth's atmosphere above mean standard sea level pressure datum plane, measured by a pressure (barometric) altimeter. (eurocontrol.int)
- The altitude determined by a barometric altimeter by reference to a pressure level and calculated according to the standard atmosphere laws. (academic.ru)
- Its barometric altimeter tracks changes in pressure to pinpoint your precise altitude. (garmin.com)
- Barometer, altimeter, thermometer, stopwatch, compass, and time-of-day clock-all in the palm of your hand Handheld Digital Barometer has a stopwatch/time-of-day clock, compass and graphically displays the barometric pressure trend. (spectrumchemical.com)
- Kollsman-type barometric aircraft altimeter (as used in North America) displaying an altitude of 80 ft (24 m). (wikipedia.org)
- A barometric altimeter keeps track of altitude, ascents and descents. (probikekit.com)
- For improved climb and descent data, the Edge 500 incorporates a barometric altimeter to pinpoint changes in elevation. (bicycling.com)
- The barometric pressure sensor used on the Altitude 2 click is the MS5607-02BA03 , a barometric pressure sensor IC with the stainless steel cap, produced by MEAS Switzerland, a company that has a long-term experience in development of altimeter/barometric pressure sensors. (mikroe.com)
- Static altitude accuracy tests (after calibrating the altimeter over a known elevation) averaged better than three feet when checked over several test points spread out over about two miles. (gpsinformation.net)
- When a Barometric Pressure Altitude Sensor fails it can translate into an unquestionably annoying experience for even the most seasoned drivers. (carpartsdiscount.com)
- People who care about their Mazda will agree that the reason Barometric Pressure Altitude Sensor parts of OEM quality are the only ones that mechanics trust on their car, truck, or SUV. (carpartsdiscount.com)
- So it's important that you maintain it by purchasing Barometric Pressure Altitude Sensor parts that don't break the bank. (carpartsdiscount.com)
- Barometric Pressure Altitude Sensor performance is essential for your ride. (carpartsdiscount.com)
- With such a wide selection of quality Barometric Pressure Altitude Sensor parts for your Mazda, you can purchase anything you need and get parts to fix your ride fast, easy, and for less money at www.carpartsdiscount.com. (carpartsdiscount.com)
- With over 100 years of combined parts experience, CarPartsDiscount.com has the expertise to make it your first and only shop for Barometric Pressure Altitude Sensor spare parts from quality brands you trust. (carpartsdiscount.com)
- DESCRIPTION Bosch has stepped up their game with their new BME280 sensor, an environmental sensor with temperature, barometric pressure and humidi. (coolcomponents.co.uk)
- DESCRIPTION The BMP388 Precision Barometric Pressure sensor is similar to its earlier versions but even better. (coolcomponents.co.uk)
- DESCRIPTION This DPS310 sensor is a high precision barometric sensor, perfect for measuring altitude changes with up to ±0.002 hPa (or ±0.02 m) in. (coolcomponents.co.uk)
- Atmospheric pressure , sometimes also called barometric pressure (after the sensor ), is the pressure within the atmosphere of Earth (or that of another planet). (wikipedia.org)
- Collects GPS data simultaneously with other sensor measurements, automatically syncing the data to your latitude, longitude, altitude, and velocity. (pasco.com)
- Low count of external components requirement, along with the simple interface which requires no extensive configuration programming, makes this sensor very attractive for building altitude or air pressure measuring applications. (mikroe.com)
- The sensor component of the Altitude 2 click provides an accurate ambient temperature measurement, which can be used to extract the compensated air pressure value from the readings. (mikroe.com)
- Fixed Elevation mode uses the calibrated altitude as truth and assumes all changes in the pressure sensor are associated with the barometric pressure. (gpsinformation.net)
- DESCRIPTION We stock a few barometric pressure sensors, great for altitude and weather measurements. (coolcomponents.co.uk)
- This attack was by autonomous drones using GPS and barometric sensors to find their way to their targets. (moonofalabama.org)
- Other sensors to measure temperature, barometric pressure and altitude are incorporated into the flight box. (sciencephoto.com)
- Be aware that first you'll need to adjust your barometer for your altitude. (ehow.co.uk)
- It is tied to the barometer and after a day of unchanged altitude my watch went from 620 ft to 840 ft. (amazon.com)
- The barometer log is available to help users forecast the climate and then log the barometric trends. (dpreview.com)
- The 76S can compute the correct Barometer pressure even if you are changing altitude. (gpsinformation.net)
- The barometer can detect altitude changes as little as 5 feet. (gpsinformation.net)
- For a short period of time accurate Barometer altitudes can be obtained with the GPS turned OFF -as in the cases where the test sites are obscured by tree cover. (gpsinformation.net)
- However, cases have also been reported at lower altitudes (between 1,500-2,500 metres or 4,900-8,200 feet in highly vulnerable subjects), though what makes some people susceptible to HAPE is currently unknown. (wikipedia.org)
- Anyone trying to do the same exercises or activities they enjoy at lower altitudes will likely notice a shortness of breath more quickly and frequently at a higher elevation. (steamboatpilot.com)
- The stratosphere begins at lower altitudes near the poles because the ground temperatures are lower there. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- Gradual increases in altitude over two weeks resulted in larger heart rate changes compared with an abrupt ascent. (springer.com)
- This article describes the various medical problems associated with ascent to high altitude, amelioration of altitude-related symptoms through acclimatization, and treatment of the disorders when they occur. (medscape.com)
- A multitude of problems is associated with ascent to altitude. (medscape.com)
- Symptoms of AMS occur in nearly everyone if the ascent to altitude is too rapid. (medscape.com)
- Many factors affect the incidence and severity of AMS, such as the rate of ascent, altitude attained (especially altitude of sleep), duration of exposure to altitude, and possibly the amount or intensity of exercise undertaken at altitude. (medscape.com)
- Barometric altitude, incline, ascent and descent. (polar.com)
- Automated reports also can allow instrument approaches at airports that previously had no weather reporting capability and permit lower minimum descent altitudes (MDAs) and decision altitudes (DAs) on certain instrument approaches. (aopa.org)
- Conclusions Debilitating symptoms consistent with high altitude cerebral oedema commonly present during descent from the summit of Mount Everest. (bmj.com)
- The two main challenges to life at high altitude come from hypobaric hypoxia and the low ambient temperatures. (springer.com)
- However, the population living in the United States is genetically mixed and has varied responses to the added stress of altitude-induced hypoxia. (medscape.com)
- Exposures to simulated altitude (normobaric hypoxia, NH) are frequently used in preparation for mountaineering activities at real altitude (hypobaric hypoxia, HH). (frontiersin.org)
- The popularity of using normobaric hypoxia (NH) to prepare for hypobaric hypoxia (HH) experienced during mountaineering activities at real altitude raises the question about the comparability between the effects of NH and HH. (frontiersin.org)
- 1 Apart from its general health risks, smoking may influence altitude hypoxia tolerance. (bmj.com)
- This hypoxia is responsible for almost all the physiological changes and the potential medical problems that occur at high altitude. (encyclopedia.com)
- On the other hand, the use of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Standard Atmosphere (often used to calibrate altimeters) considerably underestimates the barometric pressure on the summit of Everest: the severity of hypoxia was therefore overestimated in some predictions based on this method in the past. (encyclopedia.com)
- Infusions of blood or injections of the hormone erythropoietin also simulate effects of altitude exposure. (sportsci.org)
- In all we have reviewed 10 summaries and 15 full papers directly related to the effects of altitude exposure on sea-level performance, and we have cited 12 supporting papers and three reviews. (sportsci.org)
- HAPE remains the major cause of death related to high-altitude exposure, with a high mortality rate in the absence of adequate emergency treatment. (wikipedia.org)
- The initial cause of HAPE is a shortage of oxygen caused by the lower air pressure at high altitudes. (wikipedia.org)
- severe pulmonary hypertension can exist in the absence of clinical HAPE in subjects at high altitude. (wikipedia.org)
- [ citation needed ] Recently, scientists have found the similarities between low amounts of 2,3-BPG (also known as 2,3-DPG) with the occurrence of HAPE at high altitudes. (wikipedia.org)
- High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) (HAPO spelled oedema in British English) is a life-threatening form of non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema (fluid accumulation in the lungs) that occurs in otherwise healthy mountaineers at altitudes typically above 2,500 meters (8,200 ft). (wikipedia.org)
- Although higher pulmonary arterial pressures are associated with the development of HAPE, the presence of pulmonary hypertension may not in itself be sufficient to explain the development of edema: severe pulmonary hypertension can exist in the absence of clinical HAPE in subjects at high altitude. (wikipedia.org)
- A related illness, high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), can occur with or without warning symptoms that signal altitude sickness. (drugs.com)
- Genetics may also put some people at increased risk, particularly for high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). (drugs.com)
- OBJECTIVE To determine the reliability of five blood glucose meters (BGMs) at various simulated altitudes using a hypobaric chamber. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Altitude is displayed in meters or feet. (spectrumchemical.com)
- Dissolved oxygen levels can be measured at altitudes of 4,500 meters or above sea level utilizing advanced instrumentation with particular design features. (thermofisher.com)
- The camera is enclosed in a flight box and attached to a helium weather balloon which lifts the camera to an altitude of approximately 35,000 meters above sea level. (sciencephoto.com)
- Barometric pressure data are widely available and include both current pressures and historic barometric pressure readings. (ehow.co.uk)
- You can look up historical data, barometric pressure readings from your geographical area, and readings from most areas worldwide. (ehow.co.uk)
- Barometric readings cannot be used for positioning or altitude determination. (cdc.gov)
- However, MikroElektronika provides a library that contains functions compatible with the MikroElektronika compilers, which can be used for simplified programming of the Altitude 2 click, such as the calculation function for the altitude measurement, based on the pressure and the temperature readings, raw values for the pressure and temperature, as well as the compensated (actual) pressure and temperature readings. (mikroe.com)
- Barometric readings are stored every 15 minutes. (gpsinformation.net)
- Readings are updated every 15 minutes for barometric pressure, 2 seconds for altitude, and 1 minute for temperature. (coleparmer.com)
- Other conditions that could prove challenging at higher altitudes include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma and sleep apnea. (steamboatpilot.com)
- At higher altitudes, the pressure of the air around you (barometric pressure) decreases so there is less oxygen in surrounding air. (drugs.com)
- Training near sea level while living at an altitude of 2500 m (8000 ft) for a month enhances subsequent endurance performance, probably by increasing the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood through an increase in production of red blood cells. (sportsci.org)
- Nearly 140 million people live at altitudes above 2500 metres (about 8000 feet). (encyclopedia.com)
- Following reports of discomfort by several South American soccer federations, Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) banned international games at altitudes above 2500 m in 2007, but after political intervention, the limit was increased to 3000 m and shortly thereafter suspended pending more data. (bmj.com)
- This decrease in barometric pressure affects the partial pressure of alveolar oxygen (PAO 2 ). (medscape.com)
- At sea level, the partial pressure of oxygen available in the environment is equal to 0.21 times the barometric minus the water vapor pressure (ie, (760 - 47 mm Hg)* 0.21, or 149 mm Hg). (medscape.com)
- In this equation, FiO 2 is the fraction of inspired oxygen, PB is the ambient barometric pressure, PH 2 O is the pressure exerted by water vapor at body temperature, PACO 2 is the alveolar partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and R is the respiratory exchange quotient. (medscape.com)
- Regardless of the acclimatisation strategy employed, reduced oxygen availability at altitude, resulting in low arterial partial pressure for oxygen (PaO 2 ) and low arterial oxygen content (CaO 2 ), markedly reduces aerobic performance of players from sea-level. (bmj.com)
- The inspired partial pressure of oxygen depends on barometric pressure, which is related directly to altitude. (biomedsearch.com)
- Pulmonary edema Altitude sickness High-altitude cerebral edema (HACE) High-altitude flatus expulsion (HAFE) Pulse oximeter, the instrument to measure oxygen level in blood. (wikipedia.org)
- One dangerous reaction to high altitude is a condition called high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE), in which the brain accumulates extra fluid, swells and stops working properly. (drugs.com)
- CONCLUSIONS Except for the Accu-Chek Easy, low barometric pressure underestimated the BGM results in comparison with measurements taken at simulated low altitudes. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The altitude measurements can be improved when using the camera's GPS data, which is enhanced when compared to its predecessor, the LUMIX DMC-TS3. (dpreview.com)
- It provides very accurate measurements of temperature and atmospheric pressure, which can be used to calculate the altitude with a very high resolution of 20cm per step. (mikroe.com)
- Even today, many questions regarding the precise mechanism of altitude illness remain unanswered. (medscape.com)
- Despite the obvious dangers inherent in climbing and the altitude-related illness experienced by nearly all who spend significant time in the mountains, people continue to seek the remoteness and pleasures of high places. (medscape.com)
- Related Medscape articles include Altitude Illness - Cerebral Syndromes and Altitude Illness - Pulmonary Syndromes . (medscape.com)
- Deaths could be classified as involving trauma (objective hazards or falls, n=113), as non-traumatic (high altitude illness, hypothermia, or sudden death, n=52), or as a disappearance (body never found, n=27). (bmj.com)
- Symptoms of this more severe altitude disease may not be noticed immediately because the illness can begin during the night. (drugs.com)
- High-altitude pulmonary edema , which is the lungs' response to an increase in altitude, may occur with or without other symptoms of altitude illness. (drugs.com)
- Such a rapid fading of the atmosphere is related to one of aviation's more curious revelations about the air: that altitude itself is a fluid concept. (slate.com)
- Because of the warming of the atmosphere by the sun near the Equator, the column of air is higher there, and therefore the barometric pressure at any given altitude is higher than at the poles. (encyclopedia.com)
- The atmosphere becomes thinner and thinner with increasing altitude, with no definite boundary between the atmosphere and outer space . (thefullwiki.org)
- Given that it lies between the maximum altitude for most aircraft and the minimum altitude for most spacecraft , this region of the atmosphere is directly accessible only through the use of sounding rockets. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- The decrease in barometric pressure with increasing altitude reduces PAO 2 . (medscape.com)
- Temperature is assumed to decrease with increasing altitude throughout the troposphere. (brainscape.com)
- The only available published study on VO 2 max of professional soccer players from altitude (La Paz, 3600 m) and near sea-level (Santa Cruz 430 m, both Bolivia) showed a more pronounced decrease in lowlanders when moving from low-land to altitude (3600 m) than in players adapted to altitude. (bmj.com)
- Reductions in P i O 2 can be achieved by altering the barometric pressure (P B ) in HH or the inspired fraction of oxygen (F i O 2 ) in NH ( Conkin and Wessel, 2008 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Since oxygen accounts for one-fifth of the volume of the air, and this fraction does not alter with altitude, the pressure of oxygen decreases proportionally with the total barometric pressure. (encyclopedia.com)
- With longer stays at altitude, these symptoms improve in a process known as acclimatization. (medscape.com)
- Another early description from South America graphically portrays other symptoms in a severely affected altitude sojourner: "I got up and tried once more to go on but I was only able to advance one or two steps at a time, and then I had to stop, panting for breath, my struggles alternating with violent fits of nausea. (medscape.com)
- This group defined AMS as follows: "In the setting of a recent gain in altitude, the presence of headache and at least one of the following symptoms: gastrointestinal (anorexia, nausea or vomiting), fatigue or weakness, dizziness or lightheadedness, difficulty sleeping. (medscape.com)
- Anyone coming from sea level is likely going to notice some altitude-related symptoms, said Dr. Jason Sigmon , an otolaryngologist at UCHealth Ear, Nose and Throat Clinic in Steamboat Springs. (steamboatpilot.com)
- Symptoms of altitude sickness that are not life threatening are called acute mountain sickness. (drugs.com)
- Symptoms from acute mountain sickness improve if you descend to lower altitude quickly. (drugs.com)
- Symptoms that develop at high altitude should be taken very seriously, since some altitude problems can develop into fatal illnesses. (drugs.com)
- As your body makes normal adjustments to adapt to a high altitude, you may experience a few symptoms that are bothersome but are not cause for concern. (drugs.com)
- Because this low-oxygen injury affects the brain and thought process, a person with high-altitude cerebral edema may not understand that symptoms have become more severe until a traveling companion notices unusual behavior. (drugs.com)
- Symptoms of high-altitude pulmonary edema commonly appear at night and can worsen during exertion. (drugs.com)
- Why do low oxygen levels cause altitude sickness? (wikipedia.org)
- Some altitude dwellers, particularly Andeans, may develop chronic mountain sickness, the most prominent characteristic of which being excessive polycythaemia. (springer.com)
- When you first move to altitude, the shortage of oxygen makes it difficult to train intensely, and you may also suffer from altitude sickness. (sportsci.org)
- This study allows us to advise smokers on altitude exposure using solid epidemiological data and suggests new avenues for research on acute mountain sickness pathophysiology. (bmj.com)
- Mountain climbers on any high mountain and skiers in high-altitude locations such as Colorado are at risk of developing acute mountain sickness. (drugs.com)
- Acute mountain sickness is the least dangerous of several kinds of altitude illnesses that can occur. (drugs.com)
- A type of altitude sickness called high-altitude retinal hemorrhage (HARH) can cause eye damage. (drugs.com)
- Coma and death are the most serious consequences of altitude sickness. (drugs.com)
- Altitude sickness is more likely to occur in people who have a previous history of altitude sickness. (drugs.com)
- Obesity appears to increase the risk for altitude sickness. (drugs.com)
- High-altitude cerebral edema is considered by many experts to be an extreme form of acute mountain sickness. (drugs.com)
- including how to properly calculate altitude based on sea-level barometric pressure. (adafruit.com)
- Later, as subjects acclimatise at altitudes up to about 4,500 m, much of the increase in heart rate is lost and resting heart rates return towards their sea level values. (springer.com)
- This means that a barometric pressure that would send someone straight through the trapdoors of a storm cellar at sea level along the coast of Costa Rica would be perfectly commonplace in the midst of summer in the mile-high city of Denver. (wikihow.com)
- Living and training at altitude is less effective than living at altitude and training near sea level, because the lack of oxygen at altitude results in detraining through reduction in intensity of training. (sportsci.org)
- Athletes residing at altitude can get the benefit of training at sea level by performing high-intensity training on ergometers while breathing oxygen-enriched air. (sportsci.org)
- Athletes residing at sea level can simulate altitude exposure by resting in a chamber at reduced air pressure or in a "nitrogen house" or tent flushed with air containing less oxygen. (sportsci.org)
- Research on altitude exposure for sea-level performance has moved ahead rapidly in the last few years. (sportsci.org)
- For example, if we go to an altitude of about 5800 metres, the pressure falls to half the normal sea level value of 760 mm Hg (1013 millibars or hectopascals). (encyclopedia.com)
- What level is considered to be the standard for barometric pressure and temperature? (brainscape.com)
- The barometric pressure measurement is influenced by a temperature and the offset value, measured at 0 Pa (zero offset coef. (mikroe.com)
- Finally, a command to start the conversion of the uncompensated measurement can be sent to the Altitude 2 click, which will respond with the conversion value, after the internal conversion period is finished. (mikroe.com)
- To climb 3.5 miles-about half-way up to a typical airliner's cruising altitude-is to have barely left the Earth at all. (slate.com)
- It is more likely if you climb quickly, if you exercise vigorously during your first few days of altitude exposure, and if you have been living at low elevation prior to your climb. (drugs.com)
- For example, it can be shown that if Mt. Everest were at the latitude of Mt. McKinley (Denali) in Alaska , which is 60° N, the summit would in effect be over 950 metres (3000 feet) higher because the barometric pressure at high altitude at latitudes far from the Equator is so much lower. (encyclopedia.com)
- Until now, very little data existed relating to soccer at altitude, especially above 3000 m. (bmj.com)