Inorganic compounds that contain barium as an integral part of the molecule.
A compound used as an x-ray contrast medium that occurs in nature as the mineral barite. It is also used in various manufacturing applications and mixed into heavy concrete to serve as a radiation shield.
An element of the alkaline earth group of metals. It has an atomic symbol Ba, atomic number 56, and atomic weight 138. All of its acid-soluble salts are poisonous.
A solution or compound that is introduced into the RECTUM with the purpose of cleansing the COLON or for diagnostic procedures.
The application of pathology to questions of law.
Small-arms weapons, including handguns, pistols, revolvers, rifles, shotguns, etc.
Disruption of structural continuity of the body as a result of the discharge of firearms.
Fractures of the upper jaw.
Compressed gases or vapors in a container which, upon release of pressure and expansion through a valve, carry another substance from the container. They are used for cosmetics, household cleaners, and so on. Examples are BUTANES; CARBON DIOXIDE; FLUOROCARBONS; NITROGEN; and PROPANE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Postmortem examination of the body.
The killing of one person by another.
Clothing designed to protect the individual against possible exposure to known hazards.
Fabric or other material used to cover the body.
Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard X-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength X-rays. Soft x-rays or Grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the X-ray spectrum overlaps the GAMMA RAYS wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.

Delayed rectifier potassium current in undiseased human ventricular myocytes. (1/220)

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to investigate the properties of the delayed rectifier potassium current (IK) in myocytes isolated from undiseased human left ventricles. METHODS: The whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique was applied in 28 left ventricular myocytes from 13 hearts at 35 degrees C. RESULTS: An E-4031 sensitive tail current identified the rapid component of IK (IKr) in the myocytes, but there was no evidence for an E-4031 insensitive slow component of IK (IKs). When nifedipine (5 microM) was used to block the inward calcium current (ICa), IKr activation was fast (tau = 31.0 +/- 7.4 ms, at +30 mV, n = 5) and deactivation kinetics were biexponential and relatively slow (tau 1 = 600.0 +/- 53.9 ms and tau 2 = 6792.2 +/- 875.7 ms, at -40 mV, n = 7). Application of CdCl2 (250 microM) to block ICa altered the voltage dependence of the IKr considerably, slowing its activation (tau = 657.1 +/- 109.1 ms, at +30 mV, n = 5) and accelerating its deactivation (tau = 104.0 +/- 18.5 ms, at -40 mV, n = 8). CONCLUSIONS: In undiseased human ventricle at 35 degrees C IKr exists having fast activation and slow deactivation kinetics; however, there was no evidence found for an expressed IKs. IKr probably plays an important role in the frequency dependent modulation of repolarization in undiseased human ventricle, and is a target for many Class III antiarrhythmic drugs.  (+info)

Alterations of cross-bridge kinetics in human atrial and ventricular myocardium. (2/220)

CONDENSED ABSTRACT: We analyzed actomyosin cross-bridge kinetics in human atrial and ventricular muscle strip preparations by using sinusoidal length changes from 0.1 to 60 Hz. The minimum stiffness frequency was higher in atrial than in ventricular human myocardium and lower in failing than in non-failing left ventricular human myocardium. beta-Adrenergic stimulation increased the minimum stiffness frequency by 18 +/- 3% (p < 0.05). Cross-bridge kinetics are temperature-dependent, with a Q10 of at least 2.7. BACKGROUND: Dynamic stiffness measurements have revealed acute and chronic alterations of actomyosin cross-bridge kinetics in cardiac muscles of a variety of different animal species. We studied dynamic stiffness in right atrial and left ventricular preparations of non-failing and failing human hearts and tested the influence of the temperature and beta-adrenergic stimulation on cross-bridge kinetics. METHODS AND RESULTS: Muscle strips were prepared from right atria and left ventricles from human non-failing and failing hearts. After withdrawal of calcium, steady contracture tension was induced by the addition of 1.5 mM barium chloride. Sinusoidal length oscillations of 1% muscle length were applied, with a frequency spectrum of between 0.1 and 60 Hz. Dynamic stiffness was calculated from the length change and the corresponding force response amplitude. The specific minimum stiffness frequency, which indicates the interaction between cross-bridge recruitment and cross-bridge cycling dynamics, was analyzed for each condition: (1) The minimum stiffness frequency was 0.78 +/- 0.04 Hz in left ventricular myocardium and 2.80 +/- 0.31 Hz in right atrial myocardium (p < 0.01) at 27 degrees C. (2) The minimum stiffness frequency was 41% higher in non-failing compared to failing left ventricular human myocardium. (3) Over a wide range of experimental temperatures, the minimum stiffness frequency changed, with a Q10 of at least 2.7. (4) beta-Adrenergic stimulation significantly (p < 0.05) increased the minimum stiffness to 18 +/- 3% higher frequencies and significantly (p < 0.05) lowered contracture tension by 7 +/- 1%. CONCLUSIONS: The contractility of human heart muscle is not only regulated by excitation-contraction coupling but also by modulation of intrinsic properties of the actomyosin system. Acute and chronic alterations of cross-bridge kinetics have been demonstrated, which play a significant role in the physiology and pathophysiology of the human heart.  (+info)

P2u receptor-mediated release of endothelium-derived relaxing factor/nitric oxide and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor from cerebrovascular endothelium in rats. (3/220)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stimulation of P2u purinoceptors by UTP on endothelium dilates the rat middle cerebral artery (MCA) through the release of endothelium-derived relaxing factor/nitric oxide (EDRF/NO) and an unknown relaxing factor. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this unknown relaxing factor is endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). METHODS: Rat MCAs were isolated, cannulated, pressurized, and luminally perfused. UTP was added to the luminal perfusate to elicit dilations. RESULTS: Resting outside diameter of the MCAs in one study was 209+/-7 micrometer (n=10). The MCAs showed concentration-dependent dilations with UTP administration. Inhibition of NO synthase with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (1 micromol/L to 1 mmol/L) did not diminish the maximum response to UTP but did shift the concentration-response curve to the right. Scavenging NO with hemoglobin (1 or 10 micromol/L) or inhibition of guanylate cyclase with ODQ (1 or 10 micromol/L) had effects on the UTP-mediated dilations similar to those of L-NAME. In the presence of L-NAME, dilations induced by 10 micromol/L UTP were accompanied by 13+/-2 mV (P<0.009) hyperpolarization of the vascular smooth muscle membrane potential (-28+/-2 to -41+/-1 mV). Iberiotoxin (100 nmol/L), blocker of the large-conductance calcium-activated K channels, sometimes blocked the dilation, but its effects were variable. Charybdotoxin (100 nmol/L), also a blocker of the large-conductance calcium-activated K channels, abolished the L-NAME-insensitive component of the dilation to UTP. CONCLUSIONS: Stimulation of P2u purinoceptors on the endothelium of the rat MCA released EDHF, in addition to EDRF/NO, and dilated the rat MCA by opening an atypical calcium-activated K channel.  (+info)

Analysis of multidrug effects by parameter method. (4/220)

AIM: To set up a new analytic method for multidrug effects. METHODS: Based on the principles of the target site kinetics and the equieffective test, a new mathematical model was set as Q = (Eo-Ee)/magnitude of Ee x W-sx x T (-1 < Q < 1 addition, Q < or = -1 antagonism, Q > or = 1 synergism) where Eo = a fitted value of the observed effect of a combination, Ee = an expected value of combined effect, W = an equieffective criterion decided by a special field, sx = a common standard error of Eo and Ee, and T = a value of one-sided t0.05. All the calculations were completed with computer. Dose-effect data from different types of experiments were fitted by the new model and the results were compared with those of other methods. RESULTS: This parameter method dealt with different types of data well fitted with the Hill equation, and was not limited to analyze receptor interaction of drugs, or the number of combined drugs. A series of Q values was obtained from all levels of dose-effect for a systematic analysis. The analysis took the criterion of a special field and laboratory error into account. CONCLUSION: This parameter method can effectively analyze the multidrug effects.  (+info)

The electrical properties of auditory hair cells in the frog amphibian papilla. (5/220)

The amphibian papilla (AP) is the principal auditory organ of the frog. Anatomical and neurophysiological evidence suggests that this hearing organ utilizes both mechanical and electrical (hair cell-based) frequency tuning mechanisms, yet relatively little is known about the electrophysiology of AP hair cells. Using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, we have investigated the electrical properties and ionic currents of isolated hair cells along the rostrocaudal axis of the AP. Electrical resonances were observed in the voltage response of hair cells harvested from the rostral and medial, but not caudal, regions of the AP. Two ionic currents, ICa and IK(Ca), were observed in every hair cell; however, their amplitudes varied substantially along the epithelium. Only rostral hair cells exhibited an inactivating potassium current (IA), whereas an inwardly rectifying potassium current (IK1) was identified only in caudal AP hair cells. Electrically tuned hair cells exhibited resonant frequencies from 50 to 375 Hz, which correlated well with hair cell position and the tonotopic organization of the papilla. Variations in the kinetics of the outward current contribute substantially to the determination of resonant frequency. ICa and IK(Ca) amplitudes increased with resonant frequency, reducing the membrane time constant with increasing resonant frequency. We conclude that a tonotopically organized hair cell substrate exists to support electrical tuning in the rostromedial region of the frog amphibian papilla and that the cellular mechanisms for frequency determination are very similar to those reported for another electrically tuned auditory organ, the turtle basilar papilla.  (+info)

Functional regulation of L-type calcium channels via protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation of the beta(2) subunit. (6/220)

Activation of protein kinase A (PKA) through the beta-adrenergic receptor pathway is crucial for the positive regulation of cardiac L-type currents; however it is still unclear which phosphorylation events cause the robust regulation of channel function. In order to study whether or not the recently identified PKA phosphorylation sites on the beta(2) subunit are of functional significance, we coexpressed wild-type (WT) or mutant beta(2) subunits in tsA-201 cells together with an alpha(1C) subunit, alpha(1C)Delta1905, that lacked the C-terminal 265 amino acids, including the only identified PKA site at Ser-1928. This truncated alpha(1C) subunit was similar to the truncated alpha(1C) subunit isolated from cardiac tissue not only in size ( approximately 190 kDa), but also with respect to its failure to serve as a PKA substrate. In cells transfected with the WT beta(2) subunit, voltage-activated Ba(2+) currents were significantly increased when purified PKA was included in the patch pipette. Furthermore, mutations of Ser-478 and Ser-479 to Ala, but not Ser-459 to Ala, on the beta(2) subunit, completely abolished the PKA-induced increase of currents. The data indicate that the PKA-mediated stimulation of cardiac L-type Ca(2+) currents may be at least partially caused by phosphorylation of the beta(2) subunit at Ser-478 and Ser-479.  (+info)

Bone as an ion exchange system: evidence for a pump-leak mechanism devoted to the maintenance of high bone K(+). (7/220)

To provide evidence of active accumulation of K(+) in bone extracellular fluid (BECF), electric currents driven by damaged living metatarsal bones of weanling mice, immersed in physiological media at different [K(+)], in the presence of blockers of the K(+) channels or of the Na(+)-K(+-)ATPase inhibitor, were measured by means of a voltage-sensitive two-dimensional vibrating probe. At 4 mM extracellular K(+) concentration ([K(+)](o)), an inward steady current density (7.85-38.53 microA/cm(2)) was recorded at the damage site, which was significantly dependent on [K(+)](o). At [K(+)](o) equal to that of BECF (25 mM), current density was reduced by 76%. At [K(+)](o) of 0 mM, the current density showed an increase, which was hindered by tetraethylammonium (TEA). Basal current density was reduced significantly after exposure to TEA or BaCl(2) and was unchanged after long- term exposure to ouabain. By changing control medium with a chloride-free medium, current density was reversed. The results support the view that K(+) excess in bone is maintained by a biologically active cellular system. Because the osteocyte-bone lining cell syncytium was at the origin of the current in bone, it is likely that this system controls the ionic composition of BECF.  (+info)

Altered regulation of potassium and calcium channels by GABA(B) and adenosine receptors in hippocampal neurons from mice lacking Galpha(o). (8/220)

To examine the role of G(o) in modulation of ion channels by neurotransmitter receptors, we characterized modulation of ionic currents in hippocampal CA3 neurons from mice lacking both isoforms of Galpha(o). In CA3 neurons from Galpha(o)(-/-) mice, 2-chloro-adenosine and the GABA(B)-receptor agonist baclofen activated inwardly rectifying K(+) currents and inhibited voltage-dependent Ca(2+) currents just as effectively as in Galpha(o)(+/+) littermates. However, the kinetics of transmitter action were dramatically altered in Galpha(o)(-/-) mice in that recovery on washout of agonist was much slower. For example, recovery from 2-chloro-adenosine inhibition of calcium current was more than fourfold slower in neurons from Galpha(o)(-/-) mice [time constant of 12.0 +/- 0.8 (SE) s] than in neurons from Galpha(o)(+/+) mice (time constant of 2.6 +/- 0.2 s). Recovery from baclofen effects was affected similarly. In neurons from control mice, effects of both baclofen and 2-chloro-adenosine on Ca(2+) currents and K(+) currents were abolished by brief exposure to external N-ethyl-maleimide (NEM). In neurons lacking Galpha(o), some inhibition of Ca(2+) currents by baclofen remained after NEM treatment, whereas baclofen activation of K(+) currents and both effects of 2-chloro-adenosine were abolished. These results show that modulation of Ca(2+) and K(+) currents by G protein-coupled receptors in hippocampal neurons does not have an absolute requirement for Galpha(o). However, modulation is changed in the absence of Galpha(o) in having much slower recovery kinetics. A likely possibility is that the very abundant Galpha(o) is normally used but, when absent, can readily be replaced by G proteins with different properties.  (+info)

Barium compounds are inorganic substances that contain the metallic element barium (Ba) combined with one or more other elements. Barium is an alkaline earth metal that is highly reactive and toxic in its pure form. However, when bound with other elements to form barium compounds, it can be used safely for various medical and industrial purposes.

In medicine, barium compounds are commonly used as a contrast material for X-ray examinations of the digestive system. When a patient swallows a preparation containing barium sulfate, the dense compound coats the lining of the esophagus, stomach, and intestines, making them visible on an X-ray image. This allows doctors to diagnose conditions such as ulcers, tumors, or blockages in the digestive tract.

Other barium compounds include barium carbonate, barium chloride, and barium hydroxide, which are used in various industrial applications such as drilling muds, flame retardants, and pigments for paints and plastics. However, these compounds can be toxic if ingested or inhaled, so they must be handled with care.

Barium sulfate is a medication that is commonly used as a contrast material in medical imaging procedures, such as X-rays and CT scans. It works by coating the inside of the digestive tract, making it visible on an X-ray or CT scan and allowing doctors to see detailed images of the stomach, intestines, and other parts of the digestive system.

Barium sulfate is a white, chalky powder that is mixed with water to create a thick, milky liquid. It is generally safe and does not cause significant side effects when used in medical imaging procedures. However, it should not be taken by individuals who have a known allergy to barium or who have certain digestive conditions, such as obstructions or perforations of the bowel.

It's important to note that while barium sulfate is an important tool for medical diagnosis, it is not a treatment for any medical condition and should only be used under the direction of a healthcare professional.

Barium is a naturally occurring, silvery-white metallic chemical element with the symbol Ba and atomic number 56. In medical terms, barium is commonly used as a contrast agent in radiology, particularly in X-ray examinations such as an upper GI series or barium enema. The barium sulfate powder is mixed with water to create a liquid or thick paste that is swallowed or inserted through the rectum. This provides a white coating on the inside lining of the digestive tract, allowing it to be seen more clearly on X-ray images and helping doctors diagnose various conditions such as ulcers, tumors, or inflammation.

It's important to note that barium is not absorbed by the body and does not cause any harm when used in medical imaging procedures. However, if it is accidentally inhaled or aspirated into the lungs during administration, it can cause chemical pneumonitis, a potentially serious condition. Therefore, it should only be administered under the supervision of trained medical professionals.

An enema is a medical procedure in which liquid is introduced into the lower part of the large intestine, specifically the sigmoid colon or rectum, through the anus using a special device called an enema kit. The liquid used can be plain water, saline solution, or a medicated solution, and it is typically retained for a short period of time before being expelled.

The purpose of an enema may vary, but it is often used to relieve constipation, prepare the bowel for medical procedures such as colonoscopy, or administer medications or nutrients that cannot be taken by mouth. Enemas can also be used for therapeutic purposes, such as to stimulate the immune system or promote relaxation.

It is important to follow proper instructions when administering an enema to avoid injury or discomfort. Possible side effects of enemas may include cramping, bloating, nausea, or electrolyte imbalances. If you have any health concerns or conditions that may be affected by an enema, it is recommended to consult with a healthcare professional before using one.

Forensic pathology is a subspecialty of pathology that focuses on determining the cause and manner of death by examining a corpse. It involves applying scientific knowledge and techniques to investigate criminal or suspicious deaths, often in conjunction with law enforcement agencies. A forensic pathologist performs autopsies (postmortem examinations) to evaluate internal and external injuries, diseases, and other conditions that may have contributed to the individual's death. They also collect evidence such as tissue samples, which can be used for toxicological, microbiological, or histological analysis. The information gathered by forensic pathologists is crucial in helping to establish the facts surrounding a person's death and assisting legal proceedings.

Firearms are not a medical condition or disease, so they do not have a medical definition. However, I can provide you with a general definition:

A firearm is a portable gun, being a weapon consisting of a tube or barrel from which shots, shells, or bullets are discharged by the action of gunpowder or other explosive. Firearms may be manual, semi-automatic, or automatic in their operation and can vary in size, shape, and capacity. They are used for various purposes, including hunting, sport shooting, self-defense, and law enforcement. It is important to note that the possession, use, and regulation of firearms are subject to laws and regulations that vary by country and jurisdiction.

Gunshot wounds are defined as traumatic injuries caused by the penetration of bullets or other projectiles fired from firearms into the body. The severity and extent of damage depend on various factors such as the type of firearm used, the distance between the muzzle and the victim, the size and shape of the bullet, and its velocity.

Gunshot wounds can be classified into two main categories:

1. Penetrating gunshot wounds: These occur when a bullet enters the body but does not exit, causing damage to the organs, tissues, and blood vessels along its path.

2. Perforating gunshot wounds: These happen when a bullet enters and exits the body, creating an entry and exit wound, causing damage to the structures it traverses.

Based on the mechanism of injury, gunshot wounds can also be categorized into low-velocity (less than 1000 feet per second) and high-velocity (greater than 1000 feet per second) injuries. High-velocity gunshot wounds are more likely to cause extensive tissue damage due to the transfer of kinetic energy from the bullet to the surrounding tissues.

Immediate medical attention is required for individuals with gunshot wounds, as they may experience significant blood loss, infection, and potential long-term complications such as organ dysfunction or disability. Treatment typically involves surgical intervention to control bleeding, remove foreign material, repair damaged structures, and manage infections if present.

Maxillary fractures, also known as Le Fort fractures, are complex fractures that involve the upper jaw or maxilla. Named after the French surgeon René Le Fort who first described them in 1901, these fractures are categorized into three types (Le Fort I, II, III) based on the pattern and level of bone involvement.

1. Le Fort I fracture: This type of maxillary fracture involves a horizontal separation through the lower part of the maxilla, just above the teeth's roots. It often results from direct blows to the lower face or chin.

2. Le Fort II fracture: A Le Fort II fracture is characterized by a pyramidal-shaped fracture pattern that extends from the nasal bridge through the inferior orbital rim and maxilla, ending at the pterygoid plates. This type of fracture usually results from forceful impacts to the midface or nose.

3. Le Fort III fracture: A Le Fort III fracture is a severe craniofacial injury that involves both the upper and lower parts of the face. It is also known as a "craniofacial dysjunction" because it separates the facial bones from the skull base. The fracture line extends through the nasal bridge, orbital rims, zygomatic arches, and maxilla, ending at the pterygoid plates. Le Fort III fractures typically result from high-impact trauma to the face, such as car accidents or assaults.

These fractures often require surgical intervention for proper alignment and stabilization of the facial bones.

Aerosol propellants are substances used to expel aerosolized particles from a container. They are typically gases that are stored under pressure in a container and, when the container is opened or activated, the gas expands and forces the contents out through a small opening. The most commonly used aerosol propellants are hydrocarbons such as butane and propane, although fluorinated hydrocarbons such as difluoroethane and tetrafluoroethane are also used. Aerosol propellants can be found in various products including medical inhalers, cosmetics, and food products. It is important to handle aerosol propellants with care, as they can be flammable or harmful if inhaled or ingested.

An autopsy, also known as a post-mortem examination or obduction, is a medical procedure in which a qualified professional (usually a pathologist) examines a deceased person's body to determine the cause and manner of death. This process may involve various investigative techniques, such as incisions to study internal organs, tissue sampling, microscopic examination, toxicology testing, and other laboratory analyses. The primary purpose of an autopsy is to gather objective evidence about the medical conditions and factors contributing to the individual's demise, which can be essential for legal, insurance, or public health purposes. Additionally, autopsies can provide valuable insights into disease processes and aid in advancing medical knowledge.

Homicide is a legal term used to describe the taking of another human life. It is not a medical diagnosis, but rather a legal concept that may result in criminal charges. In medical terms, it might be referred to as "unnatural death" or "violent death." The term itself does not carry a connotation of guilt or innocence; it simply describes the factual occurrence of one person causing the death of another.

The legal definition of homicide varies by jurisdiction and can encompass a range of criminal charges, from manslaughter to murder, depending on the circumstances and intent behind the act.

Protective clothing refers to specialized garments worn by healthcare professionals, first responders, or workers in various industries to protect themselves from potential hazards that could cause harm to their bodies. These hazards may include biological agents (such as viruses or bacteria), chemicals, radiological particles, physical injuries, or extreme temperatures.

Examples of protective clothing include:

1. Medical/isolation gowns: Fluid-resistant garments worn by healthcare workers during medical procedures to protect against the spread of infectious diseases.
2. Lab coats: Protective garments typically worn in laboratories to shield the wearer's skin and clothing from potential chemical or biological exposure.
3. Coveralls: One-piece garments that cover the entire body, often used in industries with high exposure risks, such as chemical manufacturing or construction.
4. Gloves: Protective hand coverings made of materials like latex, nitrile, or vinyl, which prevent direct contact with hazardous substances.
5. Face masks and respirators: Devices worn over the nose and mouth to filter out airborne particles, protecting the wearer from inhaling harmful substances.
6. Helmets and face shields: Protective headgear used in various industries to prevent physical injuries from falling objects or impact.
7. Fire-resistant clothing: Specialized garments worn by firefighters and those working with high temperatures or open flames to protect against burns and heat exposure.

The choice of protective clothing depends on the specific hazards present in the work environment, as well as the nature and duration of potential exposures. Proper use, maintenance, and training are essential for ensuring the effectiveness of protective clothing in minimizing risks and maintaining worker safety.

Clothing is not a medical term, but rather a general term used to describe items worn on the body for various reasons such as protection from the elements, modesty, or fashion. In a medical context, clothing may be referred to in relation to certain conditions or treatments that require special garments, such as compression stockings for deep vein thrombosis or protective gear for athletes. However, there is no specific medical definition for 'clothing'.

X-rays, also known as radiographs, are a type of electromagnetic radiation with higher energy and shorter wavelength than visible light. In medical imaging, X-rays are used to produce images of the body's internal structures, such as bones and organs, by passing the X-rays through the body and capturing the resulting shadows or patterns on a specialized film or digital detector.

The amount of X-ray radiation used is carefully controlled to minimize exposure and ensure patient safety. Different parts of the body absorb X-rays at different rates, allowing for contrast between soft tissues and denser structures like bone. This property makes X-rays an essential tool in diagnosing and monitoring a wide range of medical conditions, including fractures, tumors, infections, and foreign objects within the body.

X-ray diffraction (XRD) is not strictly a medical definition, but it is a technique commonly used in the field of medical research and diagnostics. XRD is a form of analytical spectroscopy that uses the phenomenon of X-ray diffraction to investigate the crystallographic structure of materials. When a beam of X-rays strikes a crystal, it is scattered in specific directions and with specific intensities that are determined by the arrangement of atoms within the crystal. By measuring these diffraction patterns, researchers can determine the crystal structures of various materials, including biological macromolecules such as proteins and viruses.

In the medical field, XRD is often used to study the structure of drugs and drug candidates, as well as to analyze the composition and structure of tissues and other biological samples. For example, XRD can be used to investigate the crystal structures of calcium phosphate minerals in bone tissue, which can provide insights into the mechanisms of bone formation and disease. Additionally, XRD is sometimes used in the development of new medical imaging techniques, such as phase-contrast X-ray imaging, which has the potential to improve the resolution and contrast of traditional X-ray images.

X-ray crystallography is a technique used in structural biology to determine the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms in a crystal lattice. In this method, a beam of X-rays is directed at a crystal and diffracts, or spreads out, into a pattern of spots called reflections. The intensity and angle of each reflection are measured and used to create an electron density map, which reveals the position and type of atoms in the crystal. This information can be used to determine the molecular structure of a compound, including its shape, size, and chemical bonds. X-ray crystallography is a powerful tool for understanding the structure and function of biological macromolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids.

In the context of medicine, there is no specific medical definition for 'metals.' However, certain metals have significant roles in biological systems and are thus studied in physiology, pathology, and pharmacology. Some metals are essential to life, serving as cofactors for enzymatic reactions, while others are toxic and can cause harm at certain levels.

Examples of essential metals include:

1. Iron (Fe): It is a crucial component of hemoglobin, myoglobin, and various enzymes involved in energy production, DNA synthesis, and electron transport.
2. Zinc (Zn): This metal is vital for immune function, wound healing, protein synthesis, and DNA synthesis. It acts as a cofactor for over 300 enzymes.
3. Copper (Cu): Copper is essential for energy production, iron metabolism, antioxidant defense, and connective tissue formation. It serves as a cofactor for several enzymes.
4. Magnesium (Mg): Magnesium plays a crucial role in many biochemical reactions, including nerve and muscle function, protein synthesis, and blood pressure regulation.
5. Manganese (Mn): This metal is necessary for bone development, protein metabolism, and antioxidant defense. It acts as a cofactor for several enzymes.
6. Molybdenum (Mo): Molybdenum is essential for the function of certain enzymes involved in the metabolism of nucleic acids, proteins, and drugs.
7. Cobalt (Co): Cobalt is a component of vitamin B12, which plays a vital role in DNA synthesis, fatty acid metabolism, and nerve function.

Examples of toxic metals include:

1. Lead (Pb): Exposure to lead can cause neurological damage, anemia, kidney dysfunction, and developmental issues.
2. Mercury (Hg): Mercury is highly toxic and can cause neurological problems, kidney damage, and developmental issues.
3. Arsenic (As): Arsenic exposure can lead to skin lesions, cancer, neurological disorders, and cardiovascular diseases.
4. Cadmium (Cd): Cadmium is toxic and can cause kidney damage, bone demineralization, and lung irritation.
5. Chromium (Cr): Excessive exposure to chromium can lead to skin ulcers, respiratory issues, and kidney and liver damage.

"Bone" is the hard, dense connective tissue that makes up the skeleton of vertebrate animals. It provides support and protection for the body's internal organs, and serves as a attachment site for muscles, tendons, and ligaments. Bone is composed of cells called osteoblasts and osteoclasts, which are responsible for bone formation and resorption, respectively, and an extracellular matrix made up of collagen fibers and mineral crystals.

Bones can be classified into two main types: compact bone and spongy bone. Compact bone is dense and hard, and makes up the outer layer of all bones and the shafts of long bones. Spongy bone is less dense and contains large spaces, and makes up the ends of long bones and the interior of flat and irregular bones.

The human body has 206 bones in total. They can be further classified into five categories based on their shape: long bones, short bones, flat bones, irregular bones, and sesamoid bones.

... is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ba(NO3)2. It, like most barium salts, is colorless, toxic, ... Like all soluble barium compounds, barium nitrate is toxic by ingestion or inhalation. Solutions of sulfate salts such as Epsom ... At elevated temperatures, barium nitrate decomposes to barium oxide: 2Ba(NO3)2 → 2BaO + 4NO2 + O2 Barium nitrate is used in the ... "Barium and Barium Compounds". In Ullman, Franz (ed.). Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/ ...
In a commercial sense, it is one of the most important barium compounds. Barium carbonate is made commercially from barium ... Otherwise it is a common precursor to barium-containing compounds such as ferrites. Barium carbonate is widely used in the ... "Barium and Barium Compounds". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a03_325 ... such as barium chloride: BaCO 3 + 2 HCl → BaCl 2 + CO 2 + H 2O Pyrolysis of barium carbonate gives barium oxide. It is mainly ...
Palladium on barium sulfate is also used as a catalyst in the Rosenmund reduction. As barium compounds emit a characteristic ... Due to the relatively high atomic number (Z = 56) of barium, its compounds absorb X-rays more strongly than compounds derived ... Because barium sulfate is the least toxic salt of barium due to its insolubility, wastes containing barium salts are sometimes ... Although barium is a heavy metal, and its water-soluble compounds are often highly toxic, the low solubility of barium sulfate ...
Volatile barium compounds burn with a green to pale green flame, which is an efficient test to detect a barium compound. The ... The most common minerals of barium are baryte (barium sulfate, BaSO4) and witherite (barium carbonate, BaCO3). The name barium ... Barium compounds are added to fireworks to impart a green color. Barium sulfate is used as an insoluble additive to oil well ... Water-soluble barium compounds are poisonous and have been used as rodenticides. Barium is a soft, silvery-white metal, with a ...
... is the inorganic compound with the formula BaS. BaS is the barium compound produced on the largest scale. It is ... "Barium and Barium Compounds". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a03_325 ... Barium compounds, Monosulfides, Cubic minerals, Phosphors and scintillators, Rock salt crystal structure). ... a source material for many commercial barium compounds. According to Harvey (1957), in 1603, Vincenzo Cascariolo used barite, ...
... is an inorganic compound with the formula BaCl2. It is one of the most common water-soluble salts of barium. ... dihydrate) Barium chloride's use in industry. ChemSub Online: Barium chloride. (Chemical articles with multiple compound IDs, ... Barium chloride can in principle be prepared by the reaction between barium hydroxide or barium carbonate with hydrogen ... Brackett, E. B.; Brackett, T. E.; Sass, R. L. (1963). "The Crystal Structures of Barium Chloride, Barium Bromide, and Barium ...
Barium compounds, Stannates, Semiconductor materials, Perovskites). ... Barium stannate is an oxide of barium and tin with the chemical formula BaSnO3. It is a wide band gap semiconductor with a ... Wei, Xiaoyong; Yao, Xi (February 2007). "Preparation, structure and dielectric property of barium stannate titanate ceramics". ... electrical and optical properties of lanthanum-doped barium stannate". Ceramics International. 41 (2): 2668-2672. doi:10.1016/j ...
"Compounds of barium: barium (II) oxide". Web Elements. The University of Sheffield. 2007-01-26. Retrieved 2007-02-22. "Barium ... Barium oxide, also known as baria, is a white hygroscopic non-flammable compound with the formula BaO. It has a cubic structure ... Excessive quantities of barium oxide may lead to death. It is prepared by heating barium carbonate with coke, carbon black or ... Barium oxide is made by heating barium carbonate at temperatures between 1000-1450 °C. It may also be prepared by thermal ...
... or other compounds, such as barium nitrate. These in turn are calcined into barium oxide, which eventually yields pure barium ... It and barium have some uses in medicine, for example "barium meals" in radiographic imaging, whilst strontium compounds are ... To produce barium, barite (impure barium sulfate) is converted to barium sulfide by carbothermic reduction (such as with coke ... Calcium and barium are weakly radioactive: calcium contains about 0.1874% calcium-48, and barium contains about 0.1062% barium- ...
"Barium and Barium Compounds". In Elvers, Barbara; et al. (eds.). Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Vol. 4 (7th ed ... When there is no public data on the element in its pure form, price of a compound is used, per mass of element contained. This ... Hammond, C. R. (2004). "The Elements". In Lide, David R. (ed.). Properties of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds. pp. 4-3-4- ... Properties of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds. pp. 4-3-4-42. ISBN 978-1498754286. {{cite book}}: ,work= ignored (help) ...
... is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ba2TiO4. It is a colourless solid that is of interest ... Use dmy dates from May 2023, Titanates, Barium compounds). ... Barium orthotitanate can remove up to 99.9% of CO 2 from a high ... S. "The Raman Scattering of Barium Orthotitanate". Optics and Spectroscopy. 13: 254-255. Todd, S. S.; Lorenson, R.E. (August ... Jaffe, Bernard; Cook Jr., William R.; Jaffe, Hans (1971). "5. Barium Titanate". Piezoelectric Ceramics. London and New York: ...
Barium compounds, Europium(III) compounds, Ferroelectric materials, Perovskites, All stub articles, Inorganic compound stubs). ... Europium barium titanate is a chemical compound composed of barium, europium, titanium, and oxygen. It is magnetic and ... Janes, D. L.; Bodnar, R. E.; Taylor, A. L. (1978). "Europium barium titanate---A magnetic ferroelectric compound". Journal of ...
Industrially, barium hydroxide is used as the precursor to other barium compounds. The monohydrate is used to dehydrate and ... Barium hydroxide decomposes to barium oxide when heated to 800 °C. Reaction with carbon dioxide gives barium carbonate. Its ... "Barium and Barium Compounds" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 2007 Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007. ... is one of the principal compounds of barium. This white granular monohydrate is the usual commercial form. Barium hydroxide can ...
... is the chemical compound of formula BaFeO4. This is a rare compound containing iron in the +6 oxidation state. ... Barium ferrate is the most stable of the ferrate(VI) compounds. It can be prepared in its purest state and has the most ... Barium ferrate is then precipitated from solution by adding a solution of a barium(II) salt. Addition of a soluble barium salt ... reducing the coprecipitation of barium hydroxide and barium carbonate as impurities. Barium ferrate is an oxidizing agent and ...
... is the chemical compound with the formula BaBr2. It is ionic and hygroscopic in nature. BaBr2 crystallizes in ... Barium bromide, along with other water-soluble barium salts (e.g. barium chloride), is toxic. However, there is no conclusive ... Barium bromide can be prepared by treating barium sulfide or barium carbonate with hydrobromic acid: BaS + 2 HBr → BaBr2 + H2S ... Barium bromide is a precursor to chemicals used in photography and to other bromides. Historically, barium bromide was used to ...
... is an inorganic compound with the formula BaO2. This white solid (gray when impure) is one of the most common ... Being an oxidizer and giving a vivid green colour upon ignition (as do all barium compounds), it finds some use in fireworks; ... Barium peroxide arises by the reversible reaction of O2 with barium oxide. The peroxide forms around 500 °C and oxygen is ... Barium compounds, Peroxides, Pyrotechnic oxidizers, Pyrotechnic colorants, Oxidizing agents). ...
... is an inorganic compound with the formula BaMnO4. It is used as an oxidant in organic chemistry. It belongs to ... Barium manganate can be prepared from potassium manganate and barium chloride by salt metathesis to give insoluble barium ... Barium manganate is isomorphous with BaCrO4 and BaSO4. Barium manganate can appear as a dark blue or green to black crystals. ... aromatic amines to azo-compounds, hydroquinone to p-benzoquinone, benzylamine to benzaldehyde, hydrazones to diazo compounds, ...
... is an inorganic compound with the formula BaF2. It is a colorless solid that occurs in nature as the rare ... Barium compounds, Fluorides, Optical materials, Phosphors and scintillators, Crystals, Alkaline earth metal halides, Fluorite ... Barium fluoride is transparent from the ultraviolet to the infrared, from 150 to 200 nm to 11-11.5 µm. It is used in windows ... Barium fluoride is also a common, very fast (one of the fastest) scintillators for the detection of X-rays, gamma rays or other ...
Barium compounds, Acetylacetonate complexes, All stub articles, Organic compound stubs). ... Barium acetylacetonate is a compound with formula Ba(C5H7O2)2. It is the Ba2+ complex of the anion acetylacetonate. The ... which would accord with the high coordination number characteristic of barium. Barium acetylacetonate has been examined in ... Its formation of a sublimable adduct containing a polyether illustrates the high coordination numbers typical of barium. Paw, ...
... is an inorganic compound with the formula BaI2. The compound exists as an anhydrous and a hydrate (BaI2(H2O)2), ... BaI2 can be reduced with lithium biphenyl, to give a highly active form of barium metal. Like other soluble salts of barium, ... ISBN 0-19-855370-6. Brackett, E. B.; Brackett, T. E.; Sass, R. L.; The Crystal Structures of Barium Chloride, Barium Bromide, ... BaI2 reacts with alkyl potassium compounds to form organobarium compounds. ...
... is a chemical compound with the chemical formula BaH2. Barium hydride can be prepared by dissolving elemental ... pp 4-50 Libowitz, G. G. (1987). "Calcium, Strontium and Barium Hydrides". Inorganic Reactions and Methods. pp. 158-159. doi: ... barium with hydrogen at temperatures between 150-200 °C:[clarification needed] Ba + H2 → BaH2 Barium hydride reacts with oxygen ...
Barium compounds, Sulfites, All stub articles, Inorganic compound stubs). ... Barium sulfite is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula BaSO3. It is a white powder that finds few applications. It ... is an intermediate in the carbothermal reduction of barium sulfate to barium sulfide: BaSO4 + CO → BaSO3 + CO2 Lide, David R. ( ...
... (BTO) is an inorganic compound with chemical formula BaTiO3. Barium titanate appears white as a powder and is ... Barium titanate is one of the few ceramic compounds known to exhibit abnormal grain growth, in which large faceted grains grow ... High-purity barium titanate powder is reported to be a key component of new barium titanate capacitor energy storage systems ... For photorefractive applications, barium titanate can be doped by various other elements, e.g. iron. Thin films of barium ...
Category:Radium compounds Francium compounds Actinium compounds Barium compounds Kirby et al., p. 4 Kirby et al., p. 8 Kirby et ... Small amounts of barium impurities give the compound a rose color. It is soluble in water, though less so than barium chloride ... Insoluble radium compounds coprecipitate with all barium, most strontium, and most lead compounds. Radium oxide (RaO) has not ... Radium compounds are compounds containing the element radium (Ra). Due to radium's radioactivity, not many compounds have been ...
... more and more firework producers have begun to use more stable compound such as barium nitrate and barium carbonate. Barium ... Barium chlorate, Ba(ClO3)2, is the barium salt of chloric acid. It is a white crystalline solid, and like all soluble barium ... When exposed to heat, barium chlorate alone will decompose to barium chloride and oxygen: Ba(ClO3)2 → BaCl2 + 3 O2 Barium ... Barium compounds, Inorganic compounds, Chlorates, Pyrotechnic oxidizers, Pyrotechnic colorants, Oxidizing agents). ...
... is a chemical compound, the nitrous acid salt of barium. It has the chemical formula Ba(NO2)2. It is a water- ... Barium nitrite can be made by reacting barium nitrate with lead metal sponge, or by reaction of lead nitrite with barium ... Barium nitrite is toxic if ingested or inhaled, as both barium and the nitrite ion are toxic.[citation needed] Schlessinger GG ... Inorganic compounds, Barium compounds, Nitrites). ...
... is an inorganic compound, with the chemical formula of BaSe. It is a white solid although typically samples are ... Barium selenide can be obtained by the reduction of barium selenate in hydrogen flow:. BaSeO4 + H2 → BaSe + 4 H2O It can also ... CO2 Barium can also forms a series of polyselenide compounds, such as Ba2Se3, BaSe2 and BaSe3. Okamoto, H (August 1991). "The ... Sobolev (March 2017). "A Study of the Optical Properties of Barium Selenide Crystals. I. Fundamental Functions". Journal of ...
Barium compounds, Ruthenium(IV) compounds, Transition metal oxides, Perovskites). ... Barium ruthenate is an inorganic compound, with the chemical formula of BaRuO3. It can be obtained from the stoichiometric ... "Barium ruthenium trioxide". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Popova, T. L.; Kisel, N. G.; Krivobok, V. I.; Karlov, V. P. Reactions in ... Sinitsyn, N. M.; Kokunova, V. N. Preparation of double ruthenium oxides from coordination compounds(in Russian). Zhurnal ...
Barium compounds, All stub articles, Inorganic compound stubs). ... Barium permanganate is a chemical compound, with the formula Ba ... Barium permanganate may be produced by disproportionation of barium manganate in a mildly acidic solution, including solutions ... Another way to synthesize barium permanganate is by the reaction between silver permanganate and barium chloride. Highly pure ... which is then reacted with a stoichiometric amount of barium hydroxide. Barium permanganate is a strong oxidizer. It is ...
Barium compounds, Cyanides, All stub articles, Inorganic compound stubs). ... Barium cyanide is a chemical compound with the formula Ba(CN)2. It is synthesized by the reaction of hydrogen cyanide and ... When barium cyanide is heated to 300°C with steam present, the nitrogen evolves to ammonia, leaving barium formate. The ... Barium cyanide is used in electroplating and other metallurgical processes. Barium cyanide reacts with water and carbon dioxide ...
Barium is non-combustible, but may decompose upon heating to produce corrosive or toxic fumes (HSDB 2007a). Elemental barium ... Barium is a silvery-white to yellowish odorless metal that is found in nature primarily as barium sulfate or barium carbonate ( ... and barium sulfide may be flammable in moist air (ATSDR 2005). ... Other barium compounds (barium acetate, barium chloride, barium ... barium sulfate and barium carbonate. Water-soluble barium compounds (barium acetate, barium chloride, barium hydroxide, barium ...
Barium nitrate is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ba(NO3)2. It, like most barium salts, is colorless, toxic, ... Like all soluble barium compounds, barium nitrate is toxic by ingestion or inhalation. Solutions of sulfate salts such as Epsom ... At elevated temperatures, barium nitrate decomposes to barium oxide: 2Ba(NO3)2 → 2BaO + 4NO2 + O2 Barium nitrate is used in the ... "Barium and Barium Compounds". In Ullman, Franz (ed.). Ullmanns Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/ ...
Environmental: Detection of barium compounds in environmental samples. (8-11) Case classification * Suspected: A case in which ... Ingestion of certain forms of barium (e.g., barium carbonate or barium fluoride) in toxic amounts can lead to gastrointestinal ... Toxicological Profile for Barium and Barium Compounds[online]. 2007. [cited 2013 March 27]. Available from URL: http://www. ... Biologic: An elevated urinary barium concentration. A urinary barium concentration greater than the 95th percentile for the ...
Barium (soluble compounds, as Ba). 7440-39-3. 50 mg Ba/m3. ... Chromium (II) compounds [as Cr(II)]. n/a. 250 mg Cr(II)/m3. ... Mercury compounds [except (organo) alkyls, as Hg]. 7439-97-6 (metal). 10 mg Hg/m3. ... Chromium (III) compounds [as Cr(III)]. n/a. 25 mg Cr(III)/m3. ... Mercury (organo) alkyl compounds(as Hg). n/a. 2 mg Hg/m3. ... Arsenic (inorganic compounds, as As). 7440-38-2 (metal). 5 mg As/m3. ...
Barium and its compounds. Barium titanate. 12047-27-7. 51.142800. 65.400000. 1.350076. ... Barium and its compounds. Barium sulfate. 7727-43-7. 10.882092. 0.410800. 0.287267. ... Inorganic Silicon compounds. Silicon dioxide. 7631-86-9. 198.304140. 7.486000. 5.234865. Lead and its compounds. Lead, metallic ... Inorganic Silicon compounds. Silica, vitreous. 60676-86-0. 37.080000. 60.000000. 0.978844. Inorganic compounds. Carbon Black. ...
barium chloride results in increased expression of IL6 mRNA. [barium chloride results in increased abundance of Barium] which ... barium compounds; barium molecular entities. show annotations for terms descendants Sort by:. symbol. object name. position. ... barium chloride results in increased abundance of Barium] which results in decreased activity of ACHE protein. CTD. PMID: ... barium chloride results in increased abundance of Barium] which results in decreased activity of ACHE protein. CTD. PMID: ...
Environmental: Detection of barium compounds in environmental samples. (8-11) Case classification * Suspected: A case in which ... Ingestion of certain forms of barium (e.g., barium carbonate or barium fluoride) in toxic amounts can lead to gastrointestinal ... Toxicological Profile for Barium and Barium Compounds[online]. 2007. [cited 2013 March 27]. Available from URL: http://www. ... Biologic: An elevated urinary barium concentration. A urinary barium concentration greater than the 95th percentile for the ...
Barium-compounds; Beryllium-compounds; Cadmium-compounds; Lead-compounds; Nickel-compounds; Dust-exposure; Dusts; Heat-stress; ... Samples were analyzed for up to 31 metals with five selected elements (barium, beryllium, cadmium, lead and nickel) given ...
"Are you a compound of Barium and Beryllium? Because youre a total BaBe." ...
They made their insulator out of the compound barium titanate. HZB researchers Sergio Valencia and Florian Kronast used X-ray ...
The polyethylene of the T-body is compounded with barium sulfate, which makes it radiopaque. A monofilament brown polyethylene ... are allergic to levonorgestrel, silicone, polyethylene, silica, barium sulfate or iron oxide. ...
Barium and its compounds. Barium sulfate. 7727-43-7. 5.070465. 29.100000. 2.055433. ... Magnesium and its compounds. Talc. 14807-96-6. 0.522728. 3.000000. 0.211900. Organic compounds. Other organic compounds.. ... Inorganic Silicon compounds. Silicon dioxide. 7631-86-9. 31.075000. 25.000000. 12.596986. Inorganic compounds. Carbon Black. ... Inorganic Silicon compounds. Silicon dioxide. 7631-86-9. 0.135000. 45.000000. 0.054725. Non-Halogenated Organic Compounds - ...
barium compounds + chlorine producer. barium chloride, BaCl+ = bright green. Blue. copper compounds + chlorine producer. copper ...
TZCXTZWJZNENPQ-UHFFFAOYSA-L Barium sulfate Chemical compound [Ba+2].[O-]S([O-])(=O)=O TZCXTZWJZNENPQ-UHFFFAOYSA-L 0.000 ... MYMOFIZGZYHOMD-UHFFFAOYSA-N oxygen Chemical compound O=O MYMOFIZGZYHOMD-UHFFFAOYSA-N 0.000 claims description 9 ... UFHFLCQGNIYNRP-UHFFFAOYSA-N hydrogen Chemical compound [H][H] UFHFLCQGNIYNRP-UHFFFAOYSA-N 0.000 description 1 ...
A coated stock (barium sulfate compound) used for text impressions on typesetting machines. ...
The primer contains, among other things, inorganic compounds, heavy metals like lead, barium, antimony," Trejos said. ... is looking beyond inorganic compounds like metals to organic compounds like nitroglycerine that are also released when a gun ... "If we combine information about organic and inorganic compounds in GSR, we can have more confidence in our results," Luis ... The research establishes how organic and inorganic compounds in GSR differ in the ways they each persist on surfaces and ...
These compounds are most commonly barium, lead, and antimony, although not all are present in every brand or type of primer. ... These are generated by the discharge of the cartridge primer, which vaporizes the metallic compounds within that primer and ...
Higher levels of Compound A are obtained when using barium hydroxide lime rather than soda lime. ... Compound A: Compound A is a degradation product of sevoflurane, which is generated in CO2-absorbers. Its concentration ... In systems using barium lime as CO2 absorbents concentrations of up to 61 ppm were found. Although the experience with low-flow ... The level of Compound A exposure at which clinical nephrotoxicity might be expected to occur has not been established. Consider ...
... has developed a green-burning compound that uses tris(2,2,2-trinitroethyl)borate instead of barium. The colors spectral purity ... The metal-donating compounds often include barium nitrate, strontium carbonate or nitrate, sodium oxalate, and copper carbonate ... These compounds by themselves are so hygroscopic (that is, attractive to water) that they render any mixture damp, unburnable, ... Metals in fireworks such as strontium and barium are toxic to human and animal health, and the burning process produces other ...
There are no heavy metals or compounds containing antimony, barium, lead, chlorine, phenols or phosphorus. ...
By the early 70s, barium and strontium ferrites (compounds which are "deadly poison to be around," notes Shaw) were developed ... Its unlikely that when you think of your specific sonic nirvana, you picture the little bits of metal compounds that we call ...
The company is also a leading provider of special metal compounds based on cesium, barium, titanium and zirconium. ... NYSE: ROC) today announced that its global lithium and special metal compounds business will trade under the new brand name ... Rockwood Lithium is the global market leader for lithium compounds and one of the largest lithium raw material producers. ...
... typically a barium compound. If the doctors want to examine blood vessels or other elements in the circulatory system, they ...
It can do so due to the high concentration of a chemical compound called barium sulfate, also used to make photo paper and ...
DETAIL NOTES Certain colors may employ controlled quantities of calcium or barium compounds as modifiers. Color Range Dark ...
Barium carbonate is an inorganic compound with a chemical formula of BaCO3. It is a white powder. It is insoluble in water but ... The supply capacity of the barium carbonate industry is big but not strong, and the consumption increase is concentrated in ... With the increasingly fierce international competition, the development of barium salt fine chemical industry has become the ... The development trend of barium salt and strontium salt towards high purification and functionalization realizes industrial ...
An inert natural compound, barium sulfate, is introduced into the colon through a narrow tube placed into the rectum. Air often ... Barium Enema. A barium enema is a diagnostic X-ray examination of the colon (the large intestine) to check for colon cancer, ... The barium outlines the interior surface of the colon.. While the colon is being filled, the radiologist watches on a video ... You will be given either a barium solution (a thick, chalky substance) or a thinner iodine-based drink. The radiologist will ...
  • In nature, barium exists primarily as the relatively water-insoluble compounds, barium sulfate and barium carbonate. (cdc.gov)
  • Barium sulfate is used in drilling muds, which are used to lubricate drill bits in oil- and gas-drilling industries. (cdc.gov)
  • Insoluble barium sulfate has been safely used as an x-ray contrast material of the gastrointestinal tract, including barium enemas. (cdc.gov)
  • in soluble barium compounds), and 15 mg/m 3 (total dust) and 5 mg/m 3 (respirable fraction) for insoluble barium sulfate. (cdc.gov)
  • The PELs for barium sulfate are the same as those for nuisance dust in general (OSHA 2006). (cdc.gov)
  • Barium sulfate is incompatible with aluminum and potassium (Lewis 2000). (cdc.gov)
  • Solutions of sulfate salts such as Epsom salts or sodium sulfate may be given as first aid for barium poisoning, as they precipitate the barium as the insoluble (and non-toxic) barium sulfate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Barium sulfate is not absorbed when taken by mouth and therefore is commonly used as a contrast agent for radiographic procedures. (cdc.gov)
  • A coated stock (barium sulfate compound) used for text impressions on typesetting machines. (prepressure.com)
  • It can do so due to the high concentration of a chemical compound called barium sulfate, also used to make photo paper and cosmetics. (theartnewspaper.com)
  • An inert natural compound, barium sulfate, is introduced into the colon through a narrow tube placed into the rectum. (hoag.org)
  • Barium Carbonate BaCO3, is a major raw material in the manufacture of porcelain enamel frits, glazes, ferrite magnets, barium titanate, barium sulfate, miscellaneous barium chemicals and various types of glass including television picture tubes, reflective glass beads and other specialty scientific, optical and art glasses. (cpc-us.com)
  • Barium sulfate, a compound derived from barium, is commonly used as a contrast agent in X-ray imaging procedures. (dinedreamdiscover.com)
  • When ingested or administered rectally, barium sulfate helps to enhance the visibility of the gastrointestinal tract, allowing for better visualization of any abnormalities or diseases. (dinedreamdiscover.com)
  • One common compound of barium that is consumed is barium sulfate, which is often used as a contrast agent in medical imaging procedures such as X-rays. (dinedreamdiscover.com)
  • Barium sulfate is insoluble in water and has a chalky taste, which can be unpleasant for patients undergoing these procedures. (dinedreamdiscover.com)
  • To make it more palatable, barium sulfate is often mixed with flavored syrups or fruit juices. (dinedreamdiscover.com)
  • One of its primary uses is in the production of barium sulfate, which is commonly used as a contrast agent in medical imaging procedures such as X-rays and CT scans. (dinedreamdiscover.com)
  • Barium sulfate or other compounds may be used in the fabrication of the component. (blogspot.com)
  • They made their insulator out of the compound barium titanate. (nanowerk.com)
  • Barium Chloride Crystal or Barium Chloride, Dihydrate is used in the production of molecular sieves, pigments, and barium titanate (used to make ceramic capacitors). (chemicalproductscorp.com)
  • EEStor is instead creating better nonconductive material for use between the metal sheets, using a chemical compound called barium titanate. (impactlab.com)
  • Barium nitrate is manufactured by two processes that start with the main source material for barium, the carbonate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first involves dissolving barium carbonate in nitric acid, allowing any iron impurities to precipitate, then filtered, evaporated, and crystallized. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ingestion of certain forms of barium (e.g., barium carbonate or barium fluoride) in toxic amounts can lead to gastrointestinal signs and symptoms (e.g., vomiting, abdominal pain, and watery diarrhea). (cdc.gov)
  • Shankle R, Keane JR. Acute paralysis from inhaled barium carbonate. (cdc.gov)
  • In terms of technological innovation, not only has a municipal-level R&D center, but as a national-level high-tech enterprise, the core products of strontium chloride, strontium nitrate, high-purity strontium carbonate, and high-purity barium carbonate have a number of independent intellectual property rights such as invention patents and utility model patents. (justilien.com)
  • Barium carbonate is an inorganic compound with a chemical formula of BaCO3. (justilien.com)
  • Although all CRT television glass production has moved to Asia, this market still represents the largest demand for barium carbonate. (chemicalproductscorp.com)
  • Barium carbonate is also used in the manufacturing of hard ferrite magnets and several types of glasses and frit. (chemicalproductscorp.com)
  • Safety striping, such as that found on airport runways, use high refractive index glass beads which are made using barium carbonate as a primary component. (chemicalproductscorp.com)
  • Another compound of barium that is encountered in everyday life is barium carbonate, which is used in the production of ceramics, glass, and fireworks. (dinedreamdiscover.com)
  • Barium carbonate has a slightly alkaline taste and is often used as a pH regulator in certain food products. (dinedreamdiscover.com)
  • Water-soluble barium compounds (barium acetate, barium chloride, barium hydroxide, barium sulfide) are manufactured from naturally-occurring insoluble barium compounds. (cdc.gov)
  • Micro-Flo ® & Aqua-Flo ™ react with soluble salts in the clay to form insoluble compounds which cannot migrate to the surface of the ware during drying. (chemicalproductscorp.com)
  • Elemental barium and barium sulfide may be flammable in moist air (ATSDR 2005). (cdc.gov)
  • The second requires combining barium sulfide with nitric acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • From profound hypokalemia to life-threatening hyperkalemia: a case of barium sulfide poisoning. (cdc.gov)
  • But the mixtures of mercurous chloride, arsenic sulfide, copper acetoarsenite, and barium chlorate are unstable, and they are toxic to human health and the environment. (acs.org)
  • Samples were analyzed for up to 31 metals with five selected elements (barium, beryllium, cadmium, lead and nickel ) given emphasis. (cdc.gov)
  • Are you a compound of Barium and Beryllium? (yahoo.com)
  • A barium enema is a diagnostic X-ray examination of the colon (the large intestine) to check for colon cancer, polyps, diverticula or other abnormalities. (hoag.org)
  • There are several colorectal screening options for average-risk individuals, including colonoscopy every 10 years, flexible sigmoidoscopy every 5 years, double-contrast barium enema every 5 years, CT colonography every 5 years, and annual fecal occult blood testing. (medscape.com)
  • At present, this approach cannot replace a barium enema study or colonoscopy . (medscape.com)
  • That's a challenge for GSR analysis and the reason forensic science - a field that uses scientific methods to help solve crimes and examine trial evidence - is looking beyond inorganic compounds like metals to organic compounds like nitroglycerine that are also released when a gun fires. (homelandsecuritynewswire.com)
  • Inorganic or organic compounds that contain arsenic. (bvsalud.org)
  • Barium was discovered by Carl Wilhelm Scheele in 1772 and first isolated by Humphry Davy in 1808. (americanelements.com)
  • Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele is credited with recognizing barium oxide as a distinct compound in 1774. (dinedreamdiscover.com)
  • NIOSH IDLH (immediately dangerous to life or health) = 50 mg/m 3 for barium chloride (NIOSH 2005). (cdc.gov)
  • Barium nitrate is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ba(NO3)2. (wikipedia.org)
  • At elevated temperatures, barium nitrate decomposes to barium oxide: 2Ba(NO3)2 → 2BaO + 4NO2 + O2 Barium nitrate is used in the production of BaO-containing materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • the high density of barium nitrate results in baratol being quite dense as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Barium nitrate mixed with aluminium powder, a formula for flash powder, is highly explosive. (wikipedia.org)
  • Barium nitrate was also a primary ingredient in the "SR 365" incendiary charge used by the British in the De Wilde incendiary ammunition with which they armed their interceptor fighters, such as the Hawker Hurricane and Supermarine Spitfire, during the Battle of Britain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like all soluble barium compounds, barium nitrate is toxic by ingestion or inhalation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The B. Mk VI 'De Wilde' incendiary (named after the original Belgian inventor but in fact completely redesigned by Major Dixon), which contained 0.5 grams of SR 365 (a composition including barium nitrate which ignited on impact with the target) was twice as effective as these, scoring one in five. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is highly reactive with air and reacts vigorously with water to form barium hydroxide and hydrogen gas. (dinedreamdiscover.com)
  • Barium chloride is used to precipitate heavy metals from chemical processes & wastewater streams and as a raw material in making several barium-based chemical compounds. (chemicalproductscorp.com)
  • If we combine information about organic and inorganic compounds in GSR , we can have more confidence in our results," Luis Arroyo , an analytical chemist and associate professor, said. (homelandsecuritynewswire.com)
  • The research establishes how organic and inorganic compounds in GSR differ in the ways they each persist on surfaces and transfer to other surfaces during activities like running, hand shaking or washing. (homelandsecuritynewswire.com)
  • A newly available superconducting material â€" a steel tape coated with a compound called yttrium-barium-copper oxide, or YBCO â€" has allowed scientists to produce smaller, more powerful magnets. (berkeley.edu)
  • Copper compounds produce blue colors in fireworks. (fireworks.com)
  • Strontium is used to produce red, calcium is used for orange, sodium is used for yellow, barium compounds are used for green, and copper is used for blue. (grucci.com)
  • aS ("Black Ash"), is used in the manufacturing of various lithopone pigments and as the starting point in the preparation of other barium chemicals. (chemicalproductscorp.com)
  • Barium Sulphate is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula BaSO4. (brenntag.com)
  • With the increasingly fierce international competition, the development of barium salt fine chemical industry has become the development trend of the world's inorganic chemical industry, and it is also the focus of competition. (justilien.com)
  • Barium, a chemical element with the symbol Ba and atomic number 56, is a silvery-white, soft metal known for its unique properties and characteristics. (dinedreamdiscover.com)
  • Barium is non-combustible, but may decompose upon heating to produce corrosive or toxic fumes (HSDB 2007a). (cdc.gov)
  • This is due to the toxic nature of barium metal, which can pose serious health risks if ingested. (dinedreamdiscover.com)
  • Strontium compounds are also important for stabilizing fireworks mixtures. (fireworks.com)
  • Persons exposed to barium by inhalation do not pose secondary contamination risks. (cdc.gov)
  • Limited human and animal data indicate that high-level inhalation exposure to soluble barium compounds may result in systemic effects similar to those elicited from high-level oral exposure (ATSDR 2005). (cdc.gov)
  • However, the official discovery of barium is attributed to Sir Humphry Davy, who successfully isolated it through the process of electrolysis in 1808. (dinedreamdiscover.com)
  • Barium Chloride Anhydrous is primarily used as a component in the manufacture of heat treating salts for the hardening of steel. (chemicalproductscorp.com)
  • Barium compound additive, if I recall correctly. (bobistheoilguy.com)
  • Industrial applications for barium include acting as a "getter," or unwanted gas remover, for vacuum tubes, and as an additive to steel and cast iron . (americanelements.com)
  • Barium (atomic symbol: Ba, atomic number: 56) is a Block S, Group 2, Period 6 element with an atomic weight of 137.27. (americanelements.com)
  • Barium atomic weight is 137.3277 amu. (webqc.org)
  • This makes barium an invaluable tool in diagnosing conditions such as gastrointestinal bleeding, ulcers, and tumors. (dinedreamdiscover.com)
  • An elevated urinary barium concentration. (cdc.gov)
  • A urinary barium concentration greater than the 95th percentile for the general population is an unusual level of exposure for a person with no known occupational exposure to barium (CDC). (cdc.gov)
  • These compounds are often odorless and tasteless, but depending on the specific form and concentration, they can impart a range of flavors to the substances in which they are present. (dinedreamdiscover.com)
  • At room temperature, barium is a silvery-white odorless metal that takes on a silvery-yellow color when exposed to air. (cdc.gov)
  • Rockwood Holdings, Inc. (NYSE: ROC) today announced that its global lithium and special metal compounds business will trade under the new brand name Rockwood Lithium. (evwind.es)
  • The company is also a leading provider of special metal compounds based on cesium, barium, titanium and zirconium. (evwind.es)
  • In terms of its physical appearance, barium is a soft, silvery-white metal that can be easily cut with a knife. (dinedreamdiscover.com)
  • However, it is important to note that consuming barium in its pure metal form is highly discouraged. (dinedreamdiscover.com)
  • Although the taste of barium metal is generally described as bitter and metallic, it is crucial to understand that barium is typically consumed in the form of its compounds rather than as pure metal. (dinedreamdiscover.com)
  • We will also explore the potential of barium as an ingredient in culinary arts or mixology. (dinedreamdiscover.com)
  • Acute barium poisoning with respiratory failure and rhabdomyolysis. (cdc.gov)
  • Excessive blood levels of barium result in decreased blood potassium (hypokalemia), which may cause adverse cardiovascular and muscular effects such as tachycardia, increased or decreased blood pressure, muscle weakness, and paralysis. (cdc.gov)
  • Severe hypokalemia induced by barium toxicity can cause ventricular dysrhythmias (1-7). (cdc.gov)
  • I want to get the latest chemistry news from C&EN in my inbox every week. (acs.org)
  • This property, known as barium's "flame test," is often used in chemistry laboratories to identify the presence of barium in a sample. (dinedreamdiscover.com)
  • Barium is used to create green colors in fireworks, and it can also help stabilize other volatile elements. (fireworks.com)
  • A clinically compatible case in which a high index of suspicion (credible threat or patient history regarding location and time) exists for barium exposure, or an epidemiologic link exists between this case and a laboratory-confirmed case. (cdc.gov)
  • Barium toxicity after exposure to contaminated contrast solution-Goias State, Brazil, 2003. (cdc.gov)
  • Barium is a member of the alkaline-earth metals . (americanelements.com)
  • Barium is an element number 56 from alkali earth metals family. (webqc.org)
  • Moreover, barium exhibits excellent electrical conductivity, and its compounds are widely utilized in various industrial applications. (dinedreamdiscover.com)
  • Rockwood Lithium is the global market leader for lithium compounds and one of the largest lithium raw material producers. (evwind.es)
  • When it comes to its taste, barium is known for its characteristic bitter and metallic flavor. (dinedreamdiscover.com)