A compound used as an x-ray contrast medium that occurs in nature as the mineral barite. It is also used in various manufacturing applications and mixed into heavy concrete to serve as a radiation shield.
An element of the alkaline earth group of metals. It has an atomic symbol Ba, atomic number 56, and atomic weight 138. All of its acid-soluble salts are poisonous.
Inorganic compounds that contain barium as an integral part of the molecule.
A solution or compound that is introduced into the RECTUM with the purpose of cleansing the COLON or for diagnostic procedures.
An element of the alkaline earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sr, atomic number 38, and atomic weight 87.62.
A pouch or sac opening from the COLON.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the sigmoid flexure.
A genus of BROWN ALGAE in the family Lessoniaceae, and one of the major forms of KELP. The species Macrocystis pyrifera, also known as giant kelp, is the largest of the marine algae.
Pathological processes in the COLON region of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the colon.
Difficulty in SWALLOWING which may result from neuromuscular disorder or mechanical obstruction. Dysphagia is classified into two distinct types: oropharyngeal dysphagia due to malfunction of the PHARYNX and UPPER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER; and esophageal dysphagia due to malfunction of the ESOPHAGUS.
Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.
A motility disorder of the ESOPHAGUS in which the LOWER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER (near the CARDIA) fails to relax resulting in functional obstruction of the esophagus, and DYSPHAGIA. Achalasia is characterized by a grossly contorted and dilated esophagus (megaesophagus).
Unstable isotopes of barium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ba atoms with atomic weights 126-129, 131, 133, and 139-143 are radioactive barium isotopes.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Production of an image when x-rays strike a fluorescent screen.
STOMACH herniation located at or near the diaphragmatic opening for the ESOPHAGUS, the esophageal hiatus.
The act of taking solids and liquids into the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT through the mouth and throat.
A genus of BROWN ALGAE in the family Laminariaceae. Dried pencil-like pieces may be inserted in the cervix where they swell as they absorb moisture, serving as osmotic dilators.
Measurement of the pressure or tension of liquids or gases with a manometer.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The muscular membranous segment between the PHARYNX and the STOMACH in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Radiography of the gallbladder after ingestion of a contrast medium.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
A non-invasive imaging method that uses computed tomographic data combined with specialized imaging software to examine the colon.
Pathological processes in the ESOPHAGUS.
Bleeding in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.
Saccular protrusion beyond the wall of the ESOPHAGUS.
Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.
Any impairment, arrest, or reversal of the normal flow of INTESTINAL CONTENTS toward the ANAL CANAL.
A versatile contrast medium used for DIAGNOSTIC X-RAY RADIOLOGY.
Chemical, spectroscopic, or microscopic detection of extremely small amounts of blood.
A diphenylmethane stimulant laxative used for the treatment of CONSTIPATION and for bowel evacuation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p871)
A form of intestinal obstruction caused by the PROLAPSE of a part of the intestine into the adjoining intestinal lumen. There are four types: colic, involving segments of the LARGE INTESTINE; enteric, involving only the SMALL INTESTINE; ileocecal, in which the ILEOCECAL VALVE prolapses into the CECUM, drawing the ILEUM along with it; and ileocolic, in which the ileum prolapses through the ileocecal valve into the COLON.
A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.
Constructions built to access underground water.
Pathological developments in the CECUM.
Inhaling liquid or solids, such as stomach contents, into the RESPIRATORY TRACT. When this causes severe lung damage, it is called ASPIRATION PNEUMONIA.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
Pathological conditions in the DUODENUM region of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL).
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
A segment of the COLON between the RECTUM and the descending colon.
A pathological condition characterized by the presence of a number of COLONIC DIVERTICULA in the COLON. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial, including colon aging, motor dysfunction, increases in intraluminal pressure, and lack of dietary fibers.
The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.
Production of a radiographic image of a small or very thin object on fine-grained photographic film under conditions which permit subsequent microscopic examination or enlargement of the radiograph at linear magnifications of up to several hundred and with a resolution approaching the resolving power of the photographic emulsion (about 1000 lines per millimeter).
Dilatation of the COLON, often to alarming dimensions. There are various types of megacolon including congenital megacolon in HIRSCHSPRUNG DISEASE, idiopathic megacolon in CONSTIPATION, and TOXIC MEGACOLON.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
Zeolites. A group of crystalline, hydrated alkali-aluminum silicates. They occur naturally in sedimentary and volcanic rocks, altered basalts, ores, and clay deposits. Some 40 known zeolite minerals and a great number of synthetic zeolites are available commercially. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
Pathological development in the ILEUM including the ILEOCECAL VALVE.
Substances that are energetically unstable and can produce a sudden expansion of the material, called an explosion, which is accompanied by heat, pressure and noise. Other things which have been described as explosive that are not included here are explosive action of laser heating, human performance, sudden epidemiological outbreaks, or fast cell growth.
Passage of food (sometimes in the form of a test meal) through the gastrointestinal tract as measured in minutes or hours. The rate of passage through the intestine is an indicator of small bowel function.
The fusion of ceramics (porcelain) to an alloy of two or more metals for use in restorative and prosthodontic dentistry. Examples of metal alloys employed include cobalt-chromium, gold-palladium, gold-platinum-palladium, and nickel-based alloys.
One of the POTASSIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS, with secondary effect on calcium currents, which is used mainly as a research tool and to characterize channel subtypes.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Coronary vasodilator that is an analog of iproveratril (VERAPAMIL) with one more methoxy group on the benzene ring.
The black, tarry, foul-smelling FECES that contain degraded blood.
The physiologic or functional barrier to GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX at the esophagogastric junction. Sphincteric muscles remain tonically contracted during the resting state and form the high-pressure zone separating the lumen of the ESOPHAGUS from that of the STOMACH. (Haubrich et al, Bockus Gastroenterology, 5th ed., pp399, 415)
A potassium-selective ion channel blocker. (From J Gen Phys 1994;104(1):173-90)
Discrete tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the COLON. These POLYPS are connected to the wall of the colon either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.
Radiographic visualization of the body between the thorax and the pelvis, i.e., within the peritoneal cavity.
Examination of any part of the body for diagnostic purposes by means of X-RAYS or GAMMA RAYS, recording the image on a sensitized surface (such as photographic film).
Discrete abnormal tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the INTESTINE. A polyp is attached to the intestinal wall either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.
Twisting of the STOMACH that may result in gastric ISCHEMIA and GASTRIC OUTLET OBSTRUCTION. It is often associated with DIAPHRAGMATIC HERNIA.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
A pouch or sac developed from a tubular or saccular organ, such as the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Inflammation of the COLONIC DIVERTICULA, generally with abscess formation and subsequent perforation.
Agents that are used to stimulate evacuation of the bowels.
An abnormal anatomical passage between the INTESTINE, and another segment of the intestine or other organs. External intestinal fistula is connected to the SKIN (enterocutaneous fistula). Internal intestinal fistula can be connected to a number of organs, such as STOMACH (gastrocolic fistula), the BILIARY TRACT (cholecystoduodenal fistula), or the URINARY BLADDER of the URINARY TRACT (colovesical fistula). Risk factors include inflammatory processes, cancer, radiation treatment, and surgical misadventures (MEDICAL ERRORS).
Hindrance of the passage of luminal contents in the DUODENUM. Duodenal obstruction can be partial or complete, and caused by intrinsic or extrinsic factors. Simple obstruction is associated with diminished or stopped flow of luminal contents. Strangulating obstruction is associated with impaired blood flow to the duodenum in addition to obstructed flow of luminal contents.
A type of lung inflammation resulting from the aspiration of food, liquid, or gastric contents into the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
A species of the family Ranidae (true frogs). The only anuran properly referred to by the common name "bullfrog", it is the largest native anuran in North America.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the esophagus.
The valve, at the junction of the CECUM with the COLON, that guards the opening where the ILEUM enters the LARGE INTESTINE.
The quality or state of being able to be bent or creased repeatedly. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Mobilization of the lower end of the esophagus and plication of the fundus of the stomach around it (fundic wrapping) in the treatment of GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX that may be associated with various disorders, such as hiatal hernia. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.
Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.

Nonbehavioral selection for pawns, mutants of Paramecium aurelia with decreased excitability. (1/1812)

The reversal response in Paramecium aurelia is mediated by calcium which carries the inward current during excitation. Electrophysiological studies indicate that strontium and barium can also carry the inward current. Exposure to high concentrations of barium rapidly paralyzes and later kills wild-type paramecia. Following mutagenesis with nitrosoguanidine, seven mutants which continued to swim in the ;high-barium' solution were selected. All of the mutants show decreased reversal behavior, with phenotypes ranging from extremely non-reversing (;extreme' pawns) to nearly wild-type reversal behavior (;partial' pawns). The mutations fall into three complementation groups, identical to the pwA, pwB, and pwC genes of Kunget al. (1975). All of the pwA and pwB mutants withstand longer exposure to barium, the pwB mutants surviving longer than the pwA mutants. Among mutants of each gene, survival is correlated with loss of reversal behavior. Double mutants (A-B, A-C, B-C), identified in the exautogamous progeny of crosses between ;partial' mutants, exhibited a more extreme non-reversing phenotype than either of their single-mutant (;partial' pawn) parents.---Inability to reverse could be expected from an alteration in the calcium-activated reversal mechanism or in excitation. A normal calcium-activated structure was demonstrated in all pawns by chlorpromazine treatment. In a separate report (Schein, Bennett and Katz 1976) the results of electrophysiological investigations directly demonstrate decreased excitability in all of the mutants, a decrease due to an altered calcium activation. The studies of the genetics, the survival in barium and the electro-physiology of the pawns demonstrate that the pwA and pwB genes have different effects on calcium activation.  (+info)

Inducible genetic suppression of neuronal excitability. (2/1812)

Graded, reversible suppression of neuronal excitability represents a logical goal of therapy for epilepsy and intractable pain. To achieve such suppression, we have developed the means to transfer "electrical silencing" genes into neurons with sensitive control of transgene expression. An ecdysone-inducible promoter drives the expression of inwardly rectifying potassium channels in polycistronic adenoviral vectors. Infection of superior cervical ganglion neurons did not affect normal electrical activity but suppressed excitability after the induction of gene expression. These experiments demonstrate the feasibility of controlled ion channel expression after somatic gene transfer into neurons and serve as the prototype for a novel generalizable approach to modulate excitability.  (+info)

Activation of human D3 dopamine receptor inhibits P/Q-type calcium channels and secretory activity in AtT-20 cells. (3/1812)

The D3 dopamine receptor is postulated to play an important role in the regulation of neurotransmitter secretion at both pre- and postsynaptic terminals. However, this hypothesis and the underlying mechanisms remain untested because of the lack of D3-selective ligands, paucity of appropriate model secretory systems, and the weak and inconsistent coupling of D3 receptors to classical signal transduction pathways. The absence of ligands that selectively discriminate between D3 and D2 receptors in vivo precludes the study of D3 receptor function in the brain and necessitates the use of heterologous expression systems. In this report we demonstrate that activation of the human D3 dopamine receptor expressed in the AtT-20 neuroendocrine cell line causes robust inhibition of P/Q-type calcium channels via pertussis toxin-sensitive G-proteins. In addition, using the vesicle trafficking dye FM1-43, we show that D3 receptor activation significantly inhibits spontaneous secretory activity in these cells. Our results not only support the hypothesis that the D3 receptor can regulate secretory activity but also provide insight into the underlying signaling mechanisms. We propose a functional model in which the D3 receptor tightly regulates neurotransmitter release at a synapse by only allowing the propagation of spikes above a certain frequency or burst-duration threshold.  (+info)

Volume regulation following hypotonic shock in isolated crypts of mouse distal colon. (4/1812)

1. A video-imaging technique of morphometry was used to measure the diameter as an index of cell volume in intact mouse distal colon crypts submitted to hypotonic shock. 2. Transition from isotonic (310 mosmol l-1) to hypotonic (240 mosmol l-1) saline caused a pronounced increase in crypt diameter immediately followed by regulatory volume decrease (RVD). 3. Exposure of crypts to Cl--free hyposmotic medium increased the rapidity of both cell swelling and RVD. Exposure of crypts to Na+-free hyposmotic medium reduced the total duration of swelling. Return to initial diameter was followed by further shrinkage of the crypt cells. 4. The chloride channel inhibitor NPPB (50 microM) delayed the swelling phase and prevented the subsequent normal decrease in diameter. 5. The K+ channel blockers barium (10 mM), charybdotoxin (10 nM) and TEA (5 mM) inhibited RVD by 51, 44 and 32 %, respectively. 6. Intracellular [Ca2+] rose from a baseline of 174 +/- 17 nM (n = 8) to 448 +/- 45 nM (n = 8) during the initial swelling phase 7. The Ca2+ channel blockers verapamil (50 microM) and nifedipine (10 microM), the chelator of intracellular Ca2+ BAPTA AM (30 microM), or the inhibitor of Ca2+ release TMB-8 (10 microM), dramatically reduced volume recovery, leading to 51 % (n = 9), 25 % (n = 7), 37 % (n = 6), 32 % (n = 8) inhibition of RVD, respectively. TFP (50 microM), an antagonist of the Ca2+-calmodulin complex, significantly slowed RVD. The Ca2+ ionophore A23187 (2 microM) provoked a dramatic reduction of the duration and amplitude of cell swelling followed by extensive shrinkage. The release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores using bradykinin (1 microM) or blockade of reabsorption with thapsigargin (1 microM) decreased the duration of RVD. 8. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, 5 microM) slightly delayed RVD, whereas leukotriene D4 (LTD4, 100 nM) and arachidonic acid (10 microM) reduced the duration of RVD. Blockade of phospholipase A2 by quinacrine (10 microM) inhibited RVD by 53 %. Common inhibition of PGE2 and LTD4 synthesis by ETYA (50 microM) or separate blockade of PGE2 synthesis by 1 microM indomethacin reduced the duration of RVD. Blockade of LTD4 synthesis by nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) did not produce any significant effect on cell swelling or subsequent RVD. 9. Staurosporine (1 microM), an inhibitor of protein kinases, inhibited RVD by 58 %. Taken together the experiments demonstrate that the RVD process is under the control of conductive pathways, extra- and intracellular Ca2+ ions, protein kinases, prostaglandins and leukotrienes.  (+info)

Modulation of chloride, potassium and bicarbonate transport by muscarinic receptors in a human adenocarcinoma cell line. (5/1812)

1. Short-circuit current (I(SC)) responses to carbachol (CCh) were investigated in Colony 1 epithelia, a subpopulation of the HCA-7 adenocarcinoma cell line. In Krebs-Henseleit (KH) buffer, CCh responses consisted of three I(SC) components: an unusual rapid decrease (the 10 s spike) followed by an upward spike at 30 s and a slower transient increase (the 2 min peak). This response was not potentiated by forskolin; rather, CCh inhibited cyclic AMP-stimulated I(SC). 2. In HCO3- free buffer, the decrease in forskolin-elevated I(SC) after CCh was reduced, although the interactions between CCh and forskolin remained at best additive rather than synergistic. When Cl- anions were replaced by gluconate, both Ca2+- and cyclic AMP-mediated electrogenic responses were significantly inhibited. 3. Basolateral Ba2+ (1-10 mM) and 293B (10 microM) selectively inhibited forskolin stimulation of I(SC), without altering the effects of CCh. Under Ba2+- or 293B-treated conditions, CCh responses were potentiated by pretreatment with forskolin. 4. Basolateral charybdotoxin (50 nM) significantly increased the size of the 10 s spike of CCh responses in both KH and HCO3- free medium, without affecting the 2 min peak. The enhanced 10 s spike was inhibited by prior addition of 5 mM apical Ba2+. Charybdotoxin did not affect forskolin responses. 5. In epithelial layers prestimulated with forskolin, the muscarinic antagonists atropine and 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide (4-DAMP, both at 100 nM) abolished subsequent 10 microM CCh responses. Following addition of p-fluoro hexahydro-sila-difenidol (pF-HHSiD, 10 microM) or pirenzepine (1 microM), qualitative changes in the CCh response time-profile also indicated a rightward shift of the agonist concentration-response curve; however, 1 microM gallamine had no effect. These results suggest that a single M3-like receptor subtype mediates the secretory response to CCh. 6. It is concluded that CCh and forskolin activate discrete populations of basolateral K+ channels gated by either Ca2+ or cyclic AMP, but that the Cl- permeability of the apical membrane may limit their combined effects on electrogenic Cl- secretion. In addition, CCh activates a Ba2+-sensitive apical K+ conductance leading to electrogenic K+ transport. Both agents may also modulate HCO3- secretion through a mechanism at least partially dependent on carbonic anhydrase.  (+info)

Selective activation of heterologously expressed G protein-gated K+ channels by M2 muscarinic receptors in rat sympathetic neurones. (6/1812)

1. G protein-regulated inward rectifier K+ (GIRK) channels were over-expressed in dissociated rat superior cervical sympathetic (SCG) neurones by co-transfecting green fluorescent protein (GFP)-, GIRK1- and GIRK2-expressing plasmids using the biolistic technique. Membrane currents were subsequently recorded with whole-cell patch electrodes. 2. Co-transfected cells had larger Ba2+-sensitive inwardly rectifying currents and 13 mV more negative resting potentials (in 3 mM [K+]o) than non-transfected cells, or cells transfected with GIRK1 or GIRK2 alone. 3. Carbachol (CCh, 1-30 microM) increased the inwardly rectifying current in 70 % of GIRK1+ GIRK2-transfected cells by 261 +/- 53 % (n = 6, CCh 30 microM) at -120 mV, but had no effect in non-transfected cells or in cells transfected with GIRK1 or GIRK2 alone. Pertussis toxin prevented the effect of carbachol but had no effect on basal currents. 4. The effect of CCh was antagonized by 6 nM tripitramine but not by 100 nM pirenzepine, consistent with activation of endogenous M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. 5. In contrast, inhibition of the voltage-activated Ca2+ current by CCh was antagonized by 100 nM pirenzepine but not by 6 nM tripitramine, indicating that it was mediated by M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. 6. We conclude that endogenous M2 and M4 muscarinic receptors selectively couple to GIRK currents and Ca2+ currents respectively, with negligible cross-talk.  (+info)

Kir2.1 encodes the inward rectifier potassium channel in rat arterial smooth muscle cells. (7/1812)

1. The molecular nature of the strong inward rectifier K+ channel in vascular smooth muscle was explored by using isolated cell RT-PCR, cDNA cloning and expression techniques. 2. RT-PCR of RNA from single smooth muscle cells of rat cerebral (basilar), coronary and mesenteric arteries revealed transcripts for Kir2.1. Transcripts for Kir2.2 and Kir2.3 were not found. 3. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed significant differences in transcript levels of Kir2.1 between the different vascular preparations (n = 3; P < 0.05). A two-fold difference was detected between Kir2.1 mRNA and beta-actin mRNA in coronary arteries when compared with relative levels measured in mesenteric and basilar preparations. 4. Kir2.1 was cloned from rat mesenteric vascular smooth muscle cells and expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Currents were strongly inwardly rectifying and selective for K+. 5. The effect of extracellular Ba2+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Cs2+ ions on cloned Kir2.1 channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes was examined. Ba2+ and Cs+ block were steeply voltage dependent, whereas block by external Ca2+ and Mg2+ exhibited little voltage dependence. The apparent half-block constants and voltage dependences for Ba2+, Cs+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ were very similar for inward rectifier K+ currents from native cells and cloned Kir2.1 channels expressed in oocytes. 6. Molecular studies demonstrate that Kir2.1 is the only member of the Kir2 channel subfamily present in vascular arterial smooth muscle cells. Expression of cloned Kir2.1 in Xenopus oocytes resulted in inward rectifier K+ currents that strongly resemble those that are observed in native vascular arterial smooth muscle cells. We conclude that Kir2.1 encodes for inward rectifier K+ channels in arterial smooth muscle.  (+info)

Cross-coupling between voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels and ryanodine receptors in developing ascidian muscle blastomeres. (8/1812)

1. Ascidian blastomeres of muscle lineage express voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) despite isolation and cleavage arrest. Taking advantage of these large developing cells, developmental changes in functional relations between VDCC currents and intracellular Ca2+ stores were studied. 2. Inactivation of ascidian VDCCs is Ca2+ dependent, as demonstrated by two pieces of evidence: (1) a bell-shaped relationship between prepulse voltage and amplitude during the test pulse in Ca2+, but not in Ba2+, and (2) the decay kinetics of Ca2+ currents (ICa) obtained as the size of tail currents. 3. During replacement in the external solution of Ca2+ with Ba2+, the inward current appeared biphasic: it showed rapid decay followed by recovery and slow decay. This current profile was most evident in the mixed bath solution (2 % Ca2+ and 98 % Ba2+, abbreviated to '2Ca/98Ba'). 4. The biphasic profile of I2Ca/98Ba was significantly attenuated in caffeine and in ryanodine, indicating that Ca2+ release is involved in shaping the current kinetics of VDCCs. After washing out the caffeine, the biphasic pattern was reproducibly restored by depolarizing the membrane in calcium-rich solution, which is expected to refill the internal Ca2+ stores. 5. The inhibitors of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+-ATPase (SERCAs) cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) and thapsigargin facilitated elimination of the biphasic profile with repetitive depolarization. 6. At a stage earlier than 36 h after fertilization, the biphasic profile of I2Ca/98Ba was not observed. However, caffeine induced a remarkable decrease in the amplitude of I2Ca/98Ba and this suppression was blocked by microinjection of the Ca2+ chelator BAPTA, showing the presence of caffeine-sensitive Ca2+ stores at this stage. 7. Electron microscopic observation shows that sarcoplasmic membranes (SR) arrange closer to the sarcolemma with maturation, suggesting that the formation of the ultrastructural machinery underlies development of the cross-coupling between VDCCs and Ca2+ stores.  (+info)

Dive into the research topics of Metabolic and functional consequences of barium-induced contracture in rabbit myocardium. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Standard electrophysiological techniques were used for potential recording and current injection under current-clamp conditions (Erxleben et al., 1995). For two-electrode voltage-clamp experiments, an Axoclamp 2B (Axon Instruments Inc., Foster City, CA) was used. These experiments were performed on fibers of the last abdominal segment which are compact (270-450 μm long with a diameter of 50-80 μm). Injection of current in the middle of the fibers and recording at several points over the length of the fiber showed that they are isopotential and thus suitable for two-electrode voltage-clamp. For isolation of Ca or Ba currents and suppression of K currents, a solution (TEA solution) consisting of 160 mM tetraethyl-ammonium, 2 mM 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), 320 mM NaCl, 8 mM KCl, 20 mM HEPES, pH 7.4, was used with either 10 mM CaCl2 or BaCl2. In addition, the recording and current electrodes were filled with 3 M CsCl to suppress K currents. Voltage-activated Ca or Ba currents were separated from ...
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I kēia manawa, ʻoi aku ka nui o ka hana hana o Barium Hydroxide octahydrate ma mua o 30,000 MT, a ʻo ka nui o ka hana ʻana o Barium Hydroxide monohate he 5,000 MT, ʻo ia hoʻi nā huahana crystalline granular nui. Hoʻohui, aia kahi liʻiliʻi o ka paukū Barium Hydroxide monohidrat. ʻO ka hana hana o Barium Hydroxide monohidate e manaʻo ʻia e hiki i 10,000 MT, a no laila, e hoʻonui ʻia ka mana hana o Barium Hydroxide octahydrate e like me ia. I Kina, kūʻai nui ʻia ka Barium Hydroxide octahydrate i loko o ka home a ʻo Barium Hydroxide monohidate i lawe ʻia aku i waho. ʻO Barium Hydroxide octahydrate a me monohidate he ʻelua huahana Barium paʻakai me ka ulu wikiwiki loa i nā makahiki i hala iho nei ...
The majority of the barium present in the pulping process exits the digester as barium carbonate. Barium carbonate dissolves in the bleach plant when the pH drops below 7 and, if barium and sulfate concentrations are too high, begins to precipitate as barium sulfate. Barium is difficult to control because a mill cannot avoid this carbonate-to-sulfate transition using common bleaching technology. An advantage in controlling barium scales is that the sulfate, once formed, will not redissolve to any appreciable extent, and this reduces the rate at which barite scale can form in other locations in the bleach plant. A mill has relatively few options for controlling barium sulfate scale. The first is to ensure very good debarking to minimize barium entering the mill with the wood. The second option is to minimize sulfate content of the first chlorine dioxide stage in the bleach plant. Sulfate is minimized through good brown stock washing and by using sulfuric acid for pH control instead of chlorine ...
Karon, ang kinatibuk-ang kapasidad sa produksyon sa Barium Hydroxide octahydrate labaw sa 30,000 MT, ug ang kinatibuk-ang kapasidad sa produksyon sa Barium Hydroxide monohidrat mao ang 5,000 MT, nga sa panguna ang mga granular crystalline nga produkto. Dugang pa, adunay usa ka gamay nga pulbos nga Barium Hydroxide monohidrat. Ang kapasidad sa produksyon sa Barium Hydroxide monohidrat gilauman nga maabot sa 10,000 MT, ug subay niini, ang kapasidad sa produksyon sa Barium Hydroxide octahydrate mapalapdan sumala niini. Sa China, ang Barium Hydroxide octahydrate sa panguna gibaligya sa sulud sa panimalay samtang ang Barium Hydroxide monohidrat ang tanan gi-export sa gawas sa nasud. Ang Barium Hydroxide octahydrate ug monesterolate mao ang duha nga mga produkto sa Barium Salt nga adunay labing kadali nga pag-uswag sa mga ning-agi nga ...
The use of barium with standard X-rays contributes to the visibility of various characteristics of the GI tract. Barium is a dry, white, chalky, metallic powder that is mixed with water to make barium liquid. Barium is an X-ray absorber and appears white on X-ray film. When instilled into the GI tract, barium coats the inside wall of the esophagus, stomach, large intestine, and/or small intestine so that the inside wall lining, size, shape, contour, and patency (openness) are visible on X-ray. This process shows differences that might not be seen on standard X-rays. Barium is used only for diagnostic studies of the GI tract.. In addition to drinking barium, some patients may be given baking soda crystals (similar to Alka-Seltzer) to further improve the images. This type of procedure is called an air-contrast or double-contrast upper GI.. Fluoroscopy is often used during a barium X-ray. Fluoroscopy is a study of moving body structures-similar to an X-ray movie. A continuous X-ray beam is passed ...
Barium X-Rays (Upper and Lower GI) What are barium x-rays? A barium x-ray is a radiographic (x-ray) examination of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Barium x-rays (also called upper and lower GI series) are used to diagnose abnormalities of the GI tract, such as tumors, ulcers and other inflammatory conditions, polyps, hernias, and strictures. Click Image to Enlarge The use of barium with standard x-rays contributes to the visibility of various characteristics of the GI tract. Barium is a dry, white, cha...
The merchandise covered by the order is barium chloride, a chemical compound having the formulas BaCl2 or BaCl2-2H2O, currently classifiable under item number 2827.39.45.00 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTSUS). The scope reflects the HTSUS item number currently in effect. Although the HTSUS item number is provided for convenience and for U.S. Customs and Border Protection purposes, the written description remains dispositive ...
I was reading in the book that it says that barium chloride contains water but yet it is not wet, and does not feel wet. that is why we refer to it as a hydrous salt. i asked my lecturer about this but she gave a brief answer and i do not fully understand why it is so. i tried searching answers in the internet but to no avail. thank you for your help ...
Learn more about Barium chloride dihydrate. We enable science by offering product choice, services, process excellence and our people make it happen.
Definition of barium in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is barium? Meaning of barium as a finance term. What does barium mean in finance?
toxicological profile for barium and barium barium sulphate grinding machine. crushed barite is first converted to barium sulfide by high temperature,received barite from china and india for grinding to api specifications for the oil and gas .. that persons not wearing protective equipment be restricted from the area. ...
CAS Number: 10326-27-9Formula: BaCl2·2H2ODensity: 3.1 g/mLBoiling and Freezing Point: 1560°C, 925°CSolubility: WaterSynonyms: Barium DichlorideShelf Life: 36 MonthsChemicals for science education are available in easy-to-use formats with instructions for students to be introduced to a variety of subjects. These chemicals can be purchased in individual amounts or bulk kits for compatibility with classroom-sized demonstrations or independent studies. Products are designed for educational and teaching laboratories, and may or may not come with a certificate of analysis when ordered.
Jul 27, 2017 · Thus it is important to drink all of the barium sulfate that is prescribed for a CT scan. The typical abdominal or pelvic CT scan appointment requires the patient to fast for three hours (or more) and arrive at least one hour ahead of the scheduled time to begin the experience that is the barium sulfate cocktail. The barium sulfate suspension ... ...
Barium sulfate is a contrast agent often used in GI tract studies. Aspiration is a potential complication of oral barium and the severity depends on the amount of contrast in the respiratory tract. Small amounts of aspirated barium can often be b...
HEMAL IMPEX is manufacturer,supplier and exporter of Barium Nitrate from India.We are offering best quality of Barium Nitrate at economical price.
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The nonmetals in Groups 6A and 7A ____. a. lose electrons when they form ions b. have a numerical charge that is found by subtracting 8 from the group number c. all have ions with a -1 charge d. end in -ate Check my thinking but asked by Maye on July 4, 2007 ...
This report was created for strategic planners, international marketing executives and export managers whose primary concern is the world market for natural barium ...
Barium can be used to help soft tissue show up on x-rays. It works by coating the inside of the esophagus, stomach, or small intestines which allows them to be seen more clearly on a CT scan or x-ray. This can be useful for doctors to check that everything is where it should be and to…
Modified Barium Swallow (MBS) is a fluoroscopic procedure designed to determine whether food or liquid is entering a persons lungs, also known as aspiration. It permits the medical team to observe the coordination of anatomical structures in the mouth and throat, as they are actively functioning when chewing, drinking and swallowing. It also identifies the reason for aspiration.13; Who is .... Get Price ...
24378-32-3 - WZMUHJXUXGAGAN-UHFFFAOYSA-N - Barium pentacyanonitrosylferrate(III) (7CI) - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Question - Problem with food sticking in my gullet . ihave had barium - RR. Find the answer to this and other Medical questions on JustAnswer
New submitter redhat_redneck writes The U.S. and Canada has been experiencing a shortage of barium sulfate, which is used as contrast for upper and lower GI studies. It has reached the point where doctors are being asked not to order these exams except in emergencies, and some exams are being cance...
A barium swallowing kit comprising a primary container and a plurality of individual food containers included in the primary container. Each of the food containers includes a measured amount of a liqu
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This small freestyle table is of Sepele and wenge. The wenge in the legs is simply inlayed into dados. I used this combination on a previously listed hall table and find it hard to beat for a contemporary look. The Sepele is a thick vaneer on Ba...
Read across from BaCl2*2H2O to BaCO3: The toxicity of barium carbonate and barium chloride may reasonably be considered to be determined by availability of Ba2+cations. As a first surrogate for bioavailability, the solubility of a test substance may be used. This was investigated for barium carbonate experimentally in a test for comparative bio-accessibility with barium carbonate and barium chloride in artificial gastric juice (HCl, pH=1.5): an excess of each test item was added to a freshly prepared HCl solutions (pH=1.5) to obtain saturation (for details, please refer to IUCLID section 4.20 pH of this dossier). It could be shown that the solubility of barium carbonate in acidic media at 37°C is 3.7 g/L, whereas 510.4 g/L of barium chloride could be dissolved under equal conditions. In consequence, the solubility of barium carbonate under these conditions is more than two orders of magnitude less than that of barium chloride. However, it is to be concluded that this read-across is possible ...
Barium follow through. 1.4 Major uses and sources in drinking-water Barium compounds (mainly as barium sulfate and barium carbonate) are present in nature as ore deposits. Then just filter out the barium sulfate onto some pre-weighed filter paper, dry, weigh, and calculate the mass of barium (from the measured mass and the molecular weight of barium sulfate) per volume of water. 1.3 This test method has been used successfully with waste treatment plant effluent water, lake water, filtered tap water, and well water. What is Lower GI Tract X-ray Radiography (Barium Enema)? A barium enema is a type of X-ray imaging test that allows doctors to examine your lower intestinal tract. Barium is an X-ray absorber and appears white on X-ray film. This test is similar to a barium meal but aims to look for problems in the small intestine. level in the soil, water, atmosphere? 2-(aq) → BaSO4 (s). Before Using Lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract radiography, also called a lower GI or barium enema, is an x-ray ...
Barium chloride is a chemical substance. It is among the most important salts of barium. It is soluble in water. It is a poison. When it is heated, it gives a yellow or green color to the flame. It is hygroscopic, meaning that it attracts water from the air. It is mainly used to purify brine but applications include fireworks. Barium chloride is toxic. Sodium sulfate may be an antidote. ...
Chaitanya Chemicals is a 1991 established trusted company dealing in barium salt, barium sulphate, barium chloride, and other chemicals at best price from Cuddapah, India.
Certain compounds of barium, such as barium sulfate, are not toxic and can be put in the body. We can see where the barium travels in the body by X-rays and this can tell us whether there are problems, such as blockages. The barium sulfate builds up inside the body accumulating in organ systems. Barium sulfate absorbs the X-Rays as they pass through the body and an image is formed from the points where the rays have not passed through. It is useful because it provides a reasonably detailed image from very limited radiation exposure, compared with a CT scan for instance. Barium sulfate can be used as a pigment, too. Other barium compounds have several other uses. ...
Barium Sulfate Industrial Grade, Barium Sulfate Industrial Grade Suppliers Directory - Find variety Barium Sulfate Industrial Grade Suppliers, Manufacturers, Companies from around the World at barium hydroxide ,barium sulphate price ,barium hydroxide 8h2o, Feed Grade Amino Acids
Why is it safe for patients to consume barium sulfate - Why is it safe for patients to drink barium sulfate even though barium ions are toxic? Not absorbed. Barium is a heavy metal which is not absorbable. It therefore passes through your system unaltered. It is generally taken as a salt (barium sulfate), .
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As the bowel is a soft tissue structure, it is not usually seen on a plain x-ray. By using barium to coat the inner lining of this area, the Radiologist can see the bowel clearly on the x-ray screen and can watch the way it functions during this study.. A small lubricated plastic tube will be inserted into your rectum by the Doctor or Radiographer. This can be a little uncomfortable; and if it is hurting, tell the Doctor.. The Radiologist will slowly let Barium into the tube and this will gradually go up the bowel. A small amount of air will be introduced. This inflates the bowel wall; the barium coats the inside layer, and the loops of bowel can be seen more clearly. The Radiologist will take a series of X-ray pictures of the bowel as the barium passes through. The Radiologist will ask you to hold your breath for each picture, and will ask you to roll around to enable the bowel to be seen more clearly.. The Radiologist may also give you a small injection in your arm during the examination. This ...
Business Directory for Barium Nitrate Suppliers in Vadodara - Get contact details of Barium Nitrate Manufacturers, Wholesale Barium Nitrate Exporters, Best Barium Nitrate Traders & Distributors Across the Vadodara.
ultra fine barium sulfate crusher, Cone crusher is a very common crushing equipment used in kenya, to adapt to barite baso4 is a mineral consisting of barium sulfate the get price barite deep high-pressure Barite Processing Machine, ultra-fine movement Crushers, etc.,... 2020-6-29 ensp 0183 enspAdvanced Technology Barite Impact Crusher, Barite crusher. developed by introducing advanced technology, so it has a strong advantage in function and operation. At present, it is one of the popular equipment types in mining field. Introduction To Materials Barite or barite is a mineral consisting of bariumbarium portable crusher, barium primary crusher; Barite Secondary Crusher. barium secondary crusher. Barite Crusher Market is expected to grow with a healthy growth rate over the forecast period Vertical shaft crusher primarily known as Barite crusher an industrial machine is used after primary and secondary crushing Barite crusher has significant applications in the production of sand medium and coarse ...
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Barium sulfite, also known as barium sulfonate or barium(2+) sulfite, is the barium salt of the sulfurous acid H2SO3. Its molecular formula is BaSO3, and its molar mass is 217.39 grams per mol. Its...
Precipitated Barium Sulphate BaSO4,Barium Sulphate,产品中心,NEWZADD2017022700202,Basic Info.Model NO.:B-140Type:Barium SulfateGrade Standard:Industrial GradeAppearance:PowderGrade:Food, Industry, Agriculture, Reagent etc.Enterprise Standard:QVaks1-2007,
What s in the chemtrails? Barium is the leading contender, but aluminum, red blood cells and polymer fibers have also been identified.. American aerosol spraying researcher Clifford Carnicom, in May of 2002, announced he had discovered that an extraordinarily high level of barium now exists in our air and is directly related to the aerosol-chemtrail spraying operations. There are several types of barium. All are highly poisonous except barium sulfate, which is the one used for medical purposes. That type isnt used in chemtrails. Barium is a heavy metal, crystalline in nature. Barium clouds ionize rapidly in sunlight and are used to study electrical forces in space. There is evidence that barium impairs memory. How s your memory these days? How s your health? Any unusual nose bleeds, upper respiratory infections, asthma attacks, sore throats that wont go away or allergies? These problems have been linked to heavy chemtrail spraying all over the world. According to this chemistry website, barium ...
The Europe Barium Sulfate Market Report will give an overall outlook about the market worldwide. The market report includes the statistical data about the size of the market and this is both in terms of volume and value. In the beginning of the report, a brief description of the market is given so that the user becomes well versed with the market. Next is the market segmentation, which also includes the sub-segmentation part.. The segments that are contributing a major share in the Europe Barium Sulfate market is included. In the next section, the factors that are favoring the growth of the market are included. These factors include the investments that are made by the different organizational bodies, the research and development activities that are made for the development of the market.. Get Free Sample Report Of Europe Barium Sulfate Market @ http://www.intenseresearch.com/market-analysis/europe-barium-sulfate-market-by-manufacturers-countries-type.html#request-sample. Along with the factors ...
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An x-ray examination of the colon and rectum after liquid barium sulfate has been infused through the rectum. The barium sulfate is a contrast agent that makes the x-rays of the colon and rectum clearer.. The use of a barium enema has been drastically reduced in the past years and has been replaced by other more advanced imaging techniques that arent as invasive.. ...
Barium swallow and barium meal - A procedure that allows doctors to view difficult to see gut problems.. Choose Spire Manchester Hospital.
Barium swallow and barium meal - A procedure that allows doctors to view difficult to see gut problems.. Choose Spire Hull and East Riding Hospital.
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Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
Data on 6,500 pesticides, insecticides and herbicides including toxicity, water pollution, ecological toxicity, uses and regulatory status.
HPB Complex information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by Thompsons Homeopathic Supplies, HPB Complex indications, usages and related health products lists
Superfine Precipitated Barium sulfate 1. Specifiation: Item Specification BaSO4 (as dried basis) Not less than 97.5% Water Not more than 0.20% Water Solution Not more than 0.30% Fe Not more than 0.004% Whiteness Not less than 97.0% Oil Absorption...
Fabrication of Highly (110)-oriented Barium Cerate (BaCeO3)-based Proton Conductive Oxide Thin Films by RF Magnetron Sputtering MethodFabrication of Highly (110)-oriented Barium Cerate (BaCeO3)-based Proton Conductive Oxide Thin Films by RF Magnetron Sputtering Method ...
Pure Barium Sulfate products have high density and does not include any heavy metals. Selected Micronised Baryte grades will offer chemical resistance, high hiding power and extra gloss.. Properties:. ...
Alfa Chemistry is the worlds leading provider for special chemicals. We offer qualified products for 71662-16-3(a-D-Glucopyranose, 1-(dihydrogen phosphate), barium salt(1:1)),please inquire us for 71662-16-3(a-D-Glucopyranose, 1-(dihydrogen phosphate), barium salt(1:1)).
[113 Pages Report] Check for Discount on United States Precipitated Barium Sulfate Market Report 2016 report by QYResearch Group. Notes: Sales, means the sales volume of Precipitated Barium Sulfate...
BARITE is a mineral composed of Barium Sulfate (BaSO4).The high specific gravity of BARITE makes it suitable for a wide range of industrial, medical, and manufacturing uses.BARITE also serves as the principal ore of Barium.. WASIT GROUP is now engage in supplying BARITE in local and international markets. We have an expert team that will handle our material production including its delivery.. ...
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Jual Barium SulphateBarium sulfat adalah senyawa anorganik dengan rumus kimia BaSO4. Barium sulfat merupakan kristalin putih yang tidak berbau dan tidak P689881
72828-41-2 - Glycine, N-((chlorinated C12-22-alkyl)sulfonyl) derivs., barium salts (2:1) - Searchable synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Suppliers List, E-mail/RFQ Form, Molecular Structure, Weight, Formula, IUPAC, Synonyms for Benzoic acid, 4-amino-, barium salt (2:1) (CAS No. 62529-07-1)
​​​​​​​Barium sulfate has its chemical formula BaSO4. It is colorless or white orthorhombic crystals with relative molecular mass of 233.4, the relative density of 4.5 (15 ℃), the melting point of 1580 ℃, and the Refractive index of 1.637.
Barium hydroxide has a molar mass of 171.34 grams per mole. The molar mass of a chemical compound is determined by adding together the molar masses of all of the atoms present in that compound. The...
Barium sulfate suspension is an inert agent used as contrast material during radiologic diagnostic procedures. Read for dosage, side effects and some precautions.
Detailed information on barium x-rays, also called upper and lower GI series, including information on how the procedure is performed.
Sprawdź ile zapłacisz za lek barium sulfate Oral, Rectal w aptece, znajdź tańsze zamienniki leku. Określ swoje uprawnienia i sprawdź jakie zniżki Ci przysługują.
Zinc Nitrate and Barium Hydroxide. - Raul Jose Castaneda Luis Enrique Martinez by Raul Castaneda | This newsletter was created with Smore, an online tool for creating beautiful newsletters for for educators, nonprofits, businesses and more
At BMI Healthcare we offer Barium enema-Imaging and radiology, across our hospitals. Enquire online today to find out more about our services and facilities.
[112 Pages Report] Check for Discount on 2017-2022 United States Barium Sulphate Precipitated Market Report (Status and Outlook) report by LP Information INC. ...
Organic light emitting devices are comprised of an organic charge carrier layer formed from a charge carrier material that is capable of forming a stable glass due to the presence of a compound having
Limit test for sulfates is based on precipitation of sulfate ions by barium chloride reagent. The test samples turbidity is compared with the standard.
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Use bubbly barium (medium density, cold, carbonated) for the upright phase and thin barium (dilute, low density) for the horizontal phase of the study ...

No data available that match "barium"

  • Alkaline sulfates decompose barium ferrate that has not been dried, forming barium sulfate, ferric hydroxide and oxygen gas. (wikipedia.org)
  • A barium enema is a test that helps to highlight the large bowel, so it can be clearly seen on an X-ray . (www.nhs.uk)
  • A barium enema may be requested by any doctor who thinks you might have a problem with your bowel, including your GP. (www.nhs.uk)
  • However, a barium enema can sometimes be a useful way of finding the cause of problems such as blood in your stools or a constant change in your bowel habits. (www.nhs.uk)
  • To ensure the X-ray images taken during a barium enema are clear, your bowel must be empty before the test. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Does a barium enema hurt? (www.nhs.uk)
  • Having a barium enema may be a bit embarrassing and unpleasant, but it shouldn't be painful. (www.nhs.uk)
  • A barium enema is generally a very safe procedure, although there a few risks and side effects that you should be aware of. (www.nhs.uk)
  • My question is: What is a barium enema? (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • A barium enema is an investigation of the large bowel. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • If you are using a barium sulfate enema, the enema will be administered by medical staff at the testing center. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A barium enema is an imaging test that uses a contrast medium (barium) and x-rays to produce images of the large intestine . (cancer.ca)
  • A barium enema is also called a lower GI (gastrointestinal) series. (cancer.ca)
  • In a single contrast barium enema, the colon is filled with barium to outline the intestine and show large abnormalities. (cancer.ca)
  • In a double contrast barium enema, the colon is filled with barium and then drained, leaving a thin layer of barium on the wall of the colon. (cancer.ca)
  • A barium enema is usually done as an outpatient procedure in the x-ray department of a hospital or clinic. (cancer.ca)
  • If you are breastfeeding or pregnant or think you may be pregnant, it is important to tell the x-ray technologist before having a barium enema and x-rays. (cancer.ca)
  • Barium will be given as an enema through a small plastic tube inserted through the anus into the rectum. (cancer.ca)
  • Once the test is done and the enema tube is removed, the barium and air can be expelled. (cancer.ca)
  • There are very few side effects of a barium enema. (cancer.ca)
  • Preparing a child for a barium enema depends on the age and experience of the child. (cancer.ca)
  • A double-contrast barium enema involves injecting fluid called barium, followed by air, into your rectum. (massgeneral.org)
  • You prepare for a double-contrast barium enema the same way you would prepare for a colonoscopy, taking medication the day before your test to ensure that your colon and rectum are empty for the procedure. (massgeneral.org)
  • Is the prep for a barium enema difficult? (healthboards.com)
  • When I had a barium enema x-ray, I had to drink castor oil. (healthboards.com)
  • I'm having a barium enema x-ray myself on Wednesday. (healthboards.com)
  • What is the barium enema x-ray like? (healthboards.com)
  • Why the need for a barium enema after having the scope? (healthboards.com)
  • I know that his is an older post, but someone else may benefit from the prep i have used for colonoscopies and barium enema. (healthboards.com)
  • A barium enema is a special type of X-ray test used to examine the large bowel (colon and rectum), which doesn't show up well on normal X-rays. (spirehealthcare.com)
  • A barium enema is an x-ray test used to examine the lower digestive tract (the colon and rectum). (harvard.edu)
  • A barium enema is a diagnostic test that us performed to examine the colon and rectum for abnormalities. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Barium enema may be ordered for a patient to identify inflammation of the intestinal wall, diverituli, narrowed areas of the bowel, polyps,and cancer . (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Risks of barium enema include low potassium levels, dehydration , constipation , and rarely rectal bleeding . (emedicinehealth.com)
  • You have a barium enema if your doctor wants to look at the inside of your bowel and back passage. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • A barium enema, or lower gastrointestinal (GI) examination, is an X-ray examination of the large intestine (colon and rectum). (stlukesonline.org)
  • A barium enema may be done to check for the cause of rectal bleeding or blood in the stool. (stlukesonline.org)
  • Other problems can also be found during a barium enema, such as a large polyp or colon cancer. (stlukesonline.org)
  • You may have a barium enema to look for problems in your lower intestines. (stdavids.com)
  • A barium enema involves placing liquid barium sulphate, which shows up on x-rays, into your large bowel (colon). (bmihealthcare.co.uk)
  • Are there any alternatives to a barium enema? (bmihealthcare.co.uk)
  • A barium enema is usually a safe and effective way of finding out if you have a problem with your large bowel. (bmihealthcare.co.uk)
  • Barium enema costs are covered by most medical insurance policies, but please check with your insurer first. (bmihealthcare.co.uk)
  • In a single-contrast barium enema a special liquid containing barium is inserted into the colon. (cancerquest.org)
  • In a double-contrast barium enema barium and air are inserted into the colon. (cancerquest.org)
  • If you are receiving barium sulfate as a rectal enema, a healthcare professional will give you the medication at the clinic or hospital where your testing will take place. (cigna.com)
  • A barium enema is type of fluoroscopy procedure that allows us to see images of your child's colon. (chop.edu)
  • In most cases, we perform a barium enema to help us diagnose why a child is having difficulty with bowel movements. (chop.edu)
  • This barium enema image shows pouches (called diverticula) in the wall of the colon. (stlukesonline.org)
  • A double-contrast barium enema is an imaging technique that enables doctors to use X-ray scans to evaluate the colon for signs of illness. (wisegeek.com)
  • Avoiding an invasive procedure like surgery is an important benefit of using a double-contrast barium enema, but the test is becoming less common because of its limitations. (wisegeek.com)
  • A double-contrast barium enema is a two-step process wherein the first step is to flood the colon with a solution containing barium sulfate through a tube inserted into the anus. (wisegeek.com)
  • The colon X-rays created with a double-contrast barium enema look for ulcers , inflammation, and colorectal cancer. (wisegeek.com)
  • Although for most people a double-contrast barium enema is considered safe enough to be used routinely, it is not recommended for patients with some conditions such as ulcerative colitis or a perforated intestine. (wisegeek.com)
  • For a period of one to three days before a double-contrast barium enema is performed, the patient will be asked to consume only clear fluids. (wisegeek.com)
  • When the contrast material containing barium is introduced into the large bowel by an enema tube inserted through the anus, the barium provides contrast to the X-rays that reveal the outlines of the intestine's lumen (interior surface) and may reveal several types of abnormalities that may be present. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • In some patients, the barium is instilled and then removed through the enema tube leaving a thin layer of barium on the wall of the colon. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Barium enema tests are ordered less frequently these days, since the availability of other tests like colonoscopy , CT scan , and magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI ) have become increasingly available and affordable. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • A barium enema may be done to identify inflammation of the intestinal wall and to find problems within the structure of the large intestine such as diverticula (sacs) intussusception (part of the intestine slides or telescopes into another part of the bowel), strictures (narrowed areas of the bowel), polyps and cancerous lesions. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • In some patients with intussusception the test may be therapeutic as pressure generated during a barium enema may reverse the intussusception. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Barium enema is performed at an outpatient X-ray center or in a major hospital. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • You will remain awake throughout the barium enema procedure. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • What is the role of contrast barium enema in the workup of cystic fibrosis (CF)? (medscape.com)
  • When meconium ileus is suspected on the basis of clinical and radiographic evidence, a contrast barium enema may be performed for diagnosis. (medscape.com)
  • One study showed a barium enema to be diagnostic in 45 (52%) patients. (medscape.com)
  • If carbon dioxide is passed through water on which hydrated barium is suspended, barium ferrate will decompose completely to form barium carbonate, ferric hydroxide and oxygen gas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Barium compounds, such as barium chloride, barium nitrate, or barium hydroxide, that dissolve easily in water usually do not last in these forms for a long time in the environment. (cdc.gov)
  • This information is barium compounds, such as barium chloride, important because these sites may be sources of barium nitrate, and barium hydroxide, are exposure and exposure to these substances may manufactured from barium sulfate. (cdc.gov)
  • Barium hydroxide ("baryta") was known to alchemists, who produced it by heating barium carbonate. (wikipedia.org)
  • It can be obtained from the reaction of sulfur dioxide, SO2, with either barium oxide, BaO, or barium hydroxide, Ba(OH)2. (reference.com)
  • Thanks to its solubility in water, Barium Hydroxide Monohydrate is a preferred source of barium for special and high purity syntheses and processes in the electronic, optical and pharmaceutical industry. (solvay.com)
  • Barium oxide is used for coating cathodes in fluorescent lamps, and the hydroxide, a chemical base, is used to clean up acid spills. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • It can be synthesized by reacting barium hydroxide or barium chloride with potassium chromate . (wikipedia.org)
  • It can react with barium hydroxide in the presence of sodium azide to create barium chromate(V) . The reaction releases oxygen and water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Barium reacts with water to make barium hydroxide and hydrogen gas . (wikipedia.org)
  • What is the molar mass of barium hydroxide? (reference.com)
  • Barium hydroxide has a molar mass of 171.34 grams per mole. (reference.com)
  • The formula for barium hydroxide is Ba(OH)2, meaning one atom of barium is present along with two each of oxygen and hydrogen. (reference.com)
  • Barium carbonate (BaCO 3 ) particles have been obtained by the precipitation reaction of CO 2 bubbles to barium hydroxide [Ba(OH) 2 ] in the ethanol-water mixed solvents. (springer.com)
  • Zinc Nitrate and Barium Hydroxide. (smore.com)
  • Barium can be measured in bone, blood, barium through consumption of drinking barium chloride or barium sulfate is urine, and feces. (cdc.gov)
  • Gastrointestinal disturbances followed by in colorectal and some upper chloride and barium carbonate are hypokalemia, hypertension, and heart gastrointestinal examinations. (cdc.gov)
  • Compounds such as barium chloride and Barium in the Environment duration inhalation MRLs were derived barium carbonate are generally expected for barium. (cdc.gov)
  • The salts of barium (particularly its nitrate, chloride, and chlorate) may be used in fireworks to produce green colors. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In industry, barium chloride is used mainly to purify brine solutions in chlorine plants and to manufacture heat-treatment salts, pigments, and other barium salts. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Barium is commercially produced through the electrolysis of molten barium chloride (BaCl 2 ). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Alternatively, it can be created by the interaction of barium chloride with sodium chromate . (wikipedia.org)
  • This occurs because of the use of sodium cyanide (NaCN), potassium cyanide (KCN), as well as barium chloride (BaCl), which is used in the mixtures to prepare the bath. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Calcium chloride and barium chloride solutions were prepared in deionized water, with gentle stirring, until complete dissolution, at 740 and 42 g/l in water at 20[degrees]C, respectively. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • IR] channel inhibitor barium chloride were tested on the vasodilator responses to DG, Danshen and Gegen. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Global Barium Chloride Industry 2015 Market Research Report is a new market research publication announced by Reportstack. (pitchengine.com)
  • This report is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the Barium Chloride industry. (pitchengine.com)
  • The report provides a basic overview of the industry including definitions, classifications, applications and industry chain structure.The Barium Chloride market analysis is provided for the international markets including development trends, competitive landscape analysis, and key regions development status. (pitchengine.com)
  • To access full report with TOC, please visit ​Global Barium Chloride Industry 2015 Market Research Report . (pitchengine.com)
  • Upstream raw materials and equipment and downstream demand analysis is also carried out.The Barium Chloride industry development trends and marketing channels are analyzed. (pitchengine.com)
  • This makes hydrogen sulfide and barium chloride. (wikipedia.org)
  • The barium chloride is melted and electrolyzed to get liquid barium metal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Barium carbonate, the other ore of barium, is dissolved in hydrochloric acid to make barium chloride and carbon dioxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • The barium chloride is melted and electrolyzed, making barium metal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Barium chloride is a chemical substance . (wikipedia.org)
  • Barium chloride is toxic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although they are not interchangeable with barium nitrate, other green coloring agents are barium carbonate, the oxidizer barium chlorate, and the salt barium chloride. (skylighter.com)
  • What is a barium swallow? (medlineplus.gov)
  • A barium swallow, also called an esophagogram, is an imaging test that checks for problems in your upper GI tract. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A barium swallow is used to help diagnose conditions that affect the throat , esophagus , stomach , and first part the small intestine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Why do I need a barium swallow? (medlineplus.gov)
  • What happens during a barium swallow? (medlineplus.gov)
  • A barium swallow is most often done by a radiologist or radiology technician. (medlineplus.gov)
  • You will swallow a drink that contains barium. (medlineplus.gov)
  • While you swallow, the radiologist will watch images of the barium traveling down your throat to your upper GI tract. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Is there anything else I need to know about a barium swallow? (medlineplus.gov)
  • When the patient's medical file was reviewed, images were found of a barium swallow study that the patient had undergone months earlier, and we were able to observe the exact moment of the aspiration of the contrast material. (hindawi.com)
  • Upper gastrointestinal series with barium swallow is a simple, common test used to study the morphology of the digestive tract. (hindawi.com)
  • A barium swallow is a type of test used to look inside the esophagus, or food pipe. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Why are barium swallow tests used? (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A barium swallow can help a doctor identify problems in the food pipe, stomach, or bowel. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • People who are undergoing a barium swallow should not eat or drink for a few hours before the test. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Some hospitals recommend not chewing gum, eating mints, or smoking cigarettes after midnight the night before a barium swallow test. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Patients may feel nauseous after a barium swallow test or become constipated. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • It is normal for people to have white-colored stools the first few times they use the toilet after having a barium swallow test. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • An upper gastrointestinal (GI) series (barium swallow), is a radiological test that is used to visualize the structures of the upper digestive system - the esophagus, stomach and duodenum. (medicinenet.com)
  • The patient then is asked to swallow a liquid that contains barium. (medicinenet.com)
  • A barium swallow is a radiographic (X-ray) examination of the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract, specifically the pharynx (back of mouth and throat) and the esophagus (a hollow tube of muscle extending from below the tongue to the stomach). (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • A barium swallow may be performed separately or as part of an upper gastrointestinal (UGI) series , which evaluates the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum (first part of the small intestine). (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Fluoroscopy is often used during a barium swallow. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Some abnormalities of the pharynx and/or esophagus that may be detected by a barium swallow include tumors, ulcers, hernias, diverticula (pouches), strictures (narrowing), inflammation, and swallowing difficulties. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • What are the reasons for a barium swallow? (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • A barium swallow may be performed to diagnose structural or functional abnormalities of the pharynx and esophagus. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • There may be other reasons for your doctor to recommend a barium swallow. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • I had my Barium Swallow test recently, and it apparently revealed a small hernia and 'possible' slight reflux. (healingwell.com)
  • My barium swallow showed a sliding hernia, but no reflux. (healingwell.com)
  • Some people feel a bit sick after a barium swallow. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • Several loops of the small bowel are visible due to the presence of residual barium from a swallow study three days before. (hindawi.com)
  • An x-ray examination that evaluates only the pharynx and esophagus is called a barium swallow. (radiologyinfo.org)
  • A modified barium swallow is a medical imaging study performed while a patient eats and drinks to identify swallowing problems. (wisegeek.com)
  • The use of x-ray fluoroscopy in a modified barium swallow can highlight the structures of the throat and how they behave while the patient eats and drinks. (wisegeek.com)
  • A doctor may recommend a modified barium swallow if a patient has difficulty speaking or eating, develops a persistent cough, or has a voice that sounds wet or clogged without any obvious cause. (wisegeek.com)
  • Patients do not need to make any special preparations for a barium swallow, other than bringing some foods from home. (wisegeek.com)
  • The modified barium swallow itself takes around 10 to 15 minutes. (wisegeek.com)
  • After the modified barium swallow, the patient can meet with the speech-language pathologist to discuss the findings and some treatment options. (wisegeek.com)
  • It is important to be aware that this test differs from a barium swallow conducted to image the esophagus all the way to the top of the stomach. (wisegeek.com)
  • A barium swallow is a fluoroscopy procedure that allows us to see images of your child's esophagus, which is the tube that connects the mouth to the stomach. (chop.edu)
  • Your child will need an empty stomach for the barium swallow procedure. (chop.edu)
  • The technologist will ask why the barium swallow is being performed and will explain the procedure to both you and your child. (chop.edu)
  • Shankle R, Keane JR. Acute paralysis from inhaled barium carbonate. (cdc.gov)
  • Barium ferrate, BaFeO4, can be prepared by adding barium oxide to a mixture NaClO and ferric nitrate at room temperature (29± 1 °C). The precipitate formed can then be filtered and washed with a 1:1 hexane and diethyl ether mixture in order to remove water and other impurities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Barium nitrate is a salt represented by the chemical formula Ba(NO3)2. (reference.com)
  • Barium nitrate is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ba(NO3)2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Barium nitrate is manufactured by two processes that start with the main source material for barium, the carbonate. (wikipedia.org)
  • At elevated temperatures, barium nitrate decomposes to barium oxide: 2Ba(NO3)2 → 2BaO + 4NO2 + O2 Barium nitrate is used in the production of BaO-containing materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • the high density of barium nitrate results in baratol being quite dense as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Barium nitrate mixed with aluminium powder, a formula for flash powder, is highly explosive. (wikipedia.org)
  • Barium nitrate was also a primary ingredient in the "SR 365" incendiary charge used by the British in the De Wilde incendiary ammunition with which they armed their interceptor fighters, such as the Hawker Hurricane and Supermarine Spitfire, during the Battle of Britain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like all soluble barium compounds, barium nitrate is toxic by ingestion or inhalation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The B. Mk VI 'De Wilde' incendiary (named after the original Belgian inventor but in fact completely redesigned by Major Dixon), which contained 0.5 grams of SR 365 (a composition including barium nitrate which ignited on impact with the target) was twice as effective as these, scoring one in five. (wikipedia.org)
  • Barium Nitrate, chunky style or granular, may be off color. (skylighter.com)
  • Barium nitrate is the most commonly used oxidizer to make green fireworks. (skylighter.com)
  • Barium nitrate tends to get hard over time due to absorption of moisture. (skylighter.com)
  • This granular material and any hardened barium nitrate can be quickly milled to a very fine powder before use with either a coffee/blade mill or a ball mill. (skylighter.com)
  • It involves putting a tube into the rectum (back passage) and pouring in a fluid containing barium, which makes it show up on an X-ray . (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • During the test, you will lie on a table, and your doctor will insert a small tube into your rectum to partially fill your colon with barium sulfate. (massgeneral.org)
  • Because the colon and rectum are normally not visible on x-rays, you need to temporarily coat their inner surfaces with barium, a liquid that does show up on x-rays. (harvard.edu)
  • Barium is placed into the bowels through the rectum. (stdavids.com)
  • You will be moved several times to make sure the barium coats the walls of the colon and rectum. (stdavids.com)
  • The radiologist will place a tube into your rectum (back passage) and pass some barium liquid through the tube and into your bowel. (bmihealthcare.co.uk)
  • Then, a lubricated tube is placed in the rectum and the barium and air are injected. (cancerquest.org)
  • The contrast material (barium) will be put into the rectum through a plastic tube. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • The combination of barium sulfate and zinc sulfide (ZnS) is the inorganic pigment called lithopone . (wikipedia.org)
  • When a substance is released either from a large sulfide dissolve more easily in water than barium area, such as an industrial plant, or from a container, sulfate and barium carbonate, but because they are such as a drum or bottle, it enters the environment. (cdc.gov)
  • From profound hypokalemia to life-threatening hyperkalemia: a case of barium sulfide poisoning. (cdc.gov)
  • The second requires combining barium sulfide with nitric acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Barium dierbium(III) tetra-sulfide, BaEr 2 S 4 , crystallizes with four formula units in the ortho-rhom-bic space group Pnma in the CaFe 2 O 4 structure type. (iucr.org)
  • Barium reacts with many other metal oxides and sulfides to make barium oxide or sulfide and the metal. (wikipedia.org)
  • So barium sulfate is reduced by carbon to make barium sulfide and carbon dioxide . (wikipedia.org)
  • The barium sulfide is dissolved in hydrochloric acid . (wikipedia.org)
  • Lithopone, a pigment containing barium sulfate and zinc sulfide, has good covering power, and does not darken in the presence of sulfides. (radiochemistry.org)
  • Barium sulfate (or sulphate ) is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ba SO 4 . (wikipedia.org)
  • About 80% of the world's barium sulphate production, mostly purified mineral, is consumed as a component of oil well drilling fluid . (wikipedia.org)
  • It occurs as the mineral barite , which is the main commercial source of barium and materials prepared from it. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common naturally occurring minerals of barium are barite (barium sulfate, BaSO 4 ) and witherite (barium carbonate, BaCO 3 ). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • It is primarily found in and extracted from the mineral barite , a crystalline form of barium sulfate (BaSO 4 ). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • An advantage in controlling barium scales is that the sulfate, once formed, will not redissolve to any appreciable extent, and this reduces the rate at which barite scale can form in other locations in the bleach plant. (usda.gov)
  • Because barium sulfate will not redissolve in the bleach plant, a barite deposit is less likely to reoccur somewhere else in the bleach plant. (usda.gov)
  • Barium is found as barium sulfate (barite) and barium carbonate (witherite) in the ground. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among all ferrate (IV) salts, barium ferrate sustains unusually facile charge transfer, which is important for the high power domain of alkaline batteries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Barium ferrate, therefore, appears to be one of the most insoluble salts known. (wikipedia.org)
  • Barium salts are typically white when solid and colorless when dissolved. (wikipedia.org)
  • Solutions of sulfate salts such as Epsom salts or sodium sulfate may be given as first aid for barium poisoning, as they precipitate the barium as the insoluble (and non-toxic) barium sulfate. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is among the most important salts of barium . (wikipedia.org)
  • Soluble barium salts are highly toxic. (environmentalchemistry.com)
  • Ingesting drinking water containing levels of barium above the EPA drinking water guidelines for relatively short periods of time can cause gastrointestinal disturbances and muscle weakness. (cdc.gov)
  • Barium sulfate is sometimes used by doctors to perform medical tests and to take x-rays of the gastrointestinal tract. (cdc.gov)
  • Barium has been found to potentially cause gastrointestinal disturbances and muscular weakness when people are exposed to it at levels above the EPA drinking water standards for relatively short periods of time. (cdc.gov)
  • Ingestion of certain forms of barium (e.g., barium carbonate or barium fluoride) in toxic amounts can lead to gastrointestinal signs and symptoms (e.g., vomiting, abdominal pain, and watery diarrhea). (cdc.gov)
  • Barium sulfate is used as an insoluble additive to oil well drilling fluid, as well as in a purer form, as X-ray radiocontrast agents for imaging the human gastrointestinal tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • in the gastrointestinal tract is an barium. (cdc.gov)
  • An upper gastrointestinal series involves filling the esophagus , stomach, and small intestines with a white liquid material (barium). (medicinenet.com)
  • This product should not be used in patients with known or suspected gastrointestinal perforation or hypersensitivity to barium sulfate or any component of this barium sulfate formulation. (nih.gov)
  • 2. A radiopaque solution containing barium sulfate that is used to visualize the gastrointestinal tract on x-rays. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Upper gastrointestinal tract radiography or upper GI uses a form of real-time x-ray called fluoroscopy and a barium-based contrast material to produce images of the esophagus, stomach and small intestine. (radiologyinfo.org)
  • Barium sulfate is quite insoluble in water, and is used as a radiopaque agent to diagnose gastrointestinal medical conditions. (cancer.gov)
  • The compounds of barium, particularly the water-soluble ones, are toxic. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Certain compounds of barium, such as barium sulfate , are not toxic and can be put in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the test, a white liquid called barium is passed into your bowel through your bottom. (www.nhs.uk)
  • A barium meal is a diagnostic test used to detect abnormalities of the esophagus, stomach and small bowel using X-ray imaging. (news-medical.net)
  • Some initial images are taken to check that the barium has passed through the esophagus, and into the stomach and small bowel. (news-medical.net)
  • Once the barium contrast has passed through to the large bowel or the colon, more pictures are taken. (news-medical.net)
  • As it passes through the body, barium coats the inside of the food pipe, stomach, or bowel, causing the outlines of the organs to appear on X-ray. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Barium administered for a CT scan typically leaves the body through normal bowel movements, although some patients may have to drink extra fluids or take a. (reference.com)
  • To prevent hard stools (constipation) or bowel block from this medicine, your doctor may have you use a laxative like milk of magnesia or lactulose after using this medicine (barium tablets). (drugs.com)
  • Coating the bowel with barium, a white liquid, highlights it on X-rays. (spirehealthcare.com)
  • The radiographer will ask you to move or they will tilt the table so the barium spreads through the lower bowel. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • Most critically, CT allows visualization of subtle traces of dense barium within the dependent portions of this fluid indicating bowel perforation. (hindawi.com)
  • Prolonged small bowel mucosal coating with barium was first recognized in GVHD [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Images through the pelvis (Figure 3 ) reveal a larger fluid collection which contained a small amount of dense barium in a dependent position indicating perforation of bowel. (hindawi.com)
  • The second consists of examining the barium-filled or barium-outlined large bowel inner surface with X-rays that are produced by a fluoroscope. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Barium enemas are done to identify inflammation, strictures, diverticula, inflammation and other abnormalities that may be present mainly in the large bowel. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • In addition, some studies suggest barium enemas may, in some instances, be inferior to other tests at discovering some large bowel problems. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Administration of E-Z-HD may result in leakage of barium at any level of the GI tract in the presence of conditions such as carcinomas, GI fistula , inflammatory bowel disease , gastric or duodenal ulcer , appendicitis , or diverticulitis , and in patients with a severe stenosis at any level of the GI tract, especially if it is distal to the stomach. (rxlist.com)
  • Also tell your doctor if your infant or young child has any condition that affects his or her esophagus, stomach, or intestine, or has had surgery involving the intestines.Your doctor may tell you or your child not to take barium sulfate. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The barium fills and then coats the lining of the intestinal tract making the adjacent esophagus, stomach and duodenum visible. (medicinenet.com)
  • The pharynx and esophagus are made visible on X-ray film by a liquid suspension called barium sulfate (barium). (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • In barium X-rays, fluoroscopy allows the radiologist to see the movement of the barium through the pharynx and esophagus as a person drinks. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • When swallowed, a barium drink coats the inside walls of the pharynx and esophagus so that the swallowing motion, inside wall lining, and size and shape of these organs is visible on X-ray. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The use of barium with X-rays contributes to the visibility of various characteristics of the pharynx and esophagus. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Hmm, the 'slight' might be a reference to the difficulty discerning whether the barium seen above the diaphragm is in your esophagus or still in the stomach but in the part that has herniated above the diaphragm. (healingwell.com)
  • When the upper GI tract is coated with barium, the radiologist is able to view and assess the anatomy and function of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum. (radiologyinfo.org)
  • The barium is radio-opaque, and highlights structures in the mouth and upper esophagus for the benefit of the speech-language pathologist. (wisegeek.com)
  • Barium sulfate works by coating the inside of your esophagus, stomach, or intestines which allows them to be seen more clearly on a CT scan or other radiologic (x-ray) examination. (cigna.com)
  • Barium sulfate is used to help diagnose certain disorders of the esophagus, stomach, or intestines. (cigna.com)
  • Your child will drink a barium shake, which will make her esophagus and stomach visible on the x-ray screen. (chop.edu)
  • The most common minerals of barium are baryte (barium sulfate, BaSO4) and witherite (barium carbonate, BaCO3), both insoluble in water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Barium sulfate comes as a powder to be mixed with water, a suspension (liquid), a paste, and a tablet. (medlineplus.gov)
  • 5. The barium swallowing kit of claim 1 wherein each barium packet contains barium sulfate in a powder form for mixing with said food in said food containers. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Barium is a dry, white, chalky powder that is mixed with water to make a thick, milkshake-like drink. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Barium chromate , named barium tetraoxochromate(VI) by the IUPAC , is a yellow sand like powder with the formula BaCrO 4 . (wikipedia.org)
  • Dissolve the barium sulfate powder in a small amount of water. (cigna.com)
  • E-Z-HD (barium sulfate) is a radiographic contrast agent that is supplied as a fine white powder for oral suspension (98%w/w barium sulfate) for oral administration. (rxlist.com)
  • For oral suspension: 340 grams of barium sulfate supplied as a fine, white powder in a single-dose HDPE plastic bottle for reconstitution. (rxlist.com)
  • The EPA has determined that barium is not likely to be carcinogenic to humans following ingestion and that there is insufficient information to determine whether it will be carcinogenic to humans following inhalation exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • Sodium sulfate can be given in case of ingestion to precipitate out the barium as barium sulfate. (hazard.com)
  • 6. The barium swallowing kit of claim 1 including a napkin contained within said primary container for use by said patient upon ingestion of said food. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Ingestion of barium is not recommended in patients with a history of food aspiration. (nih.gov)
  • Plain abdominal radiograph obtained several days after ingestion of barium shows the sign of prolonged barium coating indicating severe mucosal damage. (hindawi.com)
  • The test also involves drinking a chalky-tasting liquid that contains barium. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A thin layer of barium sulfate called baryta is first coated on the base surface of most photographic paper to increase the reflectiveness of the image, with the first such paper introduced in 1884 in Germany . (wikipedia.org)
  • Antoine Lavoisier changed the name to baryta , from which "barium" was derived to describe the metal. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Drinking plenty of fluids after the procedure helps flush the barium solution from the body and prevent constipation. (cancer.ca)
  • I just saw someone waiting for a CT scan and drinking the barium while my FIL was having a procedure done, and the guy said it didn't taste bad at all. (healingwell.com)
  • The duration of the whole procedure depends on the speed with which barium fills the necessary areas of interest, the number of images required to properly evaluate the colon, and whether additional barium or images are required. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • The health effects of the different barium compounds depend on how well the compound dissolves in water or in the stomach contents. (cdc.gov)
  • X-rays of the stomach and intestine done without barium provide very little detail and information. (medicinenet.com)
  • If needed, further enhancement of the different structures can be obtained by having air as well as barium in the stomach. (medicinenet.com)
  • Barium compounds are used in x-raying the stomach and intestines and in making fireworks and white pigments. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The radiologist will use the fluoroscopy machine, or camera, to take x-rays while your child is swallowing the barium and as the barium flows into her stomach. (chop.edu)
  • Considering both the contents of barium and sulfur in different fractions and stoichiometric calculations it was also possible to assume that barium occurs mainly in the BaSO 4 form. (scielo.br)
  • Exposure to barium occurs mostly in the workplace or from drinking contaminated water. (cdc.gov)
  • This occurs with liquids like barium contrast medium. (hindawi.com)
  • Nowadays, barium enemas aren't carried out very often, as alternative tests such as a colonoscopy or computerised tomography (CT) scan are usually preferred. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Barium enemas aren't done during pregnancy, because the X-rays may harm the baby. (www.nhs.uk)
  • I do know that after the BE I have to take 6-8 fleet enemas to clear out the barium because I will hopefully be having a colostomy reversal the following day. (healthboards.com)
  • Barium enemas are used to examine the patient's colon for abnormalities, including cancer and pre-cancerous polyps. (cancerquest.org)
  • VoLumen ® is a barium sulfate suspension 0.1% w/v, 0.1% w/w for oral administration. (nih.gov)
  • A formulation for preparing Barium Sulfate Suspension. (ijpc.com)
  • Mass-spectrometric studies of vaporization of the sulphides of calcium, strontium and barium. (nist.gov)
  • Structure and properties of barium and calcium borosilicate glass. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • This Public Health Statement is the summary breathing, eating, or drinking the substance, or by chapter from the Toxicological Profile for Barium skin contact. (cdc.gov)
  • Toxicological Profile for Barium and Barium Compounds[online]. (cdc.gov)
  • Barium (chemical symbol Ba , atomic number 56) is a soft, silvery chemical element classified as an alkaline earth metal . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • As a member of the family of alkaline earth metals, barium lies in group two (former group 2A) of the periodic table, between strontium and radium . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Barium is a member of the alkaline-earth metals . (americanelements.com)
  • Barium is part of a group of elements known as the alkaline earth metals . (wikipedia.org)
  • The sulfate salt of barium, an alkaline, divalent metal. (cancer.gov)
  • Water-soluble barium compounds are poisonous and have been used as rodenticides. (wikipedia.org)
  • The irreversible reaction of digesting barium chromate with a solution of sodium ferrate forms barium ferrate, and the color of the solution is changed from red to yellow due to the sodium chromate that is also formed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although barium is a heavy metal , and its water-soluble compounds are often highly toxic, the low solubility of barium sulfate protects the patient from absorbing harmful amounts of the metal. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a toxic substance, as are many other chemicals containing barium. (reference.com)
  • It should be noted, however, that barium and its water-soluble compounds are toxic. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Barium ferrate is the chemical compound of formula BaFeO4. (wikipedia.org)
  • Barium is a chemical element with the symbol Ba and atomic number 56. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of its high chemical reactivity, barium is never found in nature as a free element. (wikipedia.org)
  • Barium iodide is an inorganic compound represented by the chemical formula BaI2. (reference.com)
  • Ba is the chemical symbol for barium, and I is the chemical symbol for iod. (reference.com)
  • Barium is chemical element 56 on the periodic table . (wikipedia.org)
  • The fractionation of barium in Brazil nuts was studied owing to the toxicity of this element and the strong correlation between chemical form and absorption. (scielo.br)
  • Barium sulfate is in a class of medications called radiopaque contrast media. (medlineplus.gov)
  • tell your doctor and the staff at the testing center if you are allergic to barium sulfate, other radiopaque contrast media, simethicone (Gas-X, Phazyme, others), any other medications, any foods, latex, or any of the ingredients in the type of barium sulfate that you will be taking or using. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Barium is a silvery-white metal that takes on a and barium compounds and the effects of exposure silver-yellow color when exposed to air. (cdc.gov)
  • A urinary barium concentration greater than the 95th percentile for the general population is an unusual level of exposure for a person with no known occupational exposure to barium (CDC). (cdc.gov)
  • A clinically compatible case in which a high index of suspicion (credible threat or patient history regarding location and time) exists for barium exposure, or an epidemiologic link exists between this case and a laboratory-confirmed case. (cdc.gov)
  • Barium toxicity after exposure to contaminated contrast solution-Goias State, Brazil, 2003. (cdc.gov)
  • Barium sulfate is extremely insoluble and reported following acute oral exposure to Ba and gas drilling muds, automotive paints, very little, if any, is absorbed through the high doses of barium. (cdc.gov)
  • Based on limited human and animal data, Oral - Primary route of exposure for duration (how long), and the Barium is a silvery-white metal that the respiratory tract is the most sensitive general population. (cdc.gov)
  • Barium compounds are solids, existing as important factor affecting the Dermal - minor route of exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • In the atmosphere, barium is likely to been derived for intermediate-duration hypokalemia which can result in present in particulate form and is oral exposure (15-364 days). (cdc.gov)
  • The legal limit for barium, established in 1991, was based on a 10-week study of barium exposure in 11 adult male volunteers. (ewg.org)
  • Medical use only make a fraction of the uses of barium sulfate, but it's going to be disproportionately affected by this shortage . (slashdot.org)
  • The inorganic dichloride salt of barium. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • identifies the most serious hazardous waste sites in Two forms of barium, barium sulfate and barium the nation. (cdc.gov)
  • however, do not mix well with water, the amount of barium the total number of NPL sites evaluated for these usually found in drinking water is small. (cdc.gov)
  • Each of the barium packets has a measured amount of barium sulfate for mixing with the food in one of the food containers. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 4. The barium swallowing kit of claim 1 Wherein each barium packet contains an amount of barium sulfate to mix with the food at a ratio of between 20-60% barium sulfate by volume. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Ingesting small amounts present in your food and water or breathing air containing very low levels of barium. (cdc.gov)
  • Living in areas with unusually high natural levels of barium in the drinking water. (cdc.gov)
  • The x-ray table is raised and tilted different ways to spread the barium throughout the colon. (cancer.ca)
  • Your doctor may ask you to move around on the table and turn over to help spread the barium sulfate through your colon and provide additional views. (massgeneral.org)
  • Barium gets into the air during the mining, refining, and production of barium compounds, and from the burning of coal and oil. (cdc.gov)
  • 2. The method according to claim 1 wherein step (b) comprises adding the first solution to a second solution comprising ammonium carbonate, under conditions of rate of addition and mixing sufficient to precipitate the barium as a solid, whereby the Cs-131 remains dissolved in the combined solution of the first and second solutions. (google.com)
  • High concentrations of barium in drinking water increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and hypertension. (ewg.org)
  • Total concentrations of barium varied from 860 to 2084 mg kg -1 . (scielo.br)
  • A barium meal can be performed by a radiologist (or radiographer) who has specialist skills in imaging studies and works as a healthcare professional to diagnose and treat illness. (news-medical.net)
  • The doctor (radiologist) or radiographer will want to take several pictures of you in different positions while you're swallowing the barium liquid. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • Addition of a soluble sodium barium salt to an alkali metal ferrate solution produces a maroon precipitate of barium ferrate, a crystal which has the same structure as barium chromate and has approximately the same solubility. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first naturally occurring barium chromate was found in the country of Jordan. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hashemite crystals are not composed of pure barium chromate but instead contain some small sulfur content as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Barium chromate has been found to be useful in many capacities. (wikipedia.org)
  • One such case is the use of barium chromate as a sulfate scavenger in chromium electroplating baths. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adding barium chromate enhances the life of the bath by adding to the chromic acid concentration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Barium chromate is an oxidizing agent, making it useful as a burn rate modifier in pyrotechnic compositions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Barium chromate is used as a corrosion inhibitive pigment when zinc-alloy electroplating surfaces. (wikipedia.org)
  • When mixed with solid fumaric acid , barium chromate can be used in the removal of impurities and residual moisture from organic dry-cleaning solvents or from petroleum fuels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Barium chromate is also used in the composition of a catalyst for alkane dehydrogenation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pigment known as lemon yellow often contained barium chromate mixed with lead sulfate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rarely, severe allergic reactions of an anaphylactoid nature, have been reported following administration of barium sulfate contrast agents. (nih.gov)
  • Some may have an allergic reaction to the barium or latex tube used during the test. (stdavids.com)
  • Tell your doctor if you are allergic to latex or barium. (stdavids.com)
  • Complications are very rare but may occur if there is an allergic reaction to the barium or tearing of the colon. (cancerquest.org)
  • You should not use this medicine if you are allergic to barium sulfate or another contrast agent. (cigna.com)
  • Primary experiments indicate an improvement in the purity of the synthesized barium ferrate by performing the reaction at low temperature in the absence of carbon dioxide and by rapidly filtering and drying the precipitate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following is the reaction for the synthesis of barium ferrate using the wet method: Ba(OH)2 (aq) → BaO(s) + H2O NaClO + FeNO3 + BaO(s) → BaFeO4 + NaCl + NO The reaction for the formation of barium ferrate is vigorous and very strong chlorine odor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sulfuric acid is a notable exception because passivation stops the reaction by forming the insoluble barium sulfate on the surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Guys this would be a Double reaction because you have Zinc and Barium which need to switch. (smore.com)
  • Barium is a silvery-white metal which exists in nature only in ores containing mixtures of elements. (cdc.gov)
  • Barium is a soft, silvery-white metal, with a slight golden shade when ultrapure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The silvery-white color of barium metal rapidly vanishes upon oxidation in air yielding a dark gray layer containing the oxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Barium is reactive, and if you put pure barium metal in the air, it will react with oxygen . (wikipedia.org)
  • It combines with other chemicals such as sulfur or carbon and oxygen to form barium compounds. (cdc.gov)
  • In its elemental form, barium is a soft, silvery-gray metal. (americanelements.com)
  • For this reason, metallic barium is often stored under oil or in an inert atmosphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, metallic barium is used to remove traces of oxygen from vacuum tubes. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Barium ions (Ba 2+ ) migrate to the cathode, where they gain electrons (e − ) and are converted to metallic barium. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The compound is made up of a single barium ion bonded to two bromide ions with ch. (reference.com)
  • It is a known oxidizing agent and produces a green flame when heated, a result of the barium ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • X-rays are taken as the barium moves through the colon. (cancer.ca)
  • You may feel constipated if the barium that remains in the colon hardens. (cancer.ca)
  • Barium sulfate is a white, chalky liquid that helps your doctor see the outline of your colon on an X-ray. (massgeneral.org)
  • After the barium is placed into your colon, your doctor will add air to help detect abnormal growths. (massgeneral.org)
  • To make the intestine visible on an X-ray picture, the colon is filled with a white barium contrast material. (stlukesonline.org)
  • The barium blocks X-rays, so the barium-filled colon shows up clearly on the X-ray picture. (stlukesonline.org)
  • The barium clings to the surface of the colon wall, and the excess is allowed to drain out of the colon. (wisegeek.com)
  • The barium acts as a contrast agent because it blocks X-rays and allows the colon to be seen separately from the surrounding soft tissues. (wisegeek.com)
  • A mild laxative may be needed to get rid of the barium and prevent constipation. (cancer.ca)
  • Some patients may feel abdominal bloating after a barium meal test and the test may also lead to constipation. (news-medical.net)
  • As barium passes through the digestive system, constipation can result, especially in patients prone to constipation . (medicinenet.com)
  • After the study, it is important to give your child extra fluids for the day because the barium may cause constipation. (chop.edu)
  • Working in a job that involves barium production or use. (cdc.gov)

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