Barium Sulfate: A compound used as an x-ray contrast medium that occurs in nature as the mineral barite. It is also used in various manufacturing applications and mixed into heavy concrete to serve as a radiation shield.Barium: An element of the alkaline earth group of metals. It has an atomic symbol Ba, atomic number 56, and atomic weight 138. All of its acid-soluble salts are poisonous.Barium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain barium as an integral part of the molecule.Enema: A solution or compound that is introduced into the RECTUM with the purpose of cleansing the COLON or for diagnostic procedures.Strontium: An element of the alkaline earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sr, atomic number 38, and atomic weight 87.62.Diverticulum, Colon: A pouch or sac opening from the COLON.Sigmoidoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the sigmoid flexure.Macrocystis: A genus of BROWN ALGAE in the family Lessoniaceae, and one of the major forms of KELP. The species Macrocystis pyrifera, also known as giant kelp, is the largest of the marine algae.Colonic Diseases: Pathological processes in the COLON region of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).Colonoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the colon.Deglutition Disorders: Difficulty in SWALLOWING which may result from neuromuscular disorder or mechanical obstruction. Dysphagia is classified into two distinct types: oropharyngeal dysphagia due to malfunction of the PHARYNX and UPPER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER; and esophageal dysphagia due to malfunction of the ESOPHAGUS.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Esophageal Achalasia: A motility disorder of the ESOPHAGUS in which the LOWER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER (near the CARDIA) fails to relax resulting in functional obstruction of the esophagus, and DYSPHAGIA. Achalasia is characterized by a grossly contorted and dilated esophagus (megaesophagus).Barium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of barium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ba atoms with atomic weights 126-129, 131, 133, and 139-143 are radioactive barium isotopes.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Fluoroscopy: Production of an image when x-rays strike a fluorescent screen.Hernia, Hiatal: STOMACH herniation located at or near the diaphragmatic opening for the ESOPHAGUS, the esophageal hiatus.Deglutition: The act of taking solids and liquids into the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT through the mouth and throat.Laminaria: A genus of BROWN ALGAE in the family Laminariaceae. Dried pencil-like pieces may be inserted in the cervix where they swell as they absorb moisture, serving as osmotic dilators.Manometry: Measurement of the pressure or tension of liquids or gases with a manometer.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Esophagus: The muscular membranous segment between the PHARYNX and the STOMACH in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Cholecystography: Radiography of the gallbladder after ingestion of a contrast medium.Potassium Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.Colonography, Computed Tomographic: A non-invasive imaging method that uses computed tomographic data combined with specialized imaging software to examine the colon.Esophageal Diseases: Pathological processes in the ESOPHAGUS.Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage: Bleeding in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Diverticulum, Esophageal: Saccular protrusion beyond the wall of the ESOPHAGUS.Electron Probe Microanalysis: Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.Intestinal Obstruction: Any impairment, arrest, or reversal of the normal flow of INTESTINAL CONTENTS toward the ANAL CANAL.Diatrizoate Meglumine: A versatile contrast medium used for DIAGNOSTIC X-RAY RADIOLOGY.Occult Blood: Chemical, spectroscopic, or microscopic detection of extremely small amounts of blood.Bisacodyl: A diphenylmethane stimulant laxative used for the treatment of CONSTIPATION and for bowel evacuation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p871)Intussusception: A form of intestinal obstruction caused by the PROLAPSE of a part of the intestine into the adjoining intestinal lumen. There are four types: colic, involving segments of the LARGE INTESTINE; enteric, involving only the SMALL INTESTINE; ileocecal, in which the ILEOCECAL VALVE prolapses into the CECUM, drawing the ILEUM along with it; and ileocolic, in which the ileum prolapses through the ileocecal valve into the COLON.Cesium: A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.Water Wells: Constructions built to access underground water.Cecal Diseases: Pathological developments in the CECUM.Respiratory Aspiration: Inhaling liquid or solids, such as stomach contents, into the RESPIRATORY TRACT. When this causes severe lung damage, it is called ASPIRATION PNEUMONIA.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Duodenal Diseases: Pathological conditions in the DUODENUM region of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL).Calcium Channels: Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.Colon, Sigmoid: A segment of the COLON between the RECTUM and the descending colon.Diverticulosis, Colonic: A pathological condition characterized by the presence of a number of COLONIC DIVERTICULA in the COLON. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial, including colon aging, motor dysfunction, increases in intraluminal pressure, and lack of dietary fibers.Rectum: The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.Microradiography: Production of a radiographic image of a small or very thin object on fine-grained photographic film under conditions which permit subsequent microscopic examination or enlargement of the radiograph at linear magnifications of up to several hundred and with a resolution approaching the resolving power of the photographic emulsion (about 1000 lines per millimeter).Megacolon: Dilatation of the COLON, often to alarming dimensions. There are various types of megacolon including congenital megacolon in HIRSCHSPRUNG DISEASE, idiopathic megacolon in CONSTIPATION, and TOXIC MEGACOLON.Potassium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Zeolites: Zeolites. A group of crystalline, hydrated alkali-aluminum silicates. They occur naturally in sedimentary and volcanic rocks, altered basalts, ores, and clay deposits. Some 40 known zeolite minerals and a great number of synthetic zeolites are available commercially. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Ileal Diseases: Pathological development in the ILEUM including the ILEOCECAL VALVE.Explosive Agents: Substances that are energetically unstable and can produce a sudden expansion of the material, called an explosion, which is accompanied by heat, pressure and noise. Other things which have been described as explosive that are not included here are explosive action of laser heating, human performance, sudden epidemiological outbreaks, or fast cell growth.Gastrointestinal Transit: Passage of food (sometimes in the form of a test meal) through the gastrointestinal tract as measured in minutes or hours. The rate of passage through the intestine is an indicator of small bowel function.Metal Ceramic Alloys: The fusion of ceramics (porcelain) to an alloy of two or more metals for use in restorative and prosthodontic dentistry. Examples of metal alloys employed include cobalt-chromium, gold-palladium, gold-platinum-palladium, and nickel-based alloys.4-Aminopyridine: One of the POTASSIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS, with secondary effect on calcium currents, which is used mainly as a research tool and to characterize channel subtypes.Cations, Divalent: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Gallopamil: Coronary vasodilator that is an analog of iproveratril (VERAPAMIL) with one more methoxy group on the benzene ring.Melena: The black, tarry, foul-smelling FECES that contain degraded blood.Esophageal Sphincter, Lower: The physiologic or functional barrier to GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX at the esophagogastric junction. Sphincteric muscles remain tonically contracted during the resting state and form the high-pressure zone separating the lumen of the ESOPHAGUS from that of the STOMACH. (Haubrich et al, Bockus Gastroenterology, 5th ed., pp399, 415)Tetraethylammonium: A potassium-selective ion channel blocker. (From J Gen Phys 1994;104(1):173-90)Colonic Polyps: Discrete tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the COLON. These POLYPS are connected to the wall of the colon either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.Radiography, Abdominal: Radiographic visualization of the body between the thorax and the pelvis, i.e., within the peritoneal cavity.Radiography: Examination of any part of the body for diagnostic purposes by means of X-RAYS or GAMMA RAYS, recording the image on a sensitized surface (such as photographic film).Intestinal Polyps: Discrete abnormal tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the INTESTINE. A polyp is attached to the intestinal wall either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.Stomach Volvulus: Twisting of the STOMACH that may result in gastric ISCHEMIA and GASTRIC OUTLET OBSTRUCTION. It is often associated with DIAPHRAGMATIC HERNIA.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Diverticulum: A pouch or sac developed from a tubular or saccular organ, such as the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Tetraethylammonium CompoundsPatch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Diverticulitis, Colonic: Inflammation of the COLONIC DIVERTICULA, generally with abscess formation and subsequent perforation.Cathartics: Agents that are used to stimulate evacuation of the bowels.Intestinal Fistula: An abnormal anatomical passage between the INTESTINE, and another segment of the intestine or other organs. External intestinal fistula is connected to the SKIN (enterocutaneous fistula). Internal intestinal fistula can be connected to a number of organs, such as STOMACH (gastrocolic fistula), the BILIARY TRACT (cholecystoduodenal fistula), or the URINARY BLADDER of the URINARY TRACT (colovesical fistula). Risk factors include inflammatory processes, cancer, radiation treatment, and surgical misadventures (MEDICAL ERRORS).Duodenal Obstruction: Hindrance of the passage of luminal contents in the DUODENUM. Duodenal obstruction can be partial or complete, and caused by intrinsic or extrinsic factors. Simple obstruction is associated with diminished or stopped flow of luminal contents. Strangulating obstruction is associated with impaired blood flow to the duodenum in addition to obstructed flow of luminal contents.Pneumonia, Aspiration: A type of lung inflammation resulting from the aspiration of food, liquid, or gastric contents into the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.Calcium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.Rana catesbeiana: A species of the family Ranidae (true frogs). The only anuran properly referred to by the common name "bullfrog", it is the largest native anuran in North America.Esophagoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the esophagus.Ileocecal Valve: The valve, at the junction of the CECUM with the COLON, that guards the opening where the ILEUM enters the LARGE INTESTINE.Pliability: The quality or state of being able to be bent or creased repeatedly. (From Webster, 3d ed)Fundoplication: Mobilization of the lower end of the esophagus and plication of the fundus of the stomach around it (fundic wrapping) in the treatment of GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX that may be associated with various disorders, such as hiatal hernia. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Cadmium: An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.Endoscopy: Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.

Nonbehavioral selection for pawns, mutants of Paramecium aurelia with decreased excitability. (1/1812)

The reversal response in Paramecium aurelia is mediated by calcium which carries the inward current during excitation. Electrophysiological studies indicate that strontium and barium can also carry the inward current. Exposure to high concentrations of barium rapidly paralyzes and later kills wild-type paramecia. Following mutagenesis with nitrosoguanidine, seven mutants which continued to swim in the ;high-barium' solution were selected. All of the mutants show decreased reversal behavior, with phenotypes ranging from extremely non-reversing (;extreme' pawns) to nearly wild-type reversal behavior (;partial' pawns). The mutations fall into three complementation groups, identical to the pwA, pwB, and pwC genes of Kunget al. (1975). All of the pwA and pwB mutants withstand longer exposure to barium, the pwB mutants surviving longer than the pwA mutants. Among mutants of each gene, survival is correlated with loss of reversal behavior. Double mutants (A-B, A-C, B-C), identified in the exautogamous progeny of crosses between ;partial' mutants, exhibited a more extreme non-reversing phenotype than either of their single-mutant (;partial' pawn) parents.---Inability to reverse could be expected from an alteration in the calcium-activated reversal mechanism or in excitation. A normal calcium-activated structure was demonstrated in all pawns by chlorpromazine treatment. In a separate report (Schein, Bennett and Katz 1976) the results of electrophysiological investigations directly demonstrate decreased excitability in all of the mutants, a decrease due to an altered calcium activation. The studies of the genetics, the survival in barium and the electro-physiology of the pawns demonstrate that the pwA and pwB genes have different effects on calcium activation.  (+info)

Inducible genetic suppression of neuronal excitability. (2/1812)

Graded, reversible suppression of neuronal excitability represents a logical goal of therapy for epilepsy and intractable pain. To achieve such suppression, we have developed the means to transfer "electrical silencing" genes into neurons with sensitive control of transgene expression. An ecdysone-inducible promoter drives the expression of inwardly rectifying potassium channels in polycistronic adenoviral vectors. Infection of superior cervical ganglion neurons did not affect normal electrical activity but suppressed excitability after the induction of gene expression. These experiments demonstrate the feasibility of controlled ion channel expression after somatic gene transfer into neurons and serve as the prototype for a novel generalizable approach to modulate excitability.  (+info)

Activation of human D3 dopamine receptor inhibits P/Q-type calcium channels and secretory activity in AtT-20 cells. (3/1812)

The D3 dopamine receptor is postulated to play an important role in the regulation of neurotransmitter secretion at both pre- and postsynaptic terminals. However, this hypothesis and the underlying mechanisms remain untested because of the lack of D3-selective ligands, paucity of appropriate model secretory systems, and the weak and inconsistent coupling of D3 receptors to classical signal transduction pathways. The absence of ligands that selectively discriminate between D3 and D2 receptors in vivo precludes the study of D3 receptor function in the brain and necessitates the use of heterologous expression systems. In this report we demonstrate that activation of the human D3 dopamine receptor expressed in the AtT-20 neuroendocrine cell line causes robust inhibition of P/Q-type calcium channels via pertussis toxin-sensitive G-proteins. In addition, using the vesicle trafficking dye FM1-43, we show that D3 receptor activation significantly inhibits spontaneous secretory activity in these cells. Our results not only support the hypothesis that the D3 receptor can regulate secretory activity but also provide insight into the underlying signaling mechanisms. We propose a functional model in which the D3 receptor tightly regulates neurotransmitter release at a synapse by only allowing the propagation of spikes above a certain frequency or burst-duration threshold.  (+info)

Volume regulation following hypotonic shock in isolated crypts of mouse distal colon. (4/1812)

1. A video-imaging technique of morphometry was used to measure the diameter as an index of cell volume in intact mouse distal colon crypts submitted to hypotonic shock. 2. Transition from isotonic (310 mosmol l-1) to hypotonic (240 mosmol l-1) saline caused a pronounced increase in crypt diameter immediately followed by regulatory volume decrease (RVD). 3. Exposure of crypts to Cl--free hyposmotic medium increased the rapidity of both cell swelling and RVD. Exposure of crypts to Na+-free hyposmotic medium reduced the total duration of swelling. Return to initial diameter was followed by further shrinkage of the crypt cells. 4. The chloride channel inhibitor NPPB (50 microM) delayed the swelling phase and prevented the subsequent normal decrease in diameter. 5. The K+ channel blockers barium (10 mM), charybdotoxin (10 nM) and TEA (5 mM) inhibited RVD by 51, 44 and 32 %, respectively. 6. Intracellular [Ca2+] rose from a baseline of 174 +/- 17 nM (n = 8) to 448 +/- 45 nM (n = 8) during the initial swelling phase 7. The Ca2+ channel blockers verapamil (50 microM) and nifedipine (10 microM), the chelator of intracellular Ca2+ BAPTA AM (30 microM), or the inhibitor of Ca2+ release TMB-8 (10 microM), dramatically reduced volume recovery, leading to 51 % (n = 9), 25 % (n = 7), 37 % (n = 6), 32 % (n = 8) inhibition of RVD, respectively. TFP (50 microM), an antagonist of the Ca2+-calmodulin complex, significantly slowed RVD. The Ca2+ ionophore A23187 (2 microM) provoked a dramatic reduction of the duration and amplitude of cell swelling followed by extensive shrinkage. The release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores using bradykinin (1 microM) or blockade of reabsorption with thapsigargin (1 microM) decreased the duration of RVD. 8. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, 5 microM) slightly delayed RVD, whereas leukotriene D4 (LTD4, 100 nM) and arachidonic acid (10 microM) reduced the duration of RVD. Blockade of phospholipase A2 by quinacrine (10 microM) inhibited RVD by 53 %. Common inhibition of PGE2 and LTD4 synthesis by ETYA (50 microM) or separate blockade of PGE2 synthesis by 1 microM indomethacin reduced the duration of RVD. Blockade of LTD4 synthesis by nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) did not produce any significant effect on cell swelling or subsequent RVD. 9. Staurosporine (1 microM), an inhibitor of protein kinases, inhibited RVD by 58 %. Taken together the experiments demonstrate that the RVD process is under the control of conductive pathways, extra- and intracellular Ca2+ ions, protein kinases, prostaglandins and leukotrienes.  (+info)

Modulation of chloride, potassium and bicarbonate transport by muscarinic receptors in a human adenocarcinoma cell line. (5/1812)

1. Short-circuit current (I(SC)) responses to carbachol (CCh) were investigated in Colony 1 epithelia, a subpopulation of the HCA-7 adenocarcinoma cell line. In Krebs-Henseleit (KH) buffer, CCh responses consisted of three I(SC) components: an unusual rapid decrease (the 10 s spike) followed by an upward spike at 30 s and a slower transient increase (the 2 min peak). This response was not potentiated by forskolin; rather, CCh inhibited cyclic AMP-stimulated I(SC). 2. In HCO3- free buffer, the decrease in forskolin-elevated I(SC) after CCh was reduced, although the interactions between CCh and forskolin remained at best additive rather than synergistic. When Cl- anions were replaced by gluconate, both Ca2+- and cyclic AMP-mediated electrogenic responses were significantly inhibited. 3. Basolateral Ba2+ (1-10 mM) and 293B (10 microM) selectively inhibited forskolin stimulation of I(SC), without altering the effects of CCh. Under Ba2+- or 293B-treated conditions, CCh responses were potentiated by pretreatment with forskolin. 4. Basolateral charybdotoxin (50 nM) significantly increased the size of the 10 s spike of CCh responses in both KH and HCO3- free medium, without affecting the 2 min peak. The enhanced 10 s spike was inhibited by prior addition of 5 mM apical Ba2+. Charybdotoxin did not affect forskolin responses. 5. In epithelial layers prestimulated with forskolin, the muscarinic antagonists atropine and 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide (4-DAMP, both at 100 nM) abolished subsequent 10 microM CCh responses. Following addition of p-fluoro hexahydro-sila-difenidol (pF-HHSiD, 10 microM) or pirenzepine (1 microM), qualitative changes in the CCh response time-profile also indicated a rightward shift of the agonist concentration-response curve; however, 1 microM gallamine had no effect. These results suggest that a single M3-like receptor subtype mediates the secretory response to CCh. 6. It is concluded that CCh and forskolin activate discrete populations of basolateral K+ channels gated by either Ca2+ or cyclic AMP, but that the Cl- permeability of the apical membrane may limit their combined effects on electrogenic Cl- secretion. In addition, CCh activates a Ba2+-sensitive apical K+ conductance leading to electrogenic K+ transport. Both agents may also modulate HCO3- secretion through a mechanism at least partially dependent on carbonic anhydrase.  (+info)

Selective activation of heterologously expressed G protein-gated K+ channels by M2 muscarinic receptors in rat sympathetic neurones. (6/1812)

1. G protein-regulated inward rectifier K+ (GIRK) channels were over-expressed in dissociated rat superior cervical sympathetic (SCG) neurones by co-transfecting green fluorescent protein (GFP)-, GIRK1- and GIRK2-expressing plasmids using the biolistic technique. Membrane currents were subsequently recorded with whole-cell patch electrodes. 2. Co-transfected cells had larger Ba2+-sensitive inwardly rectifying currents and 13 mV more negative resting potentials (in 3 mM [K+]o) than non-transfected cells, or cells transfected with GIRK1 or GIRK2 alone. 3. Carbachol (CCh, 1-30 microM) increased the inwardly rectifying current in 70 % of GIRK1+ GIRK2-transfected cells by 261 +/- 53 % (n = 6, CCh 30 microM) at -120 mV, but had no effect in non-transfected cells or in cells transfected with GIRK1 or GIRK2 alone. Pertussis toxin prevented the effect of carbachol but had no effect on basal currents. 4. The effect of CCh was antagonized by 6 nM tripitramine but not by 100 nM pirenzepine, consistent with activation of endogenous M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. 5. In contrast, inhibition of the voltage-activated Ca2+ current by CCh was antagonized by 100 nM pirenzepine but not by 6 nM tripitramine, indicating that it was mediated by M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. 6. We conclude that endogenous M2 and M4 muscarinic receptors selectively couple to GIRK currents and Ca2+ currents respectively, with negligible cross-talk.  (+info)

Kir2.1 encodes the inward rectifier potassium channel in rat arterial smooth muscle cells. (7/1812)

1. The molecular nature of the strong inward rectifier K+ channel in vascular smooth muscle was explored by using isolated cell RT-PCR, cDNA cloning and expression techniques. 2. RT-PCR of RNA from single smooth muscle cells of rat cerebral (basilar), coronary and mesenteric arteries revealed transcripts for Kir2.1. Transcripts for Kir2.2 and Kir2.3 were not found. 3. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed significant differences in transcript levels of Kir2.1 between the different vascular preparations (n = 3; P < 0.05). A two-fold difference was detected between Kir2.1 mRNA and beta-actin mRNA in coronary arteries when compared with relative levels measured in mesenteric and basilar preparations. 4. Kir2.1 was cloned from rat mesenteric vascular smooth muscle cells and expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Currents were strongly inwardly rectifying and selective for K+. 5. The effect of extracellular Ba2+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Cs2+ ions on cloned Kir2.1 channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes was examined. Ba2+ and Cs+ block were steeply voltage dependent, whereas block by external Ca2+ and Mg2+ exhibited little voltage dependence. The apparent half-block constants and voltage dependences for Ba2+, Cs+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ were very similar for inward rectifier K+ currents from native cells and cloned Kir2.1 channels expressed in oocytes. 6. Molecular studies demonstrate that Kir2.1 is the only member of the Kir2 channel subfamily present in vascular arterial smooth muscle cells. Expression of cloned Kir2.1 in Xenopus oocytes resulted in inward rectifier K+ currents that strongly resemble those that are observed in native vascular arterial smooth muscle cells. We conclude that Kir2.1 encodes for inward rectifier K+ channels in arterial smooth muscle.  (+info)

Cross-coupling between voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels and ryanodine receptors in developing ascidian muscle blastomeres. (8/1812)

1. Ascidian blastomeres of muscle lineage express voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) despite isolation and cleavage arrest. Taking advantage of these large developing cells, developmental changes in functional relations between VDCC currents and intracellular Ca2+ stores were studied. 2. Inactivation of ascidian VDCCs is Ca2+ dependent, as demonstrated by two pieces of evidence: (1) a bell-shaped relationship between prepulse voltage and amplitude during the test pulse in Ca2+, but not in Ba2+, and (2) the decay kinetics of Ca2+ currents (ICa) obtained as the size of tail currents. 3. During replacement in the external solution of Ca2+ with Ba2+, the inward current appeared biphasic: it showed rapid decay followed by recovery and slow decay. This current profile was most evident in the mixed bath solution (2 % Ca2+ and 98 % Ba2+, abbreviated to '2Ca/98Ba'). 4. The biphasic profile of I2Ca/98Ba was significantly attenuated in caffeine and in ryanodine, indicating that Ca2+ release is involved in shaping the current kinetics of VDCCs. After washing out the caffeine, the biphasic pattern was reproducibly restored by depolarizing the membrane in calcium-rich solution, which is expected to refill the internal Ca2+ stores. 5. The inhibitors of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+-ATPase (SERCAs) cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) and thapsigargin facilitated elimination of the biphasic profile with repetitive depolarization. 6. At a stage earlier than 36 h after fertilization, the biphasic profile of I2Ca/98Ba was not observed. However, caffeine induced a remarkable decrease in the amplitude of I2Ca/98Ba and this suppression was blocked by microinjection of the Ca2+ chelator BAPTA, showing the presence of caffeine-sensitive Ca2+ stores at this stage. 7. Electron microscopic observation shows that sarcoplasmic membranes (SR) arrange closer to the sarcolemma with maturation, suggesting that the formation of the ultrastructural machinery underlies development of the cross-coupling between VDCCs and Ca2+ stores.  (+info)

Standard electrophysiological techniques were used for potential recording and current injection under current-clamp conditions (Erxleben et al., 1995). For two-electrode voltage-clamp experiments, an Axoclamp 2B (Axon Instruments Inc., Foster City, CA) was used. These experiments were performed on fibers of the last abdominal segment which are compact (270-450 μm long with a diameter of 50-80 μm). Injection of current in the middle of the fibers and recording at several points over the length of the fiber showed that they are isopotential and thus suitable for two-electrode voltage-clamp. For isolation of Ca or Ba currents and suppression of K currents, a solution (TEA solution) consisting of 160 mM tetraethyl-ammonium, 2 mM 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), 320 mM NaCl, 8 mM KCl, 20 mM HEPES, pH 7.4, was used with either 10 mM CaCl2 or BaCl2. In addition, the recording and current electrodes were filled with 3 M CsCl to suppress K currents. Voltage-activated Ca or Ba currents were separated from ...
The majority of the barium present in the pulping process exits the digester as barium carbonate. Barium carbonate dissolves in the bleach plant when the pH drops below 7 and, if barium and sulfate concentrations are too high, begins to precipitate as barium sulfate. Barium is difficult to control because a mill cannot avoid this carbonate-to-sulfate transition using common bleaching technology. An advantage in controlling barium scales is that the sulfate, once formed, will not redissolve to any appreciable extent, and this reduces the rate at which barite scale can form in other locations in the bleach plant. A mill has relatively few options for controlling barium sulfate scale. The first is to ensure very good debarking to minimize barium entering the mill with the wood. The second option is to minimize sulfate content of the first chlorine dioxide stage in the bleach plant. Sulfate is minimized through good brown stock washing and by using sulfuric acid for pH control instead of chlorine ...
The use of barium with standard X-rays contributes to the visibility of various characteristics of the GI tract. Barium is a dry, white, chalky, metallic powder that is mixed with water to make barium liquid. Barium is an X-ray absorber and appears white on X-ray film. When instilled into the GI tract, barium coats the inside wall of the esophagus, stomach, large intestine, and/or small intestine so that the inside wall lining, size, shape, contour, and patency (openness) are visible on X-ray. This process shows differences that might not be seen on standard X-rays. Barium is used only for diagnostic studies of the GI tract.. In addition to drinking barium, some patients may be given baking soda crystals (similar to Alka-Seltzer) to further improve the images. This type of procedure is called an air-contrast or double-contrast upper GI.. Fluoroscopy is often used during a barium X-ray. Fluoroscopy is a study of moving body structures-similar to an X-ray "movie." A continuous X-ray beam is passed ...
Barium X-Rays (Upper and Lower GI) What are barium x-rays? A barium x-ray is a radiographic (x-ray) examination of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Barium x-rays (also called upper and lower GI series) are used to diagnose abnormalities of the GI tract, such as tumors, ulcers and other inflammatory conditions, polyps, hernias, and strictures. Click Image to Enlarge The use of barium with standard x-rays contributes to the visibility of various characteristics of the GI tract. Barium is a dry, white, cha...
The merchandise covered by the order is barium chloride, a chemical compound having the formulas BaCl2 or BaCl2-2H2O, currently classifiable under item number 2827.39.45.00 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTSUS). The scope reflects the HTSUS item number currently in effect. Although the HTSUS item number is provided for convenience and for U.S. Customs and Border Protection purposes, the written description remains dispositive ...
I was reading in the book that it says that barium chloride contains water but yet it is not wet, and does not feel wet. that is why we refer to it as a hydrous salt. i asked my lecturer about this but she gave a brief answer and i do not fully understand why it is so. i tried searching answers in the internet but to no avail. thank you for your help ...
Definition of barium in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is barium? Meaning of barium as a finance term. What does barium mean in finance?
CAS Number: 10326-27-9
Formula: BaCl2·2H2O
Density: 3.1 g/mL
Boiling and Freezing Point: 1560°C, 925°C
Solubility: Water
Synonyms: Barium Dichloride
Shelf Life: 36 MonthsChemicals for science education are available in easy-to-use formats with instructions for students to be introduced to a variety of subjects. These chemicals can be purchased in individual amounts or bulk kits for compatibility with classroom-sized demonstrations or independent studies. Products are designed for educational and teaching laboratories, and may or may not come with a certificate of analysis when ordered.
Barium sulfate is a contrast agent often used in GI tract studies. Aspiration is a potential complication of oral barium and the severity depends on the amount of contrast in the respiratory tract. Small amounts of aspirated barium can often be b...
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Barium can be used to help soft tissue show up on x-rays. It works by coating the inside of the esophagus, stomach, or small intestines which allows them to be seen more clearly on a CT scan or x-ray. This can be useful for doctors to check that everything is where it should be and to…
24378-32-3 - WZMUHJXUXGAGAN-UHFFFAOYSA-N - Barium pentacyanonitrosylferrate(III) (7CI) - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Question - Problem with food sticking in my gullet . ihave had barium - RR. Find the answer to this and other Medical questions on JustAnswer
New submitter redhat_redneck writes The U.S. and Canada has been experiencing a shortage of barium sulfate, which is used as contrast for upper and lower GI studies. It has reached the point where doctors are being asked not to order these exams except in emergencies, and some exams are being cance...
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This small freestyle table is of Sepele and wenge. The wenge in the legs is simply inlayed into dados. I used this combination on a previously listed hall table and find it hard to beat for a contemporary look. The Sepele is a thick vaneer on Ba...
Read across from BaCl2*2H2O to BaCO3: The toxicity of barium carbonate and barium chloride may reasonably be considered to be determined by availability of Ba2+cations. As a first surrogate for bioavailability, the solubility of a test substance may be used. This was investigated for barium carbonate experimentally in a test for comparative bio-accessibility with barium carbonate and barium chloride in artificial gastric juice (HCl, pH=1.5): an excess of each test item was added to a freshly prepared HCl solutions (pH=1.5) to obtain saturation (for details, please refer to IUCLID section 4.20 "pH" of this dossier). It could be shown that the solubility of barium carbonate in acidic media at 37°C is 3.7 g/L, whereas 510.4 g/L of barium chloride could be dissolved under equal conditions. In consequence, the solubility of barium carbonate under these conditions is more than two orders of magnitude less than that of barium chloride. However, it is to be concluded that this read-across is possible ...
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Why is it safe for patients to consume barium sulfate - Why is it safe for patients to drink barium sulfate even though barium ions are toxic? Not absorbed. Barium is a heavy metal which is not absorbable. It therefore passes through your system unaltered. It is generally taken as a salt (barium sulfate), .
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Barium sulfite, also known as barium sulfonate or barium(2+) sulfite, is the barium salt of the sulfurous acid H2SO3. Its molecular formula is BaSO3, and its molar mass is 217.39 grams per mol. Its...
Precipitated Barium Sulphate BaSO4,Barium Sulphate,产品中心,NEWZADD2017022700202,Basic Info.Model NO.:B-140Type:Barium SulfateGrade Standard:Industrial GradeAppearance:PowderGrade:Food, Industry, Agriculture, Reagent etc.Enterprise Standard:QVaks1-2007,
What s in the chemtrails? Barium is the leading contender, but aluminum, red blood cells and polymer fibers have also been identified.. American aerosol spraying researcher Clifford Carnicom, in May of 2002, announced he had discovered that an extraordinarily high level of barium now exists in our air and is directly related to the aerosol-chemtrail spraying operations. There are several types of barium. All are highly poisonous except barium sulfate, which is the one used for medical purposes. That type isnt used in chemtrails. Barium is a heavy metal, crystalline in nature. Barium clouds ionize rapidly in sunlight and are used to study electrical forces in space. There is evidence that barium impairs memory. How s your memory these days? How s your health? Any unusual nose bleeds, upper respiratory infections, asthma attacks, sore throats that wont go away or allergies? These problems have been linked to heavy chemtrail spraying all over the world. According to this chemistry website, barium ...
The Europe Barium Sulfate Market Report will give an overall outlook about the market worldwide. The market report includes the statistical data about the size of the market and this is both in terms of volume and value. In the beginning of the report, a brief description of the market is given so that the user becomes well versed with the market. Next is the market segmentation, which also includes the sub-segmentation part.. The segments that are contributing a major share in the Europe Barium Sulfate market is included. In the next section, the factors that are favoring the growth of the market are included. These factors include the investments that are made by the different organizational bodies, the research and development activities that are made for the development of the market.. Get Free Sample Report Of Europe Barium Sulfate Market @ http://www.intenseresearch.com/market-analysis/europe-barium-sulfate-market-by-manufacturers-countries-type.html#request-sample. Along with the factors ...
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An x-ray examination of the colon and rectum after liquid barium sulfate has been infused through the rectum. The barium sulfate is a contrast agent that makes the x-rays of the colon and rectum clearer.. The use of a barium enema has been drastically reduced in the past years and has been replaced by other more advanced imaging techniques that arent as invasive.. ...
Barium swallow and barium meal - A procedure that allows doctors to view difficult to see gut problems.. Choose Spire Manchester Hospital.
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Superfine Precipitated Barium sulfate 1. Specifiation: Item Specification BaSO4 (as dried basis) Not less than 97.5% Water Not more than 0.20% Water Solution Not more than 0.30% Fe Not more than 0.004% Whiteness Not less than 97.0% Oil Absorption...
Fabrication of Highly (110)-oriented Barium Cerate (BaCeO3)-based Proton Conductive Oxide Thin Films by RF Magnetron Sputtering MethodFabrication of Highly (110)-oriented Barium Cerate (BaCeO3)-based Proton Conductive Oxide Thin Films by RF Magnetron Sputtering Method ...
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BARITE is a mineral composed of Barium Sulfate (BaSO4).The high specific gravity of BARITE makes it suitable for a wide range of industrial, medical, and manufacturing uses.BARITE also serves as the principal ore of Barium.. WASIT GROUP is now engage in supplying BARITE in local and international markets. We have an expert team that will handle our material production including its delivery.. ...
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... Barium sulfat adalah senyawa anorganik dengan rumus kimia BaSO4. Barium sulfat merupakan kristalin putih yang tidak berbau dan tidak P689881
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​​​​​​​Barium sulfate has its chemical formula BaSO4. It is colorless or white orthorhombic crystals with relative molecular mass of 233.4, the relative density of 4.5 (15 ℃), the melting point of 1580 ℃, and the Refractive index of 1.637.
Barium hydroxide has a molar mass of 171.34 grams per mole. The molar mass of a chemical compound is determined by adding together the molar masses of all of the atoms present in that compound. The...
Sprawdź ile zapłacisz za lek barium sulfate Oral, Rectal w aptece, znajdź tańsze zamienniki leku. Określ swoje uprawnienia i sprawdź jakie zniżki Ci przysługują.
Zinc Nitrate and Barium Hydroxide. - Raul Jose Castaneda Luis Enrique Martinez by Raul Castaneda | This newsletter was created with Smore, an online tool for creating beautiful newsletters for for educators, nonprofits, businesses and more
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Organic light emitting devices are comprised of an organic charge carrier layer formed from a charge carrier material that is capable of forming a stable glass due to the presence of a compound having
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
Use bubbly barium (medium density, cold, carbonated) for the upright phase and thin barium (dilute, low density) for the horizontal phase of the study ...
Move victim to fresh air. Apply artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Do not use mouth-to-mouth method if victim ingested or inhaled the substance; induce artificial respiration with the aid of a pocket mask equipped with a one-way valve or other proper respiratory medical device. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult ...
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Move victim to fresh air. Apply artificial respiration if victim is not breathing. Do not use mouth-to-mouth method if victim ingested or inhaled the substance; induce artificial respiration with the aid of a pocket mask equipped with a one-way valve or other proper respiratory medical device. Administer oxygen if breathing is difficult ...
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Sore ThroatUses:Main Indication: Sore throat triggered by and worsened by wet weatherCommon Name: Barium carbonateWarnings:Stop use and ask a doctor if symptoms persist for more than 3 days or worsen.If...
Previously, sodium hydroxide has been prepared using two processes namely, an Electrolytic process and Caustisization of soda ash. Both methods require a lot of energy and products made under these conditions are very expensive. The present study was aimed at investigating whether barium hydroxide rather than slaked lime can be used in the lime-soda process. The barium hydroxide was obtained from carefully selected barium compounds which thermally decomposed within temperature ranges of 600°C-700°C to barium oxide. The barium compounds used were barium sulphite and barium nitrate. The barium hydroxide was reacted with sodium carbonate and formed sodium hydroxide and barium carbonate as slaked lime in the lime-soda process that produces sodium hydroxide and calcium carbonate. The results have confirmed beyond any reasonable doubt that both barium sulphite and barium nitrate readily decompose thermally in the temperature ranges 650°C-700°C. Barium sulphite decomposes to barium oxide and ...
Barium Sulfate - solvaySolvay Fluorides, LLC does not sell barium sulfate directly to consumers. . odorless powder. . Exposure can occur at either a barium sulfate manufacturing facility, or . personal protective equipment such as gloves and boots, respiratory.barium sulfate powder production equipment barium sulfate powder production,Patent US4588574 - Process for the preparation of barium sulfate of .May 13, 1986 . Barium sulfate suitable for the preparation of radiographic contrast agents of . Try the new Google Patents, with machine-classified Google Scholar .. More specifically, the inventive process for producing barium sulfate which . Barium sulfate powder of a particle size of 1 to 3 μm is heated for 90 minutes ...
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or advanced cardiac disease. Ingestion of barium is not recommended in patients with a administration. Each 100 mL contains 40 g history of food aspiration. If barium studies are barium sulfate. Barium sulfate, due to its high required in these patients or in patients in molecular density is opaque to x-rays and whom integrity of the swallowing mechanism therefore, acts as a positive contrast agent for is unknown, proceed with caution. If barium is radiographic studies. The active ingredient is aspirated into the larynx, further administration barium sulfate and its structural formula is should be immediately discontinued, and a white, odorless, tasteless, bulky powderwhich is free from grittiness. Its aqueous Information for Patients: Before ...
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List provided by StopSprayingCalifornia.com. Of course, the most logical question about this unsavory list of noxious ingredients is: "Why are there so many known toxins included in the mix?". More specifically, the preponderance of barium salt (barium chloride) and alumina (aluminum oxide), which are said to exist in the greatest concentration in chemtrails, is particularly alarming. Why? Because barium is well known to decrease and/or impair immune function. Aluminum oxide has its own set of problems, especially when inhaled in certain concentrations over prolonged periods of time. Aluminum, in any form, is not very easy for the body to detoxify, especially when it finds a home in the lungs.". Harnessing liquid-Sunshine for a flight over the blue lagoon for a moonlite nite cannot exist anymore. Our emotional balance and attachments to the natural are fading into greyness-Excesses" then the recesses of the mind play havoc. My word-term for this is "mindscAPe". "R". "Chemtrailing the skies of ...
We will do everything we can to make you comfortable. You will lie on a table or stand up, depending on the area being x-rayed, and the camera will be set above or in front of you in order to get the correct angle. Fluoroscopy takes anywhere from a few minutes to an hour, depending on its purpose.. For gastrointestinal (GI) studies you will usually need to drink a barium contrast agent or have a barium enema. The barium helps create a clear image that shows any polyps and other abnormalities. After a barium procedure your stool may turn a grayish white, but this is normal. Drink a lot of liquids to flush the barium out because it might cause constipation.. ...
This Application Note describes the photometric determination of sulfate in aqueous solutions using the Optrode (520 nm). Sulfate is precipitated with an excess of barium chloride solution. Excess barium is subsequently titrated with EDTA.
Khotomlyanskaya, G.Y. ; Tomilin-Yu, A.; Golovchenko, M.G., 1976: Spectral determination of calcium barium and strontium in bio samples food products and water
Each PerkinElmer Barium (Ba) Pure Plus Grade Atomic Spectroscopy Calibration Standard is supplied with a comprehensive Certificate of Analysis.
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We obtained coherent radiation in the spectral region between 223 and 243 nm by frequency mixing the tunable output of a solid-state Ce3+:LiCAF laser with 1.064-μm radiation from a Nd3+:YAG pump laser in a β-barium borate nonlinear crystal.. © 1998 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
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Read about having a barium enema, including what you need to do to prepare, what happens during the test, and what happens afterwards.
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I had a 1.094g of mystery Alum. "AB(SO4)c. dH2O" (I assume that that the Alum is KAl(SO4)2-12H2O but we dont know A B c or d, we do know that mass percent of water is 51.9) After processing the alum (Ba(NO3)2 and HNO3 through a gooch ...
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Learn about the potential side effects of Barosperse (barium sulfate). Includes common and rare side effects information for consumers and healthcare professionals.
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Daily News How Gaining and Losing Weight Affects the Body Millions of measurements from 23 people who consumed extra calories every day for a month reveal changes in proteins, metabolites, and gut microbiota that accompany shifts in body mass.. ...
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Barium sulphate precipitate, 1 of 3. Barium sulphate (BaSO4) precipitate formed by adding barium chloride solution (BaCl2) to copper sulphate solution (CuSO4). Both solutions are 0.5 M concentration. The reaction is CuSO4 + BaCl2 -| BaSO4 + CuCl2. This is an example of a double replacement reaction. - Stock Image C030/8231
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Barium swallow health risks - What negative health consequences are associated with a barium swallow. Is it dangerous? Very safe. Only a small amount of radiation is used during the exam. The barium is a white liquid that will pass unchanged through the intestinal tract. Only real problems occur in people who cant swallow much of anything without choking or have a hole in the side (perforation) of their esophagus. These are uncommon problems that your doctor would know about.
Based on experimental studies results, the inhaled barium hexaferrite powder can be retained in the lungs for a long time period. Inside the lungs, the substance can cause adverse local effects as fiber deposition and subsequently pneumoconiosis. Therefore, a specific DNEL is established in order to characterize the risk for the long-term inhalation exposure. Experimental data show that inhaled barium hexaferrite powder may induce pneumoconiosis (identified as critical effect) following repeated exposure at concentration higher than 30 mg/m3 (NOAEC). Starting from this value, a DNEL of 0,15 mg/m3 was derived using an assessment factor of 200 calculated as follows: - 10 for intraspecies variability - 10 for interspecies variability - 2 for accounting of differences in daily duration of exposure (4 h/day in animals, 8 h/day workers). Whilst the substance is acutely hazardous by inhalation (it is classified as STOT SE 2), a reliable D(M)NEL cannot be identified from the available data. The ...
The report generally describes barium di(toluene-4-sulphonate), examines its uses, production methods, patents. barium di(toluene-4-sulphonate) market
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of barium and nickel on the growth of Anacystis nidulans. AU - Lee, Lee. AU - Lustigman, B.. PY - 1996/6/1. Y1 - 1996/6/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0029659917&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1007/s001289900142. DO - 10.1007/s001289900142. M3 - Article. C2 - 8661890. AN - SCOPUS:0029659917. VL - 56. SP - 985. EP - 992. JO - Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. JF - Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. SN - 0007-4861. IS - 6. ER - ...
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Barium sulfate in suspension is frequently used medically as a radiocontrast agent for X-ray imaging and other diagnostic procedures. It is most often used in imaging of the GI tract during what is colloquially known as a "barium meal". It is administered orally, or by enema, as a suspension of fine particles in a thick milk like solution (often with sweetening and flavoring agents added). Although barium is a heavy metal, and its water-soluble compounds are often highly toxic, the low solubility of barium sulfate protects the patient from absorbing harmful amounts of the metal. Barium sulfate is also readily removed from the body, unlike Thorotrast, which it replaced. Due to the relatively high atomic number (Z = 56) of barium, its compounds absorb X-rays more strongly than compounds derived from lighter nuclei.. ...
An easily prepared, chemically sensitive substrate for the detection of soluble micron-sized atmospheric sulfate and certain other water-soluble particles, with a light microscope, was developed. The substrate is made from an aqueous solution of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), barium chloride, glycerol, and Triton X-100 which is spread on a glass slide and dried. Particles are collected on the slide and then observed under a dark field or phase contrast optical microscope. Under humid conditions, barium chloride reacts with sulfate particles to form PVA-insoluble barium sulfate. This precipitates in a Liesegang ring, while nonsulfate water-soluble components dissolve into the PVA medium. Photomicrography before and after moisture treatment reveals the sulfate and soluble constituents of the particulate sample. The method can be employed to detect sulfate particles as small as 0.3 microns. The number of soluble particles and percent sulfate composition per particle in aerosol samples can be estimated.
Barium salts other than barium sulfate cause shifting of potassium into the intracellular space and are thought to block potassium efflux. Typical clinical findings after ingestion include severe vomiting and diarrhea due to increased GI motility. Ventricular dysrhythmias occur with QT prolongation due to the profound hypokalemia that occurs. Muscle weakness is common as well. Treatment includes possible oral administration of magnesium sulfate to try and convert some of the barium to barium sulfate, the insoluble form. Supportive care and ventilator support are needed. Potassium administration is usually needed when there are cardiovascular manifestations such as ventricular dysrhythmias; however, the potassium levels must be closely monitored as once the barium toxicity resolves, the potassium can shift back out of the intracellular compartment and hyperkalemia may occur with continued exogenous administration. Hemodialysis has been reported to enhance elimination of the barium. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prospective comparison of air-contrast barium enema and colonoscopy in patients with fecal occult blood. T2 - A pilot study. AU - Rockey, Don C.. AU - Koch, Johannes. AU - Yee, Judy. AU - McQuaid, Kenneth R.. AU - Halvorsen, Robert A.. PY - 2004/12/1. Y1 - 2004/12/1. N2 - The utility of air-contrast barium enema and colonoscopy for evaluation of the colon has been debated. Air-contrast barium enema is less expensive and invasive than colonoscopy, but it also is less sensitive and specific. Further, although air-contrast barium enema may be less painful than colonoscopy, it often is poorly tolerated by patients. Thus, this study compared the sensitivity and the specificity of air-contrast barium enema and colonoscopy for detection of colonic lesions in patients with fecal occult blood. Over a 30-month period, patients with fecal occult blood were recruited. Patients underwent standard air-contrast barium enema, followed by colonoscopy 7 to 14 days later. Colonoscopists were ...
Because barium sulfate is the least toxic salt of barium due to its insolubility, wastes containing barium salts are sometimes ... Main article: Barium sulfate suspension. Barium sulfate in suspension is frequently used medically as a radiocontrast agent for ... As barium compounds emit a green light when burned, barium salts are often used in green pyrotechnic formulas, but the nitrate ... Barium sulfate is reduced to barium sulfide by carbon. The accidental discovery of this conversion many centuries ago led to ...
... is a member of the sodium channel blocking class of antiepileptic drugs.[60] This may suppress the release of glutamate and aspartate, two of the dominant excitatory neurotransmitters in the CNS.[61] It is generally accepted to be a member of the sodium channel blocking class of antiepileptic drugs,[62] but it could have additional actions since it has a broader spectrum of action than other sodium channel antiepileptic drugs such as phenytoin and is effective in the treatment of the depressed phase of bipolar disorder, whereas other sodium channel blocking antiepileptic drugs are not, possibly on account of its sigma receptor activity. In addition, lamotrigine shares few side-effects with other, unrelated anticonvulsants known to inhibit sodium channels, which further emphasises its unique properties.[63] It is a triazine derivate that inhibits voltage-sensitive sodium channels, leading to stabilization of neuronal membranes. It also blocks L-, N-, and P-type calcium channels and ...
The hormone prolactin stimulates lactation (production of breast milk). Dopamine, released by the hypothalamus stops the release of prolactin from the pituitary gland. Domperidone, by acting as an anti-dopaminergic agent, results in increased prolactin secretion, and thus promotes lactation (that is, it is a galactogogue). In some nations, including Australia, domperidone is used off-label, based on uncertain and anecdotal evidence of its usefulness, as a therapy for mothers who are having difficulty breastfeeding.[24][25] In the United States, domperidone is not approved for this or any other use.[26][27] A study called the EMPOWER trial was designed to assess the effectiveness and safety of domperidone in assisting mothers of preterm babies to supply breast milk for their infants.[28] The study randomized 90 mothers of preterm babies to receive either domperidone 10 mg orally three times daily for 28 days (Group A) or placebo 10 mg orally three times daily for 14 days followed by domperidone ...
"56 Barium". Elements.vanderkrogt.net. Retrieved 2008-09-12.. *^ "17 Chlorine". Elements.vanderkrogt.net. Retrieved 2008-09-12. ... Barium 1772 W. Scheele 1808 H. Davy Scheele distinguished a new earth (BaO) in pyrolusite and Davy isolated the metal by ...
InChI=1S/C20H27N5O5S/c1-15-14-18(23-30-15)19(26)21-11-10-16-6-8-17(9-7-16)31(28,29)24-20(27)22-25-12-4-2-3-5-13-25/h6-9,14H,2-5,10-13H2,1H3,(H,21,26)(H2,22,24,27) ...
... (CBZ), sold under the trade name Tegretol among others, is an anticonvulsant medication used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy and neuropathic pain.[1] It is not effective for absence or myoclonic seizures.[1] It is used in schizophrenia along with other medications and as a second-line agent in bipolar disorder.[3][1] Carbamazepine appears to work as well as phenytoin and valproate for focal and generalised seizures.[4] Common side effects include nausea and drowsiness.[1] Serious side effects may include skin rashes, decreased bone marrow function, suicidal thoughts, or confusion.[1] It should not be used in those with a history of bone marrow problems.[1] Use during pregnancy may cause harm to the baby; however, stopping the medication in pregnant women with seizures is not recommended.[1] Its use during breastfeeding is not recommended.[1] Care should be taken in those with either kidney or liver problems.[1] Carbamazepine was discovered in 1953 by Swiss chemist Walter ...
Barium poisoning is likely due to its ability to block Kir channels. ...
InChI=1S/C21H24O9/c1-28-16-5-4-11(8-15(16)24)2-3-12-6-13(23)9-14(7-12)29-21-20(27)19(26)18(25)17(10-22)30-21/h2-9,17-27H,10H2,1H3/b3-2+/t17-,18-,19+,20-,21-/m1/s1 ...
... also binds to and blocks α2δ subunit-containing VDCCs, similarly to gabapentin and pregabalin, and hence is a gabapentinoid.[9][16] Both (R)-phenibut and (S)-phenibut display this action with similar affinity (Ki = 23 and 39 μM, respectively).[9] Moreover, (R)-phenibut possesses 4-fold greater affinity for this site than for the GABAB receptor (Ki = 92 μM), while (S)-phenibut does not bind significantly to the GABAB receptor (Ki , 1 mM).[9] As such, based on the results of this study, phenibut would appear to have much greater potency in its interactions with α2δ subunit-containing VDCCs than with the GABAB receptor (between 5- to 10-fold).[9] For this reason, the actions of phenibut as a α2δ subunit-containing voltage-gated calcium channel blocker or gabapentinoid may be its true primary mechanism of action, and this may explain the differences between phenibut and its close relative baclofen (which, in contrast, has essentially insignificant activity as a gabapentinoid; Ki = 6 ...
InChI=1S/C24H34N2O/c1-21(2)19-27-20-24(25-15-9-10-16-25)18-26(23-13-7-4-8-14-23)17-22-11-5-3-6-12-22/h3-8,11-14,21,24H,9-10,15-20H2,1-2H3 ...
barium 56 Ba lanthanum 57 La cerium 58 Ce praseodymium 59 Pr ...
... (marketed as Depamide by Sanofi-Aventis) is a carboxamide derivative of valproic acid used in the treatment of epilepsy and some affective disorders. It is rapidly metabolised (80%) to valproic acid (another anticonvulsant) but has anticonvulsant properties itself. It may produce more stable plasma levels than valproic acid or sodium valproate and may be more effective at preventing febrile seizures. However, it is over one hundred times more potent as an inhibitor of liver microsomal epoxide hydrolase. This makes it incompatible with carbamazepine and can affect the ability of the body to remove other toxins. Valpromide is no safer during pregnancy than valproic acid. Valpromide is formed through the reaction of valproic acid and ammonia via an intermediate acid chloride. In pure form, valpromide is a white crystalline powder and has melting point 125-126 °C. It is practically insoluble in water but soluble in hot water. It is available on the market in some European countries. ...
Ba-rium56Ba​137.33 Lan-thanum57La​138.91 Haf-nium72Hf​178.49 Tanta-lum73Ta​180.95 Tung-sten74W​183.84 Rhe-nium75Re​186.21 Os- ...
Class Ib antiarrhythmic agents are sodium channel blockers. They have fast onset and offset kinetics, meaning that they have little or no effect at slower heart rates, and more effects at faster heart rates. Class Ib agents shorten the action potential duration and reduce refractoriness. These agents will decrease Vmax in partially depolarized cells with fast response action potentials. They either do not change the action potential duration, or they may decrease the action potential duration. Class Ib drugs tend to be more specific for voltage gated Na channels than Ia. Lidocaine in particular is highly frequency dependent, in that it has more activity with increasing heart rates. This is because lidocaine selectively blocks Na channels in their open and inactive states and has little binding capability in the resting state. Class Ib agents are indicated for the treatment of ventricular tachycardia and symptomatic premature ventricular beats, and prevention of ventricular fibrillation. Class Ib ...
Barium. 6993310000000000000♠310×10−9. 0.000022. 0.0000012. No. toxic in higher amounts. 2 ...
... has a potential for drug interactions; caution should be used in combining other medicines with it, including other antiepileptics and mood stabilizers.[12] Lower levels of carbamazepine are seen when administrated with phenobarbital, phenytoin, or primidone, which can result in breakthrough seizure activity. Carbamazepine, as a CYP450 inducer, may increase clearance of many drugs, decreasing their concentration in the blood to subtherapeutic levels and reducing their desired effects.[19] Drugs that are more rapidly metabolized with carbamazepine include warfarin, lamotrigine, phenytoin, theophylline, and valproic acid.[12] Drugs that decrease the metabolism of carbamazepine or otherwise increase its levels include erythromycin,[20] cimetidine, propoxyphene, and calcium channel blockers.[12] Carbamazepine also increases the metabolism of the hormones in birth control pills and can reduce their effectiveness, potentially leading to unexpected pregnancies.[12] As a drug that induces ...
Barium has some use in vacuum tubes to remove gases,[50] and barium sulfate has many uses in the petroleum industry,[4] as well ... Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium ... To produce barium, barite is subjected to barium sulfide by carbothermic reduction. which is dissolved with other elements to ... It and barium have some uses in medicine, for example "barium meals" in radiographic imaging, whilst strontium compounds are ...
... occludes the pore of calcium-activated voltage-gated shaker K+ channels by binding to one of four independent, overlapping binding sites.[6][7] It binds both to the open and the closed states. In addition, the block is enhanced as the ionic strength is lowered.[8] This block occurs as the Asn 30 on the CTX interacts with the Asp 381 on the K+ channel.[9] The blockade of K+ channels by the charybdotoxin peptide causes neuronal hyperexcitability. Mutations of the Lys31Gln and the Asn30Gln had the effect of lessening the CTX block of the pore on the shaker channel.[9] ...
... has several uses including the treatment of abnormal heart rhythms or arrhythmias, chronic pain, and myotonia. In general when treating arrhythmias, mexiletine is reserved for use in dangerous heart rhythm disturbances such as ventricular tachycardia.[2] It is of particular use when treating arrhythmias caused by long QT syndrome.[3] The LQT3 form of long QT syndrome is amenable to treatment with mexiletine as this form is caused by defective sodium channels that continue to release a sustained current rather than fully inactivating, however other forms of long QT syndrome can also be treated with this medication.[3] Mexiletine has been used to treat chronic pain and may also be used to treat muscle stiffness resulting from myotonic dystrophy (Steinert's disease) or nondystrophic myotonias such as myotonia congenita (Thomsen syndrome or Becker syndrome).[4][5] ...
... is available as a generic medication and usually not too expensive.[7] Wholesale it costs between US$0.003 and US$0.15 per dose.[8] A month of treatment is about US$30 in the United States.[2] Since September 2012, the marketing licence in the UK has been held by Flynn Pharma Ltd, of Dublin, Ireland, and the product, although identical, has been called Phenytoin Sodium xxmg Flynn Hard Capsules. (The xxmg in the name refers to the strength-for example "Phenytoin sodium 25 mg Flynn Hard Capsules").[49] The capsules are still made by Pfizer's Goedecke subsidiary's plant in Freiburg, Germany and they still have Epanutin printed on them.[50] After Pfizer's sale of the UK marketing licence to Flynn Pharma, the price of a 28-pack of 25 mg phenytoin sodium capsules marked Epanutin rose from 66p (about $0.88) to £15.74 (about $25.06). Capsules of other strengths also went up in price by the same factor-2384%,[51] costing the UK's National Health Service an extra £43 million (about $68.44 ...
Barium carbonate Solid BaCO3 −1213 Barium hydroxide Solid Ba(OH)2 −944.7 ...
... is effective for prevention of shivering during surgery or recovery from surgery.[5][6] Nefopam was significantly more effective than aspirin as an analgesic in one clinical trial,[7] although with a greater incidence of side effects such as sweating, dizziness and nausea, especially at higher doses.[8][9] The estimated relative potency of nefopam to morphine indicates that 20 mg of nefopam HCl is the approximate analgesic equal of 12 mg of morphine with comparable analgesic efficacy to morphine,[10][11][12] or oxycodone,[13] while Nefopam tends to produce fewer side effects, does not produce respiratory depression,[14] and has much less abuse potential, and so is useful either as an alternative to opioids, or as an adjunctive treatment for use alongside opioid(s) or other analgesics.[12][15] Nefopam is also used to treat severe hiccups.[16] ...
Barium Barium is used to create green colors in fireworks, and it can also help stabilize other volatile elements. ... The color green, for instance, may be produced by adding the various compounds and salts of barium, some of which are toxic, ...
CT colonography (also known as virtual colonoscopy or VC for short) is far more accurate than a barium enema for detection of ... Dilute barium sulfate has the advantage that it does not cause allergic-type reactions or kidney failure, but cannot be used in ... However, oral alternatives to iodinated contrast exist, such as very dilute (0.5-1% w/v) barium sulfate suspensions. ... patients with suspected bowel perforation or suspected bowel injury, as leakage of barium sulfate from damaged bowel can cause ...
... is a molecule that was used as a radiocontrast agent, typically for performing myelography studies. It was marketed under the trade names Pantopaque (in North America) and Myodil (rest of the world).. Iofendylate is an iodobenzene (an iodinated oil-based substance) and as such it was recommended that the physician remove it from the patient at the end of the myelography study, which was a difficult and painful part of the procedure. Moreover, because complete removal could not always be achieved (or even attempted by some physicians), iofendylate's persistence in the body might sometimes lead to arachnoiditis, a potentially painful and debilitating lifelong disorder of the spine.[1][2] As a result, the substance, which was used extensively for over three decades, became the subject of multiple lawsuits filed around the world.[3]. Iofendylate's use ceased when water-soluble agents suitable for spinal enhancement (such as metrizamide) became available in the late 1970s. With those ...
Nursing considerations: Early generations of IV contrast carried considerable nephrotoxicity, necessitating continual assessment of renal function. IV and PO fluids are encouraged post operation to facilitate excretion of contrast. There is a common myth in medicine and nursing that patients may be allergic to iodine in contrast, however, there is considerable evidence to the contrary. This is likely a carryover of confusion regarding contrast-reactions to early generations of IV contrast which were of sufficiently high osmolarity to induce degranulation of mast cells which manifests clinically as similar in appearance to anaphlylaxis due to massive release of histamine. There is no need to assess patients for allergies to iodine or shellfish as allergy to iodine is physiologically impossible in a hemodynamically stable patient. Allergy to iodine would immediately manifest as overwhelming anaphylaxis due to presence of iodine in triiodothyronine(T3) and thyroxine(T4). Shellfish allergies have ...
Because barium sulfate is the least toxic salt of barium due to its insolubility, wastes containing barium salts are sometimes ... Main article: Barium sulfate suspension. Barium sulfate in suspension is frequently used medically as a radiocontrast agent for ... As barium compounds emit a green light when burned, barium salts are often used in green pyrotechnic formulas, but the nitrate ... Barium sulfate is reduced to barium sulfide by carbon. The accidental discovery of this conversion many centuries ago led to ...
Barium carbonate, chlorine dioxide, bleaching, barium sulphate, water quality management, barium, water pollution, pulping, ... The majority of the barium present in the pulping process exits the digester as barium carbonate. Barium carbonate dissolves in ... begins to precipitate as barium sulfate. Barium is difficult to control because a mill cannot avoid this carbonate-to-sulfate ... Because barium sulfate will not redissolve in the bleach plant, a barite deposit is less likely to reoccur somewhere else in ...
To access full report with TOC, please visit ​North America Precipitated Barium Sulfate Industry 2016. ... North America Precipitated Barium Sulfate Industry 2016 ​is a new market research publication announced by Reportstack. This ... The Precipitated Barium Sulfate industry development trends and marketing channels are analyzed. Finally the feasibility of new ... The Precipitated Barium Sulfate market analysis is provided for the North America markets including development trends, ...
Companies from around the World at barium hydroxide ,barium sulphate price ,barium hydroxide 8h2o, Feed Grade Amino Acids ... Barium Sulfate Industrial Grade Suppliers Directory - Find variety Barium Sulfate Industrial Grade Suppliers, Manufacturers, ... Barium Sulfate Baso4 , Natural Paint Chemical Barium Sulfate Baso4 , Barium Sulfate Medical Grade , Price Barium Sulfate ... Want product and industry knowledge for "barium sul..." ?. Trade Alert. Trade Alerts are FREE updates on topics such as ...
Superfine Precipitated Barium sulfate 1. Specifiation: Item Specification BaSO4 (as dried basis) Not less than 97.5% Water Not ... QINGDAO HONG-DIE BARIUM INDUSTRY LTD. * Eco industrial Park, Xinhe Town, PingDu City, Qingdao, China.. Qingdao, Shandong. China ...
Notes: Sales, means the sales volume of Precipitated Barium Sulfate... ... 113 Pages Report] Check for Discount on United States Precipitated Barium Sulfate Market Report 2016 report by QYResearch Group ... Table Barium & Chemicals Basic Information List. Table Barium & Chemicals Precipitated Barium Sulfate Sales, Revenue, Price and ... 5.4.2 Precipitated Barium Sulfate Product Type, Application and Specification. 5.4.2.1 Type I. 5.4.2.2 Type II. 5.4.3 Barium & ...
with calcium hydroxide: 1 gram contains calcium hydroxide 445.89 mg, magnesium hydroxide 8.52 mg, casein 14.26 mg & barium ... sulfate 117.7 mg; solution may not always contain barium sulfate ... barium sulfate 117.7 mg; solution may not always contain barium ... Barium Compounds: 2*Barium Sulfate: 133*caseins and magnesium hydroxide barium sulfate mixt. with calcium hydroxide: 1 ... barium sulfate mixt. with calcium hydroxide, caseins and magnesium hydroxide; Reogan; Reogan Rapid; Sulfuric acid, barium salt ...
... offers quality China friction material filler barium sulfate . ... friction material filler barium sulfate Inquiry. Post Date:. ... Barium Sulphate Powder Chemical formula: BaSO4 Molecular weight: 233.39000 Appearance: White Powder, unscented Insoluble in ... Home > Offer to Sell > Inorganic chemicals > Inorganic salts > friction material filler barium sulfate ... China friction material filler barium sulfate Suppliers , ...
... offers quality China precipitated barium sulfate best seller . ... precipitated barium sulfate best seller Inquiry. Post Date:. ... Precipitated Barium Sulfate Powder (PB-88-1) Chemical formula: BaSO4 Molecular weight: 233.39000 Appearance: White Powder, ... Home > Offer to Sell > Inorganic chemicals > Inorganic salts > precipitated barium sulfate best seller ... China precipitated barium sulfate best seller Suppliers , ...
Barium sulfate Manufacturers, Barium sulfate Exporters, Barium sulfate Wholesalers, Barium sulfate Distributors - Global B2B ... We are regularly Selling: barium carbonate, barium sulfate, barium chloride, barium hydroxide, barium nitrate, dap, map, pna, ... barium carbonate. barium sulphate. carbon black. barite powder. barytes. baso4. barium chloride. tio2. precipitated barium ... We are regularly Selling: barite, baryte, barite ore, barite powder, barium sulfate, barium sulphate, baso4, natural barium ...
Barium sulfate,physical properties,suppliers,CAS,MSDS,structure,Molecular Formula, Molecular Weight ,Solubility,boiling point, ... 1) barium sulfate. 2) Barium sulfate. 3) Barium Sulfate. 4) barium sulfate. 5) pre-cipitated barium sulfate;barium sulfate. 6) ... Inorganic used for the production of other industrial barium salts such as Barium hydroxide, barium carbonate, barium chloride ... Barium sulphate. 7) barium sulfite. 8) lithopone;pigment whites. 9) lithopone. 10) aluminium barium white;gloss white;pigment ...
Barium sulfate has its chemical formula BaSO4. It is colorless or white orthorhombic crystals with relative molecular mass of ... barium sulfate, inlay, barium nitrate, barium hydroxide, barium oxide, barium peroxide, barium chromate, barium manganate, ... barium chlorate, lithopone, and polysulfide barium. Barium compound has very extensive applications such as being used for ... I-type barium sulfate: it is white loose powder and is odorless and tasteless.. II-type barium sulfate: it is refined from ...
Leading Factory Sell Industrial Grade Barium Sulfate Manufacturers & Suppliers, find Factory Sell Industrial Grade Barium ... China Factory Sell Industrial Grade Barium Sulfate with High-Quality, ... High gloss barium sulfate. Extinction barium sulfate. W-44HB. Superfine barium sulfate. YF-1250. Superfine barium sulfate. YF- ... Barium Sulfate is white powder, the relative density is 4.0-4.6, do not dissolve in water, Acid ...
We are always glad to offer attractive discount and promotions if you are gonna to purchase and buy our cheap synthetic barium ... zinc oxide used for vulcanization agent sodium sulphate tablets barium sulfate precipitate ...
... ,. Barium Sulfate , Spectrum. Barium Sulfate, Powder ... barium sulfate powder production equipment barium sulfate powder production,. Barium Sulphate - Barium Sulfate Suppliers, ... toxicological profile for barium and barium compounds. Barium sulfate is produced from high-grade (75-98%) ore in association ... barium sulfate powder production equipment barium sulfate powder production,. Barium Sulfate on ThomasNet. Results 1 - 25 of 29 ...
Barium Sulfate. The Europe Barium Sulfate Market Report will give an overall outlook about the market worldwide. The market ... Category: News Tag: Barium Sulfate MarketLeave a comment Nicole Austin. This is Nicole Austin is Assistant Manager and senior ... Europe Barium Sulfate Market 2017- Sales Revenue, Grow Pricing. October 30, 2017. by Nicole Austin / 0 ... The Europe Barium Sulfate Market report also includes the information about the industrial players that are involved in the ...
Find details about China Barium Sulfate, Barium Sulphate from Factory Sell Industrial Grade Barium Sulfate - Zibo Qingxin ... High gloss barium sulfate. Extinction barium sulfate. W-44HB. Superfine barium sulfate. YF-1250. Superfine barium sulfate. YF- ... Barium Sulfate, Barium Sulphate, Barite manufacturer / supplier in China, offering Factory Sell Industrial Grade Barium Sulfate ... Barium Sulfate is white powder, the relative density is 4.0-4.6, do not dissolve in water, acid ...
Find details about China Barium Sulfate, Barium Sulphate from 98% Precipitated Barium Sulphate for Paints Industry - TIANJIN ... Barium Sulfate, Barium Sulphate, Barium Sulfate Precipitated manufacturer / supplier in China, offering 98% Precipitated Barium ... Barium sulfate content (BaSO4 dry). % ≥. 98.0. 97.0. 95.0. 98.0. ... Use: Finepowder Barium Sulphate is widely used in chemical industry,paint,plastics,rubber,glass& ...
Find details about China Barium Sulfate, Barium Sulphate from Good Quality Paint Chemical Barium Sulphate 98% - TIANJIN XINTAI ... Barium Sulfate, Barium Sulphate, Barium Sulfate Precipitated manufacturer / supplier in China, offering Good Quality Paint ... Use: Finepowder Barium Sulphate is widely used in chemical industry,paint,plastics,rubber,glass,paper,medicine,ceramics,storage ... Main Products: Barium Sulfate, Acetic Acid Glacial, Formic Acid, Calcium Formate, Sodium Formate, Sodium Carbonate, Methanoic ...
Find details about China Barium Sulphate Paint Grade 98%Min, Natural & Precipated 98% Barium Sulphate from Barium Sulphate ... Barium Sulphate Powder Used Barium Sulphate Barium Sulphate Paint Barium Barite Sulphate Barium Sulphate Powder Paint ... Barium Sulphate Paint Grade 98%Min, Natural & Precipated 98% Barium Sulphate, Barium Sulphate Paint Use 98%/Baso4 manufacturer ... 9. Application: Barium Sulphate. Barium sulfate can be used as the raw materials or fillers in oil paint, ...
After you swallow a metallic fluid called barium, which coats the organs so they can be seen on an X-ray, a provider checks the ... Upper GI (gastrointestinal) series, also called a barium swallow: This test looks at the organs of the top part of the ...
... barium ferrate will decompose completely to form barium carbonate, ferric hydroxide and oxygen gas. Thoroughly dried barium ... Barium ferrate, BaFeO4, can be prepared by adding barium oxide to a mixture NaClO and ferric nitrate at room temperature (29± 1 ... Barium ferrate, therefore, appears to be one of the most insoluble salts known. Potassium ferrate Ferrate(VI) Barium Briggs, J ... Alkaline sulfates decompose barium ferrate that has not been dried, forming barium sulfate, ferric hydroxide and oxygen gas. ...
Read about having a barium enema, including what you need to do to prepare, what happens during the test, and what happens ... Preparing for a barium enema. To ensure the X-ray images taken during a barium enema are clear, your bowel must be empty before ... Does a barium enema hurt?. Having a barium enema may be a bit embarrassing and unpleasant, but it shouldnt be painful. ... When barium enemas are used. Nowadays, barium enemas arent carried out very often, as alternative tests such as a colonoscopy ...
... is a barium salt (CHEBI:63320) barium chloride (CHEBI:63317) is a inorganic chloride (CHEBI:36093 ... CHEBI:63317 - barium chloride. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ... barium chloride (CHEBI:63317) has role potassium channel blocker (CHEBI:50509) ...
All rights reserved. The published material is being distributed without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied. Neither ILO nor WHO nor the European Commission shall be responsible for the interpretation and use of the information contained in this material ...
  • About 80% of the world's barium sulphate production, mostly purified mineral, is consumed as a component of oil well drilling fluid . (wikipedia.org)
  • In oil paint, barium sulfate is almost transparent, and is used as a filler or to modify consistency. (wikipedia.org)
  • Barium sulfate is commonly used as a filler for plastics to increase the density of the polymer in vibrational mass damping applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • A thin layer of barium sulfate called baryta is first coated on the base surface of most photographic paper to increase the reflectiveness of the image, with the first such paper introduced in 1884 in Germany . (wikipedia.org)
  • One major manufacturer of artists' oil paint sells "permanent white" that contains a mixture of titanium white pigment (TiO 2 ) and barium sulfate. (wikipedia.org)
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