A long-acting barbiturate that depresses most metabolic processes at high doses. It is used as a hypnotic and sedative and may induce dependence. Barbital is also used in veterinary practice for central nervous system depression.
A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.
A propylamine formed from the cyclization of the side chain of amphetamine. This monoamine oxidase inhibitor is effective in the treatment of major depression, dysthymic disorder, and atypical depression. It also is useful in panic and phobic disorders. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p311)
A group of ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS characterized by a chromophoric naphthohydroquinone group spanned by an aliphatic bridge not previously found in other known ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS. They have been isolated from fermentation broths of Streptomyces mediterranei.
A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)
Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.
Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.
A barbiturate that is effective as a hypnotic and sedative.
An alpha-2 selective adrenergic agonist used as an antihypertensive agent.
A state of increased receptivity to suggestion and direction, initially induced by the influence of another person.
The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.
Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.
Tests to determine whether or not an individual is pregnant.
A potentially life-threatening condition in which EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs outside the cavity of the UTERUS. Most ectopic pregnancies (>96%) occur in the FALLOPIAN TUBES, known as TUBAL PREGNANCY. They can be in other locations, such as UTERINE CERVIX; OVARY; and abdominal cavity (PREGNANCY, ABDOMINAL).
Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.
Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.
Pregnadienes which have undergone ring contractions or are lacking carbon-18 or carbon-19.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Chemical substances that are destructive to spermatozoa used as topically administered vaginal contraceptives.
Control of drug and narcotic use by international agreement, or by institutional systems for handling prescribed drugs. This includes regulations concerned with the manufacturing, dispensing, approval (DRUG APPROVAL), and marketing of drugs.
A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with improving and maintaining farm income and developing and expanding markets for agricultural products. Through inspection and grading services it safeguards and insures standards of quality in food supply and production.
Persons who are enrolled in research studies or who are otherwise the subjects of research.
Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.
A synthetic hormone used for androgen replacement therapy and as an hormonal antineoplastic agent (ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, HORMONAL).
A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to domestic national security.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.
Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.
The kind of action or activity proper to the judiciary, particularly its responsibility for decision making.
A person who has not attained the age at which full civil rights are accorded.
Mixtures of many components in inexact proportions, usually natural, such as PLANT EXTRACTS; VENOMS; and MANURE. These are distinguished from DRUG COMBINATIONS which have only a few components in definite proportions.
A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.
Miniaturized methods of liquid-liquid extraction.
Substances that are energetically unstable and can produce a sudden expansion of the material, called an explosion, which is accompanied by heat, pressure and noise. Other things which have been described as explosive that are not included here are explosive action of laser heating, human performance, sudden epidemiological outbreaks, or fast cell growth.
Heterocyclic rings containing three nitrogen atoms, commonly in 1,2,4 or 1,3,5 or 2,4,6 formats. Some are used as HERBICIDES.
Measurement of the index of refraction (the ratio of the velocity of light or other radiation in the first of two media to its velocity in the second as it passes from one into the other).
A 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, which is an explosive chemical that can cause skin irritation and other toxic consequences.
A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
The acquired form of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in animals and man.
Acquired infection of non-human animals by organisms of the genus TOXOPLASMA.
Antibodies that are chemically bound to a substrate material which renders their location fixed.
Prenatal protozoal infection with TOXOPLASMA gondii which is associated with injury to the developing fetal nervous system. The severity of this condition is related to the stage of pregnancy during which the infection occurs; first trimester infections are associated with a greater degree of neurologic dysfunction. Clinical features include HYDROCEPHALUS; MICROCEPHALY; deafness; cerebral calcifications; SEIZURES; and psychomotor retardation. Signs of a systemic infection may also be present at birth, including fever, rash, and hepatosplenomegaly. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p735)
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Voluntary activity without external compulsion.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A carbamate with hypnotic, sedative, and some muscle relaxant properties, although in therapeutic doses reduction of anxiety rather than a direct effect may be responsible for muscle relaxation. Meprobamate has been reported to have anticonvulsant actions against petit mal seizures, but not against grand mal seizures (which may be exacerbated). It is used in the treatment of ANXIETY DISORDERS, and also for the short-term management of INSOMNIA but has largely been superseded by the BENZODIAZEPINES. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p603)
A barbiturate that is used as a sedative. Secobarbital is reported to have no anti-anxiety activity.

Metabolism of daunorubicin by a barbiturate-sensitive aldehyde reductase from rat liver. (1/44)

A barbiturate-sensitive aldehyde reductase was purified to homogeneity from rat liver and shown to metabolize the cancer-chemotherapeutic antibiotic daunorubicin. The aldehyde reductase may have important roles in the metabolism of exogeneous drugs as well as the aldehyde derivatives of the biogenic amines.  (+info)

Mouse popliteal lymph node assay for assessment of allergic and autoimmunity-inducing potentials of low-molecular-weight drugs. (2/44)

In the present collaborative study, popliteal lymph node (PLN) responses to penicillin G (an allergenic chemical), D-penicillamine (an autoimmunity-inducing chemical), and barbital (a negative reference chemical) were investigated in three different mouse strains by ten pharmaceutical companies. Two inbred mouse strains (BALB/c and A/J) and one outbred strain (ICR) were subcutaneously injected with saline solutions containing penicillin G (1.25, 2.5 and 5 mg/mouse), D-penicillamine (0.5, 1 and 2 mg/mouse), or barbital (2 mg/mouse) into one hind footpad and saline only was injected into the contralateral footpad. PLN cellularity indices were determined on day 7. In the three strains tested, the penicillin G and D-penicillamine injections resulted in approximately dose-dependent responses. In contrast, barbital failed to generate a significant PLN reaction. In the typical data from one of the participating laboratories, the PLN responses of A/J, BALB/c, and ICR to penicillin G were high, intermediate and low, respectively, while their PLN responses to D-penicillamine were all high. Some variation in PLN cellularity indices was observed among the participating laboratories, but reproducibility of the popliteal lymph node assay (PLNA) evaluation was partly confirmed. Although the appropriate selection of mouse strains and drug dosage levels has to be considered, these results suggest that the PLNA may be an appropriate screening system for prediction of the allergic or autoimmunity-inducing potentials of low-molecular-weight drugs.  (+info)

Apoptosis and cell proliferation in rat hepatocytes induced by barbiturates. (3/44)

To examine the effect on cell population in hepatocytes of phenobarbital (PB) and other barbiturates, PB, allobarbital (ALB), barbital sodium (BS) and barbituric acid (BA) were given orally to male rats for 7 consecutive days. Although there was no apparent change in non-promoting BA, hepatomegaly was induced by PB, BS and ALB, which are promoters of hepatocarcinogenesis. In PB- and BS-treated livers, hepatomegaly was attributable to hepatocyte proliferation and enzyme induction. In ALB-treated liver, it was attributable to enzyme induction. The level of cell proliferation was reduced to less than the control values following withdrawal of PB, ALB and BS. It seemed that the degree of suppression of cell proliferation following withdrawal of these compounds correlated to the degree of cell proliferation (PB>BS>ALB) during treatment. In PB-treated liver, apoptosis was induced during treatment, serving to eliminate the excess of hepatocytes. This suggests that short-term administration of PB neither induced suppression of apoptosis nor disturbed homeostasis of hepatocyte populations.  (+info)

Promotion by sodium barbital induces early development but does not increase the multiplicity of hereditary renal tumors in Eker rats. (4/44)

Induced cell proliferation is important in the mode of action of many non-genotoxic renal carcinogens. Since Tsc2 mutant (Eker) rats are genetically predisposed to the development of renal cell tumors, they provide a useful animal model in which to study the action of renal carcinogens. Sodium barbital was used as a model non-genotoxic renal carcinogen to test whether a concentration that increased renal tubular proliferation without severe nephrotoxicity would enhance tumor induction in a hereditary tumor model. First, a subchronic concentration-response study was conducted in wild-type male Long-Evans rats to determine increased cell proliferation without severe nephrotoxicity. Rats were dosed with sodium barbital in the feed at 0, 50, 250, 500, 1000, 2000 or 4000 p.p.m. for 3 or 8 weeks. Cell proliferation within the cortex and nephrotoxicity were quantitated. Enhanced proliferation with minimal nephrotoxicity occurred at 500 p.p.m. A second study was conducted in male Tsc2 mutant rats given sodium barbital in the feed at 0, 100 or 500 p.p.m. from 9 weeks of age to either 6 or 12 months of age. An additional group of rats was treated with sodium barbital for 6 months and then provided control feed until 12 months of age. Rats necropsied at 6 months of age had a concentration-dependent increase in preneoplastic and total renal lesions. Sodium barbital-treated rats necropsied at 12 months of age had numbers of lesions that were not different from controls. Total combined preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions in the 6 month, high dose group was the same as the 12 month control group. These data show that sodium barbital caused progression to the stage of spontaneous renal lesions in Tsc2 mutant rats but did not increase their overall number. These data suggest that enhanced cell proliferation without significant cytotoxicity exerted a promotional influence in this hereditary model.  (+info)

Effect of nonionic surfactant on transport of surface-active and non-surface-active model drugs and emulsion stability in triphasic systems. (5/44)

The effect of surfactant concentration on transport kinetics in emulsions using surface-active (phenobarbital, barbital) and non- surface-active (phenylazoaniline, benzocaine) model drugs is determined. Mineral oil was chosen as the oil phase and the nonionic surfactant polyoxyethylene-10-oleyl-ether (Brij 97) was chosen as the emulsifier. Model drug transport in the triphasic systems was investigated using side-by-side diffusion cells mounted with hydrophilic dialysis membranes (molecular weight cutoffs 1 kd and 50 kd) and a novel bulk equilibrium reverse dialysis bag technique. Emulsion stability was determined by droplet size analysis as a function of time, temperature, and the presence of model drugs, using photon correlation spectroscopy. Mineral oil/water (O/W) partition coefficients and aqueous solubilities were determined in the presence of surfactant. The transport rates of model drugs in emulsions increased with an increase in Brij 97 micellar concentrations up to 1.0% wt/vol and then decreased at higher surfactant concentrations. The transport profiles of the model drugs appeared to be governed by model drug O/W partition coefficient values and by micellar shape changes at higher surfactant concentrations. Total transport rates of phenobarbital and barbital were faster than those of phenylazoaniline and benzocaine. Excess surfactant affected the transport rates of the model drugs in the emulsions depending on drug surface activity and lipophilicity.  (+info)

Mathematical modeling of surface-active and non-surface-active drug transport in emulsion systems. (6/44)

Mathematical models were developed for the prediction of surface-active and non- surface-active drug transport in triphasic (oil, water, and micellar) emulsion systems as a function of micellar concentration. These models were evaluated by comparing experimental and simulated data. Fick's first law of diffusion with association of the surface-active or complexation nature of the drug with the surfactant was used to derive a transport model for surface-active drugs. This transport model assumes that the oil/water (O/W) partitioning process was fast compared with membrane transport and therefore drug transport was limited by the membrane. Consecutive rate equations were used to model transport of non-surface-active drugs in emulsion systems assuming that the O/W interface acts as a barrier to drug transport. Phenobarbital (PB) and barbital (B) were selected as surface-active model drugs. Phenylazoaniline (PAA) and benzocaine (BZ) were selected as non- surface-active model drugs. Transport studies at pH 7.0 were conducted using side-by-side diffusion cells and bulk equilibrium reverse dialysis bag techniques. According to the surface-active drug model, an increase in micellar concentration is expected to decrease drug-transport rates. Using the Microsoft EXCEL program, the non-surface-active drug model was fitted to the experimental data for the cumulative amount of the model drug that disappeared from the donor chamber. The oil/continuous phase partitioning rates (k1) and the membrane transport rates (k2) were estimated. The predicted data were consistent with the experimental data for both the surface-active and non- surface-active models.  (+info)

Rapid stimulation of free glucuronate formation by non-glucuronidable xenobiotics in isolated rat hepatocytes. (7/44)

Vitamin C synthesis in rat liver is enhanced by several xenobiotics, including aminopyrine and chloretone. The effect of these agents has been linked to induction of enzymes potentially involved in the formation of glucuronate, a precursor of vitamin C. Using isolated rat hepatocytes as a model, we show that a series of agents (aminopyrine, antipyrine, chloretone, clotrimazole, metyrapone, proadifen, and barbital) induced in a few minutes an up to 15-fold increase in the formation of glucuronate, which was best observed in the presence of sorbinil, an inhibitor of glucuronate reductase. They also caused an approximately 2-fold decrease in the concentration of UDP-glucuronate but little if any change in the concentration of UDP-glucose. Depletion of UDP-glucuronate with resorcinol or d-galactosamine markedly decreased the formation of glucuronate both in the presence and in the absence of aminopyrine, confirming the precursor-product relationship between UDP-glucuronate and free glucuronate. Most of the agents did not induce the formation of detectable amounts of glucuronides, indicating that the formation of glucuronate is not due to a glucuronidation-deglucuronidation cycle. With the exception of barbital (which inhibits glucuronate reductase), all of the above mentioned agents also caused an increase in the concentration of ascorbic acid. They had little effect on glutathione concentration, and their effect on glucuronate and vitamin C formation was not mimicked by glutathione-depleting agents such as diamide and buthionine sulfoximine. It is concluded that the stimulation of vitamin C synthesis exerted by some xenobiotics is mediated through a rapid increase in the conversion of UDP-glucuronate to glucuronate, which does not apparently involve a glucuronidation-deglucuronidation cycle.  (+info)

Counterimmunoelectrophoresis of pneumococcal antigens:improved sensitivity for the detection of types VII and XIV. (8/44)

Rapid identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae has been reported using counterimmunoelectrophoresis for the detection of specific capsular antigens in serum, cerebrospinal fluid, and urine. Previous clinical studies have failed to detect type VII or XIV pneumococcal antigen. These two types, however, account for a significant portion of pneumococcal disease. The incorporation of a sulfonated derivative of phenylboronic acid in the buffer system provides a method for the sensitive detection of these types in artificial mixtures without greatly reducing the sensitivity for the detection of other pneumococcal types. A problem with false positives encountered using human serum and barbitalbuffer was reduced by the use of buffer containing sulfonated phenylboronic acid.  (+info)

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metharbital: was heading 1976-94 (see under BARBITURATES 1976-90); ENDIEMAL, METHARBITONE, & METHOBARBITONE were see METHARBITAL 1976-94; use BARBITURATES to search METHARBITAL 1976-94; long-acting barbiturate that is demethylated to barbital in the liver; has broad-spectrum anticonvulsant action, but used mainly to treat myoclonic spasms in infants
Although the enhanced activity of the polyol pathway has been detected in diabetic glomeruli, the intraglomerular localization of this pathway has not yet been well defined. In this study, we attempted to identify aldose reductase, a key enzyme of the polyol pathway, in cultured rat mesangial cells and to characterize the properties of this enzyme using enzymological and immunological methods. When the aldose reductase (DL-glyceraldehyde-reducing) activity was analyzed in mesangial cell extract, the Lineweaver-Burk plot showed concave downward curvature, and the Michaelis constant was 0.83 mM DL-glyceraldehyde, and this activity was noncompetitively inhibited by an aldose reductase inhibitor, ICI-128,436. The enzyme activity was enhanced by the addition of sulfate ion and partially suppressed by barbital. The enzyme cross-reacted with the antisera against rat lens and testis aldose reductases on Ouchterlony plate, and migrated to the region of molecular weight of about 36,500 Da on Western ...
The metabolism of 1-n-butyl-5,5-diethylbarbituric acid (N-n-butyl barbital) in the rat. II. Distribution of the drug and its metabolites in various tissues in vivo and in the isolated perfused liver system ...
201 words that start with b and end with l are listed below.. baal, babbool, babel, babool, babul, backfill, bacterial, bacteriological, bagel, bagful, bagsful, bail, bal, baleful, ball, balmoral, balneal, banal, banderol, baneful, bangtail. bankroll, bannerol, baptismal, barbal, barbel, barbell, barbicel, barbital, barometrical, baronial, barrel, barstool, basal, baseball, bashful, basidial, basil, basinal, basketball, basketful, basophil, batfowl, bathyal. bawl, beadroll, beanball, beautiful, bechamel, becrawl, becudgel, bedel, bedell, bedevil, bedrail, bedrivel, bedroll, befall, befell, befool, befoul, begall, behavioral, behowl, bejewel, bel, bell, bellpull. bellyful, beneficial, benthal, benzal, benzol, benzoyl, benzyl, berascal, beryl, bestial, bestowal, betel, bethel, betrayal, betrothal, bevel, bewail, bezel, bezil, biacetyl, biannual. biaxal, biaxial, biblical, bibliographical, bicameral, bicentennial, bicultural, bidental, bidirectional, biennial, bifacial, bifocal, bifunctional, ...
Like other microorganisms, yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae respond to starvation by entering stationary phase. During stationary phase yeast cells undergo changes in transcription and translation activities that result in a dramatic number of physiological and biochemical transformations detailed in this review. Several nutrient-responsive signalling pathways were found to play overlapping regulatory roles in the yeast survival under starvation conditions. The main nutrient-regulated signalling pathways and protein kinases such as Snf1p/AMP-activated kinase, TOR, Sch9, PKA, MAP are described here. Stationary-phase yeast culture is considered as a good model system for aging, autophagy and apoptosis of somatic cells of higher eukaryotic organisms, as both are postmitotic cells and depend on mitochondrial respiration to maintain viability. In stationary-phase yeast culture, reactive oxygen species produced during respiratory metabolism cause cumulative oxidative damage to almost all cellular ...
The production of organic acids has been tested with bacterial flora selected from a municipal sludge digestor. In order to elucidate the basic mechanisms by which glucose is converted to volatile...
To move this research on into the clinical arena, we need to determine how much the contrast change seen by clinicians in the MRI scan results is directly due to changes in iron distribution and form. Improving our understanding of the biochemical aspects of the disease should in the long term contribute to improved therapeutic approaches and also provide potential openings for early MRI detection and diagnosis. Early diagnosis is key because we know that by the time a typical individual presents with the symptoms of the disease, chemical changes have already caused significant cell death of vulnerable motor neurones. We have been working closely with Dr. John Forder and Dr. Keith White at the Mcknight Brain Institute at UF to begin MRI studies of early diagnosis and translate the results from Diamond and the APS in Chicago into clinical relevance. Due to the ageing of the world population, the importance of Parkinsons disease as a public health issue is expected increasing. The ultimate goal ...
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This subcategory is designed to include articles related to the biochemical aspect of the molecules that dont belong to the proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids,
At the end of the term, each student wrote a literature-based paper with a reflective component focused on some biochemical aspect related to the mission of his or her work site and experiences working with individuals there. The students also completed an evaluation form that provided some quantitative feedback. After the first year of this project, the most important critique I received was that the service hours felt like extra work that was not really a part of the course. I, therefore, turned my attention to integrating the experience throughout the entire semester. I did this by explaining on the first day of class why I thought this project has value for learning biochemistry. Additionally, I used class time every other week to let students present information about their experiences and explain how those experiences related to biochemistry. For example, a student who volunteered with a local rescue squad described the treatment of a 19-year-old girl experiencing a possible sleeping pill ...
Morell kept a medical diary of the drugs, tonics, vitamins and other substances he administered to Hitler, usually by injection or in pill form. Most were commercial preparations, some were his own. Since some of these compounds are considered toxic, many historians have speculated Morell may have contributed to Hitlers poor health. This fragmentary list of representative ingredients would have seemed somewhat less shocking during the 1940s: amphetamines, Atropa belladonna, Atropine, caffeine, chamolile, cocaine via eyedrops, E. Coli, enzymes, Eukodol (a trade name for Oxycodone), Glyconorm, Mutaflor, methamphetamine, morphine, strychnine, Oxedrine Tartrate, potassium bromide, Prophenazone, proteins, and lipids derived from animal tissues and fats, sodium barbitone, sulfonamide, testosterone, and vitamins. Morell apparently never told Hitler (or anyone else) what he was administering, other than to say that the preparations contained various vitamins and natural ingredients, though this ...
The physical dependence liability of guanabenz, a hypotensive agent with central noradrenergic alpha 2-agonistic activity, was investigated. 1) Guanabenz showed a potent analgesic effect nearly equipotent to morphine by the modified Haffners method, and repeated p.o. treatment resulted in the development of tolerance to the effect. 2) In the combined treatment of guanabenz with morphine or hexobarbital, it potentiated morphine analgesia and prolonged hexobarbital hypnosis in a dose dependent manner ...
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
Dihydroquercetin (3,5,7,3,4-pentahydroxyflavanone) is a major constituent of the alcohol soluble materials in the wood of Larch species and the wood and bark of Douglas-fir. A sensitive analytical method is needed to enable rapid assessment of amounts of dihydroquercetin (DHQ) when processing commercial materials and for studies of biochemical aspects of DHQ formation. Ability to analyse very small wood samples is a most important criterion from a biochemical standpoint. ...
The past decade has witnessed a true revolution in our understanding of how RNA molecules can reduce or silence gene expression, a process that holds great promise in basic research and for antiviral and anticancer applications. In RNA Silencing: Methods and Protocols, many of the most notable and distinguished researchers in the field describe in step-by-step detail their best methods for the design, preparation, and use of RNAs to reduce gene expression in cells and organisms. The techniques range widely and include methods addressing the biochemical aspects of the silencing machinery, RNA silencing in non-mammalian organisms, and the in vivo delivery of siRNAs and silencing vectors. There are also techniques for designing, preparing, and using RNAs to silence gene expression, for fine-tuning regulation by targeting specific isoforms of a given gene, and for the study and use of microRNAs. The protocols follow the successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, each offering ...
IN SPITE OF the possibilities for symptomatic treatment by a variety of surgical interventions, otosclerosis has been and continues to be one of the unsolved pr
Buy Cialis No Script. The two strains of streptococci are involved.5 Other complications include intestinal and extraintestinal manifestations. Hormonal and biochemical aspects of testicular torsion can be managed as outpatients, although hospitalization is necessary to make it difcult to distinguish isolated PVCs and normal sleep patterns.
Photosynthetic electron transport and biological energy transduction are studied by electron spin resonance and time-resolved optical and electroabsorption spectroscopies. Biochemical and biophysical research also focuses on the mechanisms of protein folding and aggregation, protein folding defects related to human diseases, and the molecular structures of proteins, including amino acid sequence determination and identification of protein post-translational modifications. Carbohydrate biochemistry and glycobiology are used to understand disease processes and to develop new therapeutic agents. The biochemical aspects of biotechnology including chemoenzymatic synthesis, biocatalysis, and metabolic engineering are being explored. The methodologies used include kinetic and spectroscopic analysis (NMR, fluorescence, circular dichroism, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and FTIR of protein conformational changes), molecular modeling, computational graphics, and molecular mechanics calculations on ...
Dear Sanetters, The Eighteenth Seed Biology Meeting will be held at Long Ashton Research Station, Bristol, UK on 15 April 1997. I thought some of you might like to know about it. If you would like to attend please fill in and return the enclosed registration form and payment by 28 February 1997. We would be very pleased to hear from you if you would like to present a paper at the meeting. Papers on any aspect of seed ecology/biology will be eligible for inclusion. If there are sufficient suitable papers it is intended to divide the meeting into two main areas. i. Ecological aspects, ii. Physiological/Molecular Biology/Biochemical aspects, contributions in these two main subject areas would be particularly welcome. Authors of papers will be asked to provide a one page (A4) camera ready, summary of their presentation by 31 March 1997 which will be bound into a booklet for distribution to delegates. Posters on seed ecology/biology can also be accepted and arrangements have been made to accommodate ...
Interactions between C1q and collagen are thought to be due to the similarity in the structure of collagen and part of C1q. In the present paper immunological and biochemical aspects of this similarity were explored. It was found that one of nine rabbit anticollagen sera studied showed a clearcut reactivity with C1q, while anticollagenantibody-positive sera and synovial fluids of patients with rheumatoid arthritis did not display any cross-reactivity with C1q. Eleven of twenty collagen-immunized guinea pigs, however, demonstrated cellular cross-reactivity with CLF, the collagen-like fragment of C1q. Gel filtration studies indicated the formation of complexes between CLF and collagen, simulating immunological inhibition of anti-C1q-antibody by collagen. Human RA synovial collagenase was found capable of splitting C1q at a position within its collagen-like fragment. The importance of the interactions between collagen and C1q for the pathological events characterizing RA is discussed.
Klonopin withdrawal can include physical and psychological symptoms. Learn more about the withdrawal process and how its treated.
You may have heard the term triphasic chart or triphasic pattern and wondered what this meant. A typical ovulatory bbt chart is considered a biphasic chart - meaning two phases. A triphasic chart means that it has three phases or three sustained temperature shifts. The third shift usually takes
Background Triphasic waves (TWs) are a distinctive but nonspecific electroencephalographic (EEG) pattern originally described in a stuporous patient in 1950 by Foley as
phdthesis{644d41a2-b493-497c-a399-33ccfd4da716, abstract = {Photosynthesis is the process through which the energy from the sun is converted into chemically bound energy stored in carbohydrates. Due to large variations in light intensities and stress situations, plants must be able to regulate the absorbed energy since excess energy would otherwise damage the plant. One of several photoprotective mechanisms involves the xanthophyll cycle. A copper binding protein was isolated from spinach photosystem II particles. The protein was identified, by partial amino acid sequencing, as CP26. EPR data indicated the presence of nitrogen and oxygen ligands, but no sulfur. We suggest that the copper-containing CP26 is identical to the enzyme zeaxanthin epoxidase, which converts zeaxanthin to violaxanthin. The other enzyme involved in the xanthophyll cycle, the violaxanthin de-epoxidase, converts violaxanthin to zeaxanthin via antheraxanthin. Formation of zeaxanthin is believed to protect the plant from ...
References. ALFENAS, A. C. (Ed.). Eletroforese e marcadores bioquímicos em plantas e microrganismos.2.ed. Viçosa: UFV, 2006. 627p. [ Links ] ALMEIDA, F.A.C.; MORAIS, A. M.; CARVALHO, J. M. F. C.; GOUVEIA, J. P. G. Crioconservação de sementes de mamona das variedades nordestina e pernambucana. Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambiental, v.6, n.2, p.295-302, 2002. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/rbeaa/v6n2/v6n2a19.pdf [ Links ] BRASIL. Diário Oficial da União. Padrões para produção e comercialização de sementes de mamona. Brasília, DF, n°45, 2013. Seção 1, p.21-23. http://www.abrasem.com.br/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/Instru%C3%A7%C3%A3o-Normativa-n%C2%BA-45-de-17-de-Setembro-de-2013-Padr%C3%B5es-de-Identidade-e-Qualiidade-Prod-e-Comerc-de-Sementes-Grandes-Culturas-Republica%C3%A7%C3%A3o-DOU-20.09.13.pdf [ Links ] BRASIL. Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento. Regras para análise de sementes. Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento. Secretaria de ...
Methemoglobin reductase (cytochrome b5 reductase) catalyzes the NADH-linked reduction of several substrates, including ferricyanide. The activity at 30° C is followed spectrophotometrically by measuring the oxidation of NADH at 340 nm.(Fairbanks VF, Klee GG: Biochemical aspects of hematology. In Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry. Third edition. Edited by CA Burtis, ER Ashwood. Philadelphia, WB Saunders Company, 1999, pp 1647-1648). ...
ETHYLMETHYLPHENYLGLYCIDATE Explanation Ethylmethylphenylglycidate (EMPG) was first evaluated for acceptable daily intake by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives in 1967 and 1974 (see Annex I, Refs. 14 and 34). A toxicological monograph was issued in 1968 (see Annex I, Ref. 15). Since the previous evaluation additional data have become available and are summarized and discussed in the following monograph. The previously published monograph has been expanded and is reproduced in its entirety below. BIOLOGICAL DATA BIOCHEMICAL ASPECTS In vitro experiments using simulated gastric juice showed over 80% cleavage of the epoxy linkage after one hour; with intestinal fluid some 70% of the epoxy linkage was destroyed in three hours. Ester hydrolysis occurred to only a minor degree (Oser, 1967). TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES Special studies on carcinogenicity See under long-term studies. Acute toxicity LD50 Animal Route (mg/kg bw) Reference Rat Oral 5 470 Jenner et al., 1964 Guinea-pig Oral 4 050 ...
In this research line we have analysed the clinical and biochemical aspects of childhood mitochondrial encephalomyopathies due to the change of oxidative phosphorylation, and the effect of treatment with various therapies. This research line has been possible thanks to stable collaborations with reference centres within the context of the CIBERER network and the development of research projects financed and coordinated by FIS. We have developed a research line for the diagnosis of primary and secondary deficiencies of coenzyme Q. This research line has been possible thanks to the grant of three consecutive FIS projects for the investigation of this subject.. Development of the FIS project called Phenotypic and molecular characterisation of the coenzyme Q deficiency syndrome. This project, which is coordinated with the research group of Pablo de Olavide University (UPO) in Sevilla, covers aspects of patient-oriented research (improvement of diagnostic tools, treatments with new drugs) and ...
Some types of antibiotics, such as macrolides, can influence the pharmacokinetic parameters of the substance.. During pregnancy and lactation. There are not enough controlled studies to make definite conclusions about the safe use of substances by pregnant women.. However, children who were born by patients who used Methadone during pregnancy, often have a number of defects. Also such children may have a physical dependence on the drug. The withdrawal syndrome is manifested for several days after birth.. The drug can be used by pregnant women only on the recommendation of the attending physician.. The drug is excreted in breast milk. Breastfeeding should be stopped.. ...
Alcoholism is a chronic disorder characterized by excessive and compulsive use of the drug alcohol. It also includes craving alcohol, loss of control over drinking, physical dependence on alcohol and tolerance.
Drug addiction and abuse is a terrible problem thats affecting many individuals around the globe. Good folks from every city, state, and country in the world encounter the negative effects of drug abuse. Hopefully I will shed some light on this condition here, and help you to understand not only why drugs like heroin, cocaine, and methamphetamine are so bad, but what things to do in case youre already addicted.. Alcoholic beverage and substance addiction treatment can be a procedure that is complicated. It demands commitment that is non stop from the affected person to entirely avoid utilizing medications or taking any more booze. In many instances, physical dependence on booze and drugs necessitates overcoming it through proper clinical treatment supplied to them. So as to cleanse the individuals that are addicted with security, medical oversight is very essential. Security is really significant just because a sudden elimination in the junkies human body or diet of alcohol or drugs will ...
Studies on the hyperplasia (regeneration) of the rat liver following partial hepatectomy. Changes in lipid peroxidation and general biochemical aspects
Mentor: Barreto, Jennifer. Reproductive-related behaviors, anxiety, cognition and addiction are known to be modulated by androgens. Besides hormone regulation of behavior, it is well known that neurotransmitters and neuropeptides are molecules underlying behavioral characteristics that are also under the influence of peripheral hormones. The long-term goal of the research program is focused in understanding the neurochemical substrates responsible for behavioral changes after exposure to synthetic androgens. Given that anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) misuse is associated with multiple psychiatric symptoms and endocrine disruption, this study will provides critical data of the biochemical aspects of behavioral changes after androgen exposure, particularly in adolescents, where an increase misuse has been reported. We used pubertal rodents as animal models to determine the effect of chronic exposure to AAS in neurotransmitter and neuropeptide modulation in brain regions involved in anxiety, ...
There are few current texts available that review both basic and clinical aspects of pancreatic function and dis- ease to the degree offered in this book. The text is divided into three parts: normal pancreatic function, investigative aspects of pancreatic disease, and diseases of the pancreas. The two editors, as well as the 28 contributors, are well recognized in European gastroenterology circles for their contributions to the understanding of pancreatic function and disease.. The first part contains chapters on embryology, histology, physiology, and biochemical aspects of pancreatic function. The electron micrographs and descriptive sections on pancreatic ultrastructure clearly show structural ...
Learn about Neutrexin (Trimetrexate Glucuronate Inj) may treat, uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related medications.
0067]The following opiates, opioids, tranquillisers or other narcotics are substances with a psychotropic action, i.e. have a potential of abuse, and hence are preferably not contained in the dosage form according to the invention: alfentanil, allobarbital, allylprodine, alphaprodine, alprazolam, amfepramone, amphetamine, amphetaminil, amobarbital, anileridine, apocodeine, barbital, bemidone, benzylmorphine, bezitramide, bromazepam, brotizolam, buprenorphine, butobarbital, butorphanol, camazepam, carfentanil, cathine/D-norpseudoephedrine, chlordiazepoxide, clobazam clofedanol, clonazepam, clonitazene, clorazepate, clotiazepam, cloxazolam, cocaine, codeine, cyclobarbital, cyclorphan, cyprenorphine, delorazepam, desomorphine, dextromoramide, dextropropoxyphene, dezocine, diampromide, diamorphone, diazepam, dihydrocodeine, dihydromorphine, dihydromorphone, dimenoxadol, dimephetamol, dimethylthiambutene, dioxaphetylbutyrate, dipipanone, dronabinol, eptazocine, estazolam, ethoheptazine, ...
A 2.5 year-old girl was found to have congenital rubella syndrome. She presented with microcephaly, mild developmental delay, partial sensorineural deafness and cerebellar atrophy. Blood titers of rubella hemagglutinin were 1/256 and 1/512 (exclusively IgG). She had not had rubella, nor had she been immunized against it. The mother had been immunized against rubella 4 years before her pregnancy with this girl and 2 years later blood hemagglutinin titers were 1/32 and 1/64. She was neither exposed to nor suffered from rubella during the pregnancy. Reinfection with rubella, extremely rare during pregnancy, may occur in women whose hemagglutinin titers are lower than 1/64. Rubella also occurs in women who have been immunized but whose titers, similarly, are lower than 1/64. In some of these women the disease is asymptomatic. In general, reinfection does not result in fetal injury, but cases have been described in which babies of mothers infected in pregnancy were born suffering from various degrees ...
One of the genes that influences drug physical dependence and associated withdrawal has been identified at Oregon Health & Science University. The gene, Mpdz, is involved in physical dependence on a class of drugs known as sedative-hypnotics.
Some physicians, scientists and others have rejected the disease theory of alcoholism on logical, empirical and other grounds.[48][49][50][51][52][53] Indeed, some addiction experts such as Stanton Peele are outspoken in their rejection of the disease model, and other prominent alcohol researchers such as Nick Heather have authored books intending to disprove the disease model.[54] Some critics of the disease model argue alcoholism still involves choice, not total loss of control, and stripping alcohol abusers of their choice, by applying the disease concept, is a threat to the health of the individual; the disease concept gives the substance abuser an excuse. A disease cannot be cured by force of will; therefore, adding the medical label transfers the responsibility from the abuser to caregivers. Inevitably the abusers become unwilling victims, and just as inevitably they take on that role. They argue that the disease theory of alcoholism exists only to benefit the professionals and ...
Barbiturates, 1 ml. Barbiturates belong to the group of medicines called central nervous system (CNS) depressants (medicines that cause drowsiness).
Methamphetamine is a white crystalline drug, commonly known as meth. DTRC offers a Treatment Facility to fight withdrawal signs, symptoms caused by it.
Barbiturates are depressants that can be highly addictive and can cause physical and psychological dependence even when they are taken as prescribed.
This Barbiturates Presumptive Test is effective and easy to use. Get results in seconds to ensure substance validity. Priced Low.
In accordance with Federal law and U.S. Department of Agriculture policy, this institution is prohibited from discriminating on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, age or disability. To file a complaint of discrimination: write USDA, Director, Office of Civil Rights, Room 326-W, Whitten Building, 1400 Independence Avenue, SW, Washington, D.C. 20250-9410 or call (202) 720-5964 (voice and TDD) USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer ...
Substances: Actinomycin-D; Alprazolam; Amitriptyline; Amobarbital; Aspirin; Atenolol; Barbital; Barbituric acid; Benperidol; Bethanidine sulfate; Bromazepam; Caffeine; Camptothecin; Captopril; Carbamazepine; Ciprofloxacin; Clindamycin; Clofibric acid; Clomipramine; Cocaine; Colchicine; Colchicoside; Diazepam; Diclofenac; Difloxacin; Dopa; Dopamine; Doxycycline; Ecgonine; Enrofloxacin; Erythromycin; Fenofibric acid; Flunitrazepam; Flurazepam; Hydrocortisone; Ibuprofen; Iohexol; Isomethadon hydrochloride; Isosorbide mononitrate; Ketoprofen, Lornoxicam; Meconic acid; Mephenesin; Methadon hydrochloride, Metharbital; Metoprolol; Naproxen; Nebivolol; Niclosamide; Nicotine, Nitrazepam; Norepinephrine; Norfloxacin; Nystatin; Opianic acid; Ormetoprim; Oxytetracycline; Papaverine; Paracetamol; Pefloxacin; Penicillin-G; Phenacetin; Phenobarbital; Prazepam; Propranolol; Pyridoxine; Sarafloxacin; Sotalol; Sulfacetamide; Sulfachloropyridazine; Sulfadiazine; Sulfadimethoxine; Sulfamerazine; Sulfamethazine; ...
INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMME ON CHEMICAL SAFETY WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION SUMMARY OF TOXICOLOGICAL DATA OF CERTAIN FOOD ADDITIVES WHO FOOD ADDITIVES SERIES NO. 12 The data contained in this document were examined by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives* Geneva, 18-27 April 1977 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations World Health Organization * Twenty-first Report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, Geneva, 1977, WHO Technical Report Series No. 617 ADIPIC ACID Explanation This substance has been evaluated for acceptable daily intake by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (see Annex I, Ref. Nos. 11 and 13) in 1965. The previous monograph has been expanded and is reproduced below. EVALUATION FOR ACCEPTABLE DAILY INTAKE BIOLOGICAL DATA BIOCHEMICAL ASPECTS Four young dogs were injected subcutaneously with 0.25 g adipic acid (sodium salt), twice daily, for a period of five days. Urine was collected during this period, and for three days ...
Effective killing of Bacillus anthracis spores is of paramount importance to antibioterrorism, food safety, environmental protection, and the medical device industry. Thus, a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of spore resistance and inactivation is highly desired for developing new strategies or improving the known methods for spore destruction. Previous studies have shown that spore inactivation mechanisms differ considerably depending upon the killing agents, such as heat (wet heat, dry heat), UV, ionizing radiation, and chemicals. It is believed that wet heat kills spores by inactivating critical enzymes, while dry heat kills spores by damaging their DNA. Many studies have focused on the biochemical aspects of spore inactivation by dry heat; few have investigated structural damages and changes in spore mechanical properties. In this study, we have inactivated Bacillus anthracis spores with rapid dry heating and performed nanoscale topographical and mechanical analysis of inactivated spores using
The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of hesperidin, a flavonoid on DEN initiated and Fe‐NTA promoted renal carcinogenesis in Wistar rats. Renal cancer was initiated by a single i.p. injection of DEN (200 mg/kg b.wt.) and promoted with Fe‐NTA (9 mg Fe/kg b.wt. i.p.) twice a week for 16 weeks. Rats were simultaneously administered with hesperidin (100 and 200 mg/kg b.wt ...
Abuse of these medications can have fatal consequences. Because barbiturates are highly addictive, they present large risk of abuse and overdose.
ЭлектроТоргМонтаж производственно-торговая компания электротехнической продукции
The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavias Karadžić verdict, eagerly awaited, was unsurprising. He was found guilty of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes. One part of the judgment was concerned with the Srebrenica events in which much forensic evidence from mass graves featured. Whilst this was to be expected, forensic evidence from the horrific crime scenes continues to be important in determining aspects of the crime base. This paper discusses the evidence and examines how the Chamber came to the conclusion that systematic killing of thousands of Bosnian Muslim men occurred and attempts had been made to conceal the crimes and human remains in secondary graves thus confirming the actus reus of genocide ...
Contributions to methods of barbital research". Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association. 23 (11): 1074-1079. doi: ...
... barbital, phenobarbital). The slowly eliminated phenobarbital lessens the severity of the withdrawal syndrome and reduces the ...
Writer Ryūnosuke Akutagawa commits suicide in the early morning hours at the age of 35 through an overdose of barbital. August ...
Also called barbital or Veronal (the trade name assigned to it by Bayer Pharmaceuticals), this new drug became the first ...
Volwiler was able to meet the demand, successfully synthesizing Barbital and overseeing its production in spite of shortages of ...
... after she had taken barbital. Her father stated that she had previously attempted to take her life a few years earlier. The ...
3 heroin", including sugar, quinine, barbital and caffeine, some of which "can cause serious side effects." Dr. Hirsch, the New ...
3 heroin", including sugar, quinine, barbital and caffeine, some of which "can cause serious side effects." Dr. Hirsch, the New ...
The first barbiturate drug, barbital, was synthesized in 1902 by German chemists Emil Fischer and Joseph von Mering and was ...
... allobarbital alprazolam amobarbital amfepramone aminorex barbital benzphetamine bromazepam brotizolam buprenorphine butalbital ...
METHANETHAMINE METHYLPHENIDATE TANFETAMINE ALOBARBITAL ALPRAZOLAM AMBARBITAL APPROBARBITAL BARBEXACLONE BARBITAL BROMAZEPAM ...
... barbital, etc.) Benzodiazepines2 (diazepam, alprazolam, lorazepam, nitrazepam, etc.) Benzylpiperazine (BZP) Cannabis (plant, ...
... barbital) It has an LD50 in mice of 212 mg/kg s.c.[citation needed] Amobarbital undergoes both hydroxylation to form 3'- ... but greater than phenobarbital and barbital (in descending order). (Secobarbital > pentobarbital > amobarbital > phenobarbital ...
Amobarbital Amphetamine Barbital Cyclobarbital Dexamphetamine Ethchlorvynol Glutethimide Ketamine Meprobamate Methamphetamine ...
Barbital (5, 5-diethylbarbituric acid) Benzphetamine (N-benzyl-N, α -dimethylphenethylamine) Bromazepam (7-bromo-1,3-dihydro-5 ...
Barbidonna Barbita Barbital sodium (INN) Barbital (INN) Barc Liquid Bardoxolone (USAN, INN) Baricon Barixibat (INN) Barmastine ...
N05CA04 Barbital. N05CA05 Aprobarbital. N05CA06 Secobarbital. N05CA07 Talbutal. N05CA08 Vinylbital. N05CA09 Vinbarbital. ...
Barbital (5,5-diethylbarbituric acid). *Benzfetamine (N-benzyl-N,alpha-dimethylphenethylamine). *Bromazepam (7-bromo-1,3- ...
As opposed to barbital, BZDs are not GABA-receptor activators and rely on increasing the neurotransmitter's natural activity. ...
The initial doses of premazepam given to human test subjects demonstrated similar psychological test results to those produced by diazepam. It was also demonstrated that initial dosing with premazepam produces similar sedative effects as compared with diazepam, although psychomotor impairments are greater with premazepam than with diazepam after initial dosing. However, with repeated dosing for more than one day premazepam causes less sedation and less psychomotor impairment than diazepam. Premazepam possesses sedative and anxiolytic properties. Premazepam produces more slow wave and less fast wave EEG changes than diazepam. Tests have shown that 7.5 mg of premazepam is approximately equivalent to 5 mg of diazepam.[2] ...
Barbiturates have special uses and are organized into 4 classes: ultrashort-, short-, intermediate- and long-acting. Empirically SARs of barbiturants are based on thousands of (animal) tested compounds.They have shown that R and R´ may not be H in position 5 (see figure 8). Also, position 5 confer sedative-hypnotic properties.[10] Generally alkyl branching in position 5 means less lipid solubility and less activity. Unsaturation show less activity in position 5 and alicyclic and aromatic rings show less potency. Polar substiuents (-NH2, -OH, -COOH) will decrease lipid solubility but it will also eliminate activity. R´´ in position 1 is usually, H but CH3 in that position yields less lipid solubility and duration. Exchanging S for O atom in position 2 produces thiobarbiturates, which are more lipid-soluble than the oxybarbiturates. In general, the more lipid-soluble the barbiturate, the more rapid its onset, the shorter its duration and the greater the degree of hypnotic activity. Barbiturates ...
The main compounds responsible for the biological activity of skullcap are flavonoids.[9] Baicalein, one of the important Scutellaria flavonoids, was shown to have cardiovascular effects in in vitro.[14] Research also shows that Scutellaria root modulates inflammatory activity in vitro to inhibit nitric oxide (NO), cytokine, chemokine and growth factor production in macrophages.[15] Isolated chemical compounds including wogonin, wogonoside, and 3,5,7,2',6'-pentahydroxyl flavanone found in Scutellaria have been shown to inhibit histamine and leukotriene release.[16] Other active constituents include baicalin, apigenin, oroxylin A, scutellarein, and skullcapflavone.[17] Some Scutellaria species, including S. baicalensis and S. lateriflora, have demonstrated anxiolytic activity in both animals and humans.[17][18][19] A variety of flavonoids in Scutellaria species have been found to bind to the benzodiazepine site and/or a non-benzodiazepine site of the GABAA receptor, including baicalin, baicalein, ...
... (INN), also known as captodiamine, is an antihistamine sold under the trade names Covatine, Covatix, and Suvren which is used as a sedative and anxiolytic. The structure is related to diphenhydramine.[1] A 2004 study suggested captodiame may be helpful in preventing benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome in people discontinuing benzodiazepine treatment.[1] In addition to its actions as an antihistamine, captodiamine has been found to act as a 5-HT2C receptor antagonist and σ1 receptor and D3 receptor agonist.[2] It produces antidepressant-like effects in rats.[2] However, captodiamine is unique among antidepressant-like drugs in that it increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the hypothalamus but not in the frontal cortex or hippocampus.[2] This unique action may be related to its ability to attenuate stress-induced anhedonia and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) signaling in the hypothalamus.[2] ...
... is the cyclic trimer of acetaldehyde molecules.[2] Formally, it is a derivative of 1,3,5-trioxane. The corresponding tetramer is metaldehyde. A colourless liquid, it is sparingly soluble in water and highly soluble in ethanol. Paraldehyde slowly oxidizes in air, turning brown and producing an odour of acetic acid. It quickly reacts with most plastics and rubber. Paraldehyde was first observed in 1835 by the German chemist Justus Liebig; its empirical formula was determined in 1838 by Liebig's student Hermann Fehling.[3][4] Paraldehyde was first synthesized in 1848 by the German chemist Valentin Hermann Weidenbusch (1821-1893), another student of Liebig; he obtained paraldehyde by treating acetaldehyde with acid (either sulfuric or nitric acid).[5][6] It has uses in industry and medicine. ...
... is generally considered a non-polar solvent. Owing to the good polarizability of the chlorine atoms, it is a superior solvent for organic compounds that do not dissolve well in hydrocarbons such as hexane. It is an excellent solvent for many organic materials and also one of the least toxic of the chlorinated hydrocarbons. Prior to the Montreal Protocol, it was widely used for cleaning metal parts and circuit boards, as a photoresist solvent in the electronics industry, as an aerosol propellant, as a cutting fluid additive, and as a solvent for inks, paints, adhesives, and other coatings. 1,1,1-Trichloroethane is also used as an insecticidal fumigant. It was also the standard cleaner for photographic film (movie/slide/negatives, etc.). Other commonly available solvents damage emulsion, and thus are not suitable for this application. The standard replacement, Forane 141 is much less effective, and tends to leave a residue. 1,1,1-Trichloroethane was used as a thinner in ...
InChI=1S/C48H74O14.C47H72O14/c1-11-25(2)43-28(5)17-18-47(62-43)23-34-20-33(61-47)16-15-27(4)42(26(3)13-12-14-32-24-55-45-40(49)29(6)19-35(46(51)58-34)48(32,45)52)59-39-22-37(54-10)44(31(8)57-39)60-38-21-36(53-9)41(50)30(7)56-38;1-24(2)41-27(5)16-17-46(61-41)22-33-19-32(60-46)15-14-26(4)42(25(3)12-11-13-31-23-54-44-39(48)28(6)18-34(45(50)57-33)47(31,44)51)58-38-21-36(53-10)43(30(8)56-38)59-37-20-35(52-9)40(49)29(7)55-37/h12-15,19,25-26,28,30-31,33-45,49-50,52H,11,16-18,20-24H2,1-10H3;11-14,18,24-25,27,29-30,32-44,48-49,51H,15-17,19-23H2,1-10H3/b13-12+,27-15+,32-14+;12-11+,26-14+,31-13+/t25-,26-,28-,30-,31-,33+,34-,35-,36-,37-,38-,39-,40+,41-,42-,43+,44-,45+,47+,48+;25-,27-,29-,30-,32+,33-,34-,35-,36-,37-,38-,39+,40-,41+,42-,43-,44+,46+,47+/m00/s1 ...
... , also known as validolum, is the menthyl ester of isovaleric acid. It is a transparent oily, colorless liquid with a smell of menthol. It is very slightly soluble in ethanol, while practically insoluble in water. It is used as a food additive for flavor and fragrance.[1] ...
... (YKP 509, proposed trade name Comfyde) is an experimental anticonvulsant drug under development by Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development. In 1998, the compound was in-licensed from SK Corp. (currently Life Science Business Division of SK Holdings), a South Korean company. A phase II clinical trial in the treatment of partial seizures demonstrated that the compound has efficacy in the treatment of partial seizures and a good safety profile. Since late 2006, the compound has been undergoing a large multicenter phase III clinical trial for the treatment of partial seizures. Its mechanism of action is unknown.[1][2]. On October 24, 2008, Johnson & Johnson announced that it had submitted a New Drug Application to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for carisbamate.[3] Carisbamate has received provisional approval by the FDA to be marketed under the brand name of Comfyde. However, on August 21, 2009, Johnson & Johnson reported that the FDA had failed to give ...
... (CBZ), sold under the trade name Tegretol among others, is an anticonvulsant medication used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy and neuropathic pain.[1] It is not effective for absence or myoclonic seizures.[1] It is used in schizophrenia along with other medications and as a second-line agent in bipolar disorder.[3][1] Carbamazepine appears to work as well as phenytoin and valproate for focal and generalised seizures.[4] Common side effects include nausea and drowsiness.[1] Serious side effects may include skin rashes, decreased bone marrow function, suicidal thoughts, or confusion.[1] It should not be used in those with a history of bone marrow problems.[1] Use during pregnancy may cause harm to the baby; however, stopping the medication in pregnant women with seizures is not recommended.[1] Its use during breastfeeding is not recommended.[1] Care should be taken in those with either kidney or liver problems.[1] Carbamazepine was discovered in 1953 by Swiss chemist Walter ...
The enzyme activity was enhanced by the addition of sulfate ion and partially suppressed by barbital. The enzyme cross-reacted ...
... long-acting barbiturate that is demethylated to barbital in the liver; has broad-spectrum anticonvulsant action, but used ... long-acting barbiturate that is demethylated to barbital in the liver; has broad-spectrum anticonvulsant action, but used ...
The metabolism of 1-n-butyl-5,5-diethylbarbituric acid (N-n-butyl barbital) in the rat. II. Distribution of the drug and its ... The metabolism of 1-n-butyl-5,5-diethylbarbituric acid (N-n-butyl barbital) in the rat. II. Distribution of the drug and its ... The metabolism of 1-n-butyl-5,5-diethylbarbituric acid (N-n-butyl barbital) in the rat. II. Distribution of the drug and its ... Read more about The metabolism of 1-n-butyl-5,5-diethylbarbituric acid (N-n-butyl barbital) in the rat. II. Distribution of the ...
bankroll, bannerol, baptismal, barbal, barbel, barbell, barbicel, barbital, barometrical, baronial, barrel, barstool, basal, ...
... Barbital is a long-acting barbiturate that depresses most metabolic processes at high doses. Barbital ... Barbital side effects Barbital is a long-acting barbiturate that depresses most metabolic processes at high doses. Barbital ... Barbital induces hypnotic and sedative effects. This is our research on the alleged dangers of Barbital / adverse effects of ...
Molecular Discrimination of Barbital Enantiomer at the Propofol Binding Site of the Human β3 Homomeric GABAA Receptor ... Pentobarbital discrimination in the TM2-TM2 TMD site was caused not only by the barbital rings hydrogen-bond, but also by ... This study investigates molecular mechanisms of discrimination of enantiomeric barbital in the binding site of the GABAA ...
Contributions to methods of barbital research". Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association. 23 (11): 1074-1079. doi: ...
Metamizol potentiated the hypnosis induced by pentobarbital, barbital and chloral hydrate. This effect was dose-dependent and ... In rats, propranolol potentiated alcohol and pentobarbitone hypnosis, but not barbital sleeping time, indicating enzyme ...
barbital Reference type: Overview Page. Subject: Science and technology, Chemistry. or5,5‐diethylbarbituric acid; 5‐ ...
... barbital, phenobarbital). The slowly eliminated phenobarbital lessens the severity of the withdrawal syndrome and reduces the ...
... but greater than phenobarbital and barbital (in descending order).[3] (Secobarbital , pentobarbital , amobarbital , ...
Phenobarbital is a medicine used to treat epilepsy (seizures), anxiety, and insomnia. It is in a class of medicines called barbiturates. Phenobarbital overdose occurs when someone intentionally or accidentally
The commission may except by rule any compound, mixture, or preparation containing any depressant substance listed in subsection (b) of this section from the application of all or any part of this chapter if the compound, mixture, or preparation contains one or more active medicinal ingredients not having a depressant effect on the central nervous system, and if the admixtures are in combinations, quantity, proportion, or concentration that vitiate the potential for abuse of the substances having a depressant effect on the central nervous system ...
Barbital Buffer. Cacodylate Buffer. Carbonate-Bicarbonate Buffer. Citrate Buffer. Collidine Buffer. Glycine-HCl Buffer. Maleate ...
MEFF-oh-BAR-bital; Mebaral); methohexital (meh-thoh-HEK-sih-tal; Brevital); pentobarbital (PENT-oh-BAR-bit-al; Nembutal); ... mepho-barbital (Mebaral); methohexital (Brevital); pentobarbital (Nembutal); phenobarbital (Luminal); secobarbital (Seconal) ... mepho-barbital (Mebaral); methohexital (Brevital); phenobarbital (Luminal), Schedule IV, narcotic analgesics ...
This medicine is not recommended in breastfeeding women. Call your doctor right away if you have severe lower abdominal or stomach pain 3 to 5 weeks after taking this medicine. You may have a pregnancy outside of the uterus (womb), which is called an ectopic pregnancy. An ectopic pregnancy can be a serious and life-threatening condition. It can also cause problems that may make it harder for you to become pregnant in the future. This medicine may make your next monthly period earlier or later than expected by a few days. If your next period after taking this medicine is more than 1 week late, check with your doctor right away for a pregnancy test. Your regular birth control method such as birth control pills or patch may not work as well while you are using this medicine. You should not start taking hormonal contraceptives until at least 5 days after using this medicine and you must use a ...
b. Barbital.. c. Bromazepam.. d. Camazepam.. e. Chloral betaine.. f. Chloral hydrate. ...
1Note.-Section 28, ch. 2011-141, provides that:. "(1) DISPOSITION OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES.-. "(a) Within 10 days after the effective date of this act, each physician licensed under chapter 458, chapter 459, chapter 461, or chapter 466, Florida Statutes, unless he or she meets one of the exceptions for physician who dispenses under s. 465.0276, Florida Statutes, shall ensure that the undispensed inventory of controlled substances listed in Schedule II or Schedule III as provided in s. 893.03, Florida Statutes, purchased under the physicians Drug Enforcement Administration number for dispensing is:. "1. Returned in compliance with the laws and rules adopted under chapter 499, Florida Statutes, to the wholesale distributor, as defined in s. 499.003, Florida Statutes, which distributed the controlled substances to the physician; or. "2. Turned in to local law enforcement ...
11) The provisions of this section may be supplemented by a county or municipal ordinance. The ordinance may include, but is not limited to, provisions that establish additional penalties for public nuisances, including fines not to exceed $250 per day; provide for the payment of reasonable costs, including reasonable attorney fees associated with investigations of and hearings on public nuisances; provide for continuing jurisdiction for a period of 1 year over any place or premises that has been or is declared to be a public nuisance; establish penalties, including fines not to exceed $500 per day for recurring public nuisances; provide for the recording of orders on public nuisances so that notice must be given to subsequent purchasers, successors in interest, or assigns of the real property that is the subject of the order; provide that recorded orders on public nuisances may become liens against the real property that is the subject of the order; and provide for the foreclosure of property ...
History.-s. 3, ch. 73-331; s. 247, ch. 77-104; s. 1, ch. 77-174; ss. 1, 2, ch. 78-195; s. 2, ch. 79-325; s. 1, ch. 80-353; s. 1, ch. 82-16; s. 1, ch. 84-89; s. 2, ch. 85-242; s. 1, ch. 86-147; s. 2, ch. 87-243; s. 1, ch. 87-299; s. 1, ch. 88-59; s. 3, ch. 89-281; s. 54, ch. 92-69; s. 1, ch. 93-92; s. 4, ch. 95-415; s. 1, ch. 96-360; ss. 1, 5, ch. 97-1; s. 96, ch. 97-264; s. 1, ch. 99-186; s. 2, ch. 2000-320; s. 1, ch. 2001-55; s. 5, ch. 2001-57; s. 1, ch. 2002-78; s. 2, ch. 2003-10; s. 1, ch. 2008-88; s. 2, ch. 2011-73; s. 1, ch. 2011-90; s. 1, ch. 2012-23; s. 1, ch. 2013-29. ...
History.-s. 3, ch. 73-331; s. 247, ch. 77-104; s. 1, ch. 77-174; ss. 1, 2, ch. 78-195; s. 2, ch. 79-325; s. 1, ch. 80-353; s. 1, ch. 82-16; s. 1, ch. 84-89; s. 2, ch. 85-242; s. 1, ch. 86-147; s. 2, ch. 87-243; s. 1, ch. 87-299; s. 1, ch. 88-59; s. 3, ch. 89-281; s. 54, ch. 92-69; s. 1, ch. 93-92; s. 4, ch. 95-415; s. 1, ch. 96-360; ss. 1, 5, ch. 97-1; s. 96, ch. 97-264; s. 1, ch. 99-186; s. 2, ch. 2000-320; s. 1, ch. 2001-55; s. 5, ch. 2001-57; s. 1, ch. 2002-78; s. 2, ch. 2003-10; s. 1, ch. 2008-88; s. 2, ch. 2011-73; s. 1, ch. 2011-90; s. 1, ch. 2012-23; s. 1, ch. 2013-29; s. 1, ch. 2014-159; s. 1, ch. 2015-34; s. 2, ch. 2016-105; s. 4, ch. 2017-107; s. 1, ch. 2017-110; s. 8, ch. 2018-13. ...
Barbital. Note: Stressed shipping studies indicate that this product remains stable after being continuously exposed to an ...
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5. Schedule IV. (a) The following items are listed in Schedule IV: Anabolic substances; Barbital; Butorphanol; Carisoprodol; ...
Barbital. 5,5-diethylbarbituric acid. C8H12N2O3. 57-44-3. IV. insomnia. Malonal. Veronal. ... The parent compound barbituric acid was first synthesised in 1864 but the first pharmacologically active agent, barbital, was ... Phenobarbital accounted for 78 % of production, followed by butalbital (8.6 %), pentobarbital (6.9 %), barbital (3 %) and ...
The crystal structure of polymorph IV of 5,5-di-ethylbarbituric acid (barbital). ...
Studies on the polymorphism of barbital.. Grabowska I, Kaliszan R.. Pol J Pharmacol Pharm. 1976;28(5):529-36. ...
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DB01483 Barbital. DB01496 Barbituric acid derivative. DB11859 Brexanolone. DB01558 Bromazepam. DB00237 Butabarbital. DB00241 ... DB01483 Barbital. DB01496 Barbituric acid derivative. DB11859 Brexanolone. DB01558 Bromazepam. DB00237 Butabarbital. DB00241 ...
... in 0.05 M barbital buffer, pH 8.2. The protein concentration of the final lysate preparation was 0.5 mg/ml. It was diluted in ...
seco(ndary) + barbital.]. secobarbital. (ˌsɛkəʊˈbɑːbɪˌtæl) n. (Pharmacology) pharmacol an anaesthetic and sedative drug derived ...
1) Barbital (2) Chloral betaine (3) Chloral hydrate (4) Ethchlorvynol (5) Ethinamate ...
  • The abusers tend to prefer rapid acting barbiturates (amobarbital, pentobarbital, secobarbital) rather than long-acting barbiturates (barbital, phenobarbital). (wikipedia.org)
  • A 1988 study found that amobarbital increases benzodiazepine receptor binding in vivo with less potency than secobarbital and pentobarbital (in descending order), but greater than phenobarbital and barbital (in descending order). (wikipedia.org)
  • Barbituates - sodium barbital, phenobarbital. (powershow.com)
  • In the case of the long-acting phenobarbital and barbital, effects may last for up to 24 hours and these are used in combination with other drugs to prevent convulsion in epilepsy. (news-medical.net)
  • Introduced as one of the first medical use of barbiturates, barbital diethylbarbituric acid is known as veronal, or diemal [ 17 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Around 2500 different types of barbiturates have been synthesized since 1881, when barbital, the first pharmacologically active form, was synthesized. (news-medical.net)
  • Pentobarbital discrimination in the TM2-TM2' TMD site was caused not only by the barbital ring's hydrogen-bond, but also by steric fittings of the methyl-group adjacent to the chiral carbon atom. (go.jp)
  • Metamizol potentiated the hypnosis induced by pentobarbital, barbital and chloral hydrate. (isharonline.org)
  • Barbital is a long-acting barbiturate that depresses most metabolic processes at high doses. (owndoc.com)
  • The parent compound barbituric acid was first synthesised in 1864 but the first pharmacologically active agent, barbital, was not produced until 1881 and introduced to medicine in 1904. (europa.eu)
  • 1967. Effect of barbital on carcinogenic action and metabolism of 4-dimethylaminoazobenzene. (springer.com)
  • Barbital induces hypnotic and sedative effects. (owndoc.com)
  • In rats, propranolol potentiated alcohol and pentobarbitone hypnosis, but not barbital sleeping time, indicating enzyme inhibition as a possible mechanism of potentiation. (isharonline.org)
  • The enzyme activity was enhanced by the addition of sulfate ion and partially suppressed by barbital. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The year 1903 marked the formulation of the first sleeping pill, barbital. (news-medical.net)
  • The first psychologically active drug, barbital or veronal was introduced in 1903 by E. Fischer [ 18 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • However, if it turns out to be refractory, further non-anaesthetising i.v. substances such levetiracetam, pheno- barbital or valproic acid should be given instead of anaesthetics. (slideshare.net)
  • 2) A moderate delay of the activity of structure bound enzymes was found in barbital intoxication, a stronger restriction under the influence of carbromal. (springer.com)
  • This is our research on the alleged dangers of Barbital / adverse effects of Barbital and not medical advice! (owndoc.com)
  • The lethal dose of pento-barbital was injected at 6:17 p.m., and McCarthy was declared dead 15 minutes later. (newsmax.com)
  • He was still in a Pento Barbital coma! (anew100percent.com)
  • When Dr. Parker (Preston's usual vet) came into the room, her first words were: "phenol barbital. (kellypcollins.com)
  • At one point the symptoms deviated and when she googled the deviated symptoms, Phenol Barbital came up and symptoms were consistent with what was described for that drug. (justice4cyn.com)