A long-acting barbiturate that depresses most metabolic processes at high doses. It is used as a hypnotic and sedative and may induce dependence. Barbital is also used in veterinary practice for central nervous system depression.
A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.
A propylamine formed from the cyclization of the side chain of amphetamine. This monoamine oxidase inhibitor is effective in the treatment of major depression, dysthymic disorder, and atypical depression. It also is useful in panic and phobic disorders. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p311)
A group of ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS characterized by a chromophoric naphthohydroquinone group spanned by an aliphatic bridge not previously found in other known ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS. They have been isolated from fermentation broths of Streptomyces mediterranei.
A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)
Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.
Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.

Metabolism of daunorubicin by a barbiturate-sensitive aldehyde reductase from rat liver. (1/44)

A barbiturate-sensitive aldehyde reductase was purified to homogeneity from rat liver and shown to metabolize the cancer-chemotherapeutic antibiotic daunorubicin. The aldehyde reductase may have important roles in the metabolism of exogeneous drugs as well as the aldehyde derivatives of the biogenic amines.  (+info)

Mouse popliteal lymph node assay for assessment of allergic and autoimmunity-inducing potentials of low-molecular-weight drugs. (2/44)

In the present collaborative study, popliteal lymph node (PLN) responses to penicillin G (an allergenic chemical), D-penicillamine (an autoimmunity-inducing chemical), and barbital (a negative reference chemical) were investigated in three different mouse strains by ten pharmaceutical companies. Two inbred mouse strains (BALB/c and A/J) and one outbred strain (ICR) were subcutaneously injected with saline solutions containing penicillin G (1.25, 2.5 and 5 mg/mouse), D-penicillamine (0.5, 1 and 2 mg/mouse), or barbital (2 mg/mouse) into one hind footpad and saline only was injected into the contralateral footpad. PLN cellularity indices were determined on day 7. In the three strains tested, the penicillin G and D-penicillamine injections resulted in approximately dose-dependent responses. In contrast, barbital failed to generate a significant PLN reaction. In the typical data from one of the participating laboratories, the PLN responses of A/J, BALB/c, and ICR to penicillin G were high, intermediate and low, respectively, while their PLN responses to D-penicillamine were all high. Some variation in PLN cellularity indices was observed among the participating laboratories, but reproducibility of the popliteal lymph node assay (PLNA) evaluation was partly confirmed. Although the appropriate selection of mouse strains and drug dosage levels has to be considered, these results suggest that the PLNA may be an appropriate screening system for prediction of the allergic or autoimmunity-inducing potentials of low-molecular-weight drugs.  (+info)

Apoptosis and cell proliferation in rat hepatocytes induced by barbiturates. (3/44)

To examine the effect on cell population in hepatocytes of phenobarbital (PB) and other barbiturates, PB, allobarbital (ALB), barbital sodium (BS) and barbituric acid (BA) were given orally to male rats for 7 consecutive days. Although there was no apparent change in non-promoting BA, hepatomegaly was induced by PB, BS and ALB, which are promoters of hepatocarcinogenesis. In PB- and BS-treated livers, hepatomegaly was attributable to hepatocyte proliferation and enzyme induction. In ALB-treated liver, it was attributable to enzyme induction. The level of cell proliferation was reduced to less than the control values following withdrawal of PB, ALB and BS. It seemed that the degree of suppression of cell proliferation following withdrawal of these compounds correlated to the degree of cell proliferation (PB>BS>ALB) during treatment. In PB-treated liver, apoptosis was induced during treatment, serving to eliminate the excess of hepatocytes. This suggests that short-term administration of PB neither induced suppression of apoptosis nor disturbed homeostasis of hepatocyte populations.  (+info)

Promotion by sodium barbital induces early development but does not increase the multiplicity of hereditary renal tumors in Eker rats. (4/44)

Induced cell proliferation is important in the mode of action of many non-genotoxic renal carcinogens. Since Tsc2 mutant (Eker) rats are genetically predisposed to the development of renal cell tumors, they provide a useful animal model in which to study the action of renal carcinogens. Sodium barbital was used as a model non-genotoxic renal carcinogen to test whether a concentration that increased renal tubular proliferation without severe nephrotoxicity would enhance tumor induction in a hereditary tumor model. First, a subchronic concentration-response study was conducted in wild-type male Long-Evans rats to determine increased cell proliferation without severe nephrotoxicity. Rats were dosed with sodium barbital in the feed at 0, 50, 250, 500, 1000, 2000 or 4000 p.p.m. for 3 or 8 weeks. Cell proliferation within the cortex and nephrotoxicity were quantitated. Enhanced proliferation with minimal nephrotoxicity occurred at 500 p.p.m. A second study was conducted in male Tsc2 mutant rats given sodium barbital in the feed at 0, 100 or 500 p.p.m. from 9 weeks of age to either 6 or 12 months of age. An additional group of rats was treated with sodium barbital for 6 months and then provided control feed until 12 months of age. Rats necropsied at 6 months of age had a concentration-dependent increase in preneoplastic and total renal lesions. Sodium barbital-treated rats necropsied at 12 months of age had numbers of lesions that were not different from controls. Total combined preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions in the 6 month, high dose group was the same as the 12 month control group. These data show that sodium barbital caused progression to the stage of spontaneous renal lesions in Tsc2 mutant rats but did not increase their overall number. These data suggest that enhanced cell proliferation without significant cytotoxicity exerted a promotional influence in this hereditary model.  (+info)

Effect of nonionic surfactant on transport of surface-active and non-surface-active model drugs and emulsion stability in triphasic systems. (5/44)

The effect of surfactant concentration on transport kinetics in emulsions using surface-active (phenobarbital, barbital) and non- surface-active (phenylazoaniline, benzocaine) model drugs is determined. Mineral oil was chosen as the oil phase and the nonionic surfactant polyoxyethylene-10-oleyl-ether (Brij 97) was chosen as the emulsifier. Model drug transport in the triphasic systems was investigated using side-by-side diffusion cells mounted with hydrophilic dialysis membranes (molecular weight cutoffs 1 kd and 50 kd) and a novel bulk equilibrium reverse dialysis bag technique. Emulsion stability was determined by droplet size analysis as a function of time, temperature, and the presence of model drugs, using photon correlation spectroscopy. Mineral oil/water (O/W) partition coefficients and aqueous solubilities were determined in the presence of surfactant. The transport rates of model drugs in emulsions increased with an increase in Brij 97 micellar concentrations up to 1.0% wt/vol and then decreased at higher surfactant concentrations. The transport profiles of the model drugs appeared to be governed by model drug O/W partition coefficient values and by micellar shape changes at higher surfactant concentrations. Total transport rates of phenobarbital and barbital were faster than those of phenylazoaniline and benzocaine. Excess surfactant affected the transport rates of the model drugs in the emulsions depending on drug surface activity and lipophilicity.  (+info)

Mathematical modeling of surface-active and non-surface-active drug transport in emulsion systems. (6/44)

Mathematical models were developed for the prediction of surface-active and non- surface-active drug transport in triphasic (oil, water, and micellar) emulsion systems as a function of micellar concentration. These models were evaluated by comparing experimental and simulated data. Fick's first law of diffusion with association of the surface-active or complexation nature of the drug with the surfactant was used to derive a transport model for surface-active drugs. This transport model assumes that the oil/water (O/W) partitioning process was fast compared with membrane transport and therefore drug transport was limited by the membrane. Consecutive rate equations were used to model transport of non-surface-active drugs in emulsion systems assuming that the O/W interface acts as a barrier to drug transport. Phenobarbital (PB) and barbital (B) were selected as surface-active model drugs. Phenylazoaniline (PAA) and benzocaine (BZ) were selected as non- surface-active model drugs. Transport studies at pH 7.0 were conducted using side-by-side diffusion cells and bulk equilibrium reverse dialysis bag techniques. According to the surface-active drug model, an increase in micellar concentration is expected to decrease drug-transport rates. Using the Microsoft EXCEL program, the non-surface-active drug model was fitted to the experimental data for the cumulative amount of the model drug that disappeared from the donor chamber. The oil/continuous phase partitioning rates (k1) and the membrane transport rates (k2) were estimated. The predicted data were consistent with the experimental data for both the surface-active and non- surface-active models.  (+info)

Rapid stimulation of free glucuronate formation by non-glucuronidable xenobiotics in isolated rat hepatocytes. (7/44)

Vitamin C synthesis in rat liver is enhanced by several xenobiotics, including aminopyrine and chloretone. The effect of these agents has been linked to induction of enzymes potentially involved in the formation of glucuronate, a precursor of vitamin C. Using isolated rat hepatocytes as a model, we show that a series of agents (aminopyrine, antipyrine, chloretone, clotrimazole, metyrapone, proadifen, and barbital) induced in a few minutes an up to 15-fold increase in the formation of glucuronate, which was best observed in the presence of sorbinil, an inhibitor of glucuronate reductase. They also caused an approximately 2-fold decrease in the concentration of UDP-glucuronate but little if any change in the concentration of UDP-glucose. Depletion of UDP-glucuronate with resorcinol or d-galactosamine markedly decreased the formation of glucuronate both in the presence and in the absence of aminopyrine, confirming the precursor-product relationship between UDP-glucuronate and free glucuronate. Most of the agents did not induce the formation of detectable amounts of glucuronides, indicating that the formation of glucuronate is not due to a glucuronidation-deglucuronidation cycle. With the exception of barbital (which inhibits glucuronate reductase), all of the above mentioned agents also caused an increase in the concentration of ascorbic acid. They had little effect on glutathione concentration, and their effect on glucuronate and vitamin C formation was not mimicked by glutathione-depleting agents such as diamide and buthionine sulfoximine. It is concluded that the stimulation of vitamin C synthesis exerted by some xenobiotics is mediated through a rapid increase in the conversion of UDP-glucuronate to glucuronate, which does not apparently involve a glucuronidation-deglucuronidation cycle.  (+info)

Counterimmunoelectrophoresis of pneumococcal antigens:improved sensitivity for the detection of types VII and XIV. (8/44)

Rapid identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae has been reported using counterimmunoelectrophoresis for the detection of specific capsular antigens in serum, cerebrospinal fluid, and urine. Previous clinical studies have failed to detect type VII or XIV pneumococcal antigen. These two types, however, account for a significant portion of pneumococcal disease. The incorporation of a sulfonated derivative of phenylboronic acid in the buffer system provides a method for the sensitive detection of these types in artificial mixtures without greatly reducing the sensitivity for the detection of other pneumococcal types. A problem with false positives encountered using human serum and barbitalbuffer was reduced by the use of buffer containing sulfonated phenylboronic acid.  (+info)

Barbital is a type of barbiturate drug that was commonly used as a sedative and sleep aid in the past. Its chemical name is sodium 5,5-diethylbarbituric acid, and it is also known by its brand name, Veronal. Barbital has a long duration of action, typically lasting between 6 to 10 hours, and was used for the treatment of insomnia, anxiety, and seizure disorders.

Barbital works by enhancing the activity of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a neurotransmitter that inhibits the activity of nerve cells in the brain. This results in a sedative effect, reducing anxiety and promoting sleep. However, barbital also has a high potential for abuse and dependence, and its use has declined significantly due to the development of safer and more effective alternative medications.

It is important to note that barbital is a controlled substance, and its possession and use are regulated by law in many countries. It should only be used under the supervision of a licensed healthcare professional, and its use should be avoided in individuals with a history of addiction or substance abuse.

Barbiturates are a class of drugs that act as central nervous system depressants, which means they slow down the activity of the brain and nerves. They were commonly used in the past to treat conditions such as anxiety, insomnia, and seizures, but their use has declined due to the risk of addiction, abuse, and serious side effects. Barbiturates can also be used for surgical anesthesia and as a treatment for barbiturate or pentobarbital overdose.

Barbiturates work by enhancing the activity of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain, which results in sedation, hypnosis, and anticonvulsant effects. However, at higher doses, barbiturates can cause respiratory depression, coma, and even death.

Some examples of barbiturates include pentobarbital, phenobarbital, secobarbital, and amobarbital. These drugs are usually available in the form of tablets, capsules, or injectable solutions. It is important to note that barbiturates should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as they carry a high risk of dependence and abuse.

Tranylcypromine is a type of antidepressant known as a non-selective, irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI). It works by blocking the action of monoamine oxidase, an enzyme that breaks down certain neurotransmitters (chemical messengers) in the brain such as serotonin, dopamine, and noradrenaline. This leads to an increase in the levels of these neurotransmitters in the brain, which can help improve mood and alleviate symptoms of depression.

Tranylcypromine is used primarily for the treatment of major depressive disorder that has not responded to other antidepressants. It is also used off-label for the treatment of anxiety disorders, panic attacks, and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

It's important to note that MAOIs like tranylcypromine have several dietary and medication restrictions due to their potential to cause serious or life-threatening reactions when combined with certain foods or medications. Therefore, careful monitoring by a healthcare professional is necessary while taking this medication.

Rifamycins are a class of antibiotics derived from the bacterium Amycolatopsis rifamycinica. They have a unique chemical structure and mechanism of action, which involves inhibiting bacterial DNA-dependent RNA polymerase. This leads to the prevention of bacterial transcription and ultimately results in bacteriostatic or bactericidal activity, depending on the drug concentration and the susceptibility of the bacteria.

Rifamycins are primarily used in the treatment of various types of infections caused by gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, as well as mycobacteria. Some examples of rifamycin antibiotics include rifampin (also known as rifampicin), rifabutin, and rifapentine. These drugs are often used to treat tuberculosis, meningitis, and other serious infections. It is important to note that resistance to rifamycins can develop rapidly if the drugs are not used appropriately or if they are used to treat infections caused by bacteria that are already resistant to these antibiotics.

Pentobarbital is a barbiturate medication that is primarily used for its sedative and hypnotic effects in the treatment of insomnia, seizure disorders, and occasionally to treat severe agitation or delirium. It works by decreasing the activity of nerves in the brain, which produces a calming effect.

In addition to its medical uses, pentobarbital has been used for non-therapeutic purposes such as euthanasia and capital punishment due to its ability to cause respiratory depression and death when given in high doses. It is important to note that the use of pentobarbital for these purposes is highly regulated and restricted to licensed medical professionals in specific circumstances.

Like all barbiturates, pentobarbital has a high potential for abuse and addiction, and its use should be closely monitored by a healthcare provider. It can also cause serious side effects such as respiratory depression, decreased heart rate, and low blood pressure, especially when used in large doses or combined with other central nervous system depressants.

Drug tolerance is a medical concept that refers to the decreased response to a drug following its repeated use, requiring higher doses to achieve the same effect. This occurs because the body adapts to the presence of the drug, leading to changes in the function or expression of targets that the drug acts upon, such as receptors or enzymes. Tolerance can develop to various types of drugs, including opioids, benzodiazepines, and alcohol, and it is often associated with physical dependence and addiction. It's important to note that tolerance is different from resistance, which refers to the ability of a pathogen to survive or grow in the presence of a drug, such as antibiotics.

Hypnotics and sedatives are classes of medications that have depressant effects on the central nervous system, leading to sedation (calming or inducing sleep), reduction in anxiety, and in some cases, decreased awareness or memory. These agents work by affecting the neurotransmitter GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) in the brain, which results in inhibitory effects on neuronal activity.

Hypnotics are primarily used for the treatment of insomnia and other sleep disorders, while sedatives are often prescribed to manage anxiety or to produce a calming effect before medical procedures. Some medications can function as both hypnotics and sedatives, depending on the dosage and specific formulation. Common examples of these medications include benzodiazepines (such as diazepam and lorazepam), non-benzodiazepine hypnotics (such as zolpidem and eszopiclone), barbiturates, and certain antihistamines.

It is essential to use these medications under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as they can have potential side effects, such as drowsiness, dizziness, confusion, and impaired coordination. Additionally, long-term use or high doses may lead to tolerance, dependence, and withdrawal symptoms upon discontinuation.

As barbital is a controlled substance, barbital-based buffers have largely been replaced by other substances. Japanese writer ... Barbital was marketed in 1904 by the Bayer company as "Veronal". A soluble salt of barbital was marketed by the Schering ... Barbital (or barbitone), marketed under the brand names Veronal for the pure acid and Medinal for the sodium salt, was the ... Barbital, under the name of Veronal, has been used as a plot device in the author Agatha Christie's murder mysteries. In ...
Contributions to methods of barbital research". Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association. 23 (11): 1074-1079. doi: ...
It is the thiobarbiturate analogue of barbital. It is of note that although the drug can be prepared by the above route (cf e.g ... thialbarbital), reaction of barbital with phosphorus pentasulfide constitutes an alternative route to thiobarbital. Fischer E, ...
On December 13, 1968, Zhen Suhui and Xiao Luolian took barbital together and died hugging each other in bed at home. After Xiao ... The autopsy revealed that he committed suicide by taking barbital.[citation needed] Xiao Guangyan married Zhen Suhui in 1945. ...
Sodium barbital and barbital have also been used as pH buffers for biological research, e.g., in immuno-electrophoresis or in ... discovered that barbital was very effective in putting dogs to sleep. Barbital was then marketed by Bayer under the trade name ... Barbital, methylphenobarbital (also known as mephobarbital), and phenobarbital are designated schedule IV drugs, and "Any ... barbital, butobarbital, mephobarbital, phenobarbital, butabarbital, and vinylbital as schedule IV on its "Green List". The ...
Von Mering collaborated with the chemist Emil Fischer, who was also involved in the discovery of barbital. López-Muñoz, ... In 1903, he published observations that barbital (then known as diethyl-barbituric acid) has sedative properties in humans. In ... 1904, he helped to launch barbital under the brand name Veronal. Veronal was the first commercially available barbiturate ...
She suffered from severe depression and committed suicide 31 March 1958 by overdose of barbital. Her biography is included into ...
In some cases animals have suffered several convulsive attacks followed by withdrawal of sodium barbital. It has been concluded ...
He took his own life at the age of 35 through an overdose of barbital. Ryūnosuke Akutagawa was born in Irifune, Kyōbashi, Tokyo ...
Along with the physician Josef von Mering, he helped to launch the first barbiturate sedative, barbital, in 1904. He next ...
Hermann Emil Fischer and Joseph von Mering discover that barbitone (barbital or Veronal) is an effective hypnotic agent. It ...
... barbital, phenobarbital). The slowly eliminated phenobarbital lessens the severity of the withdrawal syndrome and reduces the ...
The first barbiturate drug, barbital, was synthesized in 1902 by German chemists Emil Fischer and Joseph von Mering and was ... The synthesis of a photoswitchable analog (DASA-barbital) and phenobarbital has been described for use as research compound in ...
During this period of not drinking he stepped up the medication the doctor had prescribed, a combination of barbital and ...
Writer Ryūnosuke Akutagawa commits suicide in the early morning hours at the age of 35 through an overdose of barbital. August ...
A post-mortem revealed that Birkeland had taken 10 g of barbital the night he died, instead of the 0.5 g recommended. The time ... Suffering from severe paranoia due to his use of barbital as a sleeping aid, he died under mysterious circumstances in his room ...
The first to be used in medicine was barbital (Veronal) starting in 1903, and the second, phenobarbital was first marketed in ...
Also called barbital or Veronal (the trade name assigned to it by Bayer Pharmaceuticals), this new drug became the first ...
Volwiler was able to meet the demand, successfully synthesizing Barbital and overseeing its production in spite of shortages of ...
After the 1904 invention of barbital, the first of the barbiturate family, chloral hydrate began to disappear from use among ...
"A study of the teratogenic and fetotoxic effects of large doses of barbital, hexobarbital and butobarbital used for suicide ... dating back from the introduction of barbital in the early 20th century. In Eastern Europe, hexobarbital (and other ... elimination from the blood and biotransformation of hexobarbital in rats of different ages after induction with barbital and ...
... after she had taken barbital. Her father stated that she had previously attempted to take her life a few years earlier. The ...
3 heroin", including sugar, quinine, barbital and caffeine, some of which "can cause serious side effects." Dr. Hirsch, the New ...
Barbiturates were first discovered to have medical use in 1903, when a research at Bayer showed barbital to be an effective ...
The first barbiturate, barbital, was synthesized in 1902 by German chemists Emil Fischer and Joseph von Mering and was first ...
... from an overdose of barbital, aged 41 years. Her death was ruled accidental by a coroner's jury. "Lillian Drew, of the Essanay ...
Because of his age he was unable to find a new position abroad, and finally committed suicide by barbital overdose at Dornbusch ...
... allobarbital alprazolam amobarbital amfepramone aminorex barbital benzphetamine bromazepam brotizolam buprenorphine butalbital ...
Depressants (barbiturates): allobarbital barbital butobarbital methylphenobarbital phenobarbital butabarbital vinylbital ...
Barbital (5,5-diethylbarbituric acid) [Repealed, SOR/2017-13, s. 7] Butabarbital (5-sec-butyl-5-ethylbarbituric acid) ...
As barbital is a controlled substance, barbital-based buffers have largely been replaced by other substances. Japanese writer ... Barbital was marketed in 1904 by the Bayer company as "Veronal". A soluble salt of barbital was marketed by the Schering ... Barbital (or barbitone), marketed under the brand names Veronal for the pure acid and Medinal for the sodium salt, was the ... Barbital, under the name of Veronal, has been used as a plot device in the author Agatha Christies murder mysteries. In ...
Sample : Barbital Column : Shodex Asahipak ODP-50 4D (4.6 mm I.D. x 150 mm) Eluent : 25 mM Sodium phosphate buffer/CH3CN=60/40 ... Effects of eluent pH on sensitivity of barbital analysis using Asahipak ODP-50 4D (a column for reversed phase chromatography) ...
964. Composition of schedules. Schedules I, II, III, IV, and V shall, unless and until added to pursuant to R.S. 40:962, consist of the following drugs or other substances, by whatever official name, common or usual name, chemical name, or brand name designated:. SCHEDULE I. A. Opiates. Unless specifically excepted or unless listed in another schedule, any of the following opiates, including their isomers, esters, ethers, salts, or salts of isomers, esters, and ethers, whenever the existence of such isomers, esters, ethers, or salts is possible within the specific chemical designation:. *(1). Acetyl-alpha-methylfentanyl (N-[1-(1-methyl-2-phenethyl)-4-piperidinyl]-N-phenylacetamide). *(2) Acetylmethadol. *(3) Allylprodine. *(4) Alphacetylmethadol (except levo-alphacetylmethadol, also known as levomethadyl acetate, or LAAM). *(5) Alphameprodine. *(6) Alphamethadol. *(7) Alpha-methylfentanyl (N-[1-(alpha-methyl-beta-phenyl) ethyl-4-piperidyl]propionanilide; ...
Each serum sample was diluted to 1:4 with barbital buffer and inactived at 56 °C for 36 min. The sensitized sheep erythrocytes ...
ACUTE BARBITAL (VERONAL) POISONING. On admission, the usual conditions, giving rise to coma had to be considered; namely, ...
BELLADONNA W/PHENO BARBITAL 03840 BELLALPHEN 03845 BELLERGAL 03850 BELLERGAL-S 03880 BEMEX 03900 BEN GAY 03905 BENADRYL 03955 ... BELLADONNA W/PHENO BARBITAL 03840 BELLALPHEN 03845 BELLERGAL 03850 BELLERGAL-S 03880 BEMEX 03900 BEN GAY 03905 BENADRYL 03955 ...
Exploring the Binding of Barbital to a Synthetic Macrocyclic Receptor. A Charge Density Study. Du, Jonathan J; Hanrahan, Jane R ...
For dogs, cats and other unproductive animals (in an amount of not more than 2 animals) and birds (in an amount of not more than 10 animals) belonging to persons entering and leaving the Republic of Uzbekistan, a veterinary certificate or veterinary certificate shall be issued without the permission of the Chief State Veterinary Inspector Republic of Uzbekistan or its deputies. Animals across the state border are allowed in priority order. In case of import of more than 2 domestic animals, the veterinary certificate is issued with the permission of the Chief State Veterinary Inspector of the Republic of Uzbekistan or his deputy. Transportation of animals and birds in air transport is permitted subject to the relevant rules of the country of departure, transit, destination, and subject to the availability of certificates and permits of veterinary authorities. Carriage of animals and birds is not included in the permitted baggage allowance and is paid at the excess baggage rate. In the passenger ...
47. BARBITAL [ԲԱՐԲԻՏԱԼ] ◊ [ԲԱՐԲԻՏԱԼ] 97. BEETLES [ԲԶԵԶՆԵՐ] 48. BARBITURATES [ԲԱՐԲԻՏՈՒՐԱՏՆԵՐ] ◊ [ԲԱՐԲԻՏՈՒՐԱՏՆԵՐ] 98. BEHAVIOR [ ...
Find all words ending in TAL. Defeat any word game when you know the best words. Get a custom list with words that end in the letter you need!
barbital2. *. bottle; barbital2. *. boxes2. *. cartons2. *. cine camera2. ...
N05CA04 Barbital. N05CA05 Aprobarbital. N05CA06 Secobarbital. N05CA07 Talbutal. N05CA08 Vinylbital. N05CA09 Vinbarbital. ...
And there are also potentially cytotoxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic consequently, barbital therapy suddenly stops taking the ...
The Addictive behavior and Chemical Detox Single Month Program with Scalar Light
... - sec·a·lin; sec·a·lose; sec·a·mo·ne; sec; sec·a·teur; Sec·co·tine; sec·o·barbital; sec·odont; Sec·o·nal; sec·ond·ar·i·ly; ...
Barbitone use Barbital Barbiturates Barbuda use Antigua and Barbuda Barbuda and Antigua use Antigua and Barbuda ...
Barbitone use Barbital Barbiturates Barbuda use Antigua and Barbuda Barbuda and Antigua use Antigua and Barbuda ...
Diphenhydramine (DPH) is an antihistamine medication. It is mainly used to treat allergies.[8] It can also be used to treat insomnia, the common cold, tremor in parkinsonism, and nausea.[8] It is taken by mouth, injected into a vein, injected into a muscle, or put on the skin.[8] It works best two hours after taking, and works for up to seven hours.[8] Common side effects include sleepiness, bad balance and a bad stomach.[8] It should not be used in young children or the elderly.[8][9] It can be used while pregnant, but not when breastfeeding.[10] It works by blocking some effects of histamine from working at the H1 receptor.[8] Diphenhydramine is also an anticholinergic, and is a deliriant at high doses.[11] Diphenhydramine was first made by George Rieveschl and was first used in 1946.[12][13] It is available as a generic medication.[8] It is also sold under the brand name Benadryl, as well as others.[8] It was the 241st most commoly prescribed medication in the United States in 2017.[14][15] ...
Barbital, HCL w/tryptamine, if you wanna go that way. Ethyl Acetate? Im just spitballing now. Its like playing 20 questions. ...
He committed suicide at the age of 35 through an overdose of barbital. ...
A mix of stimulants and depressants such as Xanax, Valium, barbital, and clonazepam. ...
PENIMEPICYCLINE Introduction dans BIAM : 18/2/1992 Dernière mise à jour : 19/10/1999 Etat : valide Identification de la substance Propriétés Pharmacologiques Mécanismes daction Effets Recherchés Indications thérapeutiques Effets secondaires Effets sur la descendance Pharmaco-Dépendance Précautions demploi Contre-Indications Voies dadministration Posologie & mode dadministration Pharmaco-Cinétique Identification de la substance Formule Chimique : 6-(phnoxyactamido) pnicillinate de N-[[2-hydroxythyl)piprazin-1-yl…. ...
common sedatives like barbital or Quaaludes, tranquillizers like Valium, Ativan or Xanax and the most commonly used sedative, ...
In physical-dependence studies in animals, it substituted for barbital and produced withdrawal signs typical of the sedative- ...
brand of buta- /barbital sodium)" was false and misleading in that each 5cc of the drug contained less than 3 grs. of sodium-5- ...
For alternative pathway analysis, rabbit erythrocytes were washed in PBS and resuspended in AP buffer (5 mM Na-barbital, 10 mM ...
... barbital, barbitals, barbiturate, barbiturates, barbless, barbs, barbule, barbules. ...
12) A person who has taken medication that can induce or inhibit drug metabolism such as barbital drugs, within one month prior ...
  • Barbital (or barbitone), marketed under the brand names Veronal for the pure acid and Medinal for the sodium salt, was the first commercially available barbiturate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Barbital was prepared by condensing diethylmalonic ester with urea in the presence of sodium ethoxide, or by adding at least two molar equivalents of ethyl iodide to the silver salt of malonylurea (barbituric acid) or possibly to a basic solution of the acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Solutions of sodium barbital have also been used as pH buffers for biological research, e.g., in immunoelectrophoresis or in fixative solutions. (wikipedia.org)
  • brand of buta- /barbital sodium)" was false and misleading in that each 5cc of the drug contained less than 3 grs. (nih.gov)
  • He committed suicide at the age of 35 through an overdose of barbital. (bookwyrm.social)
  • As barbital is a controlled substance, barbital-based buffers have largely been replaced by other substances. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the early 20th century, scientists synthesized a barbiturate referred to as "barbital" within the laboratory and announced it as a brand new substance affecting sleep. (jestraproperties.com)