Antibiotic complex obtained from Streptomyces bambergiensis containing mainly Moenomycins A and C. They are used as feed additives and growth promoters for poultry, swine, and cattle.

Gene disruption studies of penicillin-binding proteins 1a, 1b, and 2a in Streptococcus pneumoniae. (1/26)

The effects of inactivation of the genes encoding penicillin-binding protein 1a (PBP1a), PBP1b, and PBP2a in Streptococcus pneumoniae were examined. Insertional mutants did not exhibit detectable changes in growth rate or morphology, although a pbp1a pbp1b double-disruption mutant grew more slowly than its parent did. Attempts to generate a pbp1a pbp2a double-disruption mutant failed. The pbp2a mutants, but not the other mutants, were more sensitive to moenomycin, a transglycosylase inhibitor. These observations suggest that individually the pbp1a, pbp1b, and pbp2a genes are dispensable but that either pbp1a or pbp2a is required for growth in vitro. These results also suggest that PBP2a is a functional transglycosylase in S. pneumoniae.  (+info)

A simple screen for murein transglycosylase inhibitors. (2/26)

A simple assay for detection of compounds that bind to the active site in the transglycosylation domain of the essential bifunctional transglycosylase and transpeptidase penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) is reported. The method is based on a competition with the specific transglycosylase inhibitor moenomycin. With moenomycin coupled to Affi-Gel beads, a simple filtration procedure allows the amount of labeled PBPs that bind to moenomycin beads in the presence of test substances to be determined. The PBPs can easily be labeled by the covalent binding of penicillin derivatives. Crude membrane extracts can be used as a source for the PBPs, and different kinds of labels for the penicillin-PBP complexes can be used. The assay can be adapted to high-throughput screens.  (+info)

Impact of flavophospholipol and vancomycin on conjugational transfer of vancomycin resistance plasmids. (3/26)

The influence of vancomycin and flavophospholipol (FPL) on the transfer rate of conjugative plasmids harboring the vancomycin resistance operon vanA was determined in several clinical and animal isolates of Enterococcus faecium. FPL significantly inhibited the frequency of transfer of conjugative VanA plasmids up to 70-fold. Vancomycin had no significant effect on the transfer rate of VanA plasmids.  (+info)

Influence of different medium components on the in vitro activity of the growth-promoting antibiotic flavomycin against enterococci. (4/26)

The growth-promoting antibiotic flavomycin (also called bambermycin, flavophospholipol and moenomycin) has a complex spectrum of activity against enterococci, with some species being naturally resistant and others susceptible. In this study, proteins added to Mueller-Hinton II medium had a strong deleterious effect on the activity of flavomycin, glucose had no effect and starch decreased the activity of flavomycin. The fatty substances Tween 80 and tributyrin increased the activity of flavomycin for several enterococcal species. Slight differences in the composition of the susceptibility test medium affected the MIC results obtained, indicating that strict standardization of the test medium is necessary.  (+info)

Antibacterial activity of synthetic analogues based on the disaccharide structure of moenomycin, an inhibitor of bacterial transglycosylase. (5/26)

Moenomycin is a natural product glycolipid that inhibits the growth of a broad spectrum of Gram-positive bacteria. In Escherichia coli, moenomycin inhibits peptidoglycan synthesis at the transglycosylation stage, causes accumulation of cell-wall intermediates, and leads to lysis and cell death. However, unlike Esc. coli, where 5-6 log units of killing are observed, 0-2 log units of killing occurred when Gram-positive bacteria were treated with similar multiples of the MIC. In addition, bulk peptidoglycan synthesis in intact Gram-positive cells was resistant to the effects of moenomycin. In contrast, synthetic disaccharides based on the moenomycin disaccharide core structure were identified that were bactericidal to Gram-positive bacteria, inhibited cell-wall synthesis in intact cells, and were active on both sensitive and vancomycin-resistant enterococci. These disaccharide analogues do not inhibit the formation of N:-acetylglucosamine-ss-1, 4-MurNAc-pentapeptide-pyrophosphoryl-undecaprenol (lipid II), but do inhibit the polymerization of lipid II into peptidoglycan in Esc. coli. In addition, cell growth was required for bactericidal activity. The data indicate that synthetic disaccharide analogues of moenomycin inhibit cell-wall synthesis at the transglycosylation stage, and that their activity on Gram-positive bacteria differs from moenomycin due to differential targeting of the transglycosylation process. Inhibition of the transglycosylation process represents a promising approach to the design of new antibacterial agents active on drug-resistant bacteria.  (+info)

Effects of flavophospholipol on resistance in fecal Escherichia coli and enterococci of fattening pigs. (6/26)

A "plasmid-curing effect" of multiresistant Escherichia coli by flavophospholipol, an antibiotic used as an antimicrobial growth promoter (AMGP) in animal feeds, has been reported to occur in vitro and in vivo under experimental conditions. In this study, the effect of flavophospholipol under field conditions was studied. The prevalence and degree (proportion of resistant strains to the total numbers present per gram of feces) of resistance of indicator bacteria, E. coli and enterococci, was determined in fecal samples from three groups of pigs that were fed a commercial finisher feed without any AMGP. Group A was the negative control group without any AMGP, group B received the same feed with 9 mg of flavophospholipol/kg of feed (study group), and group C received the same feed with 15 mg of avoparcin/kg (positive control). Fecal samples from each pig were collected at the start and at the end of the study and assessed for the prevalence and degree of resistance against antibiotics commonly used either for therapy in pig medicine or as an AMGP. Before the start of the study, all pigs were colonized with multiresistant E. coli by mixing three resistant pig isolates through their feed after disturbance of the colonization resistance of the intestinal flora by a 3-day course of lincomycin and spectinomycin. At the end of the study, the overall prevalence and degree of resistance of E. coli in the fecal flora had increased significantly in groups A and C but remained at the same level as at the start of the study in group B. The prevalence of vancomycin resistance was 44 and 41% in groups A and B, respectively, but only very low numbers of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) per gram of feces were found. In the avoparcin-fed group, the prevalence was 72%, and in 57% of the samples, more than 50% of all enterococci present were vancomycin resistant. The prevalence of resistant Enterococcus faecalis increased only in the flavophospholipol-exposed group, from 23% before the start of the study to 43% at the end of the study. It was concluded that flavophospholipol effectively suppressed the augmentation and dissemination of multiresistant E. coli in the intestinal flora of fattening pigs. Avoparcin use strongly selected for VRE carriage and excretion. Therefore, as neither flavophospholipol nor any related molecule is used therapeutically, no cross-resistance with therapeutic antibiotics exists and no transmissible resistance has been shown; the major decrease in resistance in intestinal E. coli of flavophospholipol-fed animals seemed to outweigh the small increase in the risk of transfer of flavophospholipol-resistant E. faecalis from animals to humans via the food chain.  (+info)

Effect of feeding the ionophores monensin and laidlomycin propionate and the antimicrobial bambermycin to sheep experimentally infected with E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella typhimurium. (7/26)

Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella are widely recognized as important agents of foodborne disease with worldwide distribution. The use of ionophores in feeding growing ruminants is widespread in the United States and has attracted recent interest due to the apparent temporal relationship between initial ionophore use and the increase in human E. coli O157:H7 cases. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of short-term feeding of ionophores on fecal shedding, intestinal concentrations, and antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli O157:H7 and S. typhimurium in growing lambs. Sixteen lambs were used in each experiment, four lambs per treatment group: monensin, laidlomycin propionate, bambermycin, and a control treatment. Lambs were fed a grain and hay (50:50) diet with their respective ionophore for 12 d before experimental inoculation with E. coli O157:H7 or S. typhimurium. Animals were maintained on their respective diets an additional 12 d, and fecal shedding of inoculated pathogens was monitored daily. Lambs were killed and tissues and contents were sampled from the rumen, cecum, and rectum. No differences (P > 0.05) in fecal shedding of Salmonella or E. coli O157:H7 were observed due to treatment. Occurrence of Salmonella or E. coli in luminal contents and tissue samples from the rumen, cecum, and rectum did not differ (P > 0.05) among treatments. Feeding monensin decreased (P < 0.05) the incidence of scours in sheep infected with Salmonella compared with the other treatments. No differences in antimicrobial susceptibility were found in any of Salmonella or E. coli O157:H7 isolates. Results from these studies indicate that short-term ionophore feeding had very limited effects on E. coli and Salmonella shedding or on antimicrobial susceptibility in experimentally infected lambs.  (+info)

Influence of flavomycin on ruminal fermentation and microbial populations in sheep. (8/26)

Flavomycin is a phosphoglycolipid antibiotic that promotes growth in ruminants. The aim of this study was to characterize the effects of flavomycin on ruminal micro-organisms and their metabolic consequences. In sheep receiving a mixed grass hay/concentrate diet, inclusion of 20 mg flavomycin day(-1) decreased ruminal ammonia and total volatile fatty acid concentrations (P<0.001), but the acetate : propionate ratio was unchanged. Ruminal pH tended to be lower with flavomycin, and ammonia-production rates of ruminal digesta from control animals measured in vitro tended to be inhibited by flavomycin. Pure-culture studies indicated that anaerobic fungi, protozoa and most bacterial species were insensitive to flavomycin. Fusobacterium necrophorum was the most sensitive species tested, along with some high-activity ammonia-producing (HAP) species. Effects on F. necrophorum in vivo were inconsistent due to large inter-animal variation. HAP numbers appeared to be decreased. Changes in the rumen bacterial-community structure were assessed by using denaturing-gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of rumen digesta 16S rRNA. DGGE profiles differed from animal to animal, but remained consistent from day to day. The community structure changed when flavomycin was introduced. The roles of F. necrophorum and HAP species in ammonia formation and of F. necrophorum in the invasion of wall tissue are consistent with the observed effects of flavomycin on ruminal ammonia formation and, in other studies, on decreasing tissue-turnover rates.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of flavophospholipol (Flavomycin) and salinomycin sodium (Sacox) on the excretion of Clostridium perfringens, Salmonella enteritidis, and Campylobacter jejuni in broilers after experimental infection. AU - Bolder, N.M.. AU - Wagenaar, J.A.. AU - Putirulan, F.F.. AU - Veldman, K.T.. AU - Sommer, M.. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. U2 - 10.1093/ps/78.12.1681. DO - 10.1093/ps/78.12.1681. M3 - Article. VL - 78. SP - 1681. EP - 1689. JO - Poultry Science. JF - Poultry Science. SN - 0032-5791. ER - ...
Bambermycin (flavomycin) is a group of antibiotics obtained from Streptomyces bambergiensis and Streptomyces ghanaensis. Bambermycin is predominately effective against Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria. It is used by the commercial poultry industry, in broilers, for the prevention of coccidiosis caused by Eimeria species. It is sold under multiple trade names. Egg Withdrawal: Bambermycin has no withdrawal requirement.
A clinical trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of in-feed flavophospholipol in reducing Salmonella shedding and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) associated with Salmonella and generic Escherichia coli in naturally infected grower-finisher pigs. Pigs were obtained from a farm with a history of salmonellosis and were housed at a research facility. Over the span of 10 weeks the pigs received either a feed containing 4 ppm of flavophospholipol (treatment, n = 25) or a non-medicated feed (control, n = 20). Weekly fecal samples were collected and cultured for Salmonella and generic E. coli. A subset of Salmonella and E. coli isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. A multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression model was used to compare the prevalence of Salmonella shedding and AMR in Salmonella and E. coli isolates in treatment and control groups. Overall, the prevalence of Salmonella shedding (P , 0.05) and AMR in Salmonella (P , 0.01) and E. coli (P , 0.005) isolates was not ...
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to correct an inadvertent error in the conditions of use of bambermycins free-choice cattle feeds. This action is being taken to improve the accuracy of the animal drug regulations.
In title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations, part 558, revised as of April 1, 2008, on page 410, in § 558.58 (e)(1)(iii), the entry for Bambermycins 1 to 3, in the column under Limitations remove 057926 and in its place add 016592; in the column under Sponsors, add 016592.. End Supplemental Information ...
Feeding growth-promoting antibiotics to farm animals is dangerous, immoral, and unnecessary, and the practice is contributing to serious diseases in humans. Fortunately, it can be done away with as long as we are willing to improve the conditions in which animals are raised.
The use of growth-promoting antibiotics in farming is thought to contribute to certain strains of animal gut bacteria developing resistance to some antibiotics. There is indirect evidence of such instances where resistance has transferred to human gut bacteria
Acknowledgements. About This Book.. Abacavir.. Acarbose.. Acetyl sulfisoxazole.. Acrivastine.. Adapalene.. Adefovir dipivoxil.. Adrenocorticotropic hormone.. Afloqualone.. Alacepril.. Alclometasone 17,21-dipropionate.. Alitretinoin.. Allethrin.. Almotriptan.. Alosetron.. Amcinonide.. Aminolevulinic acid.. Amprenavir.. Anagrelide.. Anakinra.. Apraclonidine.. Aprepitant.. Aranidipine.. Arotinolol.. Arteether.. Articaine.. Asparaginase.. Atazanavir sulfate.. Atipamezole.. Atomoxetine hydrochloride.. Atorvastatin.. Atosiban.. Balofloxacin.. Bambermycins.. Befunolol.. Benzalkonium chloride.. Betaine.. Bethanechol chloride.. Bexarotene.. Biapenem.. Bimatoprost.. Bioresmethrin.. Bivalirudin.. Boldenone.. Bosentan.. β-Boswellic acid.. Brimonidine.. Bromfenac.. Brovincamine.. Bucillamine.. Budipine.. Bulaquine.. Butacaine.. Butamben.. Butoconazole.. Butyl flufenamate.. Cambendazole.. Candesartan cilexetil.. Capecitabine.. Casanthranol.. Caspofungin.. Castor ...
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T.-J. R. Cheng, M.-D. Sung, H.-Y. Liao, Y.-F. Chang, C.-W. Chen, C.-Y. Huang, L.-Y. Chou, Y.-D. Wu, Y.-H. Chen, Y.-S. E. Cheng, C.-H. Wong, C. Ma and W-C Cheng, 2008, Domain requirement of moenomycin binding to bifunctional transglycosylases and development of high-throughput discovery of antibiotics, PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 105(2), 431-436. (SCI ...
On June 19, 2003, the McDonalds Corp. announced a ban on the use of growth-promoting antibiotics in chickens raised for the companys 30,000 restaurants worldwide. The policy, to be fully implemented by the end of 2004, requires suppliers to eliminate feeding antibiotics used in human medicine to chickens to make them grow abnormally fast and large. McDonalds is promoting the policy as part of its overall commitment to social responsibility and animal welfare. In 2000, McDonalds became the first U.S. food company to impose minimum welfare standards on its egg suppliers when it announced suppliers must stop withholding food from hens to manipulate egg production (a practice known as forced molting), increase the amount of cage space for each hen from 48 to 72 square inches, and phase out debeaking. The move signaled acknowledgement that many farming practices are not only inhumane, but are also responsible for a growing number of health risks affecting both animals raised for food and ...
A detailed explanation of the catalytic mechanism employed by these enzymes can be found on the Glycosyltransferases lexicon page. Note: Transglycosylases are distinct from glycosyltransferases. Although both formally catalyze glycosyl transfer, i.e. transfer of a glycosyl residue from a donor substrate to an acceptor substrate,transglycosylases are mechanistically and structurally related to the glycoside hydrolases. Specifically, transglycosylases catalyze the intra- or intermolecular substitution of the anomeric position of glycosides. ...
Corresponds to family 2 of the peptidoglycan lytic transglycosylases described by N.T. Blackburn and A.J. Clarke (2001) J. Mol. Evol. 52, 78- ...
Created after Bras et al. (2011) Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.USA [PMID: 21393568]; distantly related to lytic transglycosylases of family ...
Vitamin C plus Zinc Supplement Spray. Using Super Health Sprays 8SD spray without doubt, the best way to take your daily dose Vit C.
Protein-Protein-Kontakte stellen eine reiche Vielfalt an Interaktionsmöglichkeiten der Polypeptide mit regulatorischen Funktionen innerhalb lebender Organismen dar. Das homodimere Enzym tRNA-Guanin Transglykosylase(TGT) katalysiert z. B. eine Basenaustauschreaktion, die essentiell für die Pathogeni.... Ausführliche Beschreibung. ...
Taking fish oil supplements can increase the amounts of omega-3 fatty acids in your body. These powerful inflammation fighters are recommended to relieve...
Moenomycins A and C are commercially used in the formulation of Bambermycins (Flavomycin), a veterinary antibiotic used solely ...
... bambermycins MeSH D09.698.718.450 - lipopolysaccharides MeSH D09.698.718.450.500 - lipid a MeSH D09.698.718.450.600 - o ...
Moenomycins A and C are commercially used in the formulation of Bambermycins (Flavomycin), a veterinary antibiotic used solely ...
A preference for bambermycins and bacitracin is seen. These especially target pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria, while Tylosin ...
Bambermycins Current Synonym true false 2576138018 Bambermycin Current Synonym true false Associated Value Sets No associated ...
He notes that bambermycins are designed to help pull more nutrients out of the forages consumed so the microorganisms or "bugs ... Bambermycins and monensin feed additives are to be fed as a mix in with other manufactured feedstuffs. ... Johnson explains that feed additives with the active ingredient bambermycins can help improve feed efficiency and gain ... bambermycins feed additives are going to provide more pounds of gain with less grass utilized," says Johnson. He shares that ...
Companies may include ionophores, bambermycins, bacitracin and tiamulin, but they must have a veterinary prescription if they ...
Bambermycins. Enoximone. Cadmium Chloride. Magnesium Phosphate, Tribasic. Peptide T. Lenalidomide. Badische Acid. ...
Bambermycins (Moenomycin). 366. Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212). -. -. 0.1 - ?. Tigecycline (GAR-936, Tigacyl). 1026. ...
T. Delcurto and Earley, A., "Eastern Oregon Agricultural Research Center Annual Report 1998: Comparison of Bambermycins, ...
T. Delcurto and Earley, A., "Eastern Oregon Agricultural Research Center Annual Report 1998: Comparison of Bambermycins, ...
T. Delcurto and Earley, A., "Eastern Oregon Agricultural Research Center Annual Report 1998: Comparison of Bambermycins, ...
T. Delcurto and Earley, A., "Eastern Oregon Agricultural Research Center Annual Report 1998: Comparison of Bambermycins, ...
T. Delcurto and Earley, A., "Eastern Oregon Agricultural Research Center Annual Report 1998: Comparison of Bambermycins, ...
T. Delcurto and Earley, A., "Eastern Oregon Agricultural Research Center Annual Report 1998: Comparison of Bambermycins, ...
For feeding ease, 672 is a 50/50 blend of 632 & 685 for the same success with no mixing. Great for the middle stage of the feeding period to MAINTAIN development. A convenient option to reap the benefits of the tried & proven feeds in one.. Features ...
The effect of mannanoligosaccharides, bambermycins and virginiamycin on performance of Large White Male Turkey. Poult. Sci. 80 ...
T. Delcurto and Earley, A., "Eastern Oregon Agricultural Research Center Annual Report 1998: Comparison of Bambermycins, ...
T. Delcurto and Earley, A., "Eastern Oregon Agricultural Research Center Annual Report 1998: Comparison of Bambermycins, ...
Bambermycins (Moenomycin). * Bambusa aurambincea leaf (Extract). * Banksia micrantha bark (Acetone extract). * Banksia ...
T. Delcurto and Earley, A., "Eastern Oregon Agricultural Research Center Annual Report 1998: Comparison of Bambermycins, ...
T. Delcurto and Earley, A., "Eastern Oregon Agricultural Research Center Annual Report 1998: Comparison of Bambermycins, ...
The effect of broiler feed additives flavophospholipol (FPL; Flavomycin, bambermycins) and salinomycin sodium (SAL; Sacox) ... The effect of broiler feed additives flavophospholipol (FPL; Flavomycin, bambermycins) and salinomycin sodium (SAL; Sacox) ...
The use of bambermycins (Flavomycin) and halofuginone (Stenorol) in diets for growing turkeys. Waldroup, P.W., Spencer, G.K., ... Effect of bambermycins (Flavomycin) in diets for growing turkeys. Salmon, R.E., Stevens, V.I. Poult. Sci. (1990) [Pubmed] ... In one, 960 Medium White poults were fed 0,2,3, or 4 mg bambermycins per kg from day-old to 12 wk of age [24]. ... A reduction of Salmonella in the colonization of mesenteric lymph nodes was observed with the use of bambermycins and a live ...
Bambermycins Preferred Term Term UI T004226. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID USAN (1972). ... Bambermycins Preferred Concept UI. M0002165. Registry Number. 11015-37-5. Scope Note. Antibiotic complex obtained from ... Bambermycins. Tree Number(s). D09.698.718.220. Unique ID. D001455. RDF Unique Identifier. http://id.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/D001455 ...
0034] Aminoglycosides such as Amikacin, Apramycin, Arbekacin, Bambermycins, Butirosin, Dibekacin, Dihydrostreptomycin, ...
Bambermycins Preferred Term Term UI T004226. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID USAN (1972). ... Bambermycins Preferred Concept UI. M0002165. Registry Number. 11015-37-5. Scope Note. Antibiotic complex obtained from ... Bambermycins. Tree Number(s). D09.698.718.220. Unique ID. D001455. RDF Unique Identifier. http://id.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/D001455 ...
Bamberger-Marie disease Bamberger-Marie diseases Bambergers Bambergers disease Bambergers diseases bambermycin bambermycins ...
C66361 DIK0395679 BALSAM PERU OIL C107269 GX1Q848LV4 BAMALUZOLE C74140 5MZ70CT96H BAMAQUIMAST C72939 PP922A42V2 BAMBERMYCINS ...
ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS BAMBERMYCINS ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS BENOMYL ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS BENZALKONIUM COMPOUNDS ANTI-INFECTIVE ... ANTIBIOTICS BAMBERMYCINS ANTIBIOTICS BLEOMYCIN ANTIBIOTICS BONGKREKIC ACID ANTIBIOTICS BREFELDIN A ANTIBIOTICS BUTIROSIN ...
Bamberger-Marie disease Bamberger-Marie diseases Bambergers Bambergers disease Bambergers diseases bambermycin bambermycins ...
Bambermycins. ©2016 DrugLead US FDA&EMEA. ...
Cuna A, Morowitz MJ, Ahmed I, Umar S, Sampath V. Dynamics of the preterm gut microbiome in health and disease. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2021 04 01; 320(4):G411-G419 ...
Bambermycins. 2,3-Butylene Glycol. N-Acetylpenicillamine. 4-Pregnene-17α,20β,21-triol-3,11-dione. Pridinol. Bunazosin. ...
Hoffman WD, Pollack M, Banks SM, Koev LA, Solomon MA, Danner RL, Koles N, Guelde G, Yatsiv I, Mouginis T, et al. Distinct functional activities in canine septic shock of monoclonal antibodies specific for the O polysaccharide and core regions of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide. J Infect Dis. 1994 Mar; 169(3):553-61 ...
T. Delcurto and Earley, A., "Eastern Oregon Agricultural Research Center Annual Report 1998: Comparison of Bambermycins, ...
T. Delcurto and Earley, A., "Eastern Oregon Agricultural Research Center Annual Report 1998: Comparison of Bambermycins, ...
T. Delcurto and Earley, A., "Eastern Oregon Agricultural Research Center Annual Report 1998: Comparison of Bambermycins, ...
  • A preference for bambermycins and bacitracin is seen. (pigprogress.net)
  • Companies may include ionophores, bambermycins, bacitracin and tiamulin, but they must have a veterinary prescription if they want to use anything stronger. (rfgen.com)
  • Bambermycins and monensin feed additives are to be fed as a mix in with other manufactured feedstuffs. (huvepharma.com)
  • T. Delcurto and Earley, A. , " Eastern Oregon Agricultural Research Center Annual Report 1998: Comparison of Bambermycins, Lasalocid, and Monensin on the Nutritional Physiology of Beef Cattle Consuming Concentrate and Forage Base Diets " , Oregon Agricultural Experiment Station, 1998. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Moenomycins A and C are commercially used in the formulation of Bambermycins (Flavomycin), a veterinary antibiotic used solely in poultry, swine, and cattle feed. (wikipedia.org)