Bambermycins: Antibiotic complex obtained from Streptomyces bambergiensis containing mainly Moenomycins A and C. They are used as feed additives and growth promoters for poultry, swine, and cattle.Investigational New Drug Application: An application that must be submitted to a regulatory agency (the FDA in the United States) before a drug can be studied in humans. This application includes results of previous experiments; how, where, and by whom the new studies will be conducted; the chemical structure of the compound; how it is thought to work in the body; any toxic effects found in animal studies; and how the compound is manufactured. (From the "New Medicines in Development" Series produced by the Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association and published irregularly.)United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Veterinary Medicine: The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.Legislation, Drug: Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.Orphan Drug Production: Production of drugs or biologicals which are unlikely to be manufactured by private industry unless special incentives are provided by others.Drug and Narcotic Control: Control of drug and narcotic use by international agreement, or by institutional systems for handling prescribed drugs. This includes regulations concerned with the manufacturing, dispensing, approval (DRUG APPROVAL), and marketing of drugs.Clonixin: Anti-inflammatory analgesic.Visual Prosthesis: Artificial device such as an externally-worn camera attached to a stimulator on the RETINA, OPTIC NERVE, or VISUAL CORTEX, intended to restore or amplify vision.Colic: A clinical syndrome with intermittent abdominal pain characterized by sudden onset and cessation that is commonly seen in infants. It is usually associated with obstruction of the INTESTINES; of the CYSTIC DUCT; or of the URINARY TRACT.Veterinarians: Individuals with a degree in veterinary medicine that provides them with training and qualifications to treat diseases and injuries of animals.Meglumine: 1-Deoxy-1-(methylamino)-D-glucitol. A derivative of sorbitol in which the hydroxyl group in position 1 is replaced by a methylamino group. Often used in conjunction with iodinated organic compounds as contrast medium.Visceral Pain: Pain originating from internal organs (VISCERA) associated with autonomic phenomena (PALLOR; SWEATING; NAUSEA; and VOMITING). It often becomes a REFERRED PAIN.ReadingDrug Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.Sulfisoxazole: A short-acting sulfonamide antibacterial with activity against a wide range of gram- negative and gram-positive organisms.Cambendazole: A nematocide effective against a variety of gastrointestinal parasites in cattle, sheep, and horses.Bethanechol: A slowly hydrolyzing muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Bethanechol is generally used to increase smooth muscle tone, as in the GI tract following abdominal surgery or in urinary retention in the absence of obstruction. It may cause hypotension, HEART RATE changes, and BRONCHIAL SPASM.Benzalkonium Compounds: A mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium compounds. It is a bactericidal quaternary ammonium detergent used topically in medicaments, deodorants, mouthwashes, as a surgical antiseptic, and as a as preservative and emulsifier in drugs and cosmetics.Boswellia: A plant genus of the family BURSERACEAE used medicinally since ancient times. It is a source of salai guggal (the gum resin), boswellic acid (ursane type TRITERPENES), and FRANKINCENSE.PropylaminesTrenbolone Acetate: An anabolic steroid used mainly as an anabolic agent in veterinary practice.Anabolic Agents: These compounds stimulate anabolism and inhibit catabolism. They stimulate the development of muscle mass, strength, and power.Drug Implants: Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Zeranol: A non-steroidal estrogen analog.Human Experimentation: The use of humans as investigational subjects.Government Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.Federal Government: The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.Ethics Committees, Research: Hospital or other institutional committees established to protect the welfare of research subjects. Federal regulations (the "Common Rule" (45 CFR 46)) mandate the use of these committees to monitor federally-funded biomedical and behavioral research involving human subjects.United StatesArchitectural Accessibility: Designs for approaching areas inside or outside facilities.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Mastodynia: Pain in the breast generally classified as cyclical (associated with menstrual periods), or noncyclical, i.e. originating from the breast or nearby muscles or joints, ranging from minor discomfort to severely incapacitating.Sesquiterpenes, Germacrane: SESQUITERPENES cyclized to one 10-carbon ring.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Drug Utilization: The utilization of drugs as reported in individual hospital studies, FDA studies, marketing, or consumption, etc. This includes drug stockpiling, and patient drug profiles.Molasses: The syrup remaining after sugar is crystallized out of SUGARCANE or sugar beet juice. It is also used in ANIMAL FEED, and in a fermented form, is used to make industrial ETHYL ALCOHOL and ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Protective Devices: Devices designed to provide personal protection against injury to individuals exposed to hazards in industry, sports, aviation, or daily activities.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Digestive System: A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).alpha-Macroglobulins: Glycoproteins with a molecular weight of approximately 620,000 to 680,000. Precipitation by electrophoresis is in the alpha region. They include alpha 1-macroglobulins and alpha 2-macroglobulins. These proteins exhibit trypsin-, chymotrypsin-, thrombin-, and plasmin-binding activity and function as hormonal transporters.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Inventions: A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.Intellectual Property: Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.

Gene disruption studies of penicillin-binding proteins 1a, 1b, and 2a in Streptococcus pneumoniae. (1/26)

The effects of inactivation of the genes encoding penicillin-binding protein 1a (PBP1a), PBP1b, and PBP2a in Streptococcus pneumoniae were examined. Insertional mutants did not exhibit detectable changes in growth rate or morphology, although a pbp1a pbp1b double-disruption mutant grew more slowly than its parent did. Attempts to generate a pbp1a pbp2a double-disruption mutant failed. The pbp2a mutants, but not the other mutants, were more sensitive to moenomycin, a transglycosylase inhibitor. These observations suggest that individually the pbp1a, pbp1b, and pbp2a genes are dispensable but that either pbp1a or pbp2a is required for growth in vitro. These results also suggest that PBP2a is a functional transglycosylase in S. pneumoniae.  (+info)

A simple screen for murein transglycosylase inhibitors. (2/26)

A simple assay for detection of compounds that bind to the active site in the transglycosylation domain of the essential bifunctional transglycosylase and transpeptidase penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) is reported. The method is based on a competition with the specific transglycosylase inhibitor moenomycin. With moenomycin coupled to Affi-Gel beads, a simple filtration procedure allows the amount of labeled PBPs that bind to moenomycin beads in the presence of test substances to be determined. The PBPs can easily be labeled by the covalent binding of penicillin derivatives. Crude membrane extracts can be used as a source for the PBPs, and different kinds of labels for the penicillin-PBP complexes can be used. The assay can be adapted to high-throughput screens.  (+info)

Impact of flavophospholipol and vancomycin on conjugational transfer of vancomycin resistance plasmids. (3/26)

The influence of vancomycin and flavophospholipol (FPL) on the transfer rate of conjugative plasmids harboring the vancomycin resistance operon vanA was determined in several clinical and animal isolates of Enterococcus faecium. FPL significantly inhibited the frequency of transfer of conjugative VanA plasmids up to 70-fold. Vancomycin had no significant effect on the transfer rate of VanA plasmids.  (+info)

Influence of different medium components on the in vitro activity of the growth-promoting antibiotic flavomycin against enterococci. (4/26)

The growth-promoting antibiotic flavomycin (also called bambermycin, flavophospholipol and moenomycin) has a complex spectrum of activity against enterococci, with some species being naturally resistant and others susceptible. In this study, proteins added to Mueller-Hinton II medium had a strong deleterious effect on the activity of flavomycin, glucose had no effect and starch decreased the activity of flavomycin. The fatty substances Tween 80 and tributyrin increased the activity of flavomycin for several enterococcal species. Slight differences in the composition of the susceptibility test medium affected the MIC results obtained, indicating that strict standardization of the test medium is necessary.  (+info)

Antibacterial activity of synthetic analogues based on the disaccharide structure of moenomycin, an inhibitor of bacterial transglycosylase. (5/26)

Moenomycin is a natural product glycolipid that inhibits the growth of a broad spectrum of Gram-positive bacteria. In Escherichia coli, moenomycin inhibits peptidoglycan synthesis at the transglycosylation stage, causes accumulation of cell-wall intermediates, and leads to lysis and cell death. However, unlike Esc. coli, where 5-6 log units of killing are observed, 0-2 log units of killing occurred when Gram-positive bacteria were treated with similar multiples of the MIC. In addition, bulk peptidoglycan synthesis in intact Gram-positive cells was resistant to the effects of moenomycin. In contrast, synthetic disaccharides based on the moenomycin disaccharide core structure were identified that were bactericidal to Gram-positive bacteria, inhibited cell-wall synthesis in intact cells, and were active on both sensitive and vancomycin-resistant enterococci. These disaccharide analogues do not inhibit the formation of N:-acetylglucosamine-ss-1, 4-MurNAc-pentapeptide-pyrophosphoryl-undecaprenol (lipid II), but do inhibit the polymerization of lipid II into peptidoglycan in Esc. coli. In addition, cell growth was required for bactericidal activity. The data indicate that synthetic disaccharide analogues of moenomycin inhibit cell-wall synthesis at the transglycosylation stage, and that their activity on Gram-positive bacteria differs from moenomycin due to differential targeting of the transglycosylation process. Inhibition of the transglycosylation process represents a promising approach to the design of new antibacterial agents active on drug-resistant bacteria.  (+info)

Effects of flavophospholipol on resistance in fecal Escherichia coli and enterococci of fattening pigs. (6/26)

A "plasmid-curing effect" of multiresistant Escherichia coli by flavophospholipol, an antibiotic used as an antimicrobial growth promoter (AMGP) in animal feeds, has been reported to occur in vitro and in vivo under experimental conditions. In this study, the effect of flavophospholipol under field conditions was studied. The prevalence and degree (proportion of resistant strains to the total numbers present per gram of feces) of resistance of indicator bacteria, E. coli and enterococci, was determined in fecal samples from three groups of pigs that were fed a commercial finisher feed without any AMGP. Group A was the negative control group without any AMGP, group B received the same feed with 9 mg of flavophospholipol/kg of feed (study group), and group C received the same feed with 15 mg of avoparcin/kg (positive control). Fecal samples from each pig were collected at the start and at the end of the study and assessed for the prevalence and degree of resistance against antibiotics commonly used either for therapy in pig medicine or as an AMGP. Before the start of the study, all pigs were colonized with multiresistant E. coli by mixing three resistant pig isolates through their feed after disturbance of the colonization resistance of the intestinal flora by a 3-day course of lincomycin and spectinomycin. At the end of the study, the overall prevalence and degree of resistance of E. coli in the fecal flora had increased significantly in groups A and C but remained at the same level as at the start of the study in group B. The prevalence of vancomycin resistance was 44 and 41% in groups A and B, respectively, but only very low numbers of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) per gram of feces were found. In the avoparcin-fed group, the prevalence was 72%, and in 57% of the samples, more than 50% of all enterococci present were vancomycin resistant. The prevalence of resistant Enterococcus faecalis increased only in the flavophospholipol-exposed group, from 23% before the start of the study to 43% at the end of the study. It was concluded that flavophospholipol effectively suppressed the augmentation and dissemination of multiresistant E. coli in the intestinal flora of fattening pigs. Avoparcin use strongly selected for VRE carriage and excretion. Therefore, as neither flavophospholipol nor any related molecule is used therapeutically, no cross-resistance with therapeutic antibiotics exists and no transmissible resistance has been shown; the major decrease in resistance in intestinal E. coli of flavophospholipol-fed animals seemed to outweigh the small increase in the risk of transfer of flavophospholipol-resistant E. faecalis from animals to humans via the food chain.  (+info)

Effect of feeding the ionophores monensin and laidlomycin propionate and the antimicrobial bambermycin to sheep experimentally infected with E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella typhimurium. (7/26)

Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella are widely recognized as important agents of foodborne disease with worldwide distribution. The use of ionophores in feeding growing ruminants is widespread in the United States and has attracted recent interest due to the apparent temporal relationship between initial ionophore use and the increase in human E. coli O157:H7 cases. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of short-term feeding of ionophores on fecal shedding, intestinal concentrations, and antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli O157:H7 and S. typhimurium in growing lambs. Sixteen lambs were used in each experiment, four lambs per treatment group: monensin, laidlomycin propionate, bambermycin, and a control treatment. Lambs were fed a grain and hay (50:50) diet with their respective ionophore for 12 d before experimental inoculation with E. coli O157:H7 or S. typhimurium. Animals were maintained on their respective diets an additional 12 d, and fecal shedding of inoculated pathogens was monitored daily. Lambs were killed and tissues and contents were sampled from the rumen, cecum, and rectum. No differences (P > 0.05) in fecal shedding of Salmonella or E. coli O157:H7 were observed due to treatment. Occurrence of Salmonella or E. coli in luminal contents and tissue samples from the rumen, cecum, and rectum did not differ (P > 0.05) among treatments. Feeding monensin decreased (P < 0.05) the incidence of scours in sheep infected with Salmonella compared with the other treatments. No differences in antimicrobial susceptibility were found in any of Salmonella or E. coli O157:H7 isolates. Results from these studies indicate that short-term ionophore feeding had very limited effects on E. coli and Salmonella shedding or on antimicrobial susceptibility in experimentally infected lambs.  (+info)

Influence of flavomycin on ruminal fermentation and microbial populations in sheep. (8/26)

Flavomycin is a phosphoglycolipid antibiotic that promotes growth in ruminants. The aim of this study was to characterize the effects of flavomycin on ruminal micro-organisms and their metabolic consequences. In sheep receiving a mixed grass hay/concentrate diet, inclusion of 20 mg flavomycin day(-1) decreased ruminal ammonia and total volatile fatty acid concentrations (P<0.001), but the acetate : propionate ratio was unchanged. Ruminal pH tended to be lower with flavomycin, and ammonia-production rates of ruminal digesta from control animals measured in vitro tended to be inhibited by flavomycin. Pure-culture studies indicated that anaerobic fungi, protozoa and most bacterial species were insensitive to flavomycin. Fusobacterium necrophorum was the most sensitive species tested, along with some high-activity ammonia-producing (HAP) species. Effects on F. necrophorum in vivo were inconsistent due to large inter-animal variation. HAP numbers appeared to be decreased. Changes in the rumen bacterial-community structure were assessed by using denaturing-gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of rumen digesta 16S rRNA. DGGE profiles differed from animal to animal, but remained consistent from day to day. The community structure changed when flavomycin was introduced. The roles of F. necrophorum and HAP species in ammonia formation and of F. necrophorum in the invasion of wall tissue are consistent with the observed effects of flavomycin on ruminal ammonia formation and, in other studies, on decreasing tissue-turnover rates.  (+info)

Bambermycin (flavomycin) is a group of antibiotics obtained from Streptomyces bambergiensis and Streptomyces ghanaensis. Bambermycin is predominately effective against Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria. It is used by the commercial poultry industry, in broilers, for the prevention of coccidiosis caused by Eimeria species. It is sold under multiple trade names. Egg Withdrawal: Bambermycin has no withdrawal requirement.
A clinical trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of in-feed flavophospholipol in reducing Salmonella shedding and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) associated with Salmonella and generic Escherichia coli in naturally infected grower-finisher pigs. Pigs were obtained from a farm with a history of salmonellosis and were housed at a research facility. Over the span of 10 weeks the pigs received either a feed containing 4 ppm of flavophospholipol (treatment, n = 25) or a non-medicated feed (control, n = 20). Weekly fecal samples were collected and cultured for Salmonella and generic E. coli. A subset of Salmonella and E. coli isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. A multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression model was used to compare the prevalence of Salmonella shedding and AMR in Salmonella and E. coli isolates in treatment and control groups. Overall, the prevalence of Salmonella shedding (P , 0.05) and AMR in Salmonella (P , 0.01) and E. coli (P , 0.005) isolates was not ...
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to correct an inadvertent error in the conditions of use of bambermycins free-choice cattle feeds. This action is being taken to improve the accuracy of the animal drug regulations.
In title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations, part 558, revised as of April 1, 2008, on page 410, in § 558.58 (e)(1)(iii), the entry for Bambermycins 1 to 3, in the column under "Limitations" remove "057926" and in its place add "016592"; in the column under "Sponsors", add "016592".. End Supplemental Information ...
Feeding growth-promoting antibiotics to farm animals is dangerous, immoral, and unnecessary, and the practice is contributing to serious diseases in humans. Fortunately, it can be done away with as long as we are willing to improve the conditions in which animals are raised.
The use of growth-promoting antibiotics in farming is thought to contribute to certain strains of animal gut bacteria developing resistance to some antibiotics. There is indirect evidence of such instances where resistance has transferred to human gut bacteria
Acknowledgements. About This Book.. Abacavir.. Acarbose.. Acetyl sulfisoxazole.. Acrivastine.. Adapalene.. Adefovir dipivoxil.. Adrenocorticotropic hormone.. Afloqualone.. Alacepril.. Alclometasone 17,21-dipropionate.. Alitretinoin.. Allethrin.. Almotriptan.. Alosetron.. Amcinonide.. Aminolevulinic acid.. Amprenavir.. Anagrelide.. Anakinra.. Apraclonidine.. Aprepitant.. Aranidipine.. Arotinolol.. Arteether.. Articaine.. Asparaginase.. Atazanavir sulfate.. Atipamezole.. Atomoxetine hydrochloride.. Atorvastatin.. Atosiban.. Balofloxacin.. Bambermycins.. Befunolol.. Benzalkonium chloride.. Betaine.. Bethanechol chloride.. Bexarotene.. Biapenem.. Bimatoprost.. Bioresmethrin.. Bivalirudin.. Boldenone.. Bosentan.. β-Boswellic acid.. Brimonidine.. Bromfenac.. Brovincamine.. Bucillamine.. Budipine.. Bulaquine.. Butacaine.. Butamben.. Butoconazole.. Butyl flufenamate.. Cambendazole.. Candesartan cilexetil.. Capecitabine.. Casanthranol.. Caspofungin.. Castor ...
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T.-J. R. Cheng, M.-D. Sung, H.-Y. Liao, Y.-F. Chang, C.-W. Chen, C.-Y. Huang, L.-Y. Chou, Y.-D. Wu, Y.-H. Chen, Y.-S. E. Cheng, C.-H. Wong, C. Ma and W-C Cheng, 2008, "Domain requirement of moenomycin binding to bifunctional transglycosylases and development of high-throughput discovery of antibiotics", PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 105(2), 431-436. (SCI ...
On June 19, 2003, the McDonalds Corp. announced a ban on the use of growth-promoting antibiotics in chickens raised for the companys 30,000 restaurants worldwide. The policy, to be fully implemented by the end of 2004, requires suppliers to eliminate feeding antibiotics used in human medicine to chickens to make them grow abnormally fast and large. McDonalds is promoting the policy as part of its overall commitment to social responsibility and animal welfare. In 2000, McDonalds became the first U.S. food company to impose minimum welfare standards on its egg suppliers when it announced suppliers must stop withholding food from hens to manipulate egg production (a practice known as forced molting), increase the amount of cage space for each hen from 48 to 72 square inches, and phase out debeaking. The move signaled acknowledgement that many farming practices are not only inhumane, but are also responsible for a growing number of health risks affecting both animals raised for food and ...
A detailed explanation of the catalytic mechanism employed by these enzymes can be found on the Glycosyltransferases lexicon page. Note: Transglycosylases are distinct from glycosyltransferases. Although both formally catalyze glycosyl transfer, i.e. transfer of a glycosyl residue from a donor substrate to an acceptor substrate,transglycosylases are mechanistically and structurally related to the glycoside hydrolases. Specifically, transglycosylases catalyze the intra- or intermolecular substitution of the anomeric position of glycosides. ...
Corresponds to family 2 of the peptidoglycan lytic transglycosylases described by N.T. Blackburn and A.J. Clarke (2001) J. Mol. Evol. 52, 78- ...
Created after Bras et al. (2011) Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.USA [PMID: 21393568]; distantly related to lytic transglycosylases of family ...
Vitamin C plus Zinc Supplement Spray. Using Super Health Sprays 8SD spray without doubt, the best way to take your daily dose Vit C.
Protein-Protein-Kontakte stellen eine reiche Vielfalt an Interaktionsmöglichkeiten der Polypeptide mit regulatorischen Funktionen innerhalb lebender Organismen dar. Das homodimere Enzym tRNA-Guanin Transglykosylase(TGT) katalysiert z. B. eine Basenaustauschreaktion, die essentiell für die Pathogeni.... Ausführliche Beschreibung. ...
Taking fish oil supplements can increase the amounts of omega-3 fatty acids in your body. These powerful inflammation fighters are recommended to relieve...
Parks, CW; Grimes, JL; Ferket, PR; Fairchild, AS (2001). "The effect of mannanoligosaccharides, bambermycins, and virginiamycin ...
Moenomycins A and C are commercially used in the formulation of Bambermycins (Flavomycin), a veterinary antibiotic used solely ...
... bambermycins MeSH D09.698.718.450 --- lipopolysaccharides MeSH D09.698.718.450.500 --- lipid a MeSH D09.698.718.450.600 --- o ...
New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Bambermycins; Hygromycin B; ... Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Bambermycins; Hygromycin B; Lincomycin; Pyrantel; Tylosin; Tylosin and ...
BAMBERMYCINS] ◊ [BAMBERMYCINS] 2. ԲԱՄԲԱԿԵՆԻ [COTTON] 6. ԲԱՄԲԵՐՄԻՑԻՆՆԵՐ [BAMBERMYCINS] ◊ [BAMBERMYCINS] 3. ԲԱՄԲԱԿԻ ՅՈՒՂ [ ...
T. Delcurto and Earley, A., "Eastern Oregon Agricultural Research Center Annual Report 1998: Comparison of Bambermycins, ...
GAINPRO® (bambermycins) is a performance enhancing antibiotic intended and available solely for use in animal nutrition. ...
  • FDA is amending the animal drug regulations in 21 CFR 558.95 to correct an inadvertent error in the conditions of use of bambermycins free-choice cattle feeds. (federalregister.gov)
  • § 558.95 - Bambermycins. (fda.gov)