Pulmonary Valve Stenosis
Mitral Valve Stenosis
Aortic Valve Stenosis
Rheumatic Heart Disease
Tricuspid Valve Stenosis
Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation
Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary
Intra-Aortic Balloon Pumping
Aortic Valve Prolapse
Mitral Valve Insufficiency
Heart Valve Prosthesis
Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular
Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome
Aortic Valve Insufficiency
Mitral Valve Annuloplasty
Angioplasty, Balloon, Laser-Assisted
Pulmonary Valve Insufficiency
Heart Defects, Congenital
Left ventricular remodeling and improvement in diastolic function after balloon aortic valvuloplasty for congenital aortic stenosis. (1/32)(+info)
Hypoplastic right-heart syndrome presenting as multiple miscarriages. (2/32)Reversible causes of miscarriage are many, but they affect only 1% of women who are trying to conceive. Herein, we describe the case of a 23-year-old woman who presented for evaluation of repeated miscarriages and was found to have hypoxemia and erythrocytosis. Further evaluation revealed hypoplastic right-heart syndrome with an intracardiac shunt. She underwent hybrid repair with pulmonary valve balloon valvuloplasty, followed by surgery to perform atrial septal defect closure and a Glenn anastomosis. The erythrocytosis and hypoxemia resolved, and she was able to conceive and deliver a healthy baby at term 2 years later. This is a unique case of a rare congenital heart defect that went unnoticed until adulthood, when attempts at pregnancy failed because of the associated hypoxemia. Timely and appropriate treatment led to a successful pregnancy after repeated miscarriages. This case exemplifies the need for a comprehensive medical evaluation of every woman with a history of multiple miscarriages to determine whether a reversible cause exists. (+info)
Role of echocardiography in percutaneous mitral valve interventions. (3/32)(+info)
Exercise capacity and ventricular function in patients treated for isolated pulmonary valve stenosis or tetralogy of Fallot. (4/32)(+info)
Protective effects of indomethacin and dexamethasone in a goat model with intrauterine balloon aortic valvuloplasty. (5/32)(+info)
Echocardiography in transcatheter aortic valve implantation and mitral valve clip. (6/32)Transcatheter aortic valve implantation and transcatheter mitral valve repair (MitraClip) procedures have been performed worldwide. In this paper, we review the use of two-dimensional and three-dimensional transesophageal echo for guiding transcatheter aortic valve replacement and mitral valve repair. (+info)
Effect of percutaneous mitral balloon valvuloplasty on left atrial appendage function: transesophageal echo study. (7/32)(+info)
The accuracy of three-dimensional echocardiography with multiplanar reformatting in the assessment of the aortic valve annulus prior to percutaneous balloon aortic valvuloplasty in congenital heart disease. (8/32)OBJECTIVE: To review the use of three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) with multiplanar reformatting (MPR) in children with congenital aortic stensosis undergoing percutaneous balloon aortic valvuloplasty to assess its accuracy in measuring the aortic valve annulus and any influence it may have on balloon sizing. METHODS: All percutaneous aortic balloon valvuloplasties performed from 01/01/2009 to 01/09/2011 were included in the study. All imaging performed for the procedure to determine the size of the aortic valve annulus and aid in balloon sizing was reviewed. The maximum diameter of the aortic valve annulus using two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE), 3DE with MPR, and angiography was recorded. The balloon size used in the procedure was recorded and the balloon to annulus ratio was calculated. RESULTS: A total of 27 procedures were included in the study. Age varied from 1 day to 156 months (mean age, 53 months) and weight from 2.8-58 kg (mean weight, 18.6 kg). Fourteen patients had 3DE with MPR available for analysis. The 3DE with MPR measurement (13.36 +/- 5.4 mm) was not different from angiography (13.54 +/- 6.4 mm; P=.803).The 2DE measurement was significantly different from angiography (11.72 +/- 5 mm; P<.005). The balloon to annulus ratio based on angiographic measurements did not differ significantly between the patients with 3DE MPR and those without (0.94 +/- 0.095 vs 0.91 +/- 0.1; P=.468). CONCLUSION: 3DE with MPR allows a more accurate assessment of the aortic valve annulus compared to 2DE, which may reduce the tendency to undersize balloon choice. 3DE with MPR did not significantly affect our balloon choice, which was largely based on angiographic measurements. (+info)
There are several causes of PVS, including:
1. Congenital heart defects: PVS can be present at birth due to abnormal development of the pulmonary valve or other structures near the valve.
2. Rheumatic fever: This is an inflammatory disease that can damage the heart valves, including the pulmonary valve.
3. Endocarditis: This is an infection of the heart valves, which can cause scarring and narrowing of the pulmonary valve.
4. Heart disease: PVS can be a complication of other heart conditions, such as hypertension or coronary artery disease.
5. Calcification: Over time, deposits of calcium can accumulate on the valve leaflets, causing them to become stiff and narrow.
Symptoms of PVS may include:
1. Shortness of breath (dyspnea)
2. Fatigue or weakness
3. Chest pain (angina)
4. Swelling in the legs, ankles, or feet (edema)
5. Palpitations or irregular heartbeat
If PVS is suspected, a healthcare provider may perform several tests to confirm the diagnosis, including:
1. Echocardiogram: This is an ultrasound test that uses sound waves to create images of the heart and its valves.
2. Cardiac catheterization: A thin tube (catheter) is inserted into a blood vessel in the arm or leg and guided to the heart to measure pressure and oxygen levels in the chambers.
3. Chest X-ray: This test can help identify any enlargement of the heart or lungs that may be indicative of PVS.
4. Electrocardiogram (ECG): This test measures the electrical activity of the heart and can help identify irregular heart rhythms or other signs of PVS.
Treatment for PVS may include:
1. Medications to manage symptoms, such as diuretics to reduce fluid buildup in the body, and ACE inhibitors or beta blockers to lower blood pressure.
2. Lifestyle changes, such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, and stress reduction techniques.
3. Valve repair or replacement surgery: In severe cases of PVS, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace the affected valve.
If you suspect you may have PVS, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible to receive an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment. With prompt and proper treatment, many people with PVS are able to manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.
Mitral valve stenosis can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
* Calcification of the mitral valve due to aging or rheumatic fever
* Scarring of the mitral valve due to heart disease or injury
* Birth defects that affect the development of the mitral valve
* Rheumatoid arthritis, which can cause inflammation and scarring of the mitral valve
Symptoms of mitral valve stenosis may include:
* Shortness of breath
* Swelling in the legs, ankles, and feet
* Chest pain
* Dizziness or lightheadedness
If you suspect you or someone else may have mitral valve stenosis, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. A healthcare provider can perform a physical examination and order diagnostic tests such as an echocardiogram or electrocardiogram to confirm the diagnosis and determine the severity of the condition. Treatment for mitral valve stenosis may include medications to manage symptoms, lifestyle changes, or surgery to repair or replace the mitral valve. With timely and appropriate treatment, many people with mitral valve stenosis can lead active and fulfilling lives.
Aortic valve stenosis can be caused by a variety of factors, including aging, calcium buildup, or congenital heart defects. It is typically diagnosed through echocardiography or cardiac catheterization. Treatment options for aortic valve stenosis include medications to manage symptoms, aortic valve replacement surgery, or transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), which is a minimally invasive procedure.
In TAVR, a thin tube is inserted through a blood vessel in the leg and guided to the heart, where it delivers a new aortic valve. This can be performed through a small incision in the chest or through a catheter inserted into the femoral artery.
While TAVR has become increasingly popular for treating aortic valve stenosis, it is not suitable for all patients and requires careful evaluation to determine the best course of treatment. It is important to discuss the risks and benefits of TAVR with a healthcare provider to determine the appropriate treatment plan for each individual patient.
Treatment for rheumatic heart disease typically involves antibiotics to prevent further damage and medications to manage symptoms such as high blood pressure, swelling, and shortness of breath. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged valves.
Prevention of rheumatic heart disease involves early diagnosis and treatment of rheumatic fever, as well as maintaining good cardiovascular health through a healthy diet, regular exercise, and not smoking.
Some common symptoms of rheumatic heart disease include:
* Shortness of breath
* Swelling in the legs, ankles, and feet
* Chest pain or discomfort
* Dizziness or lightheadedness
* Irregular heartbeat
Some common risk factors for developing rheumatic heart disease include:
* Previous exposure to group A streptococcus bacteria, which can cause rheumatic fever
* Family history of rheumatic heart disease
* Poor living conditions or overcrowding, which can increase the risk of exposure to group A streptococcus bacteria
* Malnutrition or a diet low in certain nutrients, such as vitamin D and iron.
The symptoms of TVS may include:
1. Shortness of breath
3. Swelling in the legs, ankles, and feet
4. Chest pain
5. Dizziness or lightheadedness
6. Pale or blue-tinged skin
7. Fast or irregular heartbeat
If TVS is suspected, a doctor may perform a physical examination, take a medical history, and order diagnostic tests such as:
1. Chest X-ray
2. ECG (electrocardiogram)
3. Echocardiogram (echo)
4. Cardiac MRI
5. Cardiac catheterization
Treatment options for TVS may include:
1. Medications to manage symptoms and slow disease progression, such as diuretics, beta blockers, and ACE inhibitors.
2. Balloon valvuloplasty or valve replacement surgery, which can help to widen the tricuspid valve and improve blood flow.
3. Heart transplantation, which may be considered for patients with severe TVS who are not candidates for other treatments.
It is important to note that TVS is a relatively rare condition compared to other cardiac conditions, but it can be associated with other congenital heart defects or acquired heart diseases. A thorough evaluation by a cardiologist or cardiac surgeon is necessary for proper diagnosis and treatment.
In medicine, cyanosis is often used as an indication of the severity of a patient's condition. For example, a patient with severe cyanosis may have a more serious underlying condition than a patient with mild cyanosis. Additionally, cyanosis can be used to monitor the effectiveness of treatment and to determine when further interventions are necessary.
Cyanosis can be diagnosed through physical examination, blood tests, and other diagnostic procedures such as pulse oximetry or arterial blood gas analysis. Treatment for cyanosis depends on the underlying cause and may include oxygen therapy, medication, or surgical intervention.
In summary, cyanosis is a condition characterized by a bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes due to inadequate oxygenation of the body's tissues. It is an important sign of underlying disease and can be used to assess the severity of a patient's condition and monitor the effectiveness of treatment.
Recurrence can also refer to the re-emergence of symptoms in a previously treated condition, such as a chronic pain condition that returns after a period of remission.
In medical research, recurrence is often studied to understand the underlying causes of disease progression and to develop new treatments and interventions to prevent or delay its return.
The condition is often diagnosed using echocardiography, and treatment options include medication to regulate the heart rhythm and reduce blood pressure, or in severe cases, surgical replacement of the aortic valve may be necessary.
The mitral valve is located between the left atrium and the left ventricle, and it is responsible for regulating blood flow between these two chambers. When the mitral valve does not close properly, blood can leak back into the left atrium, causing a range of symptoms and complications.
There are several causes of mitral valve insufficiency, including:
* Degenerative changes: The mitral valve can wear out over time due to degenerative changes, such as calcium buildup or tearing of the valve flaps.
* Heart muscle disease: Diseases such as cardiomyopathy can cause the heart muscle to weaken and stretch, leading to mitral valve insufficiency.
* Endocarditis: Infections of the inner lining of the heart can damage the mitral valve and lead to insufficiency.
* Heart defects: Congenital heart defects, such as a bicuspid valve or a narrow valve opening, can lead to mitral valve insufficiency.
Treatment for mitral valve insufficiency depends on the severity of the condition and may include medications to manage symptoms, lifestyle changes, or surgery to repair or replace the damaged valve. In some cases, catheter-based procedures may be used to repair the valve without open-heart surgery.
Overall, mitral valve insufficiency is a common condition that can have a significant impact on quality of life if left untreated. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
There are several risk factors for developing venous insufficiency, including:
* Age: As we age, our veins become less effective at pumping blood back to the heart, making us more susceptible to venous insufficiency.
* Gender: Women are more likely to develop venous insufficiency than men due to hormonal changes and other factors.
* Family history: If you have a family history of venous insufficiency, you may be more likely to develop the condition.
* Injury or trauma: Injuries or traumas to the veins can damage valves or cause blood clots, leading to venous insufficiency.
* Obesity: Excess weight can put extra pressure on the veins, increasing the risk of venous insufficiency.
Symptoms of venous insufficiency may include:
* Pain, aching, or cramping in the legs
* Swelling, edema, or water retention in the legs
* Skin discoloration or thickening of the skin on the legs
* Itching or burning sensations on the skin
* Ulcers or sores on the skin
If left untreated, venous insufficiency can lead to more serious complications such as:
* Chronic wounds or ulcers
* Blood clots or deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
* Increased risk of infection
* Decreased mobility and quality of life
To diagnose venous insufficiency, a healthcare provider may perform one or more of the following tests:
* Physical examination: A healthcare provider will typically examine the legs and ankles to check for swelling, discoloration, and other symptoms.
* Duplex ultrasound: This non-invasive test uses sound waves to evaluate blood flow in the veins and can detect blockages or other problems.
* Venography: This test involves injecting a dye into the vein to visualize the veins and check for any blockages or abnormalities.
* Imaging tests: Such as MRI, CT scan, or X-rays may be used to rule out other conditions that may cause similar symptoms.
Treatment options for venous insufficiency depend on the underlying cause and severity of the condition, but may include one or more of the following:
* Compression stockings: These specialized stockings provide gentle pressure to the legs and ankles to help improve blood flow and reduce swelling.
* Lifestyle changes: Maintaining a healthy weight, exercising regularly, and avoiding prolonged standing or sitting can help improve symptoms.
* Medications: Such as diuretics, anticoagulants, or pain relievers may be prescribed to manage symptoms and prevent complications.
* Endovenous laser therapy: This minimally invasive procedure uses a laser to heat and seal off the damaged vein, redirecting blood flow to healthier veins.
* Sclerotherapy: This involves injecting a solution into the affected vein to cause it to collapse and be absorbed by the body.
* Vein stripping: In this surgical procedure, the affected vein is removed through small incisions.
It's important to note that these treatments are usually recommended for more severe cases of venous insufficiency, and for those who have not responded well to other forms of treatment. Your healthcare provider will help determine the best course of treatment for your specific case.
Note: This definition is based on the current medical knowledge and may change as new research and discoveries are made.
Symptoms of HLHS may include:
1. Blue tint to the skin, lips, and nails (cyanosis)
2. Rapid breathing
4. Poor feeding or inability to gain weight
5. Weak or absent pulse in the left arm or leg
Diagnosis of HLHS is typically made prenatally by ultrasound examination, and may also be confirmed after birth by echocardiogram or other diagnostic tests.
Treatment for HLHS usually involves a series of surgeries and catheterizations to repair or replace the affected heart structures. These procedures may include:
1. Shunt procedure: A small tube is placed between the right and left sides of the heart to allow oxygenated blood to flow to the underdeveloped left side.
2. Bidirectional Glenn procedure: A surgical procedure that connects the pulmonary artery to the aortic valve, allowing blood to be pumped to both the lungs and the body.
3. Fontan procedure: A surgical procedure that redirects blood flow from the upper body to the lungs, bypassing the underdeveloped left ventricle.
4. Heart transplantation: In some cases, a heart transplant may be necessary if other procedures are not successful or if there is significant damage to the heart.
Early detection and treatment of HLHS are crucial to prevent complications and improve outcomes. Children with HLHS require close monitoring and frequent medical evaluations throughout their lives to manage any potential issues that may arise. With appropriate treatment, many individuals with HLHS can lead active and productive lives well into adulthood.
Symptoms of pulmonary atresia may include:
* Blue tint to the skin (cyanosis)
* Rapid breathing
* Shortness of breath
* Difficulty feeding in infants
Diagnosis is typically made through echocardiography, electrocardiography, or cardiac catheterization. Treatment involves a series of surgeries to repair or replace the valve and may include:
* Balloon atrial septostomy to create a hole in the wall between the atria to allow blood to flow from the right atrium to the left atrium and lungs
* Intracardiac repair, where a surgical patch is used to close the atrial septal defect and repair or replace the pulmonary valve
* Heart transplantation in severe cases
Prognosis for pulmonary atresia depends on the severity of the condition and the presence of other cardiac defects. With appropriate treatment, many individuals with pulmonary atresia can lead active and productive lives.
There are several causes of aortic valve insufficiency, including:
1. Congenital heart defects
2. Rheumatic fever
3. Endocarditis (infection of the inner lining of the heart)
4. Aging and wear and tear on the valve
5. Trauma to the chest
6. Connective tissue disorders such as Marfan syndrome or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.
Symptoms of aortic valve insufficiency can include fatigue, shortness of breath, swelling in the legs and feet, and chest pain. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, echocardiogram (ultrasound of the heart), electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG), and chest X-ray.
Treatment options for aortic valve insufficiency depend on the severity of the condition and may include:
1. Medications to manage symptoms such as heart failure, high blood pressure, and arrhythmias (abnormal heart rhythms)
2. Lifestyle modifications such as a healthy diet and regular exercise
3. Repair or replacement of the aortic valve through surgery. This may involve replacing the valve with an artificial one, or repairing the existing valve through a procedure called valvuloplasty.
4. In some cases, catheter-based procedures such as balloon valvuloplasty or valve replacement may be used.
It is important to note that aortic valve insufficiency can lead to complications such as heart failure, arrhythmias, and endocarditis, which can be life-threatening if left untreated. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
The symptoms of Noonan syndrome can vary widely among individuals, but typically include:
* Short stature and short arms and legs
* Concave chest (pectus excavatum)
* Mild to moderate intellectual disability
* Delayed development of speech and language skills
* Distinctive facial features such as a long, narrow face, low-set ears, and a prominent forehead
* Heart defects, particularly pulmonary valve stenosis or atrial septal defect
* Eye problems, including crossed eyes (strabismus) or double vision (diplopia)
* Hearing loss
* Skeletal abnormalities such as curved spine (scoliosis) or missing or deformed ribs
Noonan syndrome is usually diagnosed based on a combination of clinical features and genetic testing. Treatment for the disorder typically focuses on managing any associated medical problems, such as heart defects or hearing loss, and providing support for intellectual and developmental delays. In some cases, medications may be prescribed to help manage symptoms such as high blood pressure or hyperthyroidism.
While there is no cure for Noonan syndrome, early diagnosis and intervention can help improve outcomes for individuals with the disorder. With appropriate support and resources, many people with Noonan syndrome are able to lead fulfilling lives and achieve their goals.
The exact cause of endocardial fibroelastosis is not known, but it is believed to be due to genetic mutations or environmental factors during fetal development. The condition may be associated with other congenital heart defects, such as ventricular septal defect or atrial septal defect.
Symptoms of endocardial fibroelastosis can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but they may include:
* Difficulty breathing
* Shortness of breath during exercise
* Swelling in the legs and feet
* Pale or blue-tinged skin
* Poor feeding or growth in infants
If endocardial fibroelastosis is suspected, a doctor may perform various diagnostic tests, such as:
* Echocardiogram (echo): This test uses sound waves to create images of the heart and can help identify thickening or scarring of the endocardium.
* Cardiac catheterization: This test involves inserting a thin tube into the heart through a blood vessel to measure pressure and oxygen levels within the heart.
* Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): This test uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed images of the heart.
Treatment for endocardial fibroelastosis may include:
* Medications: To manage symptoms such as high blood pressure or irregular heart rhythms.
* Catheter ablation: A procedure that uses heat or cold to destroy abnormal electrical pathways in the heart.
* Surgery: To repair or replace damaged heart valves or to correct other congenital heart defects.
The prognosis for endocardial fibroelastosis is generally good if the condition is detected and treated early. However, if left untreated, it can lead to serious complications such as heart failure, stroke, or sepsis. Regular follow-up with a cardiologist is important to monitor the condition and adjust treatment as needed. With appropriate treatment, many people with endocardial fibroelastosis can lead active, fulfilling lives.
1. Infection: Bacterial or viral infections can develop after surgery, potentially leading to sepsis or organ failure.
2. Adhesions: Scar tissue can form during the healing process, which can cause bowel obstruction, chronic pain, or other complications.
3. Wound complications: Incisional hernias, wound dehiscence (separation of the wound edges), and wound infections can occur.
4. Respiratory problems: Pneumonia, respiratory failure, and atelectasis (collapsed lung) can develop after surgery, particularly in older adults or those with pre-existing respiratory conditions.
5. Cardiovascular complications: Myocardial infarction (heart attack), cardiac arrhythmias, and cardiac failure can occur after surgery, especially in high-risk patients.
6. Renal (kidney) problems: Acute kidney injury or chronic kidney disease can develop postoperatively, particularly in patients with pre-existing renal impairment.
7. Neurological complications: Stroke, seizures, and neuropraxia (nerve damage) can occur after surgery, especially in patients with pre-existing neurological conditions.
8. Pulmonary embolism: Blood clots can form in the legs or lungs after surgery, potentially causing pulmonary embolism.
9. Anesthesia-related complications: Respiratory and cardiac complications can occur during anesthesia, including respiratory and cardiac arrest.
10. delayed healing: Wound healing may be delayed or impaired after surgery, particularly in patients with pre-existing medical conditions.
It is important for patients to be aware of these potential complications and to discuss any concerns with their surgeon and healthcare team before undergoing surgery.
There are several causes of pulmonary valve insufficiency, including:
1. Congenital heart defects: Pulmonary valve insufficiency can be present at birth due to a congenital heart defect.
2. Rheumatic fever: This is an inflammatory disease that can damage the pulmonary valve and cause insufficiency.
3. Endocarditis: This is an infection of the inner lining of the heart, which can damage the pulmonary valve and cause insufficiency.
4. Heart damage: Damage to the heart muscle or valves due to a heart attack or other conditions can lead to pulmonary valve insufficiency.
5. Pulmonary hypertension: High blood pressure in the lungs can cause the pulmonary valve to become weak and insufficient.
Symptoms of pulmonary valve insufficiency may include:
1. Shortness of breath
3. Swelling in the legs, ankles, or feet
4. Chest pain
5. Dizziness or lightheadedness
If you experience any of these symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention. A healthcare provider can diagnose pulmonary valve insufficiency through a physical examination and diagnostic tests such as echocardiography, electrocardiography, or chest X-rays.
Treatment for pulmonary valve insufficiency depends on the severity of the condition and may include:
1. Medications to manage symptoms such as high blood pressure, heart failure, or infection
2. Lifestyle changes such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, and stress management techniques
3. Surgery to repair or replace the pulmonary valve
4. Catheter-based procedures such as balloon valvuloplasty or valve replacement
In some cases, pulmonary valve insufficiency may be a congenital condition that was present at birth. In other cases, it may develop later in life due to diseases such as rheumatic fever or viral infections.
Preventing pulmonary valve insufficiency is important, and this can be done by:
1. Managing underlying conditions such as heart disease or diabetes
2. Avoiding exposure to toxins or harmful substances
3. Maintaining a healthy lifestyle including regular exercise, a balanced diet, and stress management techniques
4. Getting regular check-ups with a healthcare provider
In conclusion, pulmonary valve insufficiency is a condition that can cause symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and chest pain. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any of these symptoms, as early diagnosis and treatment can improve quality of life and prevent complications.
Types of congenital heart defects include:
1. Ventricular septal defect (VSD): A hole in the wall between the two lower chambers of the heart, allowing abnormal blood flow.
2. Atrial septal defect (ASD): A hole in the wall between the two upper chambers of the heart, also allowing abnormal blood flow.
3. Tetralogy of Fallot: A combination of four heart defects, including VSD, pulmonary stenosis (narrowing of the pulmonary valve), and abnormal development of the infundibulum (a part of the heart that connects the ventricles to the pulmonary artery).
4. Transposition of the great vessels: A condition in which the aorta and/or pulmonary artery are placed in the wrong position, disrupting blood flow.
5. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS): A severe defect in which the left side of the heart is underdeveloped, resulting in insufficient blood flow to the body.
6. Pulmonary atresia: A condition in which the pulmonary valve does not form properly, blocking blood flow to the lungs.
7. Truncus arteriosus: A rare defect in which a single artery instead of two (aorta and pulmonary artery) arises from the heart.
8. Double-outlet right ventricle: A condition in which both the aorta and the pulmonary artery arise from the right ventricle instead of the left ventricle.
Causes of congenital heart defects are not fully understood, but genetics, environmental factors, and viral infections during pregnancy may play a role. Diagnosis is typically made through fetal echocardiography or cardiac ultrasound during pregnancy or after birth. Treatment depends on the type and severity of the defect and may include medication, surgery, or heart transplantation. With advances in medical technology and treatment, many children with congenital heart disease can lead active, healthy lives into adulthood.
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Percutaneous aortic balloon valvuloplasty2
Aortic valve repla4
- 2. Aortic valve replacement in adults after balloon aortic valvuloplasty. (nih.gov)
- 16. Device success and 30-day clinical outcome in patients undergoing preimplant valvuloplasty in transfemoral versus omitting valvuloplasty in transapical transcatheter aortic valve replacement. (nih.gov)
- Balloon Aortic Valvuloplasty (BAV) is normally considered for patients who are not suitable for surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) and Transcatheter aortic valve insertion (TAVI). (summit-tctap.com)
- Safety and feasibility of retrograde INOUE-BALLOON for balloon aortic valvuloplasty without rapid ventricular pacing during transcatheter aortic valve replacement. (cdc.gov)
- Balloon Valvuloplasty A common catheter-based procedure that uses a small balloon stretches heart valves that have narrowed. (houstonmethodist.org)
- Sometimes a narrowed valve can be stretched open using a procedure called balloon valvotomy (or valvuloplasty). (msdmanuals.com)
- Surgeons may be able to repair the defect using a minimally invasive procedure called balloon valvuloplasty. (ucsfhealth.org)
- During this procedure, the physician uses a thin, flexible tube to place and inflate a balloon in the narrowed valve, stretching it open, then deflates and withdraws the balloon. (ucsfhealth.org)
- 1. Balloon aortic valvuloplasty in adults: failure of procedure to improve long-term survival. (nih.gov)
- With this procedure, a doctor threads an unopened balloon through the aortic valve and inflates it to open the valve. (kidshealth.org)
- The aim of this study was to describe the safety and efficacy of transradial aortic valve valvuloplasty (TRBAV). (nih.gov)
- Pulmonary valve regurgitation was reported in 17.4% of patients , and was not related to either successful outcome or balloon size. (bvsalud.org)
- These surgical options, which include valvuloplasty and mitral valve replacement, have changed the natural history of mitral stenosis, and terminally bedridden patients with mitral facies, cardiac cachexia, and end-stage congestive heart failure (CHF) are no longer encountered in everyday clinical practice. (medscape.com)
- Simultaneous echocardiographic and catheterisation gradients and mitral valve area during balloon mitral valvuloplasty. (who.int)
- This study was aimed at estimating mean transmitral gradients by simultaneous Doppler echocardiography and cardiac catheterisation and determining mitral valve area by pressure half time, Gorlin's formula and two-dimensional echocardiography so as to assess the relative accuracy of these methods before and after balloon mitral valvuloplasty in patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis. (who.int)
- Mitral valve area by all the methods were similar before balloon mitral valvuloplasty. (who.int)
- After balloon mitral valvuloplasty, mitral valve area by pressure half time was the least and by two-dimensional echocardiography, the maximum. (who.int)
- All the three methods are equally accurate in estimating transmitral gradients and mitral valve area in mitral stenosis before balloon mitral valvuloplasty. (who.int)
- Two-dimensional echocardiography is the best to estimate mitral valve area after balloon mitral valvuloplasty. (who.int)
- Echocardiography can replace haemodynamic measurement of gradients and mitral valve area before and after balloon mitral valvuloplasty. (who.int)
- But pressure half time is not recommended for measuring mitral valve area immediately after balloon mitral valvuloplasty where two-dimensional echocardiography mitral valve area is to be employed. (who.int)
- The balloon stretches the opening of the valve. (medlineplus.gov)
- 9. [Balloon valvuloplasty for congenital aortic valve stenosis in children]. (nih.gov)
- Percutaneous mitral commissurotomy (PMC), performed for the first time by Inoue using a catheter equipped with a balloon, is now a routinely used method of treatment in most patients with isolated, post-rheumatic stenosis of the mitral valve . (termedia.pl)
- Widening of a stenosed HEART VALVE by the insertion of a balloon CATHETER into the valve and inflation of the balloon. (nih.gov)
- Palliative Balloon Pulmonary Valvuloplasty for Infants with Unrestrictive Ventricular Septal Defect or Single Ventricle Associated with Severe Pulmonary Valve Stenosis. (chop.edu)
- This includes percutaneous valve procedures and valvuloplasty. (nih.gov)
- this condition is potentially amenable to balloon valvotomy. (medscape.com)
- BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE STUDY The study aim was to determine the immediate and long-term outcomes of balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty (BPV) in a large cohort of adult patients ( aged ≥ 18 years) with congenital valvular pulmonic stenosis . (bvsalud.org)
- 17. Long-term follow-up results of balloon valvuloplasty for congenital aortic stenosis: predictors of late outcome. (nih.gov)
- 13. Inoue balloon mitral valvuloplasty: long-term clinical and echocardiographic follow-up of a predominantly unfavourable population. (nih.gov)
- Left atrium-left ventricular, pulmonary artery wedge-left ventricular and echo gradients were simultaneously recorded in 18 patients undergoing balloon mitral valvuloplasty. (who.int)
- Intra aortic balloon pump (IABP), extracorporeal circulation, ventricular assist devices) to maintain blood pressure and cardiac index above those specified levels. (nih.gov)
- Balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty in adults: immediate and long-term outcomes. (bvsalud.org)
- 15. [Transluminal balloon valvuloplasty in neonates and infants with critical aortic stenosis]. (nih.gov)
- To evaluate early and late hemodynamics after aortic valvuloplasty, 17 patients underwent first-pass radionuclide angiocardiography with simultaneous high-fidelity micromanometer pressure before, 10 minutes after and 6 months after aortic valvuloplasty. (duke.edu)
- 11. Percutaneous transluminal aortic valvuloplasty--the acute outcome and follow-up of 149 patients who underwent the double balloon technique. (nih.gov)
- 12. [Clinical and echocardiographic impact of neonatal aortic valvuloplasty]. (nih.gov)
- Using a catheter (a small tube), your cardiologist will place a small balloon into the narrowed artery. (vmfh.org)
- On subgrouping the patients into those with high and low pulmonary artery pressure, good correlation persisted both before and after balloon mitral valvuloplasty. (who.int)
- But balloon valvuloplasty "as bridge to a definitive therapy might be the preferable therapy in the sickest patients. (medscape.com)
- Acute and 30-day follow-up results in 674 patients from the NHLBI Balloon Valvuloplasty Registry. (nih.gov)
- 14. Short- and long-term survival after aortic balloon valvuloplasty for calcified aortic stenosis in 137 elderly patients. (nih.gov)
- 19. Long-term results (up to 16.5 years) of mitral balloon valvuloplasty in a series of 518 patients and predictors of long-term outcome. (nih.gov)
- The outcome is often very good when surgery or balloon dilation is successful. (medlineplus.gov)
- 3. Predictors of long-term outcome after percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty. (nih.gov)
- 5. Determinants of one-year outcome from balloon aortic valvuloplasty. (nih.gov)
- 10. Three-year outcome after balloon aortic valvuloplasty. (nih.gov)
- Percutaneous balloon pulmonary dilation (valvuloplasty) may be performed when no other heart defects are present. (medlineplus.gov)
- The doctor sends a flexible tube (catheter) with a balloon attached to the end up to the heart. (medlineplus.gov)
- 7. Balloon aortic valvuloplasty: the Texas Heart Institute experience. (nih.gov)
- The balloon is inflated to expand the artery so a tiny mesh tube, called a stent, can be inserted to support the artery walls, restoring blood flow to blocked areas. (vmfh.org)
- Balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) has been typically performed through a femoral approach thus increasing the risk of bleeding and access site-related vascular complications. (nih.gov)
- Balloon valvuloplasty is usually successful. (ucsfhealth.org)
- These procedures are called valvuloplasty. (nih.gov)
- After balloon mitral valvuloplasty, similar good correlations were seen. (who.int)
- BAV was performed using 18-25 mm balloons through an 8-10 French (F) radial sheath. (nih.gov)