A form of chronic interstitial nephritis that is endemic to limited areas of BULGARIA, the former YUGOSLAVIA, and ROMANIA. It is characterized by a progressive shrinking of the KIDNEYS that is often associated with uroepithelial tumors.
KIDNEY injuries associated with diabetes mellitus and affecting KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; ARTERIOLES; KIDNEY TUBULES; and the interstitium. Clinical signs include persistent PROTEINURIA, from microalbuminuria progressing to ALBUMINURIA of greater than 300 mg/24 h, leading to reduced GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE.
Renal syndrome in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients characterized by nephrotic syndrome, severe proteinuria, focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis with distinctive tubular and interstitial changes, enlarged kidneys, and peculiar tubuloreticular structures. The syndrome is distinct from heroin-associated nephropathy as well as other forms of kidney disease seen in HIV-infected patients.
A type of glomerulonephritis that is characterized by the accumulation of immune deposits (COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX) on the outer aspect of the GLOMERULAR BASEMENT MEMBRANE. It progresses from subepithelial dense deposits, to basement membrane reaction and eventual thickening of the basement membrane.
Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.
The presence of proteins in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.
The presence of albumin in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.
Highly differentiated epithelial cells of the visceral layer of BOWMAN CAPSULE of the KIDNEY. They are composed of a cell body with major CELL SURFACE EXTENSIONS and secondary fingerlike extensions called pedicels. They enwrap the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS capillaries with their cell surface extensions forming a filtration structure. The pedicels of neighboring podocytes interdigitate with each other leaving between them filtration slits that are bridged by an extracellular structure impermeable to large macromolecules called the slit diaphragm, and provide the last barrier to protein loss in the KIDNEY.
A plant genus of the family ARISTOLOCHIACEAE. Species of this genus have been used in traditional medicine but they contain aristolochic acid which is associated with nephropathy. These are sometimes called 'snakeroot' but that name is also used with a number of other plants such as POLYGALA; SANICULA; ASARUM; ARISTOLOCHIA; AGERATINA; and others.
Nitro-phenanthrenes occurring in ARISTOLOCHIACEAE and other plants. They derive from stephanine (APORPHINES) by oxidative ring cleavage. The nitro group is a reactive alkylator (ALKYLATING AGENTS) that binds to biological macromolecules. Ingestion by humans is associated with nephropathy (NEPHRITIS). There is no relationship to the similar named aristolochene (SESQUITERPENES).
Isocoumarins found in ASPERGILLUS OCHRACEUS and other FUNGI. Ochratoxin contaminated FOOD has been responsible for cases of FOODBORNE DISEASES.
A country of eastern Europe, formerly the province of Bosnia in Yugoslavia, uniting with the province of Herzegovina to form the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1946. It was created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia and recognized by the United States as an independent state. Bosnia takes is name from the river Bosna, in turn from the Indoeuropean root bhog, "current"; Herzegovina is from the Serbian herceg (duke) + -ov (the possessive) + -ina (country or territory).
A peninsula in Southeast EUROPE between the Adriatic and Ionian seas on the West and Aegean and Black Seas on the East. (from www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/balkan%20peninsula)
A malignant neoplasm derived from TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIAL CELLS, occurring chiefly in the URINARY BLADDER; URETERS; or RENAL PELVIS.
Bacterial repressor proteins that bind to the LAC OPERON and thereby prevent the synthesis of proteins involved in catabolism of LACTOSE. When lactose levels are high lac repressors undergo an allosteric change that causes their release from the DNA and the resumption of lac operon transcription.
Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.
A group of structurally related scavenger receptors expressed predominately by ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. They-contain repeats of EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR-like cysteine-rich motifs in their extracellular domains.
It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)
Further or repeated use of equipment, instruments, devices, or materials. It includes additional use regardless of the original intent of the producer as to disposability or durability. It does not include the repeated use of fluids or solutions.
Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.
Informed consent given by a parent on behalf of a minor or otherwise incompetent child.
The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.
Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.
Tumors or cancer of the URINARY TRACT in either the male or the female.
Factors associated with the definitive onset of a disease, illness, accident, behavioral response, or course of action. Usually one factor is more important or more obviously recognizable than others, if several are involved, and one may often be regarded as "necessary". Examples include exposure to specific disease; amount or level of an infectious organism, drug, or noxious agent, etc.
Treatment of disease by inserting needles along specific pathways or meridians. The placement varies with the disease being treated. It is sometimes used in conjunction with heat, moxibustion, acupressure, or electric stimulation.
The occupational discipline of the traditional Chinese methods of ACUPUNCTURE THERAPY for treating disease by inserting needles along specific pathways or meridians.
A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)
Designated locations along nerves or organ meridians for inserting acupuncture needles.
Analgesia produced by the insertion of ACUPUNCTURE needles at certain ACUPUNCTURE POINTS on the body. This activates small myelinated nerve fibers in the muscle which transmit impulses to the spinal cord and then activate three centers - the spinal cord, midbrain and pituitary/hypothalamus - to produce analgesia.
Analog or digital communications device in which the user has a wireless connection from a telephone to a nearby transmitter. It is termed cellular because the service area is divided into multiple "cells." As the user moves from one cell area to another, the call is transferred to the local transmitter.
A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the kidney.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of cis-aconitate to yield citrate or isocitrate. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. EC 4.2.1.3.
Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.
The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
Procedures which temporarily or permanently remedy insufficient cleansing of body fluids by the kidneys.

Ochratoxin A in corn and wheat: geographical association with endemic nephropathy. (1/31)

AIM: To determine the presence and concentration of ochratoxin A in wheat and corn from Slavonski Brod surroundings, the area of endemic nephropathy allegedly caused by ochratoxin. METHODS: Thin-layer chromatography was used to determine ochratoxin A concentrations in 92 wheat and 51 corn samples from the surroundings of Slavonski Brod, Osijek, Hrvatsko Zagorje, Istria, and Celje (Slovenia). RESULTS: Ochratoxin A was present in 74 of 92 (75.8%) wheat samples and 17 of 51 (33.3%) corn samples, in a concentration range of 0.02-160.00 mg/kg in wheat and 0.02-40.00 mg/kg in corn. Wheat samples from the Slavonski Brod surroundings contained the highest level of ochratoxin A (38.8 +/- 27.2 mg/kg), followed by Osijek (8.7 +/- 8.3 mg/kg). Ochratoxin A levels in the wheat from Hrvatsko Zagorje, Istria, and Celje were considerably lower (2.1 +/- 1.5, 1.3 +/- 2.6 and 0.2 +/- 0.5 mg/kg, respectively). Wheat samples from Slavonski Brod significantly differed from all other sample groups (p < 0.001), and wheat samples from Osijek differed from those from Hrvatsko Zagorje, Istria, and Celje (p < 0.001, p = 0.003, p < 0.001, respectively). Ochratoxin A level was the highest in the corn samples from the Slavonski Brod surroundings (20.0 +/- 14.8 mg/kg) and considerably lower in samples from Osijek, Celje, Hrvatsko Zagorje, and Istria (0.8 +/- 1.4, 0.7 +/- 1.9, 0.4 +/- 0.4, and 0.4 +/- 0.8 mg/kg, respectively). A statistically significant difference was also observed between the Slavonski Brod samples and all other corn samples (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Irrespective of the real association between ochratoxin A and endemic nephropathy, our data clearly demonstrate their geographical overlap.  (+info)

Aristolochic acid as a probable human cancer hazard in herbal remedies: a review. (2/31)

The old herbal drug aristolochic acid (AA), derived from Aristolochia spp., has been associated with the development of a novel nephropathy, designated aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN), and urothelial cancer in AAN patients. There is clear evidence that the major components of the plant extract AA, aristolochic acid I (AAI) and aristolochic acid II (AAII), both nitrophenanthrene carboxylic acids, are genotoxic mutagens forming DNA adducts after metabolic activation through simple reduction of the nitro group. Several mammalian enzymes have been shown to be capable of activating both AAI and AAII in vitro and in cells. The activating metabolism has been elucidated and is consistent with the formation of a cyclic nitrenium ion with delocalized charge leading to the preferential formation of purine adducts bound to the exocyclic amino groups of deoxyadenosine and deoxyguanosine. The predominant DNA adduct in vivo, 7-(deoxyadenosin-N(6)-yl)aristolactam I (dA-AAI), which is the most persistent of the adducts in target tissue, is a mutagenic lesion leading to AT-->TA transversions in vitro. This transversion mutation is found at high frequency in codon 61 of the H-ras oncogene in tumours of rodents induced by AAI, suggesting that dA-AAI might be the critical lesion in the carcinogenic process in rodents. DNA-binding studies confirmed that both AAs bind to the adenines of codon 61 in the H-ras mouse gene and preferentially to purines in the human p53 gene. In contrast, the molecular mechanism of renal interstitial fibrosis in humans after chronic administration of AA remains to be explored. However, preliminary findings suggest that DNA damage by AA is not only responsible for the tumour development but also for the destructive fibrotic process in the kidney. It is concluded that there is significant evidence that AA is a powerful nephrotoxic and carcinogenic substance with an extremely short latency period, not only in animals but also in humans. In particular, the highly similar metabolic pathway of activation and resultant DNA adducts of AA allows the extrapolation of carcinogenesis data from laboratory animals to the human situation. Therefore, all products containing botanicals known to or suspected of containing AA should be banned from the market world wide.  (+info)

Endemic nephropathy: the case for chronic poisoning by aristolochia. (3/31)

AIM: To explore the hypothesis that chronic dietary poisoning by aristolochic acid could account for the unique geographical distribution, specific pattern of tubulointerstitial fibrosis, occurrence of chronic renal insufficiency, and an increased risk of developing upper urothelial cancer, all of which are associated with endemic nephropathy. METHODS: This case-controlled epidemiologic study consisted of three groups of subjects residing in an endemic region of Croatia: (a) patients meeting WHO criteria for endemic nephropathy (n=28), (b) individuals who have been treated for renal insufficiency secondary to other forms of renal disease (n=30), and (c) apparently healthy residents of the endemic village (n= 30). A detailed questionnaire, designed to collect information on demographics, exposure to potentially toxic substances, diet, agricultural practices, and other factors potentially impacting endemic nephropathy was administered to the three study groups. The seeds of Aristolochia clematitis, obtained from plants growing in the endemic region, were extracted with ethanol and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography for their aristolochic acid content. RESULTS: The majority of subjects, including 90% of endemic nephropathy patients, recall that the plant Aristolochia clematitis (birthwort, vucja stopa in Croatian) was frequently found in local meadows and wheat fields between 20 and 30 years ago. At that time, endemic nephropathy patients encountered Aristolochia clematitis significantly more frequently than controls (P=0.035). Since then, all three study groups reported a significant increase in the use of herbicides (P<0.001) and reduction in the prevalence of Aristolochia clematitis (P<0.001). Chemical analysis established that the seeds of A. clematitis contain 0.65% aristolochic acid. It is likely that the harvesting process used by local farmers permitted the seeds of A. clematitis to mingle with the wheat grain. CONCLUSION: Flour used to bake bread, a dietary staple in the endemic region of Croatia, is derived from wheat grain which, in the past, is likely to have been contaminated with seeds of A. clematitis during harvesting. This observation supports the hypothesis that aristolochic acid, a major constituent of the seeds, plays a central role in the development of endemic nephropathy.  (+info)

Increased blood pressure in adult offspring of families with Balkan endemic nephropathy: a prospective study. (4/31)

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have linked smaller kidney dimensions to increased blood pressure. However, patients with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN), whose kidneys shrink during the course of the disease, do not manifest increased blood pressure. The authors evaluated the relationship between kidney cortex width, kidney length, and blood pressure in the offspring of BEN patients and controls. METHODS: 102 offspring of BEN patients and 99 control offspring of non-BEN hospital patients in the Vratza District, Bulgaria, were enrolled in a prospective study and examined twice (2003/04 and 2004/05). Kidney dimensions were determined using ultrasound, blood pressure was measured, and medical information was collected. The parental disease of BEN was categorized into three groups: mother, father, or both parents. Repeated measurements were analyzed with mixed regression models. RESULTS: In all participants, a decrease in minimal kidney cortex width of 1 mm was related to an increase in systolic blood pressure of 1.4 mm Hg (p = 0.005). There was no association between kidney length and blood pressure. A maternal history of BEN was associated with an increase in systolic blood pressure of 6.7 mm Hg (p = 0.03); paternal BEN, +3.2 mm Hg (p = 0.35); or both parents affected, +9.9 mm Hg (p = 0.002). There was a similar relation of kidney cortex width and parental history of BEN with pulse pressure; however, no association with diastolic blood pressure was found. CONCLUSION: In BEN and control offspring, a smaller kidney cortex width predisposed to higher blood pressure. Unexpectedly, a maternal history of BEN was associated with average increased systolic blood pressure in offspring.  (+info)

Aristolochic acid mutagenesis: molecular clues to the aetiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy-associated urothelial cancer. (5/31)

Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is found in certain rural areas of the Balkans and affects at least 25,000 inhabitants. Of the many hypotheses on BEN, the Aristolochia hypothesis has recently gained ground substantiated by the investigations on aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN). On both clinical and morphological grounds, AAN is very similar to BEN. That exposure to aristolochic acid (AA) of individuals living in endemic areas through consumption of bread made with flour contaminated with seeds of Aristolochia clematitis is responsible for BEN is an old hypothesis, but one which is fully consistent with the unique epidemiologic features of BEN. Here, we propose an approach to investigate AA-induced mutagenesis in BEN that can provide molecular clues to the aetiology of its associated urothelial cancer. The molecular mechanism of AA-induced carcinogenesis demonstrates a strong association between DNA adduct formation, mutation pattern and tumour development. A clear link between urothelial tumours, p53 mutations and AA exposure should emerge as more tumour DNA from BEN patients from different endemic areas becomes available for mutation analysis. We predict that the observed p53 mutation spectrum will be dominated by AT --> TA transversion mutations as has already been demonstrated in the human p53 gene of immortalized cells after exposure to AAI and urothelial tumours from BEN patients in Croatia. Moreover, the detection of AA-specific DNA adducts in renal tissue of a number of BEN patients and individuals living in areas endemic for BEN in Croatia provides new evidence that chronic exposure to AA is a risk factor for BEN and its associated cancer.  (+info)

Role of exposure analysis in solving the mystery of Balkan endemic nephropathy. (6/31)

We evaluated the role of exposure analysis in assessing whether ochratoxin A or aristolochic acid are the agents responsible for causing Balkan endemic nephropathy. We constructed a framework for exposure analysis using the lessons learned from the study of endemic goiter within the context of an accepted general model. We used this framework to develop an exposure analysis model for Balkan endemic nephropathy, evaluated previous findings from the literature on ochratoxin A and aristolochic acid in the context of this model, discussed the strength of evidence for each, and proposed approaches to address critical outstanding questions. The pathway for exposure to ochratoxin A is well defined and there is evidence that humans have ingested ochratoxin A. Factors causing differential exposure to ochratoxin A and how ochratoxin A is implicated in Balkan endemic nephropathy are not defined. Although there is evidence of human exposure to aristolochic acid and that its effects are consistent with Balkan endemic nephropathy, a pathway for exposure to aristolochic acid has been suggested but not demonstrated. Factors causing differential exposure to aristolochic acid are not known. Exposure analysis results suggest that neither ochratoxin A nor aristolochic acid can be firmly linked to Balkan endemic nephropathy. However, this approach suggests future research directions that could provide critical evidence on exposure, which when linked with findings from the health sciences, may be able to demonstrate the cause of this disease and provide a basis for effective public health intervention strategies. One of the key unknowns for both agents is how differential exposure can occur.  (+info)

Aristolochic acid and the etiology of endemic (Balkan) nephropathy. (7/31)

Endemic (Balkan) nephropathy (EN), a devastating renal disease affecting men and women living in rural areas of Bosnia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Romania, and Serbia, is characterized by its insidious onset, invariable progression to chronic renal failure and a strong association with transitional cell (urothelial) carcinoma of the upper urinary tract. Significant epidemiologic features of EN include its focal occurrence in certain villages and a familial, but not inherited, pattern of disease. Our experiments test the hypothesis that chronic dietary poisoning by aristolochic acid is responsible for EN and its associated urothelial cancer. Using (32)P-postlabeling/PAGE and authentic standards, we identified dA-aristolactam (AL) and dG-AL DNA adducts in the renal cortex of patients with EN but not in patients with other chronic renal diseases. In addition, urothelial cancer tissue was obtained from residents of endemic villages with upper urinary tract malignancies. The AmpliChip p53 microarray was then used to sequence exons 2-11 of the p53 gene where we identified 19 base substitutions. Mutations at A:T pairs accounted for 89% of all p53 mutations, with 78% of these being A:T --> T:A transversions. Our experimental results, namely, that (i) DNA adducts derived from aristolochic acid (AA) are present in renal tissues of patients with documented EN, (ii) these adducts can be detected in transitional cell cancers, and (iii) A:T --> T:A transversions dominate the p53 mutational spectrum in the upper urinary tract malignancies found in this population lead to the conclusion that dietary exposure to AA is a significant risk factor for EN and its attendant transitional cell cancer.  (+info)

Role of environmental toxins in endemic (Balkan) nephropathy. October 2006, Zagreb, Croatia. (8/31)

An international symposium, held in Zagreb, Croatia, in October 2006, brought together basic scientists and clinical investigators engaged in research on endemic (Balkan) nephropathy, a chronic renal tubulointerstitial disease of previously unknown cause that often is accompanied by upper urinary tract urothelial cancer. Although this disease is endemic in rural areas of Bosnia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Romania, and Serbia, a similar clinical entity occurs throughout Europe, Asia, and North America. Recent advances in the understanding of endemic nephropathy now favor the causative role of aristolochic acid over the ubiquitous mycotoxin known as ochratoxin A. Specifically, aristolactam-DNA adducts have been found in renal tissues and urothelial cancers of affected patients. A "signature" p53 mutation in the upper urothelial cancer associated with this disease provides evidence of long-term exposure to aristolochic acid. In addition, the renal pathophysiology and histopathology observed in endemic nephropathy most closely resemble the entity known as aristolochic acid nephropathy. Public health authorities in countries harboring this disease are encouraged to reduce the potential for dietary exposure to Aristolochia clematitis.  (+info)

Background: Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) hemodialysis patients require a higher dose of recombinant human erythropoietin for maintaining target hemoglobin level than patients with other kidney diseases. Objectives: Comparison of the pharmacokinetics of beta-erythropoietin given subcutaneously to hemodialysis patients with BEN or other kidney diseases (non-BEN). Methods: Recombinant human erythropoietin (75U/kg) was administered subcutaneously to 10 BEN and 14 non-BEN hemodialysis patients. The predose plasma level of erythropoietin (Epo) was subtracted from all postdose levels. The relevant pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated after noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis using Kinetica software (Thermo Scientific, ver.5.0). Results: Although basal plasma Epo concentration was similar in BEN (20.1 +/- 10.3U/L) and non-BEN (15.1 +/- 8.1U/L; p=.1964) patients, there were significant differences between the groups for elimination rate constant (0.016 +/- 0.006 vs 0.026 +/- 0.0...11 ...
Balkan endemic nephropathy - also called Danubian endemic familial nephropathy (DEFN) - is a form of interstitial nephritis. It was first identified in the 1920s among several small, discrete communities along the Danube River and its major tributaries, in the modern countries of Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria. The disease primarily affects people age 30 to 60 years of age. People moving to endemic areas do not develop the condition until living there for 15 years. It can cause the kidneys to fail (end-stage renal disease, or ESRD) forcing a patient to start dialysis or receive a kidney transplant. In endemic areas BEN is responsible for up to 70% of ESRD. At least 25,000 individuals are known to have the disease. Symptoms include weakness, anemia, and a coppery skin discoloration A later finding, usually after kidney failure occurs, is transitional cancer of urothelial tract. While most urothelial cancer is in the bladder, BEN has an increased rate of the upper ...
A number of descriptive studies have suggested a correlation between exposure to ochratoxin A and Balkan endemic nephropathy and have found a correlation between the geographical distribution of Balkan endemic nephropathy and a high incidence of and mortality from urothelial urinary tract tumours. In the only study in which ochratoxin A was measured, levels were higher in the blood of patients with Balkan endemic nephropathy and/or urothelial urinary tract tumours than in unaffected people; no distinction was made between the two diseases ...
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a nephrotoxin and carcinogen that is associated with Balkan endemic nephropathy and urinary tract tumors. OTA crosses the placenta and causes adducts in the liver and kidney DNA of newborns. Because the testis and kidney develop from the same embryonic tissue, we reasoned that OTA also may cause adducts transplacentally in the testis. We tested the hypothesis that acute exposure to OTA, via food and via exposure in utero, causes adducts in testicular DNA and that these lesions are identical to those that can be produced in the kidney and testis by the consumption of OTA. Adult mice received a single dose of OTA (from 0-1,056 µg/kg) by gavage. Pregnant mice received a single i.p. injection of OTA (2.5 mg/kg) at gestation day 17. DNA adducts were determined by 32P-postlabeling. Gavage-fed animals sacrificed after 48 hours accumulated OTA in kidney and testis and showed DNA adducts in kidney and testis. Some OTA metabolites isolated from the tissues were similar in both organs
OTA is a toxic metabolite produced by fungus belonging to Aspergillus and Penicillium genera. Kidney is the main target of this toxin; OTA is considered as one of the etiological factors at the origin of the human Balkan endemic nephropathy. microRNA are short non-coding transcrips (18-22 nucleotides in length) regulating key cellular processes. Various miRNAs have been established to play important roles in development of renal carcinoma and urothelial cancer. The objective of this study is to analyse the miRNA profiling in the kidney of piglets experimentally intoxicated with feed contaminated with OTA. Fifteen piglets (five pigs/group) were randomly distributed into 3 groups, fed normal diet (Group 1: control), or diets contaminated with OTA in two concentrations: 50â ¯µg OTA/kg feed (Group 2: 50â ¯µg OTA/kg feed) or 200â ¯µg OTA/kg feed (Group 3: 200â ¯µg OTA/kg feed) for 28 days. At the end of the experiment blood samples were taken for serological analyses. Animals from control ...
Badžek, Saša (2012) Prognostički značaj serumske koncentracije HER2/ECD u bolesnica s lokaliziranim tumorima dojke. PhD thesis, Sveučilište u Zagrebu. Bradarić, Anteo (2012) Analiza dinamike pokazatelja respiracijske izmjene plinova i srčane frekvencije tijekom kardio - pulmonalnog testa opterećenja [Analysis of dynamic of indicators for respiratory gas exchange and heart frequencies during cardiopulmonary exercise testing]. PhD thesis, Sveučilište u Zagrebu. Car, Siniša (2012) Serumska koncentracija mokraćne kiseline i ishod akutnog koronarnog sindroma. PhD thesis, Sveučilište u Zagrebu. Cepika, Alma-Martina (2012) Toll-uslični receptori u patogenezi sistemskog eritemskog lupusa [Toll-like receptors in pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus]. PhD thesis, Sveučilište u Zagrebu. Cvitković, Ante (2012) Međudjelovanje dijagnostičkih biljega endemske nefropatije [Interaction of markers endemic nephropathy]. PhD thesis, Sveučilište u Zagrebu. Dika, Živka (2012) ...
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Here are the explanations for the updated 2015 (effectively 2015-16) official USMLE Step 2 CK Sample Test Questions, which can be found here. Overall, there
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SiyahMaviKýrmýzýSarý MÜSLÜMAN KADIN KABÝNE BAKANI: MÜSLÜMANLARA KARÞI ÖN YARGI YAYGIN HALDE Ha be ri say fa 16 de YÖNETMEN MESUT UAKAN: BEN DE SAÝD NURSÎ FÝLMÝ EKMEK ÝSTERÝM Ha be ri say fa 16 da YGER
o). Strengthening of question: We say similarly in Pesachim (59a) according to Rebbi Yishmael Bno Shel Rebbi Yochanan Ben Beroka, who says that the entire year, a Mechusar Kipurim may immerse and bring his Kaparah (the Korban that completes his Taharah) after the Tamid and eat Kodshim at night; ...
Prekladatelia robia svet lepším miestom na život. A to nielen vďaka preloženej knihe od obľúbeného autora či titulkom v najnovšom filme. Prekladatelia bez
Aristolochic acid (AA) is a plant alkaloid that causes aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN) and Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN), unique renal diseases frequently associated with upper urothelial cancer (UUC). This review summarizes the significance of AA-derived DNA adducts in the aetiology of UUC leading to specific A:T to T:A transversion mutations (mutational signature) in AAN/BEN-associated tumours, which are otherwise rare in individuals with UCC not exposed to AA. Therefore, such DNA damage produced by AA-DNA adducts is one rare example of the direct association of exposure and cancer development (UUC) in humans, confirming that the covalent binding of carcinogens to DNA is causally related to tumourigenesis. Although aristolochic acid I (AAI), the major component of the natural plant extract AA, might directly cause interstitial nephropathy, enzymatic activation of AAI to reactive intermediates capable of binding to DNA is a necessary step leading to the formation of AA-DNA adducts and
Aristolochic acid causes a specific nephropathy (AAN), Balkan endemic nephropathy, and urothelial malignancies. Using Western blotting suitable to determine protein expression, we investigated in several transgenic mouse lines expression of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1)-the most efficient cytosolic enzyme that reductively activates aristolochic acid I (AAI). The mouse tissues used were from previous studies [Arlt et al., Chem. Res. Toxicol. 24 (2011) 1710; Stiborova et al., Toxicol. Sci. 125 (2012) 345], in which the role of microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in AAI metabolism in vivo had been determined. We found that NQO1 levels in liver, kidney and lung of Cyp1a1⁻/⁻, Cyp1a2⁻/⁻ and Cyp1a1/1a2⁻/⁻ knockout mouse lines, as well as in two CYP1A-humanized mouse lines harboring functional human CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 and lacking the mouse Cyp1a1/1a2 orthologs, differed from NQO1 levels in wild-type mice. NQO1 protein and enzymic activity were induced in hepatic and renal ...
Photo/image Birthwort (Aristolochia clematitis), Family: Aristolochiaceae. Location Hobro, Jylland, Danmark (Cultiv). Photographer: JC Schou, Photoid 47725
The spectrum of p53 mutations observed in transitional cell cancers of patients with EN is dominated by A:T → T:A transversions (Fig. 5 A). This result is consistent with the mutational spectra induced by AA-I (or by a mixture of AA-I and AA-II) in (i) the H-ras gene of rats (23, 24), (ii) transgenic rodent models (25, 26), (iii) the p53 gene in a urothelial cancer from a patient with AAN (34), (iv) site-specific mutagenesis studies in which a single dA-AL adduct is transfected into NER-deficient human cells (I.-Y. Yang and M.M., unpublished data), and (v) 9 of 11 immortalized mouse cell lines (Hupki cells) carrying the human p53 gene (27, 28). Indeed, the predominance of A:T → T:A transversions in the p53 mutational spectra may properly be regarded as a mutational signature (35) for human exposure to AA.. Confidence in our conclusion regarding AA and the etiology of EN rests, in part, on the biomarker data reported here and, in part, on studies of AAN in human populations, in particular, a ...
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And the Steelers themselves - well, words cannot express how grateful we are for the experience they gave him. Sean was taken down to the field to meet Big Ben after practice. He was in awe. He told Ben, Im your biggest fan! Ben asked him how old he was, and when he said Seven, Ben told him that was a great number! He took time out for photos and autographs, and just some really special time with Sean. Sean met a lot of Steelers yesterday and had a once in a lifetime experience. He says meeting Big Ben was his favorite part. Thank you to the Steelers organization, Steelers fans, and especially Big Ben for making this happen! - Jaclyn Madden ...
markjsunz,. So… Randy Wolf and Ben Sheets both make a start on the same day. They both go 7 innings. They both give up 3 earned runs. They both leave the game with a lead. Randy Wolfs bullpen gets the save. Ben Sheets bullpen blows it. Randy Wolf gets a win. Ben Sheets gets a no decision.. Randy Wolf and Ben Sheets both make a start on the same day. The teams they are playing against have identical win-loss records and similar offensive rate statistics. They both go 7 innings. They both give up 3 earned runs. Randy Wolfs team scores 5 runs. Ben Sheets team scores 2. Randy Wolf gets a win. Ben Sheets gets a loss.. You are completely mixed up. Wins and losses are not relevant to a pitchers talent level because there are so many ways the results can be altered that have nothing to do with the way the pitcher actually pitched.. The statistics I provided for you (spewing? you are getting increasingly hostile in your responses, and Im not going to accept it.. especially when you are wrong) ...
Ashlens POV* Today Im 12, but Im sad... Why?? Because This was the age and day my brother die on my birthday. *********7 years ago************ Brother lets go please!! I said as we walk to the lake. Fine! You win!! Ben said, Its strange that are family never invites use to go anywhere Ben mumbles to himself. *******few minutes later******** As we arrived at the pond ( oh I forgot to tell u that they have swimming suits on) I saw my father, uncle, and our two cousins (theyre important in this chapter). I looked around us and there was a greenish lake, my fathers van, beer bottles/broken ones, and the tall trees that is surrounding us. Ashlen, Drake, and James!!! Ben and my father says. I thought why didnt my father call Ben? As I walked to father. Ill give you guys some beer if you kill Ben, father says. I was shocked if what he said. My cousins agreed but I didnt. I started to run to Ben, but it was too late. They started to drown him. No!! I yelled and started ...
A WHO által 2020. március 11-én hivatalosan is pandémiának nyilvánított COVID-19-járvány ismét felhívja a figyelmet a telemedicina lehetőségeire. Az új koronavírus-fertőzés megfékezése érdekében, az ellátórendszer működtetése során, a fertőződés kockázatának maximális csökkentése mellett új utakat, módszereket, platformokat kell találnunk. Célunk, hogy szakirodalmi összegzéssel és gyakorlati szempontú útmutatók révén, valamint a hazai telefogászat különleges példáján keresztül bemutassuk, milyen kísérletek történtek a COVID-19-járvány kapcsán a telemedicinának az ellátásba való bevonására mind a nemzetközi, mind pedig a hazai ellátórendszerek különböző szintjein. Mind a nemzetközi, mind a hazai adatok azt mutatják, hogy a telemedicina kiemelt szerepű lehet a triázs folyamatában, a fertőzöttek korai kiemelésében, diagnosztizálásában, ellátásában, betegútjának menedzselésében úgy, hogy a szakszemélyzet ...
Fanpop community fan club for Ben 10 fans to share, discover content and connect with other fans of Ben 10. Find Ben 10 videos, photos, wallpapers, forums, polls, news and more.
Con motivo del Día Internacional de los Tumores Cerebrales, la Asociación de Afectados de Tumores Cerebrales en España (ASATE) va a celebrar el sábado 8 de Junio el III Campeonato benéfico de pádel ASATE en el Parque Deportivo Puerta de Hierro. III Campeonato benéfico de pádel - Sábado 8 de junio 2013 Más Información..
K s i pubert sr l akkor besz l nk, ha a serd l s jelei m g az adott popul ci ban szlelt tlagos megjelen si id t l sz m tott k t standard devi ci val k s bbi id pontban sem szlelhet k. A gyakorlatban ez azt jelenti, hogy ha a fi k eset ben a 14 ves korig a herevolumen nem ri el a 4 ml-es rt ket, vagy ha a l nyok eset ben az eml fejl d s megindul sa 13 ves korban m g nem szlelhet , a pubert s k s se meg llap that . A pubert s konstitucion lis k s se A pubert s az rintettek eset ben k s bb k vetkezik be ugyan, de komplett form ban zajlik le. A csal di anamn zis az esetek t bbs g ben az egyik, vagy mindk t sz l re vonatkoz an pozit v. A nemi szervek a pubert s v rhat id szak ban m g a praepubertasnak felelnek meg, a gonadotrop- s a gon d-hormonok sz rumszintje alacsony. A k p h tter ben a n veked si hormon (GH) elv laszt s nak tmeneti deficitje llhat, ami az IGF-I - gonadotrop interakci zavar t okozhatja. A hypogonadotrop hypogonadismus form it l val elk l n t s s a kezel s k rd s ben val d nt s neh ...
A molekuláris genetikai technológiák fejlődése következtében egyre több, korábban idiopátiásnak tartott betegség hátterében ismerjük meg a genetikai eltérést. A generalizált epilepsziában szenvedő, a betegség lefolyása során epilepsziaszindrómát váltó, jó intellektusú, kiterjedt hipopigmentált folttal rendelkező fiúgyermek célzott genetikai vizsgálata neurocutan szindróma irányába nem hozott eredményt. Teljesexom-szekvenálás során egy kálium-klorid-kotranszporter génjének heterozigóta misszensz mutációja igazolódott, ami a fenotípussal összevetve, az irodalomban az idiopátiás generalizált epilepszia 14-es típusaként ismert epilepsziaszindróma diagnózisát támasztja alá. Orv Hetil. 2019; 160(21): 835-838. ...
Watch Ben 10 - Season 2, Episode 12 - Dr. Animo and the Mutant Ray: The Tennysons arrive at a swamp, where the festivities of Gatorfest start first thing the next day. Gwen finds Ben playi...
FLIR will be featured on next weeks episode of The Bachelor, putting the chemistry of several lucky ladies and the newest Bachelor, Ben Higgins to the test. The episode will feature a special group date where FLIRs thermal imaging camera will be used to literally see the heat between Ben and the women.
Label: Village Green Release Date: July 6, 2018 Mastered By: Frank Arkwright RIYL: Hotel Neon, Strië, Ben Frost, Tilman Robinson and Talvihorros Bandcamp Tidal…
Ben Middleton at True Potential Wealth Management LLP are a Financial Adviser in Gloucester who are FCA authorised & can advise you on your financial situation.
Erdinast, Ben Nathan, Toledano & Co. with Hamburger Evron - בידיאיי, חברה לדירוג החברות המובילות במשק. מתמחה בדירוג חברות אשראי, חברות בנייה, בתי השקעות, משרדי עורכי דין ועוד..
Ben Doron is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Tractable Mammalian Cell Infections with Protozoan-primed Bacteria
Univision Communications Gizmodo Media Group, which includes websites Gizmodo, Deadspin and Jezebel, has hired former Vocativ editor-in-chief Ben Reininga as head of video.
Ben Dridi, M.F., et al. (1985) Les corps étrangers des voies aériennes et des voies digestives supérieures A propos de 123 observations. Tunisie Médicale, 63, 9-14.
Skydiving is the greatest thrill but it can be the biggest risk. Ben Quinn had his license and was a pro. But even his experience couldnt save him from a deadly accident at 14,000 feet.
Ben Champion recently raised £2,000 for Aspire by setting himself the challenge of cycling 500 miles along the toughest, steepest routes Scotland has to offer.
LazerTron designed by Ben Gathard for Lazer Vs. the Machines. Connect with them on Dribbble; the global community for designers and creative professionals.
From: Ben Rosenfeld ,ben.rosenfeld at intel.com, This is required for cases that a dedicated P2P Device interface is used and then the event will happen on the global interface. Signed-off-by: Ben Rosenfeld ,ben.rosenfeld at intel.com, --- tests/hwsim/test_p2p_persistent.py , 2 +- 1 file changed, 1 insertion(+), 1 deletion(-) diff --git a/tests/hwsim/test_p2p_persistent.py b/tests/hwsim/test_p2p_persistent.py index 9abd604..65bf904 100644 --- a/tests/hwsim/test_p2p_persistent.py +++ b/tests/hwsim/test_p2p_persistent.py @@ -219,7 +219,7 @@ def test_persistent_group_per_sta_psk(dev): logger.info(Leave persistent group and rejoin it) dev[2].remove_group() - ev = dev[2].wait_event([P2P-GROUP-REMOVED], timeout=3) + ev = dev[2].wait_global_event([P2P-GROUP-REMOVED], timeout=3) if ev is None: raise Exception(Group removal event timed out) if not dev[2].discover_peer(addr0, social=True): -- 1.9.1 ...
Hi, I have a 408 running an ls1a pcm and im trying to run the auto ve tutorial. I followed it step by step and when I copied and pasted the BEN chart into my backup VE table it was a .8 multiplier across the board and it leaned the motor out even more then it already was. I attempted a second log of data to get even closer but was so lean the car just fell on its face after leaving the driveway I had to load an older tune back in. I was expecting to have some 1.x numbers on the chart since at
Hall of Fame running back Jerome Bettis on whether or not Ben Roethlisberger is ready to retire and if Mike Tomlin gets enough credit for the Steelers success.
Ben Porter is raising funds for Moonman on Kickstarter! A magic mollusc summons a moonman to illuminate a dark world. A procedurally-generated adventure game for PC, Mac and Linux.
The doctor who performed a procedure on Ben Roethlisberger's meniscus told the Steelers that the quarterback could miss 4-6 weeks, sources told ESPN.
Al fas masse timp che no met ca nissune ricete ni nuie altri. Al è che pardabon no ai fat nuie. Bon, si che o ai fat ma nol vignive fûr ben!!E, di colp, i pans a an tacât a vignî fûr ben e a an ancje miorât. E alore mi ai dite, va, chest pan al podarès lâ fûr tal bloc. Di fat, mi va ben par me stesse, par no pierdi ricetis e cjatâlis plui facilmentri ...
Hey Ben, how can I really tighten my core? That is a question I hear every day! The truth? Well, its a lot of things that need to happen. You need a.... By: Ben Boudro. ...
JamiiForums.com is a Digital Platform managed by Jamii Forums (an NGO). You have to register to be able to engage or start a discussion ...
Hi, ich habe eine Frage: Einige Roms meines Sets laufen nicht alleine, sondern benötigen immer das parent-rom. Ich vermute hier liegt ein merged-set vor ist das korrekt? Beispiel Wonderboy in Monsterland. wbml.zip läuft alleine aber wbmlb.zip benöt...
What are you up to this week? Wish me luck, because this is Bens first week back at work [tear!] so Im gonna have to learn how to take care of our little baby all by myself. I really cant complain though, because Ben has been home with us for nine weeks so I know…
Our attention has been drawn to the statements in the media credited to the group calling itself the Riverine-Ijaw Consultative Assembly. We wish to use this medium to call on all well meaning Nigerians who desire the unity and progress o
The true story of the Ivy League hedge fund cowboys who gambled with the dangerously hi... *Hitra in zanesljiva dostava, plačilo tudi po povzetju.*
If cellular changes are found soon enough 90% of chronic illness is preventable. Proven strategies include advanced biomarker testing, evidence-based...
Ez a weboldal sütiket használ a felhasználó élményének javítása érdekében, miközben a weboldalon navigál. Ezek közül a szükségesként kategorizált sütiket a böngészője tárolja, mivel ezek nélkülözhetetlenek a weboldal alapvető funkcióinak működéséhez. Harmadik féltől származó sütiket is használunk az oldalon, amelyek segítenek elemezni és megérteni, hogyan használja ezt a weboldalt. Ezeket a sütiket csak az Ön beleegyezésével tároljuk a böngészőben. Önnek lehetősége van ezekről a sütikről is lemondani, de ezeknek a sütiknek a lemondása befolyásolhatja böngészési élményét ...
A lap szövege Creative Commons Nevezd meg! - Így add tovább! 3.0 licenc alatt van; egyes esetekben más módon is felhasználható. Részletekért lásd a felhasználási feltételeket ...
If the market believes that forward guidance works, that might undermine it. Forward guidance will only work if the market doubts its effectiveness.
https://www.reddit.com/r/hearthstone/comments/5mqebr/ben_brode_has_spoken_about_changes_in_classic_set/ So does this mean buying classic packs is no l...
A trio of exclusive images from Malicks To the Wonder, his beautifully shot new film starring Ben Affleck, Rachel McAdams and Javier Bardem.
"Chinese herbs nephropathy and Balkan endemic nephropathy: Toward a single entity, aristolochic acid nephropathy". Kidney ... Balkan nephropathy Grollman, A. P.; Shibutani, S.; Moriya, M.; Miller, F.; Wu, L.; Moll, U.; Suzuki, N.; Fernandes, A.; ... Balkan) nephropathy". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 104 (29): 12129-34. Bibcode:2007PNAS..10412129G. doi: ...
2010). "Investigation of Balkan endemic nephropathy in Serbia: how to proceed?". Srp Arh Celok Lek. 138 (Suppl. 1): S68-72. doi ... Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN), a slowly progressive renal disease, appeared in the middle of the 20th century, highly ... 2006). "Balkan endemic nephropathy: role of ochratoxins A through biomarkers". Mol Nutr Food Res. 50 (6): 519-29. doi:10.1002/ ... Long DT, Voice TC (2007). "Role of exposure analysis in solving the mystery of Balkan endemic nephropathy". Croat. Med. J. 48 ( ...
Antibodies to Tamm-Horsfall protein have been seen in various forms of nephritis (e.g., Balkan nephropathy), however, it ... and pathology of Balkan endemic nephropathy. IV. Immunohistology". Kidney International. 34: S68-74. PMID 1762338. Abbas AK, ... This is known as myeloma cast nephropathy. The glycoprotein was first purified in 1952 by Igor Tamm and Frank Horsfall from the ... GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on UMOD-Related Kidney Disease Includes: Familial Juvenile Hyperuricemic Nephropathy, Medullary ...
Furthermore, it appears as if contamination of grain with European birthwort (A. clematitis) is a cause of Balkan nephropathy, ... 2007). "Aristolochic acid and the etiology of endemic (Balkan) nephropathy". PNAS. 104 (20): 12129-12134. Bibcode:2007PNAS.. ... 2009) Aristolochic acid nephropathy: An environmental and iatrogenic disease. In: Fishbein, J. C. (ed.) Advances in Molecular ... ACS (2006) Cosyns, J. P. (2003). "Aristolochic acid and 'Chinese herbs nephropathy': a review of the evidence to date". Drug ...
... complex aetiology and similarity to Balkan endemic nephropathy" (PDF). Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A. 27 (1): 72-88. ... Low levels of Aspergillus ochraceus contamination caused mycotoxic nephropathy in farm pigs and chickens from Bulgaria. Just as ... Stoev, SD; Dutton, MF; Njobeh, PB; Mosonik, JS; Steenkamp, PA (January 2010). "Mycotoxic nephropathy in Bulgarian pigs and ...
... aristolochic acid is also highly nephrotoxic and may be a causative agent in Balkan nephropathy. However, despite these well- ...
This occurrence was called the Balkan Endemic Nephropathy that was being caused by the consumption of contaminated pig meat in ...
... have deleterious effects on the kidneys and is thought to be one of the culprits involved in the Balkan endemic nephropathy. ...
... called Balkan Endemic Nephropathy. The interaction of both substances might also influence apoptosis and necrosis in ...
Exposure to ochratoxin A has been associated with Balkan endemic nephropathy, a kidney disease with high mortality in people ...
A similar condition previously known as Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN), first characterized in the 1950s in southeastern ... Patients are often first diagnosed with aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN), which is a rapidly progressive nephropathy and ... The exact mechanism of action of aristolochic acid is not known, especially in regards to nephropathy. The carcinogenic effects ... "Chinese herbs nephropathy" (CHN) due to the origin of the weight-loss supplement.[6] ...
... is a cause of Balkan nephropathy, a severe renal disease occurring in parts of southeast Europe.[25] In 2001 the UK government ... 2009) Aristolochic acid nephropathy: An environmental and iatrogenic disease. In: Fishbein, J. C. (ed.) Advances in Molecular ... "Aristolochic acid and the etiology of endemic (Balkan) nephropathy". PNAS. 104 (20): 12129-12134. doi:10.1073/pnas.0701248104 ... Cosyns, J. P. (2003). "Aristolochic acid and 'Chinese herbs nephropathy': a review of the evidence to date". Drug Saf. 26 (1): ...
... balkan nephropathy MeSH C12.777.419.570.643.790 - pyelonephritis MeSH C12.777.419.570.643.790.810 - pyelonephritis, ... aids-associated nephropathy MeSH C12.777.419.078 - anuria MeSH C12.777.419.135 - diabetes insipidus MeSH C12.777.419.135.500 - ... diabetic nephropathies MeSH C12.777.419.250 - fanconi syndrome MeSH C12.777.419.291 - hepatorenal syndrome MeSH C12.777.419.307 ...
A similar condition previously known as Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN), first characterized in the 1950s in southeastern ... Patients are often first diagnosed with aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN), which is a rapidly progressive nephropathy and ... CHN and BEN fall under the umbrella of what is now known as aristolochic acid nephropathy, the prevalent symptom of AA ... Nephropathy caused by aristolochic acid consumption is not mechanistically understood, but DNA adducts characteristic of ...
"Chinese herbs nephropathy and Balkan endemic nephropathy: toward a single entity, aristolochic acid nephropathy". Kidney Int. ... Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a form of interstitial nephritis causing kidney failure. It was first identified in the ... Stiborová, M., Arlt, V.M. & Schmeiser, H.H. Balkan endemic nephropathy: an update on its aetiology. Arch Toxicol 90, 2595-2615 ... 2007). "Aristolochic acid and the etiology of endemic (Balkan) nephropathy". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104 (29): 12129-34. ...
Balkan endemic nephropathy. General. General syndromes. *Nephritis. *Nephrosis. *Renal failure *Acute renal failure ...
A definitive diagnosis of membranous nephropathy requires a kidney biopsy. Causes[edit]. Primary/idiopathic[edit]. 85% of MGN ... Membranous nephropathy in particular is known to increase this risk more than other causes of nephrotic syndrome though the ... The closely related terms membranous nephropathy[12] and membranous glomerulopathy[13] both refer to a similar constellation ... The twin aims of treating membranous nephropathy are first to induce a remission of the nephrotic syndrome and second to ...
Nephropathy. References[edit]. *^ Fervenza, Fernando C (2016-09-08). Batuman, Vecihi (ed.). "Nephrosclerosis: Background, ... Hypertensive nephropathy refers to kidney failure that can be attributed to a history of hypertension[6] It is a chronic ... "Hypertensive Nephropathy, Symptoms, Treatment, Diet and Causes - Kidney Disease Symptoms and Treatment". www.kidney-symptom.com ... Since the year 2000, nephropathy caused by hypertension has increased in incidence by 8.7% [15] In reality, these figures may ...
Balkan endemic nephropathy. General. General syndromes. *Nephritis. *Nephrosis. *Renal failure *Acute renal failure ...
There are a few additional caveats that have to be considered while treating IgA nephropathy. IgA nephropathy has a very ... IgA nephropathy (IgAN), also known as IgA nephritis, Berger's disease (/bɛərˈʒeɪ/) (and variations), or synpharyngitic ... HSP is associated with a more benign prognosis than IgA nephropathy. In non-aggressive IgA nephropathy there is traditionally a ... Nevertheless, IgA nephropathy, which was initially thought to be a benign disease, has been shown to not be a benign disease, ...
Balkan endemic nephropathy. General. General syndromes. *Nephritis. *Nephrosis. *Renal failure *Acute renal failure ...
IgA nephropathy - suspected in a child with dark urine and recent upper respiratory infection[4] ...
... is any of various forms of kidney disease (nephropathy). In an old and broad sense of the term, it is any nephropathy ... 1] but in current usage the term is usually restricted to a narrower sense of nephropathy without inflammation or neoplasia,[2] ...
Balkan endemic nephropathy. General. General syndromes. *Nephritis. *Nephrosis. *Renal failure *Acute renal failure ...
... these include HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN), primary nonmonogenic forms of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, and ... "The Spectrum of MYH9-Associated Nephropathy". Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. 5 (6): 1107-13. doi ...
Weiss, M; Liapis, H; Tomaszewski, JE; Arend, LJ (2007). "Chapter 22: Pyelonephritis and Other Infections, Reflux Nephropathy, ...
Diabetic nephropathy: is a complication that occurs in some diabetics. Excess blood sugar accumulates in the kidney causing ... Its main cause is diabetic nephropathy.[20] It usually presents in a patient's 40s or 50s. Of the glomerulonephritis cases ... Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, membranous nephropathy, minimal change disease, diabetes, lupus[1][2]. ... Causes include a number of kidney diseases such as focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, membranous nephropathy, and minimal ...
If complete obstruction occurs, a postrenal kidney failure (obstructive nephropathy) may follow.[2] ...
Balkan endemic nephropathy. General. General syndromes. *Nephritis. *Nephrosis. *Renal failure *Acute renal failure ...
"Diabetic Nephropathy: Background, Pathophysiology, Etiology". 2015-06-20.. *^ a b Lewis G, Maxwell AP (2014). "Risk factor ... "diabetic nephropathy". Retrieved 2015-06-27.. *^ The Mesangial Cell Revisited: No Cell Is an Island. doi: 10.1681/ASN. ... Diabetic nephropathy (diabetic kidney disease) (DN)[1] is the chronic loss of kidney function occurring in those with diabetes ... Diabetic nephropathy is the most common cause of end-stage kidney disease,[8][9] which may require hemodialysis or even kidney ...
Balkan endemic nephropathy. General. General syndromes. *Nephritis. *Nephrosis. *Renal failure *Acute renal failure ...
"diabetic nephropathy". Retrieved 2015-06-27.. *^ Schlöndorff D, Banas B (June 2009). "The mesangial cell revisited: no cell is ... Diabetic nephropathy(DN), also known as diabetic kidney disease,[4] is the chronic loss of kidney function occurring in those ... Diabetic nephropathy is one of the leading causes of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) globally. ... Diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetes can be more difficult to predict because the onset of diabetes is not usually well ...
Rejection and the side effects of preventing rejection (especially infection and nephropathy) were, are, and may always be the ... Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology. 13 (2): 297-304. PMID 18555483.. ...
N15.0) Balkan nephropathy *Balkan endemic nephropathy. *(N15.1) Renal and perinephric abscess ...
Rejection and the side effects of preventing rejection (especially infection and nephropathy) were, are, and may always be the ... Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology. 13 (2): 297-304. PMID 18555483. Jacobus de Voragine (1275). The Golden Ledent or Lives ...
"Chinese herbs nephropathy and Balkan endemic nephropathy: toward a single entity, aristolochic acid nephropathy". Kidney Int. ... Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a form of interstitial nephritis causing kidney failure. It was first identified in the ... Stiborová, M., Arlt, V.M. & Schmeiser, H.H. Balkan endemic nephropathy: an update on its aetiology. Arch Toxicol 90, 2595-2615 ... 2007). "Aristolochic acid and the etiology of endemic (Balkan) nephropathy". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104 (29): 12129-34. ...
Aristolochic acid and the etiology of endemic (Balkan) nephropathy. Arthur P. Grollman, Shinya Shibutani, Masaaki Moriya, ... Aristolochic acid and the etiology of endemic (Balkan) nephropathy. Arthur P. Grollman, Shinya Shibutani, Masaaki Moriya, ... Aristolochic acid and the etiology of endemic (Balkan) nephropathy Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from PNAS ... Endemic (Balkan) nephropathy (EN), a devastating renal disease affecting men and women living in rural areas of Bosnia, ...
The role of aristolochic acid in the etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) and associated upper-tract urothelial ... Pro- and Antiapoptotic Markers in Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma Associated with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy. Ljubinka ...
What is Balkan Endemic Nephropathy? Meaning of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy medical term. What does Balkan Endemic Nephropathy ... Looking for online definition of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy in the Medical Dictionary? Balkan Endemic Nephropathy explanation ... Balkan Endemic Nephropathy. Also found in: Acronyms, Wikipedia. A chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy endemic to the ... Balkan Endemic Nephropathy , definition of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary. ...
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M. E. De Broe, "Chinese herbs nephropathy and Balkan endemic nephropathy: toward a single entity, aristolochic acid nephropathy ... G. Bamias and J. Boletis, "Balkan nephropathy: evolution of our knowledge," American Journal of Kidney Diseases, vol. 52, no. 3 ... E. Mešić, "Early detection of Balkan endemic nephropathy in Bosanska Posavina," Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences, vol ... M. Radonic and Z. Radosevic, "Clinical features of Balkan endemic nephropathy," Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 30, no. 3, ...
Nature of the Virus Associated with Endemic Balkan Nephropathy Cristina Riquelme*, David Escors*, Javier Ortego*, Carlos M. ... Nature of the Virus Associated with Endemic Balkan Nephropathy. ... tentatively associated with the endemic Balkan nephropathy (EBN ...
Endemic Balkan nephropathy (EBN), a disease restricted to three Balkan countries (Bulgaria, Rumania, and Yugoslavia), is ... Evidence of a viral aetiology in endemic (Balkan) nephropathy. Lancet. 1975;2:1271-3. DOIPubMed ... Nature of the Virus Associated with Endemic Balkan Nephropathy. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2002;8(8):869-870. doi:10.3201/ ... Nature of the Virus Associated with Endemic Balkan Nephropathy On This Page ...
Nephropathy is a chronic renal disease mainly affecting rural populations in the valleys of the Danube. In the absence of renal ... AAN: Aristolochic Acid Nephropathy; EN: Endemic (Balkan) Nephropathy; CHN: Chinese Herb Nephropathy; 1H-NMR: Proton Nuclear ... Chinese herbs nephropathy and Balkan endemic nephropathy: toward a single entity, aristolochic acid nephropathy. Kidney Int 81 ... Endemic (Balkan) nephropathy; Aristolochic acid nephropathy; Aristolochic acids; Toxicity; Metabonomics; Epidemiology. ...
Balkan nephropathy. 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 Billable/Specific Code *N15.0 is a billable/specific ICD-10-CM code that can be ... N14.1 Nephropathy induced by other drugs, medicaments and biological substances N14.2 Nephropathy induced by unspecified drug, ... A chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy that affects people in certain rural areas along the danube river in the balkans. It ...
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Background: A previous study indicated that Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) patients in the early stage of the disease had ... PB - MDPI, Basel T2 - Medicina-Lithuania T1 - Increased Glomerular Filtration Rate in Early Stage of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy ... A previous study indicated that Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) patients in the early stage of the disease had significantly ... A previous study indicated that Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) patients in the early stage of the disease had significantly ...
Background: Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) hemodialysis patients require a higher dose of recombinant human erythropoietin ...
The continuing medical mystery of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy. Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN) is a disease of subtle onset and ... resident individuals in highly specific geographic locations of the Balkan region and affects 1 - 5% of the population. Though ...
The Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a significant clinical and scientific problem in need of novel effective therapies. ... Germline p53 single-base changes associated with Balkan endemic nephropathy.. Krasteva ME1, Georgieva EI. ...
Balkan endemic nephropathy and genetic variants of glutathione S-transferases.. Andonova IE1, Sarueva RB, Horvath AD, Simeonov ... Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a non-inflammatory, chronic, slow progressing kidney disease, frequently associated with ...
Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN) is a kidney disease that progresses slowly. Only a few studies have investigated renal ... Clinical markers in adult offspring of families with and without Balkan Endemic Nephropathy By P. Dimitrov, S. Tsolova, R. ...
Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is found in certain rural areas of the Balkans and affects at least 25 000 inhabitants. Of the ... Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is found in certain rural areas of the Balkans and affects at least 25 000 inhabitants. Of the ... the Aristolochia hypothesis has recently gained ground substantiated by the investigations on aristolochic acid nephropathy ( ... the Aristolochia hypothesis has recently gained ground substantiated by the investigations on aristolochic acid nephropathy ( ...
... a Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) village, was reinvestigated in order to determine the current prevalence of BEN and the ... Prevalence of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy Has Not Changed Since 1971 in the Kolubara Region in Serbia. Author(s): Danica Bukvić ... Clinical markers in adult offspring of families with and without Balkan Endemic Nephropathy.. W. Karmaus, A Bonev, V. Simeonov ... Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN) is a kidney disease that progresses slowly. Only a few studies have investigated renal ...
Balkan Nephropathy. *Behçets Disease. *Bells Palsy. *Bicep Muscle Strain. *Bipolar Disorder. *Bipolar I Disorder ...
... upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma from cases of Balkan endemic nephropathy, and a human angiosarcoma were ... Balkan endemic nephropathy; food safety; DNA adducts ochratoxin A; phospho-S6 ribosomal protein; mycotoxin; renal cell ... upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma from cases of Balkan endemic nephropathy, and a human angiosarcoma were ... carcinoma; transitional cell carcinoma; testicular cancer; angiosarcoma; Balkan endemic nephropathy; food safety; DNA adducts ...
nephropathy answers are found in the Tabers Medical Dictionary powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, ... Balkan endemic nephropathy. Fibrosis of the kidneys caused by ingestion of compounds derived from Aristolichia species. SYN: ... radiocontrast-induced nephropathy. Nephropathy caused by the use of radiological contrast media, e.g., the dye used during ... Similarly: Mesoamerican nephropathy (kidney disease in Central American agricultural workers); and Sri Lanka Nephropathy (in ...
Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is found in certain rural areas of the Balkans and affects at least 25 000 inhabitants. Of the ... Aristolochic acid mutagenesis: molecular clues to the aetiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy-associated urothelial cancer ... molecular clues to the aetiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy-associated urothelial cancer. CARCINOGENESIS, 28 (11). pp. 2253- ... CHINESE HERBS NEPHROPATHY; COVALENT DNA ADDUCTION; HUMAN P53 GENE; OCHRATOXIN-A; RENAL-FAILURE; RISK-FACTOR; RAS GENE; RATS; ...
Nitrate content of well water and the endemic Balkan nephropathy Nitrate content of well water and the endemic Balkan ... Index: IMEMR (Eastern Mediterranean) Main subject: Balkan Nephropathy / Kidney Diseases / Nitrates Language: English Journal: ... Index: IMEMR (Eastern Mediterranean) Main subject: Balkan Nephropathy / Kidney Diseases / Nitrates Language: English Journal: ... A hypothesis on the role of a high nitrate content in drinking water as a cause of Balkan nephropathy was tested by a follow-up ...
Urate nephropathy. Related Articles:. In Her Own Words: Living With Kidney Failure. Talking to Your Doctor About End-stage ... Hypertension over time damages the kidneys (termed hypertensive nephropathy) among other organs and may lead to kidney failure ... Balkan nephropathy. *Chronic renal failure. *Diabetic nephropathy. *Horseshoe kidney. *IgA nephropathy. *Proteinuria ...
Balkan nephropathy. 1095. (8). Vladisav Stefanovic. J.P. Cosyns. Chinese herbs (and other rare causes of interstitial ...
Critical evaluation of environmental exposure agents suspected in the etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy. ... Consensus statement on screening, diagnosis, classification and treatment of endemic (Balkan) nephropathy. ...
Endemic (Balkan) nephropathy is aristolochic acid nephropathy.. Karanović S, Tomić K, Dittrich D, Borovečki F, Zavadil J, ...
"Chinese herbs nephropathy and Balkan endemic nephropathy: Toward a single entity, aristolochic acid nephropathy". Kidney ... Balkan nephropathy Grollman, A. P.; Shibutani, S.; Moriya, M.; Miller, F.; Wu, L.; Moll, U.; Suzuki, N.; Fernandes, A.; ... Balkan) nephropathy". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 104 (29): 12129-34. Bibcode:2007PNAS..10412129G. doi: ...
Balkan Nephropathy. A form of chronic interstitial nephritis that is endemic to limited areas of BULGARIA, the former ... Advances in early biomarkers of diabetic nephropathy.. Diabetic nephropathy is the main cause of chronic kidney disease, and ... New Strategies for Non-Invasive Detection of Chronic Allograft Nephropathy. The purpose of this study is to help researchers ... The aim of this study is to verify the ability of transglutaminase type 2 to predict rejection or chronic allograft nephropathy ...
  • Endemic (Balkan) nephropathy (EN), a devastating renal disease affecting men and women living in rural areas of Bosnia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Romania, and Serbia, is characterized by its insidious onset, invariable progression to chronic renal failure and a strong association with transitional cell (urothelial) carcinoma of the upper urinary tract. (pnas.org)
  • Endemic (Balkan) nephropathy (EN), a chronic tubulointerstitial disease found in Bosnia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Romania, and Serbia occurs exclusively in farming villages situated in valleys of tributaries of the Danube River ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Electron microscopy images of thin sections and partially purified virions from cells infected with coronavirus or a virus tentatively associated with the endemic Balkan nephropathy (EBN). (cdc.gov)
  • Endemic Balkan nephropathy (EBN), a disease restricted to three Balkan countries (Bulgaria, Rumania, and Yugoslavia), is characterized by a progressive shrinking of the kidneys and, in some cases, tumors in the proximal regions of the urinary tract 1 , 2 . (cdc.gov)
  • Metabonomics: on the Road to Detect Diagnostic Biomarkers in Endemic (Balkan) Nephropathy. (omicsonline.org)
  • Endemic (Balkan) Nephropathy is a chronic renal disease mainly affecting rural populations in the valleys of the Danube. (omicsonline.org)
  • Since the 1950's, an unique kidney disease called Endemic (Balkan) Nephropathy (EN) is reported in Bosnia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Romania, and Serbia, countries located at South East part of Europe on the Balkan. (omicsonline.org)
  • In summary, we provide molecular epidemiologic evidence that supports strongly the hypothesis that, in genetically susceptible individuals, dietary exposure to aristolochic acid is causally related to endemic (Balkan) nephropathy and to the carcinomas of the upper urinary tract associated with this disease. (mdibl.org)
  • Since it was first formally recognised in 1956, the disease called endemic Balkan nephropathy has perplexed experts, who have considered various explanations, including groundwater contamination . (newscientist.com)
  • Grollman suspected a similar cause behind the endemic Balkan nephropathy, so he surveyed patients in dialysis clinics in the region on whether they had taken any herbal medicines. (newscientist.com)
  • Despite extensive research conducted over the past 50 years, the etiology of EN remains obscure ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • The role of aristolochic acid in the etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) and associated upper-tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) has been recently confirmed. (hindawi.com)
  • The significance of joint mycotoxin interaction and masked mycotoxins, in addition to some newly isolated fungal toxic agents in the complicated etiology of mycotoxic nephropathy ranged in Balkan countries is discussed. (bireme.br)
  • Global dimensions of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu): a modern era environmental and/or occupational nephropathy? (biomedcentral.com)
  • Balkan endemic nephropathy and the associated urinary tract tumours: review on etiological causes, potential role of mycotoxins. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Ochratoxin A in human blood in relation to Balkan endemic nephropathy and urinary tract tumours in Bulgaria. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A number of descriptive studies have suggested a correlation between exposure to ochratoxin A and Balkan endemic nephropathy and have found a correlation between the geographical distribution of Balkan endemic nephropathy and a high incidence of and mortality from urothelial urinary tract tumours. (inchem.org)
  • Epidemiological studies show that OTA may be involved in the pathogenesis of different forms of human nephropathies, including kidney cancer [ 1 , 2 , 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Recurrent membranous nephropathy and acute cellular rejection in a patient treated with direct anti-HCV therapy (ledipasvir/sofosbuvir). (bioportfolio.com)
  • citation needed] Nephropathy Citrinin Ochratoxin A Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM): 124100 Stiborová, M., Arlt, V.M. & Schmeiser, H.H. Balkan endemic nephropathy: an update on its aetiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Balkan endemic nephropathy: an update on its aetiology. (springer.com)
  • 3) Significantly higher OTA frequencies and concentrations in both food and human samples (urine and blood) were found in endemic nephropathy (EN) areas in Bulgaria, Croatia, and Serbia as well as in Tunisia, where a nephropathy of unknown aetiology occurred. (mdpi.com)
  • citation needed] The disease was originally called "Vratsa nephritis," and became known as "Balkan endemic nephropathy" later, after people living in Yugoslavia and Romania were found to be suffering from it as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Significant epidemiologic features of EN include its focal occurrence in certain villages and a familial, but not inherited, pattern of disease. (pnas.org)
  • Significant epidemiologic features of EN include its focal occurrence in certain villages, a familial but not inherited pattern of disease, initial manifestation after residence in an endemic village for 15 years or more ( 6 ), and strong association with upper urinary tract transitional cell (urothelial) cancer ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • And an often-fatal kidney disease known as Balkan endemic nephropathy , which affects people who live in rural areas of Bulgaria, Romania, and Yugoslavia, has been linked with ochratoxin A, a mycotoxin that can contaminate beans, grains, and some of the meat of pigs hat eat tainted grain. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Based on these reports, BEN is proposed to be categorized as a toxic tubulointerstitial nephropathy, with clinical picture and disease progression not different from other tubulointerstitial nephropathies, but with BEN having an insidious and gradual progression to end stage renal disease. (hindawi.com)
  • Background: A previous study indicated that Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) patients in the early stage of the disease had significantly higher creatinine clearance (Ccr) than healthy persons. (ac.rs)
  • TY - JOUR AU - Đukanović, Ljubica AU - Lezaić, Višnja AU - Bukvić, Danica AU - Mirković, Duško AU - Marić, Ivko PY - 2019 UR - http://farfar.pharmacy.bg.ac.rs/handle/123456789/3247 AB - Background: A previous study indicated that Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) patients in the early stage of the disease had significantly higher creatinine clearance (Ccr) than healthy persons. (ac.rs)
  • Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a non-inflammatory, chronic, slow progressing kidney disease, frequently associated with urinary tract tumors. (cdc.gov)
  • Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN) is a kidney disease that progresses slowly. (core.ac.uk)
  • Thirty-one years after the first cross-sectional study, the population of Vreoci, a Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) village, was reinvestigated in order to determine the current prevalence of BEN and the clinical and laboratory characteristics of BEN family members with detected signs of kidney disease. (scienceopen.com)
  • Most patients with C1q nephropathy are thought to have minimal change disease or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. (tabers.com)
  • Diabetic nephropathy is the main cause of chronic kidney disease, and represents the most common and serious complication of diabetes. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Acid uric : key player in a recently recognized devastating nephropathy and in the development of chronic kidney disease. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The TP53 mutational signature in patients with UUC, dominated by otherwise rare A:T to T:A transversions, is identical to that observed in UUC associated with Balkan endemic nephropathy, an environmental disease. (pnas.org)
  • Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN), an irreversible kidney disease of unknown origin, has been related to the proximity of Pliocene lignite deposits. (cdc.gov)
  • Chronic lead exposure can cause gout with kidney disease known as "saturnine gout with nephropathy. (kidney.org)
  • Global and specific histone acetylation pattern in patients with Balkan endemic nephropathy, a worldwide disease. (abcam.com)
  • Since then, the plant extracts have also been linked to Balkan nephropathy - a kidney disease affecting people in Bosnia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Romania and Serbia. (newscientist.com)
  • The compound, found in plants of the Aristolochia genus, also has been suspected of causing a kidney disease known as Balkan endemic nephropathy, affecting people along the tributaries of the Danube River in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Bulgaria and Romania. (healthcanal.com)
  • However, its role in models of acute and chronic nephropathies has been the focus of many n. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Some other risk factors include analgesic abuse, occupational carcinogens, as well as Balkan nephropathy. (news-medical.net)
  • De novo Donor Specific Antibody following BK Nephropathy: The Incidence and Association with Antibody Mediated Rejection. (bioportfolio.com)
  • It is speculated that the reduced polar perfusion is a contributing aetiological factor to the increased incidence of polar scar formation secondary to reflux nephropathy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Our investigations into this subject were prompted by the striking clinical and histopathologic similarities between EN and aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN) ( 14 , 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • The poisoning with aristolochic acids was suggested when clinical and histopathological changes similar to those observed in the Balkan patients were reported in several cases of nephropathy in Belgian patients unintentionally exposed to aristolochic acids during a Chinese herbs diet. (omicsonline.org)
  • The Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a significant clinical and scientific problem in need of novel effective therapies. (cdc.gov)
  • Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is chronic irreversible tubulointerstitial nephritis that is diagnosed in agrarian regions of the Balkan (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Romania, and Serbia). (hindawi.com)
  • But in Bulgaria and in neighbouring countries, the condition is known as "Tanchev's Nephropathy", in homage to Dr. Tanchev's work. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term "aristolochic acid nephropathy" (AAN) is used to include any form of toxic interstitial nephropathy that is caused either by ingestion of plants containing aristolochic acids (AA) as part of traditional phytotherapies (formerly known as "Chinese herbs nephropathy"), or by the environmental contaminants in food (Balkan endemic nephropathy). (bireme.br)
  • In the Balkan region, dietary aristolochic acid exposure may come from the consumption of the seeds of Aristolochia clematitis (European birthwort), a plant native to the endemic region, which grows among wheat plants and whose seeds mingle with the wheat used for bread. (wikipedia.org)
  • In EN, exposure to AA occurs via consumption of bread prepared from flour contaminated with seeds of Aristolochia clematitis ( 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • Balkan Endemic Nephropathy - Still continuing enigma, risk assessment and underestimated hazard of joint mycotoxin exposure of animals or humans. (bireme.br)
  • As a result, we will analyze samples from more patients from Romania and elsewhere in the Balkan region, in follow-up research that is now underway to assess the extent of exposure," says Professor Mark Lathrop, scientific director of the McGill University and Genome Quebec Innovation Centre, who led the study. (healthcanal.com)
  • having Lynch syndrome (an inherited syndrome) or Balkan nephropathy (caused by exposure to toxins in the diet of people living in the Balkan region). (cancer.org.au)
  • Balkan nephropathy Grollman, A. P. (wikipedia.org)
  • Grollman immediately cancelled his flight and set off to meet Balkan farmers. (newscientist.com)
  • Back in the lab, Grollman and his colleagues examined kidney samples from Croatian nephropathy patients. (newscientist.com)
  • Grollman says 100,000 people are at risk of nephropathy in the Balkans as a result of inadvertently eating birthwort. (newscientist.com)
  • The Supportive Treatment of IgA Nephropathy and Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome: How Useful are Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids? (dovepress.com)
  • Our experiments test the hypothesis that chronic dietary poisoning by aristolochic acid is responsible for EN and its associated urothelial cancer. (pnas.org)
  • Of the many hypotheses on BEN, the Aristolochia hypothesis has recently gained ground substantiated by the investigations on aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN). (oup.com)
  • Reports of this syndrome, now known as aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN), called attention to the serious toxicities associated with the use of Aristolochia sp. (pnas.org)
  • This is felt to be the common pathway between both Balkan endemic nephropathy and Chinese herb nephropathy (associated with consumption of Aristolochia fangchi ) and UTUC. (urotoday.com)
  • Tumors associated with Balkan nephropathy are generally low-grade, multiple, and bilateral, in contrast to TCC of other etiologies. (medscape.com)
  • Background: Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) hemodialysis patients require a higher dose of recombinant human erythropoietin for maintaining target hemoglobin level than patients with other kidney diseases. (ac.rs)
  • Our series underlines that tobacco abuse in donors is a risk factor for vascular complication ( p = 0.043), as well as glomerular nephropathy ( p = 0.0185), coagulopathy ( p = 0.0165) and hemodialysis ( p = 0.02) are risk factors for receivers. (urofrance.org)
  • The possible etiological causes provoking this nephropathy were carefully reviewed and analyzed. (bireme.br)
  • Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a form of interstitial nephritis causing kidney failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upper tract TCC is associated with Balkan nephropathy, which is a degenerative interstitial nephritis linked to the consumption of aristolochic acid (contained in some plants in the Balkans). (medscape.com)
  • Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a chronic progressive fibrosis associated with upper urothelial carcinoma (UUC). (nel.edu)
  • A chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy that affects people in certain rural areas along the danube river in the balkans. (icd10data.com)
  • Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is found in certain rural areas of the Balkans and affects at least 25 000 inhabitants. (oup.com)
  • A detailed risk assessment on OA, which discusses the chemistry, mycology, and natural occurrence of OA as well as its toxicity, metabolic disposition, and its role in porcine, avian and human nephropathy has recently been published (Kuiper-Goodman & Scott, 1989) and the present review has made considerable use of that paper. (inchem.org)
  • OTA is frequently supposed to be the causing agent of Balkan endemic nephropathy and of porcine nephropathy. (uni-halle.de)
  • Ochratoxin A caused renal toxicity, nephropathy and immunosuppression in several animal species. (inchem.org)
  • Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin involved in the development of chronic nephropathies and a known carcinogen. (aspetjournals.org)
  • OTA induces phenomena typical for chronic interstitial nephropathy and activates ERK1/2, JNK, and p38 in proximal tubular cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of lipo-prostaglandin E1 (lipo-PGE1) on renal oxygenation in patients with diabetic nephropathy by blood oxygenation level dependent m. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In contrast to the animal model, human renal cell carcinoma, upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma from cases of Balkan endemic nephropathy, and a human angiosarcoma were negative for p-S6. (mdpi.com)
  • Using 32 P-postlabeling/PAGE and authentic standards, we identified dA-aristolactam (AL) and dG-AL DNA adducts in the renal cortex of patients with EN but not in patients with other chronic renal diseases. (pnas.org)
  • Some patients present with hypertension, although others may be normotensive or hypotensive (eg, Balkan endemic nephropathy). (medscape.com)
  • Unlike most patients with kidney failure, people with the Balkan illness often have healthy blood pressure. (newscientist.com)
  • This same mutation pattern is found in patients suffering from urinary-tract cancer associated with Balkan endemic nephropathy. (healthcanal.com)
  • The Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Management of Aristolochic Acid Nephropathy: A Narrative Review Annals of Internal Medicine 19 March 2013, Vol 158, No. 6 Elif Batuman (August 12, 2013). (wikipedia.org)
  • This insightful observation generated the hypothesis guiding our research, namely, that AA is a risk factor for both EN and the transitional cell cancer that frequently accompanies it. (pnas.org)
  • Its presence in Yugoslavian and Bulgarian foodstuffs has been speculatively associated with a human nephropathy endemic in certain parts of those countries. (inchem.org)
  • The morphological/ultrastructural, functional and toxicological similarities between human and animal nephropathy are studied. (bireme.br)
  • The spreading of mycotoxic nephropathy in animals/humans was studied. (bireme.br)
  • [5] This nephritis was termed "Chinese herbs nephropathy" (CHN) due to the origin of the weight-loss supplement. (wikipedia.org)
  • de Jonge H, Vanrenterghem Y. Aristolochic acid: the common culprit of Chinese herbs nephropathy and Balkan endemic nephropathy. (springer.com)
  • In Balkan nations, UTUC may represent up to 40% of all kidney-related cancers. (urotoday.com)
  • The aim of this study is to verify the ability of transglutaminase type 2 to predict rejection or chronic allograft nephropathy of renal allograft. (bioportfolio.com)