A form of chronic interstitial nephritis that is endemic to limited areas of BULGARIA, the former YUGOSLAVIA, and ROMANIA. It is characterized by a progressive shrinking of the KIDNEYS that is often associated with uroepithelial tumors.
KIDNEY injuries associated with diabetes mellitus and affecting KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; ARTERIOLES; KIDNEY TUBULES; and the interstitium. Clinical signs include persistent PROTEINURIA, from microalbuminuria progressing to ALBUMINURIA of greater than 300 mg/24 h, leading to reduced GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE.
Renal syndrome in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients characterized by nephrotic syndrome, severe proteinuria, focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis with distinctive tubular and interstitial changes, enlarged kidneys, and peculiar tubuloreticular structures. The syndrome is distinct from heroin-associated nephropathy as well as other forms of kidney disease seen in HIV-infected patients.
A type of glomerulonephritis that is characterized by the accumulation of immune deposits (COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX) on the outer aspect of the GLOMERULAR BASEMENT MEMBRANE. It progresses from subepithelial dense deposits, to basement membrane reaction and eventual thickening of the basement membrane.
Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.
The presence of proteins in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.
The presence of albumin in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.
Highly differentiated epithelial cells of the visceral layer of BOWMAN CAPSULE of the KIDNEY. They are composed of a cell body with major CELL SURFACE EXTENSIONS and secondary fingerlike extensions called pedicels. They enwrap the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS capillaries with their cell surface extensions forming a filtration structure. The pedicels of neighboring podocytes interdigitate with each other leaving between them filtration slits that are bridged by an extracellular structure impermeable to large macromolecules called the slit diaphragm, and provide the last barrier to protein loss in the KIDNEY.
Bulgaria is a country in southeastern Europe known for its rich history, diverse culture, and contributions to the medical field, particularly in the areas of infectious diseases and transplantation medicine.
A plant genus of the family ARISTOLOCHIACEAE. Species of this genus have been used in traditional medicine but they contain aristolochic acid which is associated with nephropathy. These are sometimes called 'snakeroot' but that name is also used with a number of other plants such as POLYGALA; SANICULA; ASARUM; ARISTOLOCHIA; AGERATINA; and others.
Nitro-phenanthrenes occurring in ARISTOLOCHIACEAE and other plants. They derive from stephanine (APORPHINES) by oxidative ring cleavage. The nitro group is a reactive alkylator (ALKYLATING AGENTS) that binds to biological macromolecules. Ingestion by humans is associated with nephropathy (NEPHRITIS). There is no relationship to the similar named aristolochene (SESQUITERPENES).
Isocoumarins found in ASPERGILLUS OCHRACEUS and other FUNGI. Ochratoxin contaminated FOOD has been responsible for cases of FOODBORNE DISEASES.
A country of eastern Europe, formerly the province of Bosnia in Yugoslavia, uniting with the province of Herzegovina to form the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1946. It was created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia and recognized by the United States as an independent state. Bosnia takes is name from the river Bosna, in turn from the Indoeuropean root bhog, "current"; Herzegovina is from the Serbian herceg (duke) + -ov (the possessive) + -ina (country or territory).
A peninsula in Southeast EUROPE between the Adriatic and Ionian seas on the West and Aegean and Black Seas on the East. (from www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/balkan%20peninsula)

Ochratoxin A in corn and wheat: geographical association with endemic nephropathy. (1/31)

AIM: To determine the presence and concentration of ochratoxin A in wheat and corn from Slavonski Brod surroundings, the area of endemic nephropathy allegedly caused by ochratoxin. METHODS: Thin-layer chromatography was used to determine ochratoxin A concentrations in 92 wheat and 51 corn samples from the surroundings of Slavonski Brod, Osijek, Hrvatsko Zagorje, Istria, and Celje (Slovenia). RESULTS: Ochratoxin A was present in 74 of 92 (75.8%) wheat samples and 17 of 51 (33.3%) corn samples, in a concentration range of 0.02-160.00 mg/kg in wheat and 0.02-40.00 mg/kg in corn. Wheat samples from the Slavonski Brod surroundings contained the highest level of ochratoxin A (38.8 +/- 27.2 mg/kg), followed by Osijek (8.7 +/- 8.3 mg/kg). Ochratoxin A levels in the wheat from Hrvatsko Zagorje, Istria, and Celje were considerably lower (2.1 +/- 1.5, 1.3 +/- 2.6 and 0.2 +/- 0.5 mg/kg, respectively). Wheat samples from Slavonski Brod significantly differed from all other sample groups (p < 0.001), and wheat samples from Osijek differed from those from Hrvatsko Zagorje, Istria, and Celje (p < 0.001, p = 0.003, p < 0.001, respectively). Ochratoxin A level was the highest in the corn samples from the Slavonski Brod surroundings (20.0 +/- 14.8 mg/kg) and considerably lower in samples from Osijek, Celje, Hrvatsko Zagorje, and Istria (0.8 +/- 1.4, 0.7 +/- 1.9, 0.4 +/- 0.4, and 0.4 +/- 0.8 mg/kg, respectively). A statistically significant difference was also observed between the Slavonski Brod samples and all other corn samples (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Irrespective of the real association between ochratoxin A and endemic nephropathy, our data clearly demonstrate their geographical overlap.  (+info)

Aristolochic acid as a probable human cancer hazard in herbal remedies: a review. (2/31)

The old herbal drug aristolochic acid (AA), derived from Aristolochia spp., has been associated with the development of a novel nephropathy, designated aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN), and urothelial cancer in AAN patients. There is clear evidence that the major components of the plant extract AA, aristolochic acid I (AAI) and aristolochic acid II (AAII), both nitrophenanthrene carboxylic acids, are genotoxic mutagens forming DNA adducts after metabolic activation through simple reduction of the nitro group. Several mammalian enzymes have been shown to be capable of activating both AAI and AAII in vitro and in cells. The activating metabolism has been elucidated and is consistent with the formation of a cyclic nitrenium ion with delocalized charge leading to the preferential formation of purine adducts bound to the exocyclic amino groups of deoxyadenosine and deoxyguanosine. The predominant DNA adduct in vivo, 7-(deoxyadenosin-N(6)-yl)aristolactam I (dA-AAI), which is the most persistent of the adducts in target tissue, is a mutagenic lesion leading to AT-->TA transversions in vitro. This transversion mutation is found at high frequency in codon 61 of the H-ras oncogene in tumours of rodents induced by AAI, suggesting that dA-AAI might be the critical lesion in the carcinogenic process in rodents. DNA-binding studies confirmed that both AAs bind to the adenines of codon 61 in the H-ras mouse gene and preferentially to purines in the human p53 gene. In contrast, the molecular mechanism of renal interstitial fibrosis in humans after chronic administration of AA remains to be explored. However, preliminary findings suggest that DNA damage by AA is not only responsible for the tumour development but also for the destructive fibrotic process in the kidney. It is concluded that there is significant evidence that AA is a powerful nephrotoxic and carcinogenic substance with an extremely short latency period, not only in animals but also in humans. In particular, the highly similar metabolic pathway of activation and resultant DNA adducts of AA allows the extrapolation of carcinogenesis data from laboratory animals to the human situation. Therefore, all products containing botanicals known to or suspected of containing AA should be banned from the market world wide.  (+info)

Endemic nephropathy: the case for chronic poisoning by aristolochia. (3/31)

AIM: To explore the hypothesis that chronic dietary poisoning by aristolochic acid could account for the unique geographical distribution, specific pattern of tubulointerstitial fibrosis, occurrence of chronic renal insufficiency, and an increased risk of developing upper urothelial cancer, all of which are associated with endemic nephropathy. METHODS: This case-controlled epidemiologic study consisted of three groups of subjects residing in an endemic region of Croatia: (a) patients meeting WHO criteria for endemic nephropathy (n=28), (b) individuals who have been treated for renal insufficiency secondary to other forms of renal disease (n=30), and (c) apparently healthy residents of the endemic village (n= 30). A detailed questionnaire, designed to collect information on demographics, exposure to potentially toxic substances, diet, agricultural practices, and other factors potentially impacting endemic nephropathy was administered to the three study groups. The seeds of Aristolochia clematitis, obtained from plants growing in the endemic region, were extracted with ethanol and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography for their aristolochic acid content. RESULTS: The majority of subjects, including 90% of endemic nephropathy patients, recall that the plant Aristolochia clematitis (birthwort, vucja stopa in Croatian) was frequently found in local meadows and wheat fields between 20 and 30 years ago. At that time, endemic nephropathy patients encountered Aristolochia clematitis significantly more frequently than controls (P=0.035). Since then, all three study groups reported a significant increase in the use of herbicides (P<0.001) and reduction in the prevalence of Aristolochia clematitis (P<0.001). Chemical analysis established that the seeds of A. clematitis contain 0.65% aristolochic acid. It is likely that the harvesting process used by local farmers permitted the seeds of A. clematitis to mingle with the wheat grain. CONCLUSION: Flour used to bake bread, a dietary staple in the endemic region of Croatia, is derived from wheat grain which, in the past, is likely to have been contaminated with seeds of A. clematitis during harvesting. This observation supports the hypothesis that aristolochic acid, a major constituent of the seeds, plays a central role in the development of endemic nephropathy.  (+info)

Increased blood pressure in adult offspring of families with Balkan endemic nephropathy: a prospective study. (4/31)

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have linked smaller kidney dimensions to increased blood pressure. However, patients with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN), whose kidneys shrink during the course of the disease, do not manifest increased blood pressure. The authors evaluated the relationship between kidney cortex width, kidney length, and blood pressure in the offspring of BEN patients and controls. METHODS: 102 offspring of BEN patients and 99 control offspring of non-BEN hospital patients in the Vratza District, Bulgaria, were enrolled in a prospective study and examined twice (2003/04 and 2004/05). Kidney dimensions were determined using ultrasound, blood pressure was measured, and medical information was collected. The parental disease of BEN was categorized into three groups: mother, father, or both parents. Repeated measurements were analyzed with mixed regression models. RESULTS: In all participants, a decrease in minimal kidney cortex width of 1 mm was related to an increase in systolic blood pressure of 1.4 mm Hg (p = 0.005). There was no association between kidney length and blood pressure. A maternal history of BEN was associated with an increase in systolic blood pressure of 6.7 mm Hg (p = 0.03); paternal BEN, +3.2 mm Hg (p = 0.35); or both parents affected, +9.9 mm Hg (p = 0.002). There was a similar relation of kidney cortex width and parental history of BEN with pulse pressure; however, no association with diastolic blood pressure was found. CONCLUSION: In BEN and control offspring, a smaller kidney cortex width predisposed to higher blood pressure. Unexpectedly, a maternal history of BEN was associated with average increased systolic blood pressure in offspring.  (+info)

Aristolochic acid mutagenesis: molecular clues to the aetiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy-associated urothelial cancer. (5/31)

Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is found in certain rural areas of the Balkans and affects at least 25,000 inhabitants. Of the many hypotheses on BEN, the Aristolochia hypothesis has recently gained ground substantiated by the investigations on aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN). On both clinical and morphological grounds, AAN is very similar to BEN. That exposure to aristolochic acid (AA) of individuals living in endemic areas through consumption of bread made with flour contaminated with seeds of Aristolochia clematitis is responsible for BEN is an old hypothesis, but one which is fully consistent with the unique epidemiologic features of BEN. Here, we propose an approach to investigate AA-induced mutagenesis in BEN that can provide molecular clues to the aetiology of its associated urothelial cancer. The molecular mechanism of AA-induced carcinogenesis demonstrates a strong association between DNA adduct formation, mutation pattern and tumour development. A clear link between urothelial tumours, p53 mutations and AA exposure should emerge as more tumour DNA from BEN patients from different endemic areas becomes available for mutation analysis. We predict that the observed p53 mutation spectrum will be dominated by AT --> TA transversion mutations as has already been demonstrated in the human p53 gene of immortalized cells after exposure to AAI and urothelial tumours from BEN patients in Croatia. Moreover, the detection of AA-specific DNA adducts in renal tissue of a number of BEN patients and individuals living in areas endemic for BEN in Croatia provides new evidence that chronic exposure to AA is a risk factor for BEN and its associated cancer.  (+info)

Role of exposure analysis in solving the mystery of Balkan endemic nephropathy. (6/31)

We evaluated the role of exposure analysis in assessing whether ochratoxin A or aristolochic acid are the agents responsible for causing Balkan endemic nephropathy. We constructed a framework for exposure analysis using the lessons learned from the study of endemic goiter within the context of an accepted general model. We used this framework to develop an exposure analysis model for Balkan endemic nephropathy, evaluated previous findings from the literature on ochratoxin A and aristolochic acid in the context of this model, discussed the strength of evidence for each, and proposed approaches to address critical outstanding questions. The pathway for exposure to ochratoxin A is well defined and there is evidence that humans have ingested ochratoxin A. Factors causing differential exposure to ochratoxin A and how ochratoxin A is implicated in Balkan endemic nephropathy are not defined. Although there is evidence of human exposure to aristolochic acid and that its effects are consistent with Balkan endemic nephropathy, a pathway for exposure to aristolochic acid has been suggested but not demonstrated. Factors causing differential exposure to aristolochic acid are not known. Exposure analysis results suggest that neither ochratoxin A nor aristolochic acid can be firmly linked to Balkan endemic nephropathy. However, this approach suggests future research directions that could provide critical evidence on exposure, which when linked with findings from the health sciences, may be able to demonstrate the cause of this disease and provide a basis for effective public health intervention strategies. One of the key unknowns for both agents is how differential exposure can occur.  (+info)

Aristolochic acid and the etiology of endemic (Balkan) nephropathy. (7/31)

Endemic (Balkan) nephropathy (EN), a devastating renal disease affecting men and women living in rural areas of Bosnia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Romania, and Serbia, is characterized by its insidious onset, invariable progression to chronic renal failure and a strong association with transitional cell (urothelial) carcinoma of the upper urinary tract. Significant epidemiologic features of EN include its focal occurrence in certain villages and a familial, but not inherited, pattern of disease. Our experiments test the hypothesis that chronic dietary poisoning by aristolochic acid is responsible for EN and its associated urothelial cancer. Using (32)P-postlabeling/PAGE and authentic standards, we identified dA-aristolactam (AL) and dG-AL DNA adducts in the renal cortex of patients with EN but not in patients with other chronic renal diseases. In addition, urothelial cancer tissue was obtained from residents of endemic villages with upper urinary tract malignancies. The AmpliChip p53 microarray was then used to sequence exons 2-11 of the p53 gene where we identified 19 base substitutions. Mutations at A:T pairs accounted for 89% of all p53 mutations, with 78% of these being A:T --> T:A transversions. Our experimental results, namely, that (i) DNA adducts derived from aristolochic acid (AA) are present in renal tissues of patients with documented EN, (ii) these adducts can be detected in transitional cell cancers, and (iii) A:T --> T:A transversions dominate the p53 mutational spectrum in the upper urinary tract malignancies found in this population lead to the conclusion that dietary exposure to AA is a significant risk factor for EN and its attendant transitional cell cancer.  (+info)

Role of environmental toxins in endemic (Balkan) nephropathy. October 2006, Zagreb, Croatia. (8/31)

An international symposium, held in Zagreb, Croatia, in October 2006, brought together basic scientists and clinical investigators engaged in research on endemic (Balkan) nephropathy, a chronic renal tubulointerstitial disease of previously unknown cause that often is accompanied by upper urinary tract urothelial cancer. Although this disease is endemic in rural areas of Bosnia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Romania, and Serbia, a similar clinical entity occurs throughout Europe, Asia, and North America. Recent advances in the understanding of endemic nephropathy now favor the causative role of aristolochic acid over the ubiquitous mycotoxin known as ochratoxin A. Specifically, aristolactam-DNA adducts have been found in renal tissues and urothelial cancers of affected patients. A "signature" p53 mutation in the upper urothelial cancer associated with this disease provides evidence of long-term exposure to aristolochic acid. In addition, the renal pathophysiology and histopathology observed in endemic nephropathy most closely resemble the entity known as aristolochic acid nephropathy. Public health authorities in countries harboring this disease are encouraged to reduce the potential for dietary exposure to Aristolochia clematitis.  (+info)

Balkan Nephropathy, also known as Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN), is a chronic kidney disease that is prevalent in certain regions of the Balkans, including Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, and North Macedonia. The disease is characterized by the development of progressive kidney damage, often leading to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and the need for dialysis or a kidney transplant. The exact cause of Balkan Nephropathy is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to exposure to heavy metals, particularly cadmium and mercury, in contaminated drinking water. The metals are thought to have accumulated in the soil and water due to industrial pollution and the use of certain fertilizers and pesticides. Other risk factors for Balkan Nephropathy include age, gender (males are more affected than females), and genetic predisposition. The disease typically develops slowly over many years, and symptoms may not appear until kidney function is significantly impaired. Treatment for Balkan Nephropathy focuses on managing symptoms and slowing the progression of kidney damage. This may include medications to control blood pressure and reduce proteinuria (excess protein in the urine), as well as dietary changes and lifestyle modifications to promote overall health. In some cases, dialysis or a kidney transplant may be necessary to maintain kidney function.

Diabetic nephropathy is a type of kidney disease that occurs as a complication of diabetes mellitus. It is caused by damage to the blood vessels in the kidneys as a result of long-term high blood sugar levels. The damage can lead to the development of protein in the urine, swelling in the legs and feet, and eventually, kidney failure. There are three stages of diabetic nephropathy: microalbuminuria, macroalbuminuria, and end-stage renal disease. Treatment typically involves managing blood sugar levels, blood pressure, and blood cholesterol, as well as medications to slow the progression of the disease.

AIDS-Associated Nephropathy (AAN) is a kidney disease that occurs in people with advanced HIV/AIDS. It is also known as HIV-related nephropathy or HIV nephropathy. AAN is caused by damage to the kidneys as a result of the HIV virus and its effects on the immune system. The damage can lead to inflammation, scarring, and eventually, kidney failure. AAN is a common complication of HIV/AIDS and can occur in people who have been infected with HIV for many years, even if they are taking antiretroviral therapy (ART). Treatment for AAN typically involves managing the underlying HIV infection and addressing any complications that may arise, such as high blood pressure or anemia. In some cases, dialysis or a kidney transplant may be necessary.

Membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) is a type of kidney disease that affects the glomeruli, which are tiny blood vessels in the kidneys responsible for filtering waste products from the blood. In MGN, the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), a thin layer of tissue that separates the glomerular capillaries from the Bowman's capsule, becomes thickened and abnormal. This thickening can lead to the formation of small pockets or blebs on the GBM, which can trap proteins and other substances in the urine, leading to proteinuria (excess protein in the urine). MGN can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, autoimmune disorders, and certain medications. It is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, blood tests, urine tests, and imaging studies such as kidney biopsies. Treatment for MGN depends on the underlying cause and may include medications to reduce proteinuria, control blood pressure, and manage symptoms. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged kidney tissue.

Kidney diseases refer to a wide range of medical conditions that affect the kidneys, which are two bean-shaped organs located in the back of the abdomen. The kidneys play a crucial role in filtering waste products from the blood and regulating the body's fluid balance, electrolyte levels, and blood pressure. Kidney diseases can be classified into two main categories: acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). AKI is a sudden and severe decline in kidney function that can be caused by a variety of factors, including dehydration, infection, injury, or certain medications. CKD, on the other hand, is a progressive and chronic condition that develops over time and is characterized by a gradual decline in kidney function. Some common types of kidney diseases include glomerulonephritis, which is an inflammation of the glomeruli (the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys), polycystic kidney disease, which is a genetic disorder that causes cysts to form in the kidneys, and kidney stones, which are hard deposits that can form in the kidneys and cause pain and other symptoms. Treatment for kidney diseases depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, lifestyle changes such as diet modification and exercise may be sufficient to manage the condition. In more severe cases, medications, dialysis, or kidney transplantation may be necessary. Early detection and treatment of kidney diseases are essential to prevent complications and improve outcomes.

Proteinuria is a medical condition characterized by the presence of excess protein in the urine. Normally, the kidneys filter waste products and excess fluids from the blood, but they also retain most of the protein in the blood. When the kidneys are damaged or diseased, they may not be able to filter the protein properly, leading to proteinuria. Proteinuria can be classified as either microscopic or macroscopic. Microscopic proteinuria refers to the presence of small amounts of protein in the urine, typically less than 150 mg per day. Macroscopic proteinuria, on the other hand, refers to the presence of larger amounts of protein in the urine, typically greater than 150 mg per day. Proteinuria can be caused by a variety of medical conditions, including kidney disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, and certain infections. It is often an indicator of underlying kidney damage or disease and can lead to serious complications if left untreated. Treatment for proteinuria depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, dialysis or kidney transplantation.

Albuminuria is a medical condition characterized by the presence of albumin, a protein produced by the liver, in the urine. It is a sign of kidney damage or dysfunction and can be an early indicator of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In healthy individuals, albumin is not normally present in the urine, and its presence in the urine is considered abnormal. The normal range for albumin in urine is less than 30 mg per day. Albuminuria can be classified as microalbuminuria, which is the presence of albumin in the urine at levels between 30 and 300 mg per day, or macroalbuminuria, which is the presence of albumin in the urine at levels greater than 300 mg per day. The causes of albuminuria can vary, including diabetes, high blood pressure, glomerulonephritis, and certain medications. Treatment for albuminuria depends on the underlying cause and may include lifestyle changes, medications, or other therapies to manage the underlying condition and slow the progression of kidney disease.

Bulgaria is a country located in southeastern Europe. It is not directly related to the medical field, but it is home to several medical schools and research institutions. Some notable medical institutions in Bulgaria include the Medical University of Sofia, the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences Institute of Biophysics, and the Bulgarian Red Cross Blood Donation Center. Additionally, Bulgaria has a healthcare system that provides both public and private medical services to its citizens.

Aristolochia is a genus of plants in the family Aristolochiaceae, commonly known as birthwort or Dutchman's pipe. Some species of Aristolochia are used in traditional medicine, but they contain a toxic compound called aristolochic acid, which has been linked to kidney disease and cancer. In the medical field, Aristolochia is considered a hazardous plant and its use is not recommended.

Aristolochic acids are a group of toxic compounds found in certain plants, including Aristolochia clematitis (common name: birthwort) and Aristolochia fangchi. These compounds have been linked to a number of serious health problems, including kidney disease, cancer, and reproductive problems. In the medical field, aristolochic acids are often used as a diagnostic tool to identify exposure to these compounds. They are also used as a research tool to study the mechanisms by which these compounds cause harm to the body. Aristolochic acids are banned in many countries due to their toxicity, and their use in traditional medicine is discouraged. If you suspect that you or someone you know has been exposed to aristolochic acids, it is important to seek medical attention immediately.

Ochratoxins are a group of mycotoxins produced by certain molds, particularly Aspergillus ochraceus and Aspergillus carbonarius. These toxins can contaminate a variety of food and feed products, including grains, nuts, coffee, and wine. There are two main types of ochratoxins: ochratoxin A (OTA) and ochratoxin B (OTB). OTA is the most toxic and is classified as a possible human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). In the medical field, ochratoxins are primarily studied for their potential health effects on humans and animals. Exposure to high levels of OTA has been linked to kidney damage, immunosuppression, and an increased risk of certain types of cancer, including kidney cancer and urinary bladder cancer. OTB has also been shown to have toxic effects on the kidneys and immune system. Ochratoxins are difficult to remove from contaminated food and feed products, and there are currently no effective methods for preventing their production by molds. As a result, monitoring for ochratoxin contamination is an important part of food safety and quality control.

Bosnia-Herzegovina is a country located in Southeast Europe. It is not directly related to the medical field, but it is important to note that the country has faced significant health challenges in the past, including the impact of the Bosnian War on public health infrastructure and the ongoing burden of infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and hepatitis C. Additionally, Bosnia-Herzegovina has a relatively low healthcare expenditure per capita compared to other European countries, which may impact access to healthcare services and the quality of care available to its population.

The term "Balkan Peninsula" is not commonly used in the medical field. It is a geographical region located in southeastern Europe, bordered by the Adriatic Sea to the west, the Aegean Sea to the south, and the Black Sea to the east. The region includes several countries, including Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Kosovo, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, and Slovenia. In the medical field, the term "Balkans" may be used to refer to the region's unique health challenges and medical practices. For example, the Balkans have a high prevalence of certain infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis and hepatitis C, due to factors such as poverty, conflict, and inadequate healthcare infrastructure. Additionally, the region has a rich cultural heritage that has influenced traditional medical practices and beliefs, which may differ from those used in Western medicine.

"Chinese herbs nephropathy and Balkan endemic nephropathy: toward a single entity, aristolochic acid nephropathy". Kidney Int. ... Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a form of interstitial nephritis causing kidney failure. It was first identified in the ... Balkan endemic nephropathy. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. National Institutes of Health, National Center for ... 2007). "Aristolochic acid and the etiology of endemic (Balkan) nephropathy". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104 (29): 12129-34. ...
"Chinese herbs nephropathy and Balkan endemic nephropathy: Toward a single entity, aristolochic acid nephropathy". Kidney ... Balkan nephropathy Grollman, A. P.; Shibutani, S.; Moriya, M.; Miller, F.; Wu, L.; Moll, U.; Suzuki, N.; Fernandes, A.; ... Balkan) nephropathy". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 104 (29): 12129-34. Bibcode:2007PNAS..10412129G. doi: ...
Furthermore, it appears as if contamination of grain with European birthwort (A. clematitis) is a cause of Balkan nephropathy, ... Balkan) nephropathy". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 104 (29): 12129-12134. ... Balkan) nephropathy". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 104 (29): 12129-12134. ... ACS (2006) Cosyns, J. P. (2003). "Aristolochic acid and 'Chinese herbs nephropathy': a review of the evidence to date". Drug ...
2010). "Investigation of Balkan endemic nephropathy in Serbia: how to proceed?". Srp Arh Celok Lek. 138 (Suppl. 1): S68-72. doi ... Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN), a slowly progressive renal disease, appeared in the middle of the 20th century, highly ... 2006). "Balkan endemic nephropathy: role of ochratoxins A through biomarkers" (PDF). Mol Nutr Food Res. 50 (6): 519-29. doi: ... Long DT, Voice TC (2007). "Role of exposure analysis in solving the mystery of Balkan endemic nephropathy". Croat. Med. J. 48 ( ...
Antibodies to Tamm-Horsfall protein have been seen in various forms of nephritis (e.g., Balkan nephropathy), however, it ... and pathology of Balkan endemic nephropathy. IV. Immunohistology". Kidney International. 34: S68-74. PMID 1762338. Abbas AK, ... This is known as myeloma cast nephropathy. The glycoprotein was first purified in 1952 by Igor Tamm and Frank Horsfall from the ... GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on UMOD-Related Kidney Disease Includes: Familial Juvenile Hyperuricemic Nephropathy, Medullary ...
... complex aetiology and similarity to Balkan endemic nephropathy" (PDF). Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A. 27 (1): 72-88. ... Low levels of Aspergillus ochraceus contamination caused mycotoxic nephropathy in farm pigs and chickens from Bulgaria. Just as ... Stoev, SD; Dutton, MF; Njobeh, PB; Mosonik, JS; Steenkamp, PA (January 2010). "Mycotoxic nephropathy in Bulgarian pigs and ...
... aristolochic acid is also highly nephrotoxic and may be a causative agent in Balkan nephropathy. However, despite these well- ...
This occurrence was called the Balkan Endemic Nephropathy that was being caused by the consumption of contaminated pig meat in ...
... have deleterious effects on the kidneys and is thought to be one of the culprits involved in the Balkan endemic nephropathy. ...
... called Balkan Endemic Nephropathy. The interaction of both substances might also influence apoptosis and necrosis in ...
The Balkan endemic nephropathy was found to be caused by chronic intake of aristolochic acid, while the causes of Mesoamerican ... Ganguli, Anirban (2016). "Uddanam Nephropathy/Regional Nephropathy in India: Preliminary Findings and a Plea for Further ... Nephropathy on an endemic scale was first reported in Andhra Pradesh in the 1990s. In 2015, over 34,000 cases of kidney disease ... Uddanam nephropathy is a chronic kidney disease (CKD) that is endemic in the Indian region of Uddanam in Andhra Pradesh. ...
Exposure to ochratoxin A has been associated with Balkan endemic nephropathy, a kidney disease with high mortality in people ...
... balkan nephropathy MeSH C12.777.419.570.643.790 - pyelonephritis MeSH C12.777.419.570.643.790.810 - pyelonephritis, ... aids-associated nephropathy MeSH C12.777.419.078 - anuria MeSH C12.777.419.135 - diabetes insipidus MeSH C12.777.419.135.500 - ... diabetic nephropathies MeSH C12.777.419.250 - fanconi syndrome MeSH C12.777.419.291 - hepatorenal syndrome MeSH C12.777.419.307 ...
A similar condition previously known as Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN), first characterized in the 1950s in southeastern ... Patients are often first diagnosed with aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN), which is a rapidly progressive nephropathy and ... CHN and BEN fall under the umbrella of what is now known as aristolochic acid nephropathy, the prevalent symptom of AA ... Nephropathy caused by aristolochic acid consumption is not mechanistically understood, but DNA adducts characteristic of ...
Rejection and the side effects of preventing rejection (especially infection and nephropathy) were, are, and may always be the ... Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology. 13 (2): 297-304. PMID 18555483. Jacobus de Voragine (1275). The Golden Ledent or Lives ...
"Chinese herbs nephropathy and Balkan endemic nephropathy: toward a single entity, aristolochic acid nephropathy". Kidney Int. ... Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a form of interstitial nephritis causing kidney failure. It was first identified in the ... Balkan endemic nephropathy. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. National Institutes of Health, National Center for ... 2007). "Aristolochic acid and the etiology of endemic (Balkan) nephropathy". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104 (29): 12129-34. ...
Nature of the Virus Associated with Endemic Balkan Nephropathy Cristina Riquelme*, David Escors*, Javier Ortego*, Carlos M. ... Nature of the Virus Associated with Endemic Balkan Nephropathy. ... tentatively associated with the endemic Balkan nephropathy (EBN ...
Chinese herbs nephropathy and Balkan endemic nephropathy: toward a single entity, aristolochic acid nephropathy. Kidney Int. ... Two chronic tubulointerstitial disorders, Balkan endemic nephropathy and Chinese herbs nephropathy, are also risk factors for ... 2] Balkan endemic nephropathy is confined to regions located along the Danube River and its tributaries. It appears to result ... Aristolochic acid and the etiology of endemic (Balkan) nephropathy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Jul 17. 104(29):12129-34. [ ...
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OTA has been linked with the incidence of Balkan (and possible Tunisian) endemic nephropathy, but the co-occurrence of OTA with ... Relationship to pre-diabetes, diabetes and diabetic nephropathy. Author(s): Everett, C. J. ...
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Krogh P., Mycotoxic porcine nephropathy: A possible model for Balkan endemic nephro- pathy, in: Puchlev A. (Ed.), Proceedings ... Stoev S.D., The Role of Ochratoxin A as a Possible Cause of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy and its Risk Evaluation, Vet. Hum. ... Mantle P.G., McHugh K.M., Nephrotoxic fungi in foods from nephropathy households in Bulgaria, Mycol. Res. 97 (1993) 205-212. . ... Stoev S.D., Vitanov S., Anguelov G., Petkova- Bocharova T., Creppy E.E., Experimental mycotoxic nephropathy in pigs provoked by ...
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"Toxic nephropathy, not elsewhere classified" N15 Other renal tubulo-interstitial diseases N15.0 Balkan nephropathy N15.1 Renal ... "Nephropathy induced by unspecified drug, medicament, or biological substance" N14.3 Nephropathy induced by heavy metals N14.4 " ... "Hereditary nephropathy, not elsewhere classified, focal and segmental glomerular lesions" N07.2 "Hereditary nephropathy, not ... N14.0 Analgesic nephropathy N14.1 "Nephropathy induced by other drugs, medicaments, and biological substances" N14.2 " ...
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Balkan journal of medical genetics. 2: 17-20, 1999.. 41. *Gul H, Odabasi Z, Y ld z O, Ozata M, Deniz G, Vural O, Is mer A. ... Can we use plasma fibronectin levels as a marker for early diabetic nephropathy? 3rd. European Congress of Endocrinology. July ... 4th Balkan Congress of immunology Abstract Book) 2004. 72. Silan B, Y nem A, Urhan M, a layan S, Narin Y, nde M, zata M: Serum ... 8th Balkan Congress of Endocrinology 3-5 May 1995, Bursa, Turkey.. 17. Bolu E., zata M., Yak n A., Bed k A., Beyhan Z., anakc Z ...
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  • Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a form of interstitial nephritis causing kidney failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the Balkan region, dietary aristolochic acid exposure may come from the consumption of the seeds of Aristolochia clematitis (European birthwort), a plant native to the endemic region, which grows among wheat plants and whose seeds mingle with the wheat used for bread. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The disease was originally called "Vratsa nephritis," and became known as "Balkan endemic nephropathy" later, after people living in Yugoslavia and Romania were found to be suffering from it as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Nephropathy Citrinin Ochratoxin A Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM): 124100 Stiborová, M., Arlt, V.M. & Schmeiser, H.H. Balkan endemic nephropathy: an update on its aetiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Electron microscopy images of thin sections and partially purified virions from cells infected with coronavirus or a virus tentatively associated with the endemic Balkan nephropathy (EBN). (cdc.gov)
  • Two chronic tubulointerstitial disorders, Balkan endemic nephropathy and Chinese herbs nephropathy, are also risk factors for upper urinary tract urothelial tumors. (medscape.com)
  • [ 2 ] Balkan endemic nephropathy is confined to regions located along the Danube River and its tributaries. (medscape.com)
  • Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN), an irreversible kidney disease of unknown origin, has been related to the proximity of Pliocene lignite deposits. (cdc.gov)
  • The effects of heavy metal ions, phthalates and ochratoxin A on oxidation of carcinogenic aristolochic acid I causing Balkan endemic nephropathy. (nel.edu)
  • Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a chronic progressive fibrosis associated with upper urothelial carcinoma (UUC). (nel.edu)
  • Barta F, Levova K, Hodek P, Schmeiser H, Arlt V, Stiborova M. The effects of heavy metal ions, phthalates and ochratoxin A on oxidation of carcinogenic aristolochic acid I causing Balkan endemic nephropathy. (nel.edu)
  • OTA has been linked with the incidence of Balkan (and possible Tunisian) endemic nephropathy, but the co-occurrence of OTA with citrinin suggests an interaction between the 2 mycotoxins. (cabi.org)
  • Krogh P., Mycotoxic porcine nephropathy: A possible model for Balkan endemic nephro- pathy, in: Puchlev A. (Ed.), Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Endemic Nephropathy, Publishing Houses of Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, 1972, pp. 266-270. (vetres.org)
  • Stoev S.D., The Role of Ochratoxin A as a Possible Cause of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy and its Risk Evaluation, Vet. (vetres.org)
  • Can we use plasma fibronectin levels as a marker for early diabetic nephropathy. (zayiflama.org)
  • A study found beneficial effects of Horse Chestnut seeds in diabetic nephropathy (kidney damage), improving kidney function and tissue integrity, remarkably without lowering blood glucose. (emsherbals.com)
  • This invention provides use of a SARM compound or a composition comprising the same in treating a variety of diseases or conditions in a subject, including, inter-alia, a diabetes disease, and/or disorder such as cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, cerebrovascular conditions, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic neuropathy and diabetic retinopathy. (publicimaginenation.com)
  • The Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Management of Aristolochic Acid Nephropathy: A Narrative Review Annals of Internal Medicine 19 March 2013, Vol 158, No. 6 Elif Batuman (August 12, 2013). (wikipedia.org)
  • [ 3 ] Chinese herbs nephropathy likely results from aristolochic acid found in certain herbal remedies used in traditional Chinese medicine. (medscape.com)
  • Stoev S.D., Hald B., Mantle P., Porcine nephropathy in Bulgaria: a progressive syndrome of complex of uncertain (mycotoxin) etiology, Vet. (vetres.org)
  • Native to regions of the Balkan Peninsula, the Horse Chestnut is a beautiful tall deciduous tree that is grown in many temperate areas of the world, including Europe, the US, Canada, and New Zealand. (emsherbals.com)
  • The Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Management of Aristolochic Acid Nephropathy: A Narrative Review Annals of Internal Medicine 19 March 2013, Vol 158, No. 6 Elif Batuman (August 12, 2013). (wikipedia.org)
  • C34843 Nephropathy C123272 Pediatric Nephrology Terminology C120905 Reflux Nephropathy Reflux Nephropathy Chronic kidney damage due to vesicoureteral reflux. (nih.gov)
  • Can we use plasma fibronectin levels as a marker for early diabetic nephropathy. (tiroit.org)
  • Serum 25-OH vitamin D levels were lower in diabetic patients with nephropathy, and patients not using any medication, i.e., those treated with dietary changes alone, had a higher prevalence of nephropathy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Vitamin D deficiency is more common in diabetic patients with nephropathy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • You use steroid pills, sprays proper diabetes management is part of the standard of care for novel actions of growth hormone in podocytes: Implications for diabetic nephropathy. (pourchat.com)
  • Toxic Nephropathy Kidney damage resulting from exposure to drugs. (nih.gov)
  • C34843 Nephropathy C123272 Pediatric Nephrology Terminology C120888 Glomerulosclerosis Glomerulosclerosis A hardening of the kidney glomerulus caused by scarring of the blood vessels. (nih.gov)
  • Nephropathy associated with retrograde flow of urine into the kidney. (nih.gov)
  • Additional testing may be indicated for confirmation of etiology (eg, ultrasonography to identify hydronephrosis in obstructive disease, EDTA lead mobilization in suspected lead nephropathy). (medscape.com)
  • Uddanam nephropathy at the 2013 Inter- region. (who.int)
  • But in Bulgaria and in neighbouring countries, the condition is known as "Tanchev's Nephropathy", in homage to Dr. Tanchev's work. (wikipedia.org)
  • The relationships between 25-OH vitamin D, HbA 1c , microvascular complications of diabetes (nephropathy, retinopathy, and neuropathy), and type of treatment were investigated. (biomedcentral.com)