Mice, Inbred BALB CBALB 3T3 Cells: Cell lines developed from disaggregated BALB/c mouse embryos. They are extremely sensitive to CONTACT INHIBITION, and highly susceptible to transformation by SV40 VIRUS and murine sarcoma virus (SARCOMA VIRUSES, MURINE).Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Mice, Inbred C57BLLeishmania major: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) of the Old World. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous: An endemic disease that is characterized by the development of single or multiple localized lesions on exposed areas of skin that typically ulcerate. The disease has been divided into Old and New World forms. Old World leishmaniasis is separated into three distinct types according to epidemiology and clinical manifestations and is caused by species of the L. tropica and L. aethiopica complexes as well as by species of the L. major genus. New World leishmaniasis, also called American leishmaniasis, occurs in South and Central America and is caused by species of the L. mexicana or L. braziliensis complexes.Mice, Inbred C3HImmunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Mice, Inbred DBAInterferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Plasmacytoma: Any discrete, presumably solitary, mass of neoplastic PLASMA CELLS either in BONE MARROW or various extramedullary sites.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Mice, Inbred CBATh1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Immunoglobulin Idiotypes: Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.Leishmaniasis: A disease caused by any of a number of species of protozoa in the genus LEISHMANIA. There are four major clinical types of this infection: cutaneous (Old and New World) (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS), diffuse cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS), mucocutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS), and visceral (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL).Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Mice, Inbred AKRNeoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Mice, Inbred AInjections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Leishmania tropica: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and rodents. This taxonomic complex includes species which cause a disease called Oriental sore which is a form of cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) of the Old World.Leukemia, Experimental: Leukemia induced experimentally in animals by exposure to leukemogenic agents, such as VIRUSES; RADIATION; or by TRANSPLANTATION of leukemic tissues.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Mammary Tumor Virus, Mouse: The type species of BETARETROVIRUS commonly latent in mice. It causes mammary adenocarcinoma in a genetically susceptible strain of mice when the appropriate hormonal influences operate.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Rodent Diseases: Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Sarcoma, Experimental: Experimentally induced neoplasms of CONNECTIVE TISSUE in animals to provide a model for studying human SARCOMA.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Mice, Inbred NZBMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Leishmania mexicana: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals including rodents. The Leishmania mexicana complex causes both cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS) and includes the subspecies amazonensis, garnhami, mexicana, pifanoi, and venezuelensis. L. m. mexicana causes chiclero ulcer, a form of cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) in the New World. The sandfly, Lutzomyia, appears to be the vector.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Immunoglobulin Isotypes: The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Leishmaniasis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with LEISHMANIA.Myeloma Proteins: Abnormal immunoglobulins characteristic of MULTIPLE MYELOMA.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Transplantation, Isogeneic: Transplantation between genetically identical individuals, i.e., members of the same species with identical histocompatibility antigens, such as monozygotic twins, members of the same inbred strain, or members of a hybrid population produced by crossing certain inbred strains.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Interleukin-12: A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms: Animals or humans raised in the absence of a particular disease-causing virus or other microorganism. Less frequently plants are cultivated pathogen-free.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Leishmaniasis, Visceral: A chronic disease caused by LEISHMANIA DONOVANI and transmitted by the bite of several sandflies of the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. It is commonly characterized by fever, chills, vomiting, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, leukopenia, hypergammaglobulinemia, emaciation, and an earth-gray color of the skin. The disease is classified into three main types according to geographic distribution: Indian, Mediterranean (or infantile), and African.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Corneal Transplantation: Partial or total replacement of the CORNEA from one human or animal to another.Methylcholanthrene: A carcinogen that is often used in experimental cancer studies.Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Lethal Dose 50: The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.Leishmania donovani: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). The sandfly genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia are the vectors.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Interleukin-5: A cytokine that promotes differentiation and activation of EOSINOPHILS. It also triggers activated B-LYMPHOCYTES to differentiate into IMMUNOGLOBULIN-secreting cells.Eye Infections, Viral: Infections of the eye caused by minute intracellular agents. These infections may lead to severe inflammation in various parts of the eye - conjunctiva, iris, eyelids, etc. Several viruses have been identified as the causative agents. Among these are Herpesvirus, Adenovirus, Poxvirus, and Myxovirus.Brucella abortus: A species of the genus BRUCELLA whose natural hosts are cattle and other bovidae. Abortion and placentitis are frequently produced in the pregnant animal. Other mammals, including humans, may be infected.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Phosphorylcholine: Calcium and magnesium salts used therapeutically in hepatobiliary dysfunction.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Brucellosis: Infection caused by bacteria of the genus BRUCELLA mainly involving the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. This condition is characterized by fever, weakness, malaise, and weight loss.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Urethane: Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Gammaretrovirus: A genus of RETROVIRIDAE comprising endogenous sequences in mammals, related RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUSES, AVIAN, and a reptilian virus. Many species contain oncogenes and cause leukemias and sarcomas.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections: Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.Skin Transplantation: The grafting of skin in humans or animals from one site to another to replace a lost portion of the body surface skin.Macrophages, Peritoneal: Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.Bronchial Hyperreactivity: Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.Injections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Coxsackievirus Infections: A heterogeneous group of infections produced by coxsackieviruses, including HERPANGINA, aseptic meningitis (MENINGITIS, ASEPTIC), a common-cold-like syndrome, a non-paralytic poliomyelitis-like syndrome, epidemic pleurodynia (PLEURODYNIA, EPIDEMIC) and a serious MYOCARDITIS.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Immunogenetics: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic basis of the immune response (IMMUNITY).Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Immunity, Humoral: Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Adoptive Transfer: Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Myocarditis: Inflammatory processes of the muscular walls of the heart (MYOCARDIUM) which result in injury to the cardiac muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Manifestations range from subclinical to sudden death (DEATH, SUDDEN). Myocarditis in association with cardiac dysfunction is classified as inflammatory CARDIOMYOPATHY usually caused by INFECTION, autoimmune diseases, or responses to toxic substances. Myocarditis is also a common cause of DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY and other cardiomyopathies.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Respiratory Syncytial Viruses: A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.Filarioidea: A superfamily of nematodes of the suborder SPIRURINA. Its organisms possess a filiform body and a mouth surrounded by papillae.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Graft Rejection: An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Immunoglobulin Allotypes: Allelic variants of the immunoglobulin light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) or heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) encoded by ALLELES of IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES.Contact Inhibition: Arrest of cell locomotion or cell division when two cells come into contact.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Mycobacterium lepraemurium: The etiologic agent of rat leprosy, also known as murine leprosy.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Melioidosis: A disease of humans and animals that resembles GLANDERS. It is caused by BURKHOLDERIA PSEUDOMALLEI and may range from a dormant infection to a condition that causes multiple abscesses, pneumonia, and bacteremia.Sarcoma Viruses, Murine: A group of replication-defective viruses, in the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS, which are capable of transforming cells, but which replicate and produce tumors only in the presence of Murine leukemia viruses (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE).Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Antiprotozoal Agents: Substances that are destructive to protozoans.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Plasmodium yoelii: A species of PLASMODIUM causing malaria in rodents.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Thymectomy: Surgical removal of the thymus gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Trinitrobenzenes: Benzene derivatives which are substituted with three nitro groups in any position.Immunoglobulin Variable Region: That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.Hepatitis, Animal: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in non-human animals.Leishmania: A genus of flagellate protozoa comprising several species that are pathogenic for humans. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and a promastigote stage in their life cycles. As a result of enzymatic studies this single genus has been divided into two subgenera: Leishmania leishmania and Leishmania viannia. Species within the Leishmania leishmania subgenus include: L. aethiopica, L. arabica, L. donovani, L. enrietti, L. gerbilli, L. hertigi, L. infantum, L. major, L. mexicana, and L. tropica. The following species are those that compose the Leishmania viannia subgenus: L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis, L. lainsoni, L. naiffi, and L. shawi.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.HemocyaninT-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer: Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Antibody Diversity: The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Muromegalovirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, causing infection involving several organs in mice and rats. Murid herpesvirus is the type species.Burkholderia pseudomallei: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes MELIOIDOSIS. It has been isolated from soil and water in tropical regions, particularly Southeast Asia.Anterior Chamber: The space in the eye, filled with aqueous humor, bounded anteriorly by the cornea and a small portion of the sclera and posteriorly by a small portion of the ciliary body, the iris, and that part of the crystalline lens which presents through the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p109)Keratitis: Inflammation of the cornea.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Salmonella Infections, Animal: Infections in animals with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Immunity: Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Graft Survival: The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Concanavalin A: A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.Parasite Load: Measure of the number of the PARASITES present in a host organism.Macrophage Activation: The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic: The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Granuloma: A relatively small nodular inflammatory lesion containing grouped mononuclear phagocytes, caused by infectious and noninfectious agents.Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains: The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Respiratory Hypersensitivity: A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.Leishmania infantum: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). Human infections are confined almost entirely to children. This parasite is commonly seen in dogs, other Canidae, and porcupines with humans considered only an accidental host. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.Ear: The hearing and equilibrium system of the body. It consists of three parts: the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR. Sound waves are transmitted through this organ where vibration is transduced to nerve signals that pass through the ACOUSTIC NERVE to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The inner ear also contains the vestibular organ that maintains equilibrium by transducing signals to the VESTIBULAR NERVE.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Immunity, Active: Resistance to a disease agent resulting from the production of specific antibodies by the host, either after exposure to the disease or after vaccination.Fungal Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.

Overexpression of NP95 mRNA by tumor promoters in the promotion phase of a two-stage BALB/3T3 cell transformation assay. (1/136)

We studied altered gene expressions in BALB/3T3 cells treated by different tumor promoters in the promotion phase of a transformation assay, an in vitro model of a two-stage carcinogenicity test, using fluorescent mRNA differential display analysis. Expression of the NP95 gene, which was previously found to be the gene of a murine nuclear protein associated with cell proliferation, was increased in the cultures treated by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), okadaic acid, and orthovanadate. The upregulation of NP95 mRNA was confirmed by reverse transcription-PCR, and Northern blot. TPA, okadaic acid, and orthovanadate enhanced cell proliferation as measured by a 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation assay. The expression level of NP95 mRNA was not affected by the treatment with typical carcinogens benzo[a]pyrene and 3-methylcholanthrene at concentrations at which they act as initiators of cell transformation. These facts may imply that the enhancement of cell transformation by these tumor promoters is due, at least in part, to the acceleration of cell proliferation. NP95 mRNA was also increased in the transformed BALB/3T3 cells. Overexpression of NP95 may also participate in the maintenance of the transformed phenotype.  (+info)

Beta-catenin inversely regulates vascular endothelial growth factor-D mRNA stability. (2/136)

The angiogenic and lymphangiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-D is the only member of the VEGF family that is not induced by hypoxia or by serum factors, but its induction is mediated by direct cell-cell contact. Here we show that VEGF-D mRNA is down-modulated either by beta-catenin mobilization from the cell membrane, by activation of the Wnt signaling pathway, or by transfection with the beta-catenin stable mutant. Down-modulation of beta-catenin by means of RNA interference showed an increase of VEGF-D mRNA steady state in fibroblasts. The beta-catenin-dependent decrease of VEGF-D mRNA is indirect and mainly due to reduced VEGF-D mRNA stability, as demonstrated by experiments of mRNA decay in the presence of transcription or translation inhibitors. By transient transfection of chimeric constructs carrying fusion of VEGF-D sequences under the control of the cytomegalovirus early promoter, we demonstrated that beta-catenin negative regulation is on the VEGF-D mRNA 3'-untranslated region. We mapped the VEGF-D mRNA-destabilizing element to a sequence, conserved between mouse and human VEGF-D, which contains an AU-rich element of group I. These results unveiled a new regulatory pathway for VEGF-D, which explains, at least in part, VEGF-D regulation in tumor progression.  (+info)

Importance of amino acids of the central portion of the second intracellular loop of the gastrin-releasing Peptide receptor for phospholipase C activation, internalization, and chronic down-regulation. (3/136)

Little is known about the function of the central portion of the second intracellular loop (i2 loop) of peptide receptors in activation of downstream pathways and receptor modulatory processes such as receptor internalization or chronic down-regulation (DR). Recent data suggest a role for i2 loop hydrophobic amino acids in these processes. We used site-directed mutagenesis to address these issues with the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRP-R). Each i2 loop residue from 142 to 148 was mutated and the receptors were expressed in Balb 3T3 cells. Two mutants showed a minimal (<2-fold) decrease in affinity. Five mutants showed decreased efficacy for activating phospholipase C (PLC). Two double mutants (IM143.147AA and VM144.147AA) showed a minimal decrease in affinity but had a decreased ability to fully activate PLC. Only the IM double mutation had decreased maximal internalization, whereas the R145A single mutant showed an increase, suggesting a tonic inhibitory role for Arg-145 in internalization. Three single and both double mutants showed decreases in receptor DR. There was a weak correlation between the extent of GRP-R internalization and the maximal PLC activation, whereas changes in the maximal PLC activation were significantly (p = 0.008) coupled to receptor DR. This study shows that amino acids of the i2 loop of the GRP-R are important in activation of PLC, internalization and down-regulation, but not for affinity. Our results support the proposal that internalization and chronic down-regulation have differing dependence on PLC and are largely independent processes, because some mutants showed no changes in internalization, but significant alterations in down-regulation.  (+info)

Synergistic regulation of the acute phase protein SIP24/24p3 by glucocorticoid and pro-inflammatory cytokines. (4/136)

SIP24/24p3 is a secreted murine acute phase protein which has been speculated to play an anti-inflammatory role in vivo. Recently SIP24/24p3 has been found to be able to specifically induce apoptosis in leukocytes. By using (35)S metabolic labeling method, we studied the regulation of SIP24/24p3 by glucocorticoid and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-alpha in cultured Balb/c 3T3 and BNL cells. The following results were observed: (1) dexamethasone induced the expression of SIP24/24p3 in both Balb/c 3T3 and BNL cells, the induction was more significant in BNL cells; (2) dexamethasone and IL-6 synergistically induced the expression of SIP24/24p3 in both Balb/c 3T3 and BNL cells; (3) in Balb/c 3T3 cells dexamethasone and TNF-alpha acted synergistically to induce the expression of SIP24/24p3, whereas in BNL cells dexamethasone and TNF-alpha induced the expression of SIP24/24p3 in an additive manner; (4) dexamethasone and IL-6/TNF-alpha acted synergistically in Balb/c 3T3 cells and additively in BNL cells to induce the expression of SIP24/24p3. The inducibility of SIP24/24p3 by multiple factors will help to explain its highly specific expression in vivo. The difference in the expression patterns of SIP24/24p3 in different cell types is also suggestive to its expression and regulation in hepatic and extrahepatic tissues. Finally, the fact that SIP24/24p3 protein can be induced by both pro-inflammatory as well as anti-inflammatory factors is indicative of the important role of SIP24/24p3 in the entire acute phase response process.  (+info)

Influence of type I collagen surface density on fibroblast spreading, motility, and contractility. (5/136)

We examine the relationships of three variables (projected area, migration speed, and traction force) at various type I collagen surface densities in a population of fibroblasts. We observe that cell area is initially an increasing function of ligand density, but that above a certain transition level, increases in surface collagen cause cell area to decline. The threshold collagen density that separates these two qualitatively different regimes, approximately 160 molecules/ microm(2), is approximately equal to the cell surface density of integrin molecules. These results suggest a model in which collagen density induces a qualitative transition in the fundamental way that fibroblasts interact with the substrate. At low density, the availability of collagen binding sites is limiting and the cells simply try to flatten as much as possible by pulling on the few available sites as hard as they can. The force per bond under these conditions approaches 100 pN, approximately equal to the force required for rupture of integrin-peptide bonds. In contrast, at high collagen density adhesion, traction force and motility are limited by the availability of free integrins on the cell surface since so many of these receptors are bound to the surface ligand and the force per bond is very low.  (+info)

Efficient replication of full-length murine leukemia viruses modified at the dimer initiation site regions. (6/136)

Retroviruses encapsidate two copies of full-length viral RNA molecules linked together as a dimeric genome. RNA stem loop structures harboring palindromic (or "kissing") loop sequences constitute important cis-elements for viral dimerization known as dimer initiation sites (DIS). In murine leukemia virus (MLV), a 10-mer and a 16-mer palindrome (DIS-1 and DIS-2, respectively) located in the viral leader region mediate dimerization in vitro and affect dimer stability of vector RNA in vivo. We have investigated the effect on viral replication of introducing deletions or nucleotide substitutions within these palindromes in a full-length MLV genome. Our results demonstrate that viruses modified at the dimer initiation site regions are viable and show wild-type levels of RNA encapsidation. One mutant lacking the DIS-1 palindrome was severely impaired and displayed an increased cellular ratio of spliced versus genomic RNA that most likely contributes to the inefficient replication. The implications for development of DIS-modified retrovirus-based vectors are discussed.  (+info)

AG490 inhibits G1-S traverse in BALB/c-3T3 cells following either mitogenic stimulation or exogenous expression of E2F-1. (7/136)

AG490, a member of the tryphostin family of protein kinase inhibitors, repressed G(0)-G(1) traverse in BALB/c-3T3 cells. While the early induction of STAT activity was repressed by AG490, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation was unaffected and a pattern of gene expression suggested that cells exited G(0) in the presence of the inhibitor. Although AG490 did not alter the induction of cyclin D1 protein, neither cyclin D1- nor cyclin D3-associated kinase activity was observed in growth-inhibited cells. Surprisingly, p130 was partially phosphorylated, and E2F3A protein was expressed in mitogen-stimulated AG490-treated cells despite the lack of cyclin D-associated kinase activity. These data suggest that AG490 inhibits a cellular pathway required for mid-G(0)-G(1) traverse that is located after the induction of early processes potentially mediated by E2F (although independent of cyclin D-associated kinase activity) but before the late G(1) increase in E2F-dependent transcription. Infection of AG490-treated cells with an E2F-1 adenovirus caused the induction of cyclin A, but could not overcome the drug-induced cell cycle arrest that was coincident with the repression of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (cdk2)-associated kinase activation. We conclude that cdk2-associated kinase activity is modulated by a cellular process repressed by AG490. Furthermore, this cdk2-associated kinase activity is required for G(0)-G(1) traverse in some role other than the regulation of E2F-dependent transcription.  (+info)

Antisense thymidylate synthase electrogene transfer to increase uptake of radiolabeled iododeoxyuridine in a murine model. (8/136)

In vitro and in vivo experiments from our laboratory and others have suggested that the combination of thymidylate synthase (TS) inhibitor and radiolabeled iododeoxyuridine (IdUrd) is synergistic. Efficacy is limited by drug resistance, which is often mediated by TS overexpression. We designed an in vivo electrogene transfer (EGT) model for delivering antisense TS plasmid (ATS) into tumor to increase the subsequent efficacy of (131)I-IdUrd therapy. METHODS: Plasmid complementary to nucleotide 531-710 in the coding region of the mouse TS (mTS) mRNA was constructed. TS activity and (131)I-IdUrd DNA incorporation were determined 48 h after in vitro EGT of ATS to CT26 cells. In vivo therapeutic effect and radioactivity retained in tumor after various combinations of EGT ATS, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and continuous infusion of (131)I-IdUrd by osmotic minipump were determined. RESULTS: A reduction of TS activity was achieved after in vitro EGT ATS. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that ATS-treated cells were arrested at S phase. In the in vivo tumor model, the combination of EGT ATS and 5-FU was able to partially overcome 5-FU drug resistance. Sixty percent of tumors can be eradicated by the combination of EGT ATS, 5-FU, and infusion of (131)I-IdUrd. The tumors treated by EGT ATS had higher radioactivity retained 1 wk after (131)I-IdUrd therapy than after EGT of control plasmid. CONCLUSION: In situ EGT ATS can downregulate TS and increase the therapeutic effect of radiolabeled IdUrd therapy. The combination of EGT ATS, 5-FU, and (131)I-IdUrd may result in tumor eradication.  (+info)

Schechtman, L M.; Kiss, E; Mccarvill, J; Gallagher, M; E, R; U; and Lubet, R A., "A method for amplification of sensitivity of the c3h 10t1/2 cell transformation assay. Abstr." (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 2230 ...
Publications. P2X7 receptor-dependent and -independent T cell death is induced by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. J Immunol. 2005 Feb 15; 174(4):1971-9. View in: PubMed. Expression of IL-10 and TNF-inhibitor genes in lacrimal gland epithelial cells suppresses their ability to activate lymphocytes. Cornea. 2002 Mar; 21(2):210-4. View in: PubMed. Effect of anti-inflammatory cytokines on the activation of lymphocytes by lacrimal gland acinar cells in an autologous mixed cell reaction. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2002; 506(Pt B):789-94. View in: PubMed. Autologous lacrimal-lymphoid mixed-cell reactions induce dacryoadenitis in rabbits. Exp Eye Res. 2000 Jul; 71(1):23-31. View in: PubMed. Lacrimal gland epithelial cells stimulate proliferation in autologous lymphocyte preparations. Exp Eye Res. 2000 Jul; 71(1):11-22. View in: PubMed. Sjögrens autoimmunity: how perturbation of recognition in endomembrane traffic may provoke pathological recognition at the cell surface. J Mol Recognit. 1998; 11(1-6):40-8. ...
post-template-default,single,single-post,postid-855,single-format-standard,ajax_fade,page_not_loaded,,qode_grid_1300,footer_responsive_adv,hide_top_bar_on_mobile_header,qode-content-sidebar-responsive,qode-child-theme-ver-,qode-theme-ver-11.0,qode-theme-bridge,wpb-js-composer js-comp-ver-4.11.2.1,vc_ ...
Anyone could give me some idea where I can find a good protocol for the transformation assay using Rat2 cells. The one you look for transformed foci. Do I need to stain the cells? Alex ...
Originally Posted by NoAddedHmones I think you guys should reconsider using Niacin as a means of improving lipid profiles, while it does increase HDL,
The 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake Phototoxicity Assay (3T3 NRU PT) can be utilized to identify the phototoxic effect of a test substance induced by the combination of test substance and light and is based on the comparison of the cytotoxic effect of a test substance when tested after the exposure and in the absence of exposure to a non-cytotoxic dose of UVA/vis light. Cytotoxicity is expressed as a concentration-dependent reduction of the uptake of the vital dye - Neutral Red. Substances that are phototoxic in vivo after systemic application and distribution to the skin, as well as compounds that could act as phototoxicants after topical application to the skin can be identified by the test. The reliability and relevance of the 3T3 NRU PT have been evaluated and has been shown to be predictive when compared with acute phototoxicity effects in vivo in animals and humans." Taken with permission from [1] ...
monolayers in Ham F-12 medium containing L-glutamine (1 mM) and sodium bicarbonate (1.5 gL-1), supplemented with 10% (v/v) heat-inactivated FBS, penicillin (100 IUmL-1) and streptomycin (100 µgmL-1) in a humidified incubator with 5% CO2 in air at 37 °C. The cell passage was maintained between 42 and 48. The medium was changed every 2 days. Confluent cultures of MRC-5 as well as AGS cells were treated with medium containing the diterpene derivatives at concentrations ranging from 0 up to 1000 µM. The products were first dissolved in DMSO and then in the corresponding culture medium supplemented with 2% FBS. The final content of DMSO in the test medium and controls was 1% (v/v). Cells were exposed for 24 h to the test medium with or without the compound (control). Each concentration was tested in quadruplicate together with the control and repeated three times in separate experiments. At the end of the incubation, the neutral red uptake (NR) assay was carried out [35]. To calculate the IC50 ...
Numerous oncogenes have been identified to cause leukemia. For example, chromosomal translocation generates various fusion genes of the mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) gene and a partner gene in leukemia, whose gene products transform primary myeloid progenitors into an immortalized state. To characterize the transforming ability of leukemic oncogenes, researchers in the field have developed an ex vivo murine myeloid transformation assay using retroviral gene transduction and its protocol has been improved over the past 10 years. Here, we provide the detailed procedure for this assay.
Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a clear water soluble liquid that can dissolve both polar and nonpolar compounds. Chemicals that are insoluble in water may require DMSO as an ideal solvent for cell permeable drugs. The disadvantage is that DMSO can affect cells, and so there must always be a parallel control setting where cells undergo treatment with everything but the chemical; also known as a vehicle control. The treatment group of cells will then be known with confidence to be chemical-dependent relative to the vehicle-dependent negative control. DMSO for cell culture should ideally be ,0.1% (avoid use greater than 1% DMSO), since DMSO is cytotoxic at higher concentrations. However this is not always realistic depending on the chemical inhibitor. Determining a vehicle (DMSO) dose/response curve (viability) can determine the best approach. Hydrophobic/polar compounds may only dissolve in DMSO, so up to 5% DMSO in the culture assay may be necessary, in which case the vehicle control is ...
Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a clear water soluble liquid that can dissolve both polar and nonpolar compounds. Chemicals that are insoluble in water may require DMSO as an ideal solvent for cell permeable drugs. The disadvantage is that DMSO can affect cells, and so there must always be a parallel control setting where cells undergo treatment with everything but the chemical; also known as a vehicle control. The treatment group of cells will then be known with confidence to be chemical-dependent relative to the vehicle-dependent negative control. DMSO for cell culture should ideally be ,0.1% (avoid use greater than 1% DMSO), since DMSO is cytotoxic at higher concentrations. However this is not always realistic depending on the chemical inhibitor. Determining a vehicle (DMSO) dose/response curve (viability) can determine the best approach. Hydrophobic/polar compounds may only dissolve in DMSO, so up to 5% DMSO in the culture assay may be necessary, in which case the vehicle control is ...
The material in this website is provided for educational and informational purposes only and is not intended as medical advice. It should not be used to diagnose or treat any illness, metabolic disorder, disease or health problem. Always consult your physician or health care provider before beginning any nutrition or exercise program. Use of the programs, advice, and information contained in this website is at the sole choice and risk of the reader.. ...
BCAR1兔单克隆抗体[EPR1860](ab92699)可与人样本反应并经WB, IP实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
Helping reduce cardiovascular risk is crucial. This may be a safer and smarter way than use of the limited statins that can by used along with antiretrovirals (ARV). However, some people have significant flushing and itching reactions; this can be offset by the use of lower doses, gradually escalating over time. Short-term effects of extended-release…
Eat this One Seed that Reduces Blood Pressure, Reduces Triglycerides, Reduces LDL, Increases HDL level & is A Powerful Anti-Oxidant.
Tumours induced by implants are well known in experiments using rats. This phenomenon is called foreign body carcinogenesis or solid state carcinogenesis. Method of test for carcinogenicity :Syrian Hamster Embryo Cell Transformation Assay. ...
Free flashcards to help memorize facts about Science genes. Other activities to help include hangman, crossword, word scramble, games, matching, quizes, and tests.
Aims: The rapidly growing industrial and medical use of nanomaterials, especially zinc oxide and titanium dioxide, has led to growing concerns about their toxicity. Accordingly, the intrinsic genotoxic and cytotoxic potential of these nanoparticles have been evaluated. Materials & methods: Using a HEp-2 cell line, cytotoxicity was tested along with mitochondrial activity and neutral red uptake assays. The genotoxic potential was determined using the Comet and the cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assays. In addition,tyrosine phosphorylation events were investigated. Results & conclusion: We found concentration- and time-dependent cytotoxicity and an increase in DNA and cytogenetic damage with increasing nanoparticle concentrations. Mainly for zinc oxide, genotoxicity was clearly associated with an increase in tyrosine phosphorylation. Our results suggest that both types of nanoparticles can be genotoxic over a range of concentrations without being cytotoxic ...
The reconstituted human epidermis model SkinEthic was used to evaluate the phototoxicity of topically applied chemicals. For comparison with published data,
CircuLex Human CIRP ELISA Kit from MBL. This Kit is used for the quantitative measurement of human CIRP in cell lysate, cell culture supernatants, and other biological media.
Induction of 3 populations of MCs in lung of BALB/c mice 1 to 14 days after challenges. BALB/c mice were sensitized and either not challenged (NC) or challenged
ACuteTox is a project within the 6th European Framework Programme which had as one of its goals to develop, optimise and prevalidate a non-animal testing strategy for predicting human acute oral toxicity. In its last 6 months, a challenging exercise was conducted to assess the predictive capacity of the developed testing strategies and final identification of the most promising ones. Thirty-two chemicals were tested blind in the battery of in vitro and in silico methods selected during the first phase of the project. This paper describes the classification approaches studied: single step procedures and two step tiered testing strategies. In summary, four in vitro testing strategies were proposed as best performing in terms of predictive capacity with respect to the European acute oral toxicity classification. In addition, a heuristic testing strategy is suggested that combines the prediction results gained from the neutral red uptake assay performed in 3T3 cells, with information on ...
The genotoxic potential of acrylamide monomer (AA), a compound familiar as a raw material of polyacrylamide electrophoresis gel, was extensively investigated in vitro. The results were clear cut: AA did not induce any gene mutations in Salmonella/microsome test systems (TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537), Escherichia coli/microsome assay (WP2 uvrA-) up to a dose of 50 mg AA/plate, or in HPRT-locus in Chinese hamster V79H3 cells (AA, 1-7 mM, 24 h treatment). On the other hand, AA showed a strong positive response: (a) in a Bacillus subtilis spore-rec assay (DNA damage) at 10-50 mg/disc, (b) to a chromosomal structural change test (AA, 2-5 mM, 24 h treatment), (c) to a polyploidy test (AA, 1-5 mM, 24 h treatment) in Chinese hamster V79H3 cells, (d) to a cell transformation assay in mouse BALB/c3T3 cells (AA, 1-2 mM, 72 h treatment). Sister chromatid exchange was also weakly but significantly induced by AA (AA, 1-2.5 mM, 24 h treatment) in Chinese hamster V79H3 cells. Carcinogenic potential of AA was ...
Sooner or later, your doctor will probably talk to you about your cholesterol level. Its important to have healthy levels of both HDL and LDL cholesterol. High levels of HDL, or the good cholesterol, can help decrease LDL, the bad cholesterol, and decrease your risk of a heart attack. Read on to learn more.
When we think of good cholesterol foods, we typically think of those that will not contribute to an increase in cholesterol levels but help to lower them.
Contact Us. Tel:732-484-9848. Fax:888-484-5008. Email:[email protected]. Add:1 Deer Park Dr, Suite Q,. Monmouth Junction, NJ 08852, USA. ...
West African jade semiprecious stone beads are a deep green color and nephrite jade in a variety of shapes and sizes and are for sale online in the natural gemstone section at the Harlequin Beads and Jewelry bead store. Choose from round, oval and more st West African Jade
CircuLex Human CIRP ELISA Kit from MBL. This Kit is used for the quantitative measurement of human CIRP in cell lysate, cell culture supernatants, and other biological media.
Complete information for BCAR1 gene (Protein Coding), BCAR1, Cas Family Scaffolding Protein, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Platelet-derived growth factor-induced alterations in vinculin and actin distribution in BALB/c-3T3 cells. J Cell Biol. 1985 ... An ordered sequence of events is required before BALB/c-3T3 cells become committed to DNA synthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. ... Induction of DNA synthesis in BALB/c 3T3 cells by serum components: reevaluation of the commitment process. Proc Natl Acad Sci ... addition of platelet factor and plasma to BALB/c 3T3 fibroblast cultures stimulates somatomedin-C binding early in cell cycle. ...
... l cells MeSH A11.329.228.900 - 3t3 cells MeSH A11.329.228.900.080 - balb 3t3 cells MeSH A11.329.228.900.550 - nih 3t3 cells ... l cells (cell line) MeSH A11.251.210.520 - llc-pk1 cells MeSH A11.251.210.700 - 3t3 cells MeSH A11.251.210.700.080 - balb 3t3 ... nih 3t3 cells MeSH A11.251.210.700.775 - Swiss 3t3 cells MeSH A11.251.210.700.775.800 - 3t3-l1 cells MeSH A11.251.210.955 - ... Swiss 3t3 cells MeSH A11.329.228.900.775.800 - 3t3-l1 cells MeSH A11.329.228.950 - mesangial cells MeSH A11.329.372.300 - ...
Green, Howard; Kehinde, Olaniyi (28 February 1974). "Sublines of mouse 3T3 cells that accumulate lipid". Cell. 1 (3): 113-116. ... Aaronson, SA; Todaro, GJ (Oct 1968). "Development of 3T3-like lines from Balb-c mouse embryo cultures: transformation ... "Spontaneous heritable changes leading to increased adipose conversion in 3T3 cells". Cell. 7 (1): 105-13. doi:10.1016/0092-8674 ... 3T3-F4424 cells when implanted into an athymic (nude) mice gave rise to fat pads that were similar to endogenous white adipose ...
2009). "Human eosinophil cationic protein enhances stress fiber formation in Balb/c 3T3 fibroblasts and differentiation of rat ... ECP is also toxic to neurons, some epithelial cell lines, and isolated myocardial cells. This could be a reason for itching ... Mature ECP is cytotoxic to human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells by specific binding to cell surface heparan sulfate ... Ali S, Kaur J, Patel KD (July 2000). "Intercellular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1, Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1, and Regulated ...
Disease relevance of BALB 3T3 Cells. *Loss of Fv-1 restriction in Balb/3T3 cells following infection with a single N tropic ... Biological context of BALB 3T3 Cells. *Infection of BALB/c 3T3 cells with the Smith strain of MCMV resulted in strong down- ... expressed in murine BALB/c 3T3 cells [10].. *PLAGL2 mRNA was induced in RAW264.7 cells, mouse erythroleukemia cells and Balb/c ... gene family in Balb/c-3T3 cells [6].. *The colony-forming response of SV40 transformed BALB/c-3T3 cells in agarose suspension ...
Proto-oncogene activation and genomic instability of cadmium-induced cell transformation in BALB/c-3T3 cells.. ... and point mutation of cancer-related genes associated with Cd-induced cell transformation in BALB/c-3T3 cells were studied. Six ... Among 10 Cd-induced transformed cell lines, significant gene amplification was found for c-myc and c-jun in 50% and 80% of the ... These results suggest that cell transformation induced by Cd may be attributed, at least in part, to gene amplification of c- ...
That the tumors were derived from BALB/3T3 cells and not host cells was proved when tumors arising in BALB/c × C57BL/6 F1 ... Vasoformative Sarcomas Arising from BALB/3T3 Cells Attached to Solid Substrates. Charles W. Boone, Noritoshi Takeichi, Meera ... Vasoformative Sarcomas Arising from BALB/3T3 Cells Attached to Solid Substrates. Charles W. Boone, Noritoshi Takeichi, Meera ... Vasoformative Sarcomas Arising from BALB/3T3 Cells Attached to Solid Substrates. Charles W. Boone, Noritoshi Takeichi, Meera ...
The kinetics of acidification of diferric human transferrin in BALB/c mouse 3T3 cells were determined by flow cytometry using a ... High-resolution kinetics of transferrin acidification in BALB/c 3T3 cells: exposure to pH 6 followed by temperature-sensitive ... High-resolution kinetics of transferrin acidification in BALB/c 3T3 cells: exposure to pH 6 followed by temperature-sensitive ... High-resolution kinetics of transferrin acidification in BALB/c 3T3 cells: exposure to pH 6 followed by temperature-sensitive ...
... on cell cycle progression of BALB/c 3T3 mouse cells under different growth conditions. Both drug series were found to stop cell ... Differential Effects of Ellipticine and AZA-Analogue Derivatives on Cell Cycle Progression and Survival of BALB/c 3T3 Cells ... Differential Effects of Ellipticine and AZA-Analogue Derivatives on Cell Cycle Progression and Survival of BALB/c 3T3 Cells ... Differential Effects of Ellipticine and AZA-Analogue Derivatives on Cell Cycle Progression and Survival of BALB/c 3T3 Cells ...
Balb), murine embryo lysate Cell/Tissue Protein Lysate MCL-1212 Mouse 3T3 (Balb), murine embryo lysate Cell/Tissue Protein ... MCLS-17201; NIH/3T3 BALB Cell Slide (Fibroblast from 14- to 17-day-old BALB/c mouse embryos) (5 slides/pk). ... Balb), murine embryo lysate (Cell/Tissue Protein Lysate) Mouse 3T3 (Balb), murine embryo lysate. ... Mouse 3T3 (Balb), murine embryo lysate. Cell/Tissue Protein Lysate. 100ug. $135.00 ...
"Spontaneous" Release of Type C Viruses from Clonal Lines of "Spontaneously" Transformed Balb/3T3 Cells *GEORGE J. TODARO ... Transformed Balb/3T3 Cells . Opens in a new window. ... Rights & permissionsfor article Structural basis for delta cell ... Cell Death and Differentiation , 1-17 Rights & permissionsfor article A functional genetic screen defines the AKT-induced ... IMMUNOGENICITY OF A PNEUMOCOCCAL PROTEIN CONJUGATE VACCINE IN INFANTS WITH SICKLE CELL DISEASE. ▴ 946 *Katherine L OBrien ...
Morphological transformation induced by silver nanoparticles in Balb/c 3T3 A31-1-1 mouse cell model to evaluate in vitro ... Therefore, we carried out CTA in Balb/c 3T3 A31-1-1 cells to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of silver nanoparticle (AgNPs ... Cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN) and CTA in Balb/c 3T3 A31-1-1 cells were performed to predict in vitro carcinogenic ... Morphological transformation induced by silver nanoparticles in Balb/c 3T3 A31-1-1 mouse cell model to evaluate in vitro ...
The Balb/c 3T3 A31-1-1 cells were seeded onto 8-well chamber slides (4 × 104 cells/well) and cultured for 24 hours. The cells ... Cell Culture Conditions. Balb/c 3T3 A31-1-1 cells were purchased from the Japanese Collection of Research Bioresources Cell ... Keywords: Silver nanoparticles, Cell transformation assay, In vitro carcinogenic potential, Balb/c 3T3 A31-1-1 cells ... Cell Transformation Assay. Balb/c 3T3 A31-1-1 cells (passage 10) at approximately 80% confluency were trypsinized and suspended ...
... malignant transformation assay in BALB/3T3 cells; unscheduled DNA synthesis in rat primary hepatocytes; chromosomal aberrations ... The increased incidence of thyroid follicular cell neoplasm in male rats with fluvastatin sodium appears to be consistent with ... The inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis reduces the cholesterol in hepatic cells, which stimulates the synthesis of LDL ... In addition, an increased incidence of thyroid follicular cell adenomas and carcinomas was recorded for males treated with 18- ...
Determined by a cell proliferation assay using balb/c 3T3 cells. The expected ED50 is ≤ 0.1 ng/mL, in the presence of 10 µg/mL ... Determined by a cell proliferation assay using balb/c 3T3 cells. The expected ED50 is ≤ 0.1 ng/mL, in the presence of 10 µg/mL ... 95%, Determined by a cell proliferation assay using balb/c 3T3 cells. The expected ED50 is ≤ 0.1 ng/mL, in the presence of 10 ... Angiogenesis/Cardiovascular; Cancer; Cell Culture; FGF Superfamily; Neurobiology; Proliferation; Stem Cells & Differentiation; ...
BALB 3T3 Cells * Disease Models, Animal * Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay * Fas Ligand Protein / immunology ... TMPD-injected FasL-deficient and ΔCS BALB/c mice were compared with control TMPD-injected BALB/c mice. We found that FasL ... Although Fas/Fas ligand (FasL) interactions have been strongly implicated in the activation-induced cell death of both ...
The use of human cells for the evaluation of risk from physical and chemical agents, sponsored by NATO and organized by ENEA. ... In Vitro Studies on Chemical Carcinogenesis in BALB/c 3T3 Cells. Cortesi, Enrico ... Emphasis has been given to the use of human cells or human data in order to attempt to have a correct and realistic evaluation ... The Use of Human Cells for the Evaluation of Risk from Physical and Chemical Agents. Editors. * Amleto Castellani ...
... malignant transformation assay in BALB/3T3 cells; unscheduled DNA synthesis in rat primary hepatocytes; chromosomal aberrations ... The increased incidence of thyroid follicular cell neoplasm in male rats with fluvastatin sodium appears to be consistent with ... In addition, an increased incidence of thyroid follicular cell adenomas and carcinomas was recorded for males treated with 18- ... The inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis reduces the cholesterol in hepatic cells, which stimulates the synthesis of LDL ...
BALB/3T3 whole cell lysate (ab7901) Applications. Our Abpromise guarantee covers the use of ab12195 in the following tested ... Cell Biology. Epigenetics. Metabolism. Developmental Biology. By research area. Immunology. Microbiology. Neuroscience. Signal ... Cell and tissue imaging tools. Cellular and biochemical assays. By product type. Proteins and Peptides. Proteomics tools. ...
Overexpression of vinculin suppresses cell motility in BALB/c 3T3 cells. Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton. 22 (2):127-134. ... A chimeric N-cadherin/beta 1-integrin receptor which localizes to both cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesions. Journal of Cell ... Long-range and selective autoregulation of cell-cell or cell-matrix adhesions by cadherin or integrin ligands. Journal of Cell ... "Cell sensing and signaling via cell-cell adhesions". Experimental Cell Research. 358 (1):1-2. ...
BALB/c-3T3 subclone A31-1-13 cells were seeded at a density of about 10(6) cells/dish and exposed to the chemicals for various ... Mammalian-cells; Tobacco-smoke; Author Keywords: Micronucleus assay; Metabolic activation; BALB/c-3T3 cell; Benzo[a]pyrene; ... The authors conclude that BALB/c-3T3 cells are capable of activating all the tested chemicals to act as procarcinogens and ... Induction of micronuclei in BALB/c-3T3 cells by selected chemicals and complex mixtures. ...
Non-transformed BALB/c-3T3 cells and cells from 10 transformed cell lines induced by CdCl(2) were injected into both axillary ... and the transformed cells induced by CdCl(2) can form tumors in nude mice. BALB/c-3T3 cells were treated with different ... Cell transformation; Gene transfection; Tumorigenicity; Cadmium chloride; BALB/c-3T3 cells ... Within this time period, no tumors were found in nude mice injected with non-transformed BALB/c-3T3 cells. These results ...
B-3T3, BALB 3T3 cells; N-3T3, NIH 3T3 cells; DMEM, Dulbeccos modified Eagle medium; FACS, fluorescence-activated cell sorter; ... Transduction assay on B-3T3 and N-3T3 cells. (A) Transduction of B-3T3 cells with Fv1b (left) and transduction of N-3T3 cells ... 1977) Loss of Fv-1 restriction in Balb/3T3 cells following infection with a single N tropic murine leukemia particle. Cell 10: ... Cells and viruses.Cell lines from murine fibroblasts (Mus dunni, B-3T3, and N-3T3) and mink lung epithelia (ATCC CCL-64) were ...
... lymphoma cells. It did not induce tranformation of BALB/c 3T3 cells. Contradictory results have been reported concerning the ... mouse embryo cells initiated with 3-methylcholanthrene in two-stage transformation assays. Results obtained with rodent cell ... In one study in rats, transitional-cell carcinomas in the bladder were produced in male animals given the highest dose; in two ... Treatment of mice with saccharin did not induce micronuclei or chromosomal aberrations in bone-marrow cells or spermatocytes; ...
... c-fos and c-jun were higher in the tumor cells compared to those of the control Balb/c-3T3 cells. In contrast, p16 exhibited a ... BALB/c-3T3 cells, morphologically transformed with beryllium, were subcutaneously injected into nude mice to develop tumors. ... DNA and ANA isolated from cell lines derived from the tumors were used to determine the alterations of various cancer-related ... Tumors; Beryllium-compounds; Cell-transformation; Cancer; Genes; Workers; Occupational-exposure; Metals; Toxic-effects; ...
3T3/BALB Cell Slide (1) * 3T3/NIH Cell Slide (1) * A-20 Cell Slide (1) ...
Order a variety of cell slides for microscopes by Cell Line. Purchase high performance antibodies and more for research online ... 3T3/BALB Cell Slide Catalog Number: 17-201 By Type: Cell Line ...
offers a wide variety of tissue cell slides to accommodate different research projects. Shop the collection online at ProSci- ... 3T3/BALB Cell Slide (1) * 3T3/NIH Cell Slide (1) * A-20 Cell Slide (1) ...
  • We recently described a soluble cell-free system derived from monkey cells that is capable of replicating exogenous plasmid DNA molecules containing the simian virus 40 (SV40) origin of replication (J.J. Li, and T.J. Kelly, Proc. (uniprot.org)
  • Chinese hamster ovary cell extracts also supported SV40 DNA replication in vitro, but the extent of replication was approximately 1% of that observed with human or monkey cell extracts. (uniprot.org)
  • We also examined the ability of various DNA molecules containing sequences homologous to the SV40 origin to serve as templates in the cell-free system. (uniprot.org)
  • These findings provide further evidence that replication in the cell-free system faithfully mimics SV40 DNA replication in vivo. (uniprot.org)
  • Differential ability of a T-antigen transport-defective mutant of simian virus 40 to transform primary and established rodent cells. (nih.gov)
  • FGF-acidic is a non-glycosylated heparin binding growth factor that is expressed in the brain, kidney, retina, smooth muscle cells, bone matrix, osteoblasts, astrocytes and endothelial cells. (mpbio.com)
  • Porcine aortic endothelial cell, double-labeled for actin (green) and phospho-tyrosine (red). (weizmann.ac.il)
  • The authors conclude that BALB/c-3T3 cells are capable of activating all the tested chemicals to act as procarcinogens and promutagens, and that this system may prove to be useful for screening genotoxic chemicals since the frequencies of micronuclei produced are higher than those in Chinese-hamster-V79 cells. (cdc.gov)
  • The authors conclude that overexpression of c-jun may be associated with glass fiber and silica induced transformation of BALB/c-3T3 cells. (cdc.gov)
  • Using the Atlas Mouse 1.2 Microarray (Clontech), we studied expression of genes involved in cancer, stress response and DNA synthesis, repair and recombination in BALB/c-3T3 cells transformed with beryllium sulfate. (cdc.gov)
  • A previous study demonstrated that the mouse CMV m152-encoded gp40 glycoprotein diminished expression of ligands for the activating NK cell receptor NKG2D on the surface of virus-infected cells. (rupress.org)
  • Non-transformed BALB/c-3T3 cells and cells from 10 transformed cell lines induced by CdCl(2) were injected into both axillary regions of nude mice. (cdc.gov)
  • All 10 CdCl(2)-induced transformed cell lines formed fibrosarcomas in nude mice within 39 days of inoculation. (cdc.gov)
  • Further, nude mice were injected with TCE-transformed cells. (cdc.gov)
  • 3T3-F4424 cells when implanted into an athymic (nude) mice gave rise to fat pads that were similar to endogenous white adipose tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • We hypothesized that the regulation of hyaluronic acid (HA), a component of the ECM, can affect adipogenesis in fat cells. (nature.com)
  • In vitro adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells was inhibited by treating them with exogenous hyaluronidase (HYAL) and with 4-methylumbelliferone, which inhibited the synthesis of HA in a concentration-dependent manner. (nature.com)
  • Further, we could show that the presence of nonrestricting Fv1 in the same cell as restrictive Fv1 abrogates restriction, implying competition for binding to the retroviral target. (asm.org)
  • There are several mechanisms that can be combined to generate an asthma attack, including specific IgE antibodies, activated inflammatory cells, neurogenic mechanisms, hyperresponsiveness and individual hormonal imbalances. (wikipedia.org)
  • Role of c-myc in the transformation of REF52 cells by viral and cellular oncogenes. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, our data suggest that the spectrum of efficiencies observed in these cell types is likely to be due to variation in the cellular concentration of non-canonical translation factors. (nih.gov)
  • These results indicate that TCE is capable of inducing cellular and molecular changes in BALB/c-3T3 cells and that these cells then possess neoplastic potential. (cdc.gov)
  • In this volume are collected 30 papers, 9 round table discus- sions and 11 communications presented at the ASI Course on "The use of human cells for the evaluation of risk from physical and chemical agents", sponsored by NATO and organized by ENEA. (springer.com)
  • A ) MCF7 and Balb/c cells were transfected with the plasmids pGL3, pGML or pHpML and the Firefly luciferase activity measured as described previously. (nih.gov)
  • 3. The method according to claim 1, wherein said human retrovirus is selected from the group consisting of human T-cell lymphotropic virus-III, lymphoadenopathy associated virus, and AIDS-related virus. (google.es)
  • 4. The method according to claim 1, wherein said human retrovirus is selected from the group consisting of human T-cell lymphotropic virus-I, human T-cell lymphotropic virus-II, and Kawasaki disease causative retroviruses. (google.es)