Cell lines developed from disaggregated BALB/c mouse embryos. They are extremely sensitive to CONTACT INHIBITION, and highly susceptible to transformation by SV40 VIRUS and murine sarcoma virus (SARCOMA VIRUSES, MURINE).
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) of the Old World. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
An endemic disease that is characterized by the development of single or multiple localized lesions on exposed areas of skin that typically ulcerate. The disease has been divided into Old and New World forms. Old World leishmaniasis is separated into three distinct types according to epidemiology and clinical manifestations and is caused by species of the L. tropica and L. aethiopica complexes as well as by species of the L. major genus. New World leishmaniasis, also called American leishmaniasis, occurs in South and Central America and is caused by species of the L. mexicana or L. braziliensis complexes.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Any discrete, presumably solitary, mass of neoplastic PLASMA CELLS either in BONE MARROW or various extramedullary sites.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.
A disease caused by any of a number of species of protozoa in the genus LEISHMANIA. There are four major clinical types of this infection: cutaneous (Old and New World) (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS), diffuse cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS), mucocutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS), and visceral (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL).
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and rodents. This taxonomic complex includes species which cause a disease called Oriental sore which is a form of cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) of the Old World.
Leukemia induced experimentally in animals by exposure to leukemogenic agents, such as VIRUSES; RADIATION; or by TRANSPLANTATION of leukemic tissues.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
The type species of BETARETROVIRUS commonly latent in mice. It causes mammary adenocarcinoma in a genetically susceptible strain of mice when the appropriate hormonal influences operate.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Experimentally induced neoplasms of CONNECTIVE TISSUE in animals to provide a model for studying human SARCOMA.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals including rodents. The Leishmania mexicana complex causes both cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS) and includes the subspecies amazonensis, garnhami, mexicana, pifanoi, and venezuelensis. L. m. mexicana causes chiclero ulcer, a form of cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) in the New World. The sandfly, Lutzomyia, appears to be the vector.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with LEISHMANIA.
Abnormal immunoglobulins characteristic of MULTIPLE MYELOMA.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Transplantation between genetically identical individuals, i.e., members of the same species with identical histocompatibility antigens, such as monozygotic twins, members of the same inbred strain, or members of a hybrid population produced by crossing certain inbred strains.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Animals or humans raised in the absence of a particular disease-causing virus or other microorganism. Less frequently plants are cultivated pathogen-free.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
A chronic disease caused by LEISHMANIA DONOVANI and transmitted by the bite of several sandflies of the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. It is commonly characterized by fever, chills, vomiting, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, leukopenia, hypergammaglobulinemia, emaciation, and an earth-gray color of the skin. The disease is classified into three main types according to geographic distribution: Indian, Mediterranean (or infantile), and African.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Partial or total replacement of the CORNEA from one human or animal to another.
A carcinogen that is often used in experimental cancer studies.
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). The sandfly genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia are the vectors.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
A cytokine that promotes differentiation and activation of EOSINOPHILS. It also triggers activated B-LYMPHOCYTES to differentiate into IMMUNOGLOBULIN-secreting cells.
Infections of the eye caused by minute intracellular agents. These infections may lead to severe inflammation in various parts of the eye - conjunctiva, iris, eyelids, etc. Several viruses have been identified as the causative agents. Among these are Herpesvirus, Adenovirus, Poxvirus, and Myxovirus.
A species of the genus BRUCELLA whose natural hosts are cattle and other bovidae. Abortion and placentitis are frequently produced in the pregnant animal. Other mammals, including humans, may be infected.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.
Calcium and magnesium salts used therapeutically in hepatobiliary dysfunction.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
Infection caused by bacteria of the genus BRUCELLA mainly involving the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. This condition is characterized by fever, weakness, malaise, and weight loss.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
A genus of RETROVIRIDAE comprising endogenous sequences in mammals, related RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUSES, AVIAN, and a reptilian virus. Many species contain oncogenes and cause leukemias and sarcomas.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.
The grafting of skin in humans or animals from one site to another to replace a lost portion of the body surface skin.
Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.
Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.
Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
A heterogeneous group of infections produced by coxsackieviruses, including HERPANGINA, aseptic meningitis (MENINGITIS, ASEPTIC), a common-cold-like syndrome, a non-paralytic poliomyelitis-like syndrome, epidemic pleurodynia (PLEURODYNIA, EPIDEMIC) and a serious MYOCARDITIS.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic basis of the immune response (IMMUNITY).
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Inflammatory processes of the muscular walls of the heart (MYOCARDIUM) which result in injury to the cardiac muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Manifestations range from subclinical to sudden death (DEATH, SUDDEN). Myocarditis in association with cardiac dysfunction is classified as inflammatory CARDIOMYOPATHY usually caused by INFECTION, autoimmune diseases, or responses to toxic substances. Myocarditis is also a common cause of DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY and other cardiomyopathies.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
A superfamily of nematodes of the suborder SPIRURINA. Its organisms possess a filiform body and a mouth surrounded by papillae.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Allelic variants of the immunoglobulin light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) or heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) encoded by ALLELES of IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES.
Arrest of cell locomotion or cell division when two cells come into contact.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
The etiologic agent of rat leprosy, also known as murine leprosy.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
A disease of humans and animals that resembles GLANDERS. It is caused by BURKHOLDERIA PSEUDOMALLEI and may range from a dormant infection to a condition that causes multiple abscesses, pneumonia, and bacteremia.
A group of replication-defective viruses, in the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS, which are capable of transforming cells, but which replicate and produce tumors only in the presence of Murine leukemia viruses (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE).
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Substances that are destructive to protozoans.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
A species of PLASMODIUM causing malaria in rodents.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Surgical removal of the thymus gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Benzene derivatives which are substituted with three nitro groups in any position.
That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in non-human animals.
A genus of flagellate protozoa comprising several species that are pathogenic for humans. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and a promastigote stage in their life cycles. As a result of enzymatic studies this single genus has been divided into two subgenera: Leishmania leishmania and Leishmania viannia. Species within the Leishmania leishmania subgenus include: L. aethiopica, L. arabica, L. donovani, L. enrietti, L. gerbilli, L. hertigi, L. infantum, L. major, L. mexicana, and L. tropica. The following species are those that compose the Leishmania viannia subgenus: L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis, L. lainsoni, L. naiffi, and L. shawi.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, causing infection involving several organs in mice and rats. Murid herpesvirus is the type species.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes MELIOIDOSIS. It has been isolated from soil and water in tropical regions, particularly Southeast Asia.
The space in the eye, filled with aqueous humor, bounded anteriorly by the cornea and a small portion of the sclera and posteriorly by a small portion of the ciliary body, the iris, and that part of the crystalline lens which presents through the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p109)
Inflammation of the cornea.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Infections in animals with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.
Measure of the number of the PARASITES present in a host organism.
The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A relatively small nodular inflammatory lesion containing grouped mononuclear phagocytes, caused by infectious and noninfectious agents.
The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). Human infections are confined almost entirely to children. This parasite is commonly seen in dogs, other Canidae, and porcupines with humans considered only an accidental host. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.
The hearing and equilibrium system of the body. It consists of three parts: the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR. Sound waves are transmitted through this organ where vibration is transduced to nerve signals that pass through the ACOUSTIC NERVE to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The inner ear also contains the vestibular organ that maintains equilibrium by transducing signals to the VESTIBULAR NERVE.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Resistance to a disease agent resulting from the production of specific antibodies by the host, either after exposure to the disease or after vaccination.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.
Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.

Overexpression of NP95 mRNA by tumor promoters in the promotion phase of a two-stage BALB/3T3 cell transformation assay. (1/136)

We studied altered gene expressions in BALB/3T3 cells treated by different tumor promoters in the promotion phase of a transformation assay, an in vitro model of a two-stage carcinogenicity test, using fluorescent mRNA differential display analysis. Expression of the NP95 gene, which was previously found to be the gene of a murine nuclear protein associated with cell proliferation, was increased in the cultures treated by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), okadaic acid, and orthovanadate. The upregulation of NP95 mRNA was confirmed by reverse transcription-PCR, and Northern blot. TPA, okadaic acid, and orthovanadate enhanced cell proliferation as measured by a 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation assay. The expression level of NP95 mRNA was not affected by the treatment with typical carcinogens benzo[a]pyrene and 3-methylcholanthrene at concentrations at which they act as initiators of cell transformation. These facts may imply that the enhancement of cell transformation by these tumor promoters is due, at least in part, to the acceleration of cell proliferation. NP95 mRNA was also increased in the transformed BALB/3T3 cells. Overexpression of NP95 may also participate in the maintenance of the transformed phenotype.  (+info)

Beta-catenin inversely regulates vascular endothelial growth factor-D mRNA stability. (2/136)

The angiogenic and lymphangiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-D is the only member of the VEGF family that is not induced by hypoxia or by serum factors, but its induction is mediated by direct cell-cell contact. Here we show that VEGF-D mRNA is down-modulated either by beta-catenin mobilization from the cell membrane, by activation of the Wnt signaling pathway, or by transfection with the beta-catenin stable mutant. Down-modulation of beta-catenin by means of RNA interference showed an increase of VEGF-D mRNA steady state in fibroblasts. The beta-catenin-dependent decrease of VEGF-D mRNA is indirect and mainly due to reduced VEGF-D mRNA stability, as demonstrated by experiments of mRNA decay in the presence of transcription or translation inhibitors. By transient transfection of chimeric constructs carrying fusion of VEGF-D sequences under the control of the cytomegalovirus early promoter, we demonstrated that beta-catenin negative regulation is on the VEGF-D mRNA 3'-untranslated region. We mapped the VEGF-D mRNA-destabilizing element to a sequence, conserved between mouse and human VEGF-D, which contains an AU-rich element of group I. These results unveiled a new regulatory pathway for VEGF-D, which explains, at least in part, VEGF-D regulation in tumor progression.  (+info)

Importance of amino acids of the central portion of the second intracellular loop of the gastrin-releasing Peptide receptor for phospholipase C activation, internalization, and chronic down-regulation. (3/136)

Little is known about the function of the central portion of the second intracellular loop (i2 loop) of peptide receptors in activation of downstream pathways and receptor modulatory processes such as receptor internalization or chronic down-regulation (DR). Recent data suggest a role for i2 loop hydrophobic amino acids in these processes. We used site-directed mutagenesis to address these issues with the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRP-R). Each i2 loop residue from 142 to 148 was mutated and the receptors were expressed in Balb 3T3 cells. Two mutants showed a minimal (<2-fold) decrease in affinity. Five mutants showed decreased efficacy for activating phospholipase C (PLC). Two double mutants (IM143.147AA and VM144.147AA) showed a minimal decrease in affinity but had a decreased ability to fully activate PLC. Only the IM double mutation had decreased maximal internalization, whereas the R145A single mutant showed an increase, suggesting a tonic inhibitory role for Arg-145 in internalization. Three single and both double mutants showed decreases in receptor DR. There was a weak correlation between the extent of GRP-R internalization and the maximal PLC activation, whereas changes in the maximal PLC activation were significantly (p = 0.008) coupled to receptor DR. This study shows that amino acids of the i2 loop of the GRP-R are important in activation of PLC, internalization and down-regulation, but not for affinity. Our results support the proposal that internalization and chronic down-regulation have differing dependence on PLC and are largely independent processes, because some mutants showed no changes in internalization, but significant alterations in down-regulation.  (+info)

Synergistic regulation of the acute phase protein SIP24/24p3 by glucocorticoid and pro-inflammatory cytokines. (4/136)

SIP24/24p3 is a secreted murine acute phase protein which has been speculated to play an anti-inflammatory role in vivo. Recently SIP24/24p3 has been found to be able to specifically induce apoptosis in leukocytes. By using (35)S metabolic labeling method, we studied the regulation of SIP24/24p3 by glucocorticoid and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-alpha in cultured Balb/c 3T3 and BNL cells. The following results were observed: (1) dexamethasone induced the expression of SIP24/24p3 in both Balb/c 3T3 and BNL cells, the induction was more significant in BNL cells; (2) dexamethasone and IL-6 synergistically induced the expression of SIP24/24p3 in both Balb/c 3T3 and BNL cells; (3) in Balb/c 3T3 cells dexamethasone and TNF-alpha acted synergistically to induce the expression of SIP24/24p3, whereas in BNL cells dexamethasone and TNF-alpha induced the expression of SIP24/24p3 in an additive manner; (4) dexamethasone and IL-6/TNF-alpha acted synergistically in Balb/c 3T3 cells and additively in BNL cells to induce the expression of SIP24/24p3. The inducibility of SIP24/24p3 by multiple factors will help to explain its highly specific expression in vivo. The difference in the expression patterns of SIP24/24p3 in different cell types is also suggestive to its expression and regulation in hepatic and extrahepatic tissues. Finally, the fact that SIP24/24p3 protein can be induced by both pro-inflammatory as well as anti-inflammatory factors is indicative of the important role of SIP24/24p3 in the entire acute phase response process.  (+info)

Influence of type I collagen surface density on fibroblast spreading, motility, and contractility. (5/136)

We examine the relationships of three variables (projected area, migration speed, and traction force) at various type I collagen surface densities in a population of fibroblasts. We observe that cell area is initially an increasing function of ligand density, but that above a certain transition level, increases in surface collagen cause cell area to decline. The threshold collagen density that separates these two qualitatively different regimes, approximately 160 molecules/ microm(2), is approximately equal to the cell surface density of integrin molecules. These results suggest a model in which collagen density induces a qualitative transition in the fundamental way that fibroblasts interact with the substrate. At low density, the availability of collagen binding sites is limiting and the cells simply try to flatten as much as possible by pulling on the few available sites as hard as they can. The force per bond under these conditions approaches 100 pN, approximately equal to the force required for rupture of integrin-peptide bonds. In contrast, at high collagen density adhesion, traction force and motility are limited by the availability of free integrins on the cell surface since so many of these receptors are bound to the surface ligand and the force per bond is very low.  (+info)

Efficient replication of full-length murine leukemia viruses modified at the dimer initiation site regions. (6/136)

Retroviruses encapsidate two copies of full-length viral RNA molecules linked together as a dimeric genome. RNA stem loop structures harboring palindromic (or "kissing") loop sequences constitute important cis-elements for viral dimerization known as dimer initiation sites (DIS). In murine leukemia virus (MLV), a 10-mer and a 16-mer palindrome (DIS-1 and DIS-2, respectively) located in the viral leader region mediate dimerization in vitro and affect dimer stability of vector RNA in vivo. We have investigated the effect on viral replication of introducing deletions or nucleotide substitutions within these palindromes in a full-length MLV genome. Our results demonstrate that viruses modified at the dimer initiation site regions are viable and show wild-type levels of RNA encapsidation. One mutant lacking the DIS-1 palindrome was severely impaired and displayed an increased cellular ratio of spliced versus genomic RNA that most likely contributes to the inefficient replication. The implications for development of DIS-modified retrovirus-based vectors are discussed.  (+info)

AG490 inhibits G1-S traverse in BALB/c-3T3 cells following either mitogenic stimulation or exogenous expression of E2F-1. (7/136)

AG490, a member of the tryphostin family of protein kinase inhibitors, repressed G(0)-G(1) traverse in BALB/c-3T3 cells. While the early induction of STAT activity was repressed by AG490, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation was unaffected and a pattern of gene expression suggested that cells exited G(0) in the presence of the inhibitor. Although AG490 did not alter the induction of cyclin D1 protein, neither cyclin D1- nor cyclin D3-associated kinase activity was observed in growth-inhibited cells. Surprisingly, p130 was partially phosphorylated, and E2F3A protein was expressed in mitogen-stimulated AG490-treated cells despite the lack of cyclin D-associated kinase activity. These data suggest that AG490 inhibits a cellular pathway required for mid-G(0)-G(1) traverse that is located after the induction of early processes potentially mediated by E2F (although independent of cyclin D-associated kinase activity) but before the late G(1) increase in E2F-dependent transcription. Infection of AG490-treated cells with an E2F-1 adenovirus caused the induction of cyclin A, but could not overcome the drug-induced cell cycle arrest that was coincident with the repression of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (cdk2)-associated kinase activation. We conclude that cdk2-associated kinase activity is modulated by a cellular process repressed by AG490. Furthermore, this cdk2-associated kinase activity is required for G(0)-G(1) traverse in some role other than the regulation of E2F-dependent transcription.  (+info)

Antisense thymidylate synthase electrogene transfer to increase uptake of radiolabeled iododeoxyuridine in a murine model. (8/136)

In vitro and in vivo experiments from our laboratory and others have suggested that the combination of thymidylate synthase (TS) inhibitor and radiolabeled iododeoxyuridine (IdUrd) is synergistic. Efficacy is limited by drug resistance, which is often mediated by TS overexpression. We designed an in vivo electrogene transfer (EGT) model for delivering antisense TS plasmid (ATS) into tumor to increase the subsequent efficacy of (131)I-IdUrd therapy. METHODS: Plasmid complementary to nucleotide 531-710 in the coding region of the mouse TS (mTS) mRNA was constructed. TS activity and (131)I-IdUrd DNA incorporation were determined 48 h after in vitro EGT of ATS to CT26 cells. In vivo therapeutic effect and radioactivity retained in tumor after various combinations of EGT ATS, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and continuous infusion of (131)I-IdUrd by osmotic minipump were determined. RESULTS: A reduction of TS activity was achieved after in vitro EGT ATS. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that ATS-treated cells were arrested at S phase. In the in vivo tumor model, the combination of EGT ATS and 5-FU was able to partially overcome 5-FU drug resistance. Sixty percent of tumors can be eradicated by the combination of EGT ATS, 5-FU, and infusion of (131)I-IdUrd. The tumors treated by EGT ATS had higher radioactivity retained 1 wk after (131)I-IdUrd therapy than after EGT of control plasmid. CONCLUSION: In situ EGT ATS can downregulate TS and increase the therapeutic effect of radiolabeled IdUrd therapy. The combination of EGT ATS, 5-FU, and (131)I-IdUrd may result in tumor eradication.  (+info)

Schechtman, L M.; Kiss, E; Mccarvill, J; Gallagher, M; E, R; U; and Lubet, R A., A method for amplification of sensitivity of the c3h 10t1/2 cell transformation assay. Abstr. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 2230 ...
Mumbai, August 4tl, 2016: The Smart Weekend great deals in the the Jack port & JONES, VERO MODA and 0NLY retall NEW Concept Related Articles outlet, brou It has in fact happened at the corporate levels when a fabulous major degree professional was caught using a new machine take advantage of inside which he used to notice some other participants opening credit cards. This is in the nutsheIl what the article has been about, the business of taking care of the improving and poor the quality of life for all South Africans, thats about the long and short of it. The universe drink all will be , but over, the beginning now begins. As the incentives for remains, appreciate considerably more than best online bingo video games on Quid Bingo caused by the greatly competitive Iife of the company.. COLUMBUS, Iowa (AP) - Ohios very first gambling den has been fined $180,000 for violating talk about policies, including getting unapproved chop and upkeep cash with sectors. At this time, like we before ...
Publications. P2X7 receptor-dependent and -independent T cell death is induced by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. J Immunol. 2005 Feb 15; 174(4):1971-9. View in: PubMed. Expression of IL-10 and TNF-inhibitor genes in lacrimal gland epithelial cells suppresses their ability to activate lymphocytes. Cornea. 2002 Mar; 21(2):210-4. View in: PubMed. Effect of anti-inflammatory cytokines on the activation of lymphocytes by lacrimal gland acinar cells in an autologous mixed cell reaction. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2002; 506(Pt B):789-94. View in: PubMed. Autologous lacrimal-lymphoid mixed-cell reactions induce dacryoadenitis in rabbits. Exp Eye Res. 2000 Jul; 71(1):23-31. View in: PubMed. Lacrimal gland epithelial cells stimulate proliferation in autologous lymphocyte preparations. Exp Eye Res. 2000 Jul; 71(1):11-22. View in: PubMed. Sjögrens autoimmunity: how perturbation of recognition in endomembrane traffic may provoke pathological recognition at the cell surface. J Mol Recognit. 1998; 11(1-6):40-8. ...
post-template-default,single,single-post,postid-855,single-format-standard,ajax_fade,page_not_loaded,,qode_grid_1300,footer_responsive_adv,hide_top_bar_on_mobile_header,qode-content-sidebar-responsive,qode-child-theme-ver-,qode-theme-ver-11.0,qode-theme-bridge,wpb-js-composer js-comp-ver-,vc_ ...
Our CLIA accredited Shoreline, Washington facility employs the latest laboratory technology, advanced automation, and a dedicated research team to ensure the accuracy and reproducibility of every test. Weve applied 30+ years experience in laboratory science to refine and optimize the procedures we follow in our antibo
Anyone could give me some idea where I can find a good protocol for the transformation assay using Rat2 cells. The one you look for transformed foci. Do I need to stain the cells? Alex ...
Originally Posted by NoAddedHmones I think you guys should reconsider using Niacin as a means of improving lipid profiles, while it does increase HDL,
The 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake Phototoxicity Assay (3T3 NRU PT) can be utilized to identify the phototoxic effect of a test substance induced by the combination of test substance and light and is based on the comparison of the cytotoxic effect of a test substance when tested after the exposure and in the absence of exposure to a non-cytotoxic dose of UVA/vis light. Cytotoxicity is expressed as a concentration-dependent reduction of the uptake of the vital dye - Neutral Red. Substances that are phototoxic in vivo after systemic application and distribution to the skin, as well as compounds that could act as phototoxicants after topical application to the skin can be identified by the test. The reliability and relevance of the 3T3 NRU PT have been evaluated and has been shown to be predictive when compared with acute phototoxicity effects in vivo in animals and humans. Taken with permission from [1] ...
monolayers in Ham F-12 medium containing L-glutamine (1 mM) and sodium bicarbonate (1.5 gL-1), supplemented with 10% (v/v) heat-inactivated FBS, penicillin (100 IUmL-1) and streptomycin (100 µgmL-1) in a humidified incubator with 5% CO2 in air at 37 °C. The cell passage was maintained between 42 and 48. The medium was changed every 2 days. Confluent cultures of MRC-5 as well as AGS cells were treated with medium containing the diterpene derivatives at concentrations ranging from 0 up to 1000 µM. The products were first dissolved in DMSO and then in the corresponding culture medium supplemented with 2% FBS. The final content of DMSO in the test medium and controls was 1% (v/v). Cells were exposed for 24 h to the test medium with or without the compound (control). Each concentration was tested in quadruplicate together with the control and repeated three times in separate experiments. At the end of the incubation, the neutral red uptake (NR) assay was carried out [35]. To calculate the IC50 ...
Numerous oncogenes have been identified to cause leukemia. For example, chromosomal translocation generates various fusion genes of the mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) gene and a partner gene in leukemia, whose gene products transform primary myeloid progenitors into an immortalized state. To characterize the transforming ability of leukemic oncogenes, researchers in the field have developed an ex vivo murine myeloid transformation assay using retroviral gene transduction and its protocol has been improved over the past 10 years. Here, we provide the detailed procedure for this assay.
Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a clear water soluble liquid that can dissolve both polar and nonpolar compounds. Chemicals that are insoluble in water may require DMSO as an ideal solvent for cell permeable drugs. The disadvantage is that DMSO can affect cells, and so there must always be a parallel control setting where cells undergo treatment with everything but the chemical; also known as a vehicle control. The treatment group of cells will then be known with confidence to be chemical-dependent relative to the vehicle-dependent negative control. DMSO for cell culture should ideally be ,0.1% (avoid use greater than 1% DMSO), since DMSO is cytotoxic at higher concentrations. However this is not always realistic depending on the chemical inhibitor. Determining a vehicle (DMSO) dose/response curve (viability) can determine the best approach. Hydrophobic/polar compounds may only dissolve in DMSO, so up to 5% DMSO in the culture assay may be necessary, in which case the vehicle control is ...
Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a clear water soluble liquid that can dissolve both polar and nonpolar compounds. Chemicals that are insoluble in water may require DMSO as an ideal solvent for cell permeable drugs. The disadvantage is that DMSO can affect cells, and so there must always be a parallel control setting where cells undergo treatment with everything but the chemical; also known as a vehicle control. The treatment group of cells will then be known with confidence to be chemical-dependent relative to the vehicle-dependent negative control. DMSO for cell culture should ideally be ,0.1% (avoid use greater than 1% DMSO), since DMSO is cytotoxic at higher concentrations. However this is not always realistic depending on the chemical inhibitor. Determining a vehicle (DMSO) dose/response curve (viability) can determine the best approach. Hydrophobic/polar compounds may only dissolve in DMSO, so up to 5% DMSO in the culture assay may be necessary, in which case the vehicle control is ...
The material in this website is provided for educational and informational purposes only and is not intended as medical advice. It should not be used to diagnose or treat any illness, metabolic disorder, disease or health problem. Always consult your physician or health care provider before beginning any nutrition or exercise program. Use of the programs, advice, and information contained in this website is at the sole choice and risk of the reader.. ...
BCAR1兔单克隆抗体[EPR1860](ab92699)可与人样本反应并经WB, IP实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
Helping reduce cardiovascular risk is crucial. This may be a safer and smarter way than use of the limited statins that can by used along with antiretrovirals (ARV). However, some people have significant flushing and itching reactions; this can be offset by the use of lower doses, gradually escalating over time. Short-term effects of extended-release…
Eat this One Seed that Reduces Blood Pressure, Reduces Triglycerides, Reduces LDL, Increases HDL level & is A Powerful Anti-Oxidant.
Tumours induced by implants are well known in experiments using rats. This phenomenon is called foreign body carcinogenesis or solid state carcinogenesis. Method of test for carcinogenicity :Syrian Hamster Embryo Cell Transformation Assay. ...
Certified to BS4514 and EN1329, our soil and vent systems combine to provide one of the most comprehensive ranges available for the residential sector, providing everything you need for quick, easy installation and trouble-free performance; including push fit ring seal and solvent weld options, air admittance valves, fire protection sleeves, pan connectors, fixings and
Free flashcards to help memorize facts about Science genes. Other activities to help include hangman, crossword, word scramble, games, matching, quizes, and tests.
Aims: The rapidly growing industrial and medical use of nanomaterials, especially zinc oxide and titanium dioxide, has led to growing concerns about their toxicity. Accordingly, the intrinsic genotoxic and cytotoxic potential of these nanoparticles have been evaluated. Materials & methods: Using a HEp-2 cell line, cytotoxicity was tested along with mitochondrial activity and neutral red uptake assays. The genotoxic potential was determined using the Comet and the cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assays. In addition,tyrosine phosphorylation events were investigated. Results & conclusion: We found concentration- and time-dependent cytotoxicity and an increase in DNA and cytogenetic damage with increasing nanoparticle concentrations. Mainly for zinc oxide, genotoxicity was clearly associated with an increase in tyrosine phosphorylation. Our results suggest that both types of nanoparticles can be genotoxic over a range of concentrations without being cytotoxic ...
Although human populations may be constantly exposed to complex pesticide mixtures through their diet, the human health risk of pesticide exposure is currently assessed on the basis of toxicity data on individual compounds. To investigate the combined toxic effects of pesticide cocktails previously identified in the French diet, we first studied the cytotoxicity induced by seven cocktails composed of two to six pesticides on human hepatic (HepG2) and colon (Caco-2) cell lines using the MTT and neutral red uptake assays. Secondly, we challenged to assess the combined effects of the two most cytotoxic cocktails by comparing the measured effects of the mixtures with the predictions based on additive effects on two concepts-independent action (IA) and concentration addition (CA). For the cocktail composed of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and dieldrin, the cytotoxicity of the equimolar cocktail proved greater than the additive effect estimated by the two concepts. Furthermore, apoptosis induction was
Catalog No.: CSK1157 Kit Component Neutral red staining solution 10ml Neutral red detective solution 100ml Storage At -20? for one year. Neutral red staining
The reconstituted human epidermis model SkinEthic was used to evaluate the phototoxicity of topically applied chemicals. For comparison with published data,
Erby Walls, who responded to the email listed on ErbyGames YouTube account, confirmed that he had uploaded the video, which he said had been viewed more than three million times. He said that hed seen people on Instagram sharing photographs of Quaden in Gucci and flashing money, which is why he made the video.. He uploaded another video on Feb. 22 stating that Quaden is aged nine and apologising. The videos been viewed 31,000 times - nearly hundred times less than the original.. False information about Quaden remains all over YouTube. While searching for Quaden returns mostly videos from traditional news sources, the most-viewed videos (shared through social media channels) skew towards misinformation. Of the top 19 videos on YouTube for Quaden Bayles, nine are about rumours - and most of those are spreading hoaxes.. And its not just limited to social media. Despite the lack of convincing evidence, the New York Post published an article titled Quaden Bayles: Internet debates whether ...
How is Murine Gastrin-Releasing Peptide Receptor abbreviated? mGRPr stands for Murine Gastrin-Releasing Peptide Receptor. mGRPr is defined as Murine Gastrin-Releasing Peptide Receptor very rarely.
CircuLex Human CIRP ELISA Kit from MBL. This Kit is used for the quantitative measurement of human CIRP in cell lysate, cell culture supernatants, and other biological media.
Induction of 3 populations of MCs in lung of BALB/c mice 1 to 14 days after challenges. BALB/c mice were sensitized and either not challenged (NC) or challenged
ACuteTox is a project within the 6th European Framework Programme which had as one of its goals to develop, optimise and prevalidate a non-animal testing strategy for predicting human acute oral toxicity. In its last 6 months, a challenging exercise was conducted to assess the predictive capacity of the developed testing strategies and final identification of the most promising ones. Thirty-two chemicals were tested blind in the battery of in vitro and in silico methods selected during the first phase of the project. This paper describes the classification approaches studied: single step procedures and two step tiered testing strategies. In summary, four in vitro testing strategies were proposed as best performing in terms of predictive capacity with respect to the European acute oral toxicity classification. In addition, a heuristic testing strategy is suggested that combines the prediction results gained from the neutral red uptake assay performed in 3T3 cells, with information on ...
In the present study, the effects of both decreased pH values and increased temperature on the important immune parameters of two bivalve species were evaluated for the first time. The clam Chamelea gallina and the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, widespread along the coast of the Northwestern Adriatic Sea, were chosen as model organisms. Bivalves were exposed for 7 days to three pH values (8.1, 7.7 and 7.4) at two temperatures (22 and 28C). Three independent experiments were carried out at salinities of 28, 34 and 40 PSU. The total haemocyte count, Neutral Red uptake, haemolymph lysozyme activity and total protein levels were measured ...
The genotoxic potential of acrylamide monomer (AA), a compound familiar as a raw material of polyacrylamide electrophoresis gel, was extensively investigated in vitro. The results were clear cut: AA did not induce any gene mutations in Salmonella/microsome test systems (TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537), Escherichia coli/microsome assay (WP2 uvrA-) up to a dose of 50 mg AA/plate, or in HPRT-locus in Chinese hamster V79H3 cells (AA, 1-7 mM, 24 h treatment). On the other hand, AA showed a strong positive response: (a) in a Bacillus subtilis spore-rec assay (DNA damage) at 10-50 mg/disc, (b) to a chromosomal structural change test (AA, 2-5 mM, 24 h treatment), (c) to a polyploidy test (AA, 1-5 mM, 24 h treatment) in Chinese hamster V79H3 cells, (d) to a cell transformation assay in mouse BALB/c3T3 cells (AA, 1-2 mM, 72 h treatment). Sister chromatid exchange was also weakly but significantly induced by AA (AA, 1-2.5 mM, 24 h treatment) in Chinese hamster V79H3 cells. Carcinogenic potential of AA was ...
Sooner or later, your doctor will probably talk to you about your cholesterol level. Its important to have healthy levels of both HDL and LDL cholesterol. High levels of HDL, or the good cholesterol, can help decrease LDL, the bad cholesterol, and decrease your risk of a heart attack. Read on to learn more.
When we think of good cholesterol foods, we typically think of those that will not contribute to an increase in cholesterol levels but help to lower them.
Abstract: Evaluation of Haematological Changes in Plasmodium-berghei-infected Mice Administered with Aqueous Extract of Phyllantus amarus
Complete information for MIXL1 gene (Protein Coding), Mix Paired-Like Homeobox, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Contact Us. Tel:732-484-9848. Fax:888-484-5008. Email:[email protected]. Add:1 Deer Park Dr, Suite Q,. Monmouth Junction, NJ 08852, USA. ...
West African jade semiprecious stone beads are a deep green color and nephrite jade in a variety of shapes and sizes and are for sale online in the natural gemstone section at the Harlequin Beads and Jewelry bead store. Choose from round, oval and more st West African Jade
Neutral Red Indicator, Analytical Reagent, CAS Number: 553-24-2, (C.I. No.50040), Dye Content: Min. 90%, Buy online at Excichem.com. Distributor & Suppliers of Laboratory Chemicals in UK & Europe.
CircuLex Human CIRP ELISA Kit from MBL. This Kit is used for the quantitative measurement of human CIRP in cell lysate, cell culture supernatants, and other biological media.
Complete information for BCAR1 gene (Protein Coding), BCAR1, Cas Family Scaffolding Protein, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Platelet-derived growth factor-induced alterations in vinculin and actin distribution in BALB/c-3T3 cells. J Cell Biol. 1985 ... An ordered sequence of events is required before BALB/c-3T3 cells become committed to DNA synthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. ... Induction of DNA synthesis in BALB/c 3T3 cells by serum components: reevaluation of the commitment process. Proc Natl Acad Sci ... addition of platelet factor and plasma to BALB/c 3T3 fibroblast cultures stimulates somatomedin-C binding early in cell cycle. ...
... l cells MeSH A11.329.228.900 - 3t3 cells MeSH A11.329.228.900.080 - balb 3t3 cells MeSH A11.329.228.900.550 - nih 3t3 cells ... l cells (cell line) MeSH A11.251.210.520 - llc-pk1 cells MeSH A11.251.210.700 - 3t3 cells MeSH A11.251.210.700.080 - balb 3t3 ... nih 3t3 cells MeSH A11.251.210.700.775 - Swiss 3t3 cells MeSH A11.251.210.700.775.800 - 3t3-l1 cells MeSH A11.251.210.955 - ... Swiss 3t3 cells MeSH A11.329.228.900.775.800 - 3t3-l1 cells MeSH A11.329.228.950 - mesangial cells MeSH A11.329.372.300 - ...
... used as a model of adipogenesis NIH-3T3, also from Swiss albino mice BALB/c-3T3 clone A31, from BALB/c mice Swiss 3T3 can be ... 3T3 cells are several cell lines of mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The original 3T3 cell line (3T3-Swiss albino) was established ... Cellosaurus entry for 3T3 Nikon MicroscopyU Digital Video Gallery: 3T3 Cell Motility - a set of films of 3T3 cells in culture v ... 3T3' cells. Since then, several cell lines have been established with this procotol: 3T3-Swiss albino, the original 1962 cell ...
Cobb MH, Rosen OM (October 1983). "Description of a protein kinase derived from insulin-treated 3T3-L1 cells that catalyzes the ... "Immunohistochemical characterisation of cell-type specific expression of CK1delta in various tissues of young adult BALB/c mice ... Treatment of cancer cells with peptide δ-361 finally resulted to microtubule destabilization and cell death. Fine-mapping of ... Cell. 151 (7): 1443-56. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2012.11.027. PMID 23245942. Heallen T, Zhang M, Wang J, Bonilla-Claudio M, Klysik E ...
In vitro studies on differentiation have used the pre-committed preadipocyte lineage, such as 3T3-L1 and 3T3-F442A cell line, ... Aaronson SA, Todaro GJ (October 1968). "Development of 3T3-like lines from Balb-c mouse embryo cultures: transformation ... Green H, Kehinde O (28 February 1974). "Sublines of mouse 3T3 cells that accumulate lipid". Cell. 1 (3): 113-116. doi:10.1016/ ... PPARγ is necessary and sufficient to promote fat cell differentiation. PPARγ is required for embryonic stem cells (ES cells) ...
Garg, UC; Hasid, A (August 1990). "Nitric oxide-generating vasodilators inhibit mitogenesis and proliferation of BALB/C 3T3 ... Pawloski, JR; Hess, DT; Stamler, JS (2005-02-15). "Impaired vasodilation by red blood cells in sickle cell disease". Proc Natl ... NO gas released from blood vessel endothelial cells travels into surrounding vascular smooth muscle cells to vasodilate ... Cell. 176 (5): 1014-1025. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2019.01.037. PMC 6559381. PMID 30794773. Stamler, JS; Jia, L; Eu, JP; McMahon, TJ ...
2009). "Human eosinophil cationic protein enhances stress fiber formation in Balb/c 3T3 fibroblasts and differentiation of rat ... ECP is also toxic to neurons, some epithelial cell lines, and isolated myocardial cells. This could be a reason for itching ... Mature ECP is cytotoxic to human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells by specific binding to cell surface heparan sulfate ... Ali S, Kaur J, Patel KD (July 2000). "Intercellular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1, Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1, and Regulated ...
Disease relevance of BALB 3T3 Cells. *Loss of Fv-1 restriction in Balb/3T3 cells following infection with a single N tropic ... Biological context of BALB 3T3 Cells. *Infection of BALB/c 3T3 cells with the Smith strain of MCMV resulted in strong down- ... expressed in murine BALB/c 3T3 cells [10].. *PLAGL2 mRNA was induced in RAW264.7 cells, mouse erythroleukemia cells and Balb/c ... gene family in Balb/c-3T3 cells [6].. *The colony-forming response of SV40 transformed BALB/c-3T3 cells in agarose suspension ...
Proto-oncogene activation and genomic instability of cadmium-induced cell transformation in BALB/c-3T3 cells.. ... and point mutation of cancer-related genes associated with Cd-induced cell transformation in BALB/c-3T3 cells were studied. Six ... Among 10 Cd-induced transformed cell lines, significant gene amplification was found for c-myc and c-jun in 50% and 80% of the ... These results suggest that cell transformation induced by Cd may be attributed, at least in part, to gene amplification of c- ...
That the tumors were derived from BALB/3T3 cells and not host cells was proved when tumors arising in BALB/c × C57BL/6 F1 ... Vasoformative Sarcomas Arising from BALB/3T3 Cells Attached to Solid Substrates. Charles W. Boone, Noritoshi Takeichi, Meera ... Vasoformative Sarcomas Arising from BALB/3T3 Cells Attached to Solid Substrates. Charles W. Boone, Noritoshi Takeichi, Meera ... Vasoformative Sarcomas Arising from BALB/3T3 Cells Attached to Solid Substrates. Charles W. Boone, Noritoshi Takeichi, Meera ...
The kinetics of acidification of diferric human transferrin in BALB/c mouse 3T3 cells were determined by flow cytometry using a ... High-resolution kinetics of transferrin acidification in BALB/c 3T3 cells: exposure to pH 6 followed by temperature-sensitive ... High-resolution kinetics of transferrin acidification in BALB/c 3T3 cells: exposure to pH 6 followed by temperature-sensitive ... High-resolution kinetics of transferrin acidification in BALB/c 3T3 cells: exposure to pH 6 followed by temperature-sensitive ...
BALB 3T3 Cells Remove constraint Subject: BALB 3T3 Cells ... Lab notes on transformation of BALB 3T3 Date:. [9-21 March 1971 ...
... on cell cycle progression of BALB/c 3T3 mouse cells under different growth conditions. Both drug series were found to stop cell ... Differential Effects of Ellipticine and AZA-Analogue Derivatives on Cell Cycle Progression and Survival of BALB/c 3T3 Cells ... Differential Effects of Ellipticine and AZA-Analogue Derivatives on Cell Cycle Progression and Survival of BALB/c 3T3 Cells ... Differential Effects of Ellipticine and AZA-Analogue Derivatives on Cell Cycle Progression and Survival of BALB/c 3T3 Cells ...
Cell culture products Cell lines Cell separation Cloning Custom Service EIA Electrophoresis ELISA ELISPOT Enzyme/Substrate FISH ... BALB/3T3 clone A31 Cell Line, BioGenomics. Catalog Number. Pack Size. List Price*. Quantity. ... Cell culture & Media. Custom Products & Services. Electrophoresis. Instruments & Devices. Kits / Assays. New Products. ...
Balb), murine embryo lysate Cell/Tissue Protein Lysate MCL-1212 Mouse 3T3 (Balb), murine embryo lysate Cell/Tissue Protein ... MCLS-17201; NIH/3T3 BALB Cell Slide (Fibroblast from 14- to 17-day-old BALB/c mouse embryos) (5 slides/pk). ... Balb), murine embryo lysate (Cell/Tissue Protein Lysate) Mouse 3T3 (Balb), murine embryo lysate. ... Mouse 3T3 (Balb), murine embryo lysate. Cell/Tissue Protein Lysate. 100ug. $135.00 ...
Cell No. : Cell Name RCB0005 : BALB/3T3 clone A31 update : 2020/09/24 ... 787 Green,H. and Kehinde,O. Sublines of mouse 3T3 cells that accumulate lipid. Cell 1974 1:113-116 ... Expression of calcium-permeable cation channel CD20 accelerates progression through the G1 phase in Balb/c 3T3 cells. J Biol ... Development of 3T3-like lines from Balb-c mouse embryo cultures: transformation susceptibility to SV40. J Cell Physiol 1968 72: ...
"Spontaneous" Release of Type C Viruses from Clonal Lines of "Spontaneously" Transformed Balb/3T3 Cells *GEORGE J. TODARO ... Transformed Balb/3T3 Cells . Opens in a new window. ... Rights & permissionsfor article Structural basis for delta cell ... Cell Death and Differentiation , 1-17 Rights & permissionsfor article A functional genetic screen defines the AKT-induced ... IMMUNOGENICITY OF A PNEUMOCOCCAL PROTEIN CONJUGATE VACCINE IN INFANTS WITH SICKLE CELL DISEASE. ▴ 946 *Katherine L OBrien ...
Morphological transformation induced by silver nanoparticles in Balb/c 3T3 A31-1-1 mouse cell model to evaluate in vitro ... Therefore, we carried out CTA in Balb/c 3T3 A31-1-1 cells to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of silver nanoparticle (AgNPs ... Cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN) and CTA in Balb/c 3T3 A31-1-1 cells were performed to predict in vitro carcinogenic ... Morphological transformation induced by silver nanoparticles in Balb/c 3T3 A31-1-1 mouse cell model to evaluate in vitro ...
The Balb/c 3T3 A31-1-1 cells were seeded onto 8-well chamber slides (4 × 104 cells/well) and cultured for 24 hours. The cells ... Cell Culture Conditions. Balb/c 3T3 A31-1-1 cells were purchased from the Japanese Collection of Research Bioresources Cell ... Keywords: Silver nanoparticles, Cell transformation assay, In vitro carcinogenic potential, Balb/c 3T3 A31-1-1 cells ... Cell Transformation Assay. Balb/c 3T3 A31-1-1 cells (passage 10) at approximately 80% confluency were trypsinized and suspended ...
Mouse BALB/c-3T3 cells. Transformed cells injected into nude mice, cell lines derived from resulting tumors ... BeSO4 inhibited cell division during G1 phase of cell cycle, but expression of c-myc was maintained in serum-stimulated cells ... Lung neoplasms (18 adenomas, five squamous-cell carcinomas, 11 papillary adenocarcinomas, and seven alveolar-cell ... mammalian cells cultured with beryllium chloride (Vegni-Talluri and Guiggiani 1967; Hsie et al. 1979; Miyaki et al. 1979) and ...
We have discovered an inhibitor of Rho-kinase (ROCK) through an image-based, high-throughput screen of cell monolayer wound ... BALB 3T3 Cells * Cell Movement / drug effects* * Cell Movement / physiology * Dose-Response Relationship, Drug ... we screened a library of approximately 16,000 compounds finding many that affected cell migration or cell morphology as well as ... Screening for cell migration inhibitors via automated microscopy reveals a Rho-kinase inhibitor Chem Biol. 2005 Mar;12(3):385- ...
Mice, Inbred BALB C * NIH 3T3 Cells * Neurons / cytology * Neurons / drug effects* ... Lithium treatment elongates primary cilia in the mouse brain and in cultured cells Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009 Oct 30;388( ... Here we show that lithium treatment elongates primary cilia in the mouse brain and in cultured cells. Brain sections from mice ... Moreover, lithium-treated NIH3T3 cells and cultured striatal neurons exhibited elongation of the primary cilia. The present ...
... malignant transformation assay in BALB/3T3 cells; unscheduled DNA synthesis in rat primary hepatocytes; chromosomal aberrations ... The increased incidence of thyroid follicular cell neoplasm in male rats with fluvastatin sodium appears to be consistent with ... The inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis reduces the cholesterol in hepatic cells, which stimulates the synthesis of LDL ... In addition, an increased incidence of thyroid follicular cell adenomas and carcinomas was recorded for males treated with 18- ...
Determined by a cell proliferation assay using balb/c 3T3 cells. The expected ED50 is ≤ 0.1 ng/mL, in the presence of 10 µg/mL ... Determined by a cell proliferation assay using balb/c 3T3 cells. The expected ED50 is ≤ 0.1 ng/mL, in the presence of 10 µg/mL ... 95%, Determined by a cell proliferation assay using balb/c 3T3 cells. The expected ED50 is ≤ 0.1 ng/mL, in the presence of 10 ... Angiogenesis/Cardiovascular; Cancer; Cell Culture; FGF Superfamily; Neurobiology; Proliferation; Stem Cells & Differentiation; ...
The use of human cells for the evaluation of risk from physical and chemical agents, sponsored by NATO and organized by ENEA. ... In Vitro Studies on Chemical Carcinogenesis in BALB/c 3T3 Cells. Cortesi, Enrico ... Emphasis has been given to the use of human cells or human data in order to attempt to have a correct and realistic evaluation ... The Use of Human Cells for the Evaluation of Risk from Physical and Chemical Agents. Editors. * Amleto Castellani ...
149 Validation Report of the Balb/c 3T3 Cell Transformation Assay (2011) ... 147 Syrian Hamster Embryonic (SHE) Cell PH 7.0 Cell Transformation Assay Prevalidation Study Report (2011) ... 146 Syrian Hamster Embryonic (SHE) Cell PH 6.7 Cell Transformation Assay Prevalidation Study Report (2011) ... 208 BHAS 42 Cell Transformation Assay Validation Study Report. No 207 New Scoping Document on in vitro and ex vivo Assays for ...
... malignant transformation assay in BALB/3T3 cells; unscheduled DNA synthesis in rat primary hepatocytes; chromosomal aberrations ... The increased incidence of thyroid follicular cell neoplasm in male rats with fluvastatin sodium appears to be consistent with ... In addition, an increased incidence of thyroid follicular cell adenomas and carcinomas was recorded for males treated with 18- ... The inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis reduces the cholesterol in hepatic cells, which stimulates the synthesis of LDL ...
BALB/3T3 whole cell lysate (ab7901) Applications. Our Abpromise guarantee covers the use of ab12195 in the following tested ... Cell Biology. Epigenetics. Metabolism. Developmental Biology. By research area. Immunology. Microbiology. Neuroscience. Signal ... Cell and tissue imaging tools. Cellular and biochemical assays. By product type. Proteins and Peptides. Proteomics tools. ...
Overexpression of vinculin suppresses cell motility in BALB/c 3T3 cells. Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton. 22 (2):127-134. ... A chimeric N-cadherin/beta 1-integrin receptor which localizes to both cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesions. Journal of Cell ... Long-range and selective autoregulation of cell-cell or cell-matrix adhesions by cadherin or integrin ligands. Journal of Cell ... "Cell sensing and signaling via cell-cell adhesions". Experimental Cell Research. 358 (1):1-2. ...
Non-transformed BALB/c-3T3 cells and cells from 10 transformed cell lines induced by CdCl(2) were injected into both axillary ... and the transformed cells induced by CdCl(2) can form tumors in nude mice. BALB/c-3T3 cells were treated with different ... Cell transformation; Gene transfection; Tumorigenicity; Cadmium chloride; BALB/c-3T3 cells ... Within this time period, no tumors were found in nude mice injected with non-transformed BALB/c-3T3 cells. These results ...
BALB/c-3T3 subclone A31-1-13 cells were seeded at a density of about 10(6) cells/dish and exposed to the chemicals for various ... Mammalian-cells; Tobacco-smoke; Author Keywords: Micronucleus assay; Metabolic activation; BALB/c-3T3 cell; Benzo[a]pyrene; ... The authors conclude that BALB/c-3T3 cells are capable of activating all the tested chemicals to act as procarcinogens and ... Induction of micronuclei in BALB/c-3T3 cells by selected chemicals and complex mixtures. ...
B-3T3, BALB 3T3 cells; N-3T3, NIH 3T3 cells; DMEM, Dulbeccos modified Eagle medium; FACS, fluorescence-activated cell sorter; ... Transduction assay on B-3T3 and N-3T3 cells. (A) Transduction of B-3T3 cells with Fv1b (left) and transduction of N-3T3 cells ... 1977) Loss of Fv-1 restriction in Balb/3T3 cells following infection with a single N tropic murine leukemia particle. Cell 10: ... Cells and viruses.Cell lines from murine fibroblasts (Mus dunni, B-3T3, and N-3T3) and mink lung epithelia (ATCC CCL-64) were ...
... lymphoma cells. It did not induce tranformation of BALB/c 3T3 cells. Contradictory results have been reported concerning the ... mouse embryo cells initiated with 3-methylcholanthrene in two-stage transformation assays. Results obtained with rodent cell ... In one study in rats, transitional-cell carcinomas in the bladder were produced in male animals given the highest dose; in two ... Treatment of mice with saccharin did not induce micronuclei or chromosomal aberrations in bone-marrow cells or spermatocytes; ...
... c-fos and c-jun were higher in the tumor cells compared to those of the control Balb/c-3T3 cells. In contrast, p16 exhibited a ... BALB/c-3T3 cells, morphologically transformed with beryllium, were subcutaneously injected into nude mice to develop tumors. ... DNA and ANA isolated from cell lines derived from the tumors were used to determine the alterations of various cancer-related ... Tumors; Beryllium-compounds; Cell-transformation; Cancer; Genes; Workers; Occupational-exposure; Metals; Toxic-effects; ...
3T3/BALB Cell Slide (1) * 3T3/NIH Cell Slide (1) * A-20 Cell Slide (1) ...
Order a variety of cell slides for microscopes by Cell Line. Purchase high performance antibodies and more for research online ... 3T3/BALB Cell Slide Catalog Number: 17-201 By Type: Cell Line ...
  • The vasoformative pattern and the results of specific staining for reticulin and collagen support the likelihood that BALB/3T3 cells originated from endothelial cells rather than from fibroblasts. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Buckley s formocresol (FC), 20% diluted formocresol (FCD), calcium hydroxide P.A. (HC), 15,5% ferric sulfate solution (SF) and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) were tested on Balb-c 3T3 mouse fibroblasts. (usp.br)
  • Using insect cells infected with baculovirus vectors and NIH 3T3 fibroblasts infected with ARF retrovirus, we determined that mouse p19 ARF can interact directly with p53, as well as with the p53 regulator mdm2. (pnas.org)
  • Surprisingly, when overexpressed at supra-physiologic levels after introduction into ARF -null NIH 3T3 cells or mouse embryo fibroblasts, the p53 protein is handicapped in inducing this checkpoint response. (pnas.org)
  • The recognition of the importance of Rous's discovery after such a long delay was largely owing to the cell transformation assay in monolayer culture of chick embryo fibroblasts reported by Temin & Rubin [ 7 ] in 1958 which enabled quantitative experimental studies of virus replication and cell transformation. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Using site-directed mutagenesis and an expression system reproducing c-fos gene transient expression in transfected cells, we have analysed the turnover of c-Fos mutants deleted of the various PEST sequences in synchronized mouse embryo fibroblasts. (cnrs.fr)
  • Fibroblast-dependent proliferation of mast cells is mediated by stem cell factor (SCF) produced by fibroblasts and c-kit receptor (KIT) expressed on the surface of mast cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Human eosinophil cationic protein enhances stress fiber formation in Balb/c 3T3 fibroblasts and differentiation of rat neonatal cardiomyocytes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We found that eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) stimulated the growth of mouse Balb/c 3T3 fibroblasts. (semanticscholar.org)
  • HB-EGF is an EGF related growth factor which signals via the EGF receptor, and stimulates the proliferation of SMC (smooth muscle cells), fibroblasts, epithelial cells and keratinocytes. (prospecbio.com)
  • In accordance, appropriate cell lines for use in cytotoxicity and tolerance tests concerning the skin would be human dermal fibroblasts and human epidermal keratinocytes, as they take an active part in the immune response, inflammatory processes, and wound healing. (egms.de)
  • In vivo genomic footprinting (IVGF) of the upstream flanking DNA of the MCP-1 gene in both resting and TNF-treated BALB/3T3 murine fibroblasts ( 4 ) showed that TNF induced multiple DMS-resistant and DMS-hypersensitive bases in two regions: a distal regulatory region and a proximal regulatory region. (jimmunol.org)
  • In the mouse, differential mRNA processing within the st2 gene leads to the production of both a membrane-bound form of ST2 expressed primarily by hemopoietic cells (ST2L) and a soluble form of ST2 predominantly expressed by fibroblasts (sST2) 4 ( 10 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • In vitro cell transformation assay (CTA) can provide specific and sensitive evidence to predict the tumorigenic potential of a chemical, which cannot be supplied by genotoxicity testing. (scicombinator.com)
  • Cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN) and CTA in Balb/c 3T3 A31-1-1 cells were performed to predict in vitro carcinogenic potential of AgNPs. (scicombinator.com)
  • In CTA assay to assess carcinogenic potential of AgNPs, cells exposed to AgNPs for 72 h significantly induced morphological neoplastic transformation at all treated doses (0.17, 0.66, 2.65, 5.3, and 10.6 ug/mL) and Tf (transformation frequency) showed a significant increase in a dose-dependent manner. (scicombinator.com)
  • 95%, Determined by a cell proliferation assay using balb/c 3T3 cells. (mpbio.com)
  • DNAs from five CdCl(2)-induced transformed cell lines were isolated and gene transfection assay was performed using NIH-3T3 cells. (cdc.gov)
  • and a primary DNA damage assay (i.e., unscheduled DNA synthesis assay in A549 human cells) (negative). (drugs.com)
  • Kerckaert GA, LeBoeuf RA, Isfort RJ (1998) Assessing the predictiveness of the Syrian hamster embryo cell transformation assay for determining the rodent carcinogenic potential of single ring aromatic/nitroaromatic amine compounds . (springer.com)
  • The biological activity is measured in a proliferation assay using BALB/MK cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • A small selection - Pico Green DNA Cell Proliferation Assay, ATPLite™ Luminescence ATP Detection Assay, BC Assay: protein quantitation kit, AlamarBlue™ Proliferation Assay and Live/Dead Staining with SYTO-13 and EthD-2 - are discussed concerning sensitivity, reliability and applicability. (egms.de)
  • In CHO cells the test substance was mutagenic in the chromosome aberration assay with metabolic activation at cytotoxic concentrations. (europa.eu)
  • In vitro study on immortalized fibroblast cell line Balb-c 3T3. (usp.br)
  • however, most of these active fractions were also found to inhibit the growth of non-tumorigenic Bagg Albino (BALB)/c 3T3 mouse fibroblast cell line [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Measured by its ability to neutralize TGF‑ alpha -induced proliferation in the Balb/3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line. (rndsystems.com)
  • Recombinant Human TGF‑ alpha (Catalog # 239-A ) stimulates proliferation in the Balb/3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line in a dose-dependent manner (orange line). (rndsystems.com)
  • These results indicated that short-term exposure (72 h) to AgNPs had in vitro carcinogenetic potency in Balb/c 3T3 A31-1-1 cells. (scicombinator.com)
  • Metzler J. T. In vitro inhibition of mammary cell growth by lactoferrin: a comparative study. (springer.com)
  • Chinese hamster ovary cell extracts also supported SV40 DNA replication in vitro, but the extent of replication was approximately 1% of that observed with human or monkey cell extracts. (uniprot.org)
  • The ability of these extracts to support replication in vitro closely parallels the ability of the same cells to support replication in vivo. (uniprot.org)
  • Elevated expression of pp60c-src alters a selective morphogenetic property of epithelial cells in vitro without a mitogenic effect. (asm.org)
  • In Vitro Cell. (nii.ac.jp)
  • We have investigated the application of a computerized image analysing system to determine transformed colonies after in vitro cultivation of epithelial canine kidney cells. (springer.com)
  • Chen TT, Heidelberger C (1969) Quantitative studies on malignant transformation of mouse prostate cells by carcinogenic hydrocarbons in vitro . (springer.com)
  • Jones PA, Laug WE, Gardner A, Nye CA, Fink LM, Benedict WF (1976b) In vitro correlates of transformation in C3H/10T1/2 clone 8 mouse cells . (springer.com)
  • All the synthesized compounds have been tested in vitro to evaluate their cytotoxicity toward A549, MCF-7, LoVo, LoVo/DX and BALB/3T3 cell lines. (mdpi.com)
  • This study aimed to evaluate in vitro anti-leukemic activity of dichloromethane extract/fraction number 7 (DCM/F7) from T. flagelliforme tuber on human T4 lymphoblastoid (CEMss) cell line. (hindawi.com)
  • A previous study had reported that the hexane extract of T. flagelliforme displayed poor cytotoxic activity against in vitro P388 murine leukemia cells [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In vitro, L is required for viral propagation in L929 cells but not in BHK-21 cells. (asm.org)
  • Nevertheless, the general opinion is that toxicity tests in vitro will be more convincing when performed with cells that are homologous with the human tissue concerned. (egms.de)
  • The evaluation of the in vitro cytotoxicity of a biomaterial is often a qualitative analysis based on the morphological examination of cell damage and growth after direct or indirect contact with the material. (egms.de)
  • Spleen cells from the sST2-Fc-treated mice produced significantly less IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-12 compared with cells from the control mice when cultured with collagen in vitro. (jimmunol.org)
  • The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION. (slicksurface.com)
  • That the tumors were derived from BALB/3T3 cells and not host cells was proved when tumors arising in BALB/c × C57BL/6 F 1 hybrids were shown to be transplantable to BALB/c but not to C57BL/6 mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Studies have been performed to determine if cadmium chloride (CdCl(2)) can induce morphological cell transformation, DNA from CdCl(2)-induced transformed cells can transform other mammalian cells, and the transformed cells induced by CdCl(2) can form tumors in nude mice. (cdc.gov)
  • Non-transformed BALB/c-3T3 cells and cells from 10 transformed cell lines induced by CdCl(2) were injected into both axillary regions of nude mice. (cdc.gov)
  • All 10 CdCl(2)-induced transformed cell lines formed fibrosarcomas in nude mice within 39 days of inoculation. (cdc.gov)
  • Within this time period, no tumors were found in nude mice injected with non-transformed BALB/c-3T3 cells. (cdc.gov)
  • Early studies showed that murine leukemia viruses could be subdivided into three categories based on their ability to replicate on cells derived from the embryos of different strains of mice ( 16 ). (asm.org)
  • The NB-tropic viruses appear unaffected by Fv1 , since they grow equally well in mice carrying either allele of Fv1 or in cells derived from them. (asm.org)
  • BALB/c-3T3 cells, morphologically transformed with beryllium, were subcutaneously injected into nude mice to develop tumors. (cdc.gov)
  • Treatment of BALB/c mice with a neutralizing anti-NKG2D antibody before infection increased titers of Δm152 virus in the spleen and liver to levels seen with wild-type virus. (rupress.org)
  • NKG2D, an activating receptor expressed on NK cells, CD8 + T cells, and γδ T cells in humans and mice, associates with the adaptor protein DAP10, which contains a YXXM motif for binding of the p85 subunit of PI-3 kinase ( 11 ). (rupress.org)
  • In mice, an isoform of NKG2D on activated NK cells can also associate with the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif-bearing DAP12 adaptor protein ( 12 ). (rupress.org)
  • Since KIT was not transcribed in cultured mast cells derived from the bone marrow of Wsh/Wsh mice, the Wsh mutation was considered to be a mutation at the regulatory region. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Since KIT was transcribed in erythroblasts and germ cells of Wsh/Wsh mice, the abnormality of KIT transcription appeared to be cell type specific. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Moreover, we found the KIT transcription was influenced by the age in mast cells of Wsh/Wsh mice. (nii.ac.jp)
  • We demonstrated that the phenotypic abnormalities observed in mast cells of mi/mi mice was attributable to the deficeint transcription of various proteins. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Tono,Toshiharu: 'c-kit gene was not transcribed in cultured mast cells of mast cell-deficient Wsh/Wsh mice that have normal number of erythrocytes and normal c-kit coding region. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Skin tumors induced by the subcutaneous injection of 3 - methylcholanthrene (3-MC) in New Zealand Black (NZB) mice had a delayed development and lower frequency compared with BALB/c and C57BL mice. (worldwidescience.org)
  • more than one third of the tumors in the NZB mice were squamous cell carcinomas. (worldwidescience.org)
  • Regulation of sST2/ST2L expression between mice and humans appears to be conserved, because two promoters also control ST2/ST2L expression in human cells ( 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Neurogenesis in the developing cerebral cortex of mice occurs in the dorsal telencephalon between embryonic day 11 (E11) and E17, during which time the majority of cortical projection neurons and some glia are produced from proliferating neuroepithelial cells in the ventricular zone. (jneurosci.org)
  • These Tg mice have been shown to exhibit increased cell number in the cortical plate by E16 and increased numbers of neurons and glia in the cerebral cortex during postnatal development. (jneurosci.org)
  • these mice provide a unique opportunity to study the in vivo role of IGF-I in controlling cell cycle kinetics in the embryonic brain. (jneurosci.org)
  • FGF-acidic is a non-glycosylated heparin binding growth factor that is expressed in the brain, kidney, retina, smooth muscle cells, bone matrix, osteoblasts, astrocytes and endothelial cells. (mpbio.com)
  • Porcine aortic endothelial cell, double-labeled for actin (green) and phospho-tyrosine (red). (weizmann.ac.il)
  • FGF-2 is a basic heparin binding growth factor that stimulates the proliferation of a wide variety of cells including mesenchymal, neuroectodermal and endothelial cells. (novusbio.com)
  • Many of the local actions of snake venoms are mediated by a direct action on skeletal and vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, macrophages, neutrophils, mast cells, and platelets (17). (scielo.br)
  • HB-EGF is expressed in various cell types and tissues, including vascular endothelial cells and SMC, macrophages, skeletal muscle, keratinocytes and particular tumor cells. (prospecbio.com)
  • Human FGF-19 is a recombinant protein optimized for use in cell culture, differentiation studies, and functional assays. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Both talin (−/−) ES cell mutants formed embryoid bodies, but differentiation was restricted to two morphologically distinct cell types. (rupress.org)
  • One of the pathways signalling apoptosis is controlled by the small GTPases of the Rho family, also involved in cell proliferation, differentiation and motility. (cnrs.fr)
  • FGF-basic is involved in a number of biological processes, including embryonic development and differentiation, neuron differentiation, survival, regeneration, and the proliferation of cells of mesodermal origin and many cells of neuroectodermal, ectodermal, and endodermal origin. (fishersci.ca)
  • Distinct regulatory functions of calpain 1 and 2 during neural stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. (peprotech.com)
  • Chemokines and inflammatory mediators interact to regulate adult murine neural precursor cell proliferation, survival and differentiation. (peprotech.com)
  • The calcium signal for BALB/MK keratinocyte terminal differentiation counteracts epidermal growth factor (EGF) very early in the EGF-induced proliferative pathway. (asm.org)
  • Cells showed equivalent potential to undergo undirected differentiation as compared to native bFGF, measured by markers MAP2 (neuron), GFAP (astrocytes) and GALC (oligodendrocytes). (thermofisher.com)
  • and the role of cell membrane and related subcellular elements in the control of proliferation, differentiation, and cell cycle kinetics. (elsevier.com)
  • Holo-rhLF was further tested on hybridoma, osteoblast, and human embryonic kidney cells. (springer.com)
  • A homozygous mutant embryonic stem cell bank applicable for phenotype-driven genetic screening. (peprotech.com)
  • Attenuation of extrinsic signaling reveals the importance of matrix remodeling on maintenance of embryonic stem cell self-renewal. (peprotech.com)
  • IGF-I and its cell surface receptor, IGF1R (the type 1 IGF receptor), are expressed throughout the brain during embryonic development (Bondy et al. (jneurosci.org)
  • but the influence of IGF-I on cell cycle kinetics in the embryonic brain has not been studied. (jneurosci.org)
  • We have compared the effects of ellipticine, several of its analogues, and two aza-analogue ellipticine derivatives (BD-40 and BR-1376) on cell cycle progression of BALB/c 3T3 mouse cells under different growth conditions. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Promotion and progression occur via non-genotoxic mechanisms that cause growth alterations and culminate in cells that are able to form malignant tumors [ 7 ]. (e-eht.org)
  • Using automated microscopy, we screened a library of approximately 16,000 compounds finding many that affected cell migration or cell morphology as well as compounds that blocked mitotic progression. (nih.gov)
  • Pledger's research focuses on the mechanisms governing cell cycle progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • His current projects address the impact of signal transduction pathway inhibition on CRC tumor cell survival, and the hallmarks of cancer during the evolution of tumor progression seeking to find new therapeutic avenues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulation of apoptosis by low serum in cells of different stages of neoplastic progression: enhanced susceptibility after loss of a senescence gene and decreased susceptibility after loss of a tumor suppressor gene. (nih.gov)
  • Collectively, these observations provide evidence for coupling of premitotic cell-cycle progression to microtubule integrity in some breast cancer cell lines (representing a possible "microtubule integrity checkpoint") and suggest a potential explanation for the recently reported failure of some cancer cell lines to undergo nocodazole-induced mitotic arrest despite intact mitotic checkpoint proteins. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The proliferation of SMCs is regulated by several intracellular signaling pathways, and cAMP is known to inhibit many of these pathways, including mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade, 3 4 5 p70 S6 kinase, 6 7 and cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) 4, 8 which can ultimately inhibit cell cycle progression. (ahajournals.org)
  • Selective binding and lateral clustering of α5β1 and αvβ3 integrins: Unraveling the spatial requirements for cell spreading and focal adhesion assembly. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Introduction to the Editorial Special Issue, "Cell Adhesion & Migration. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Interestingly, these differentiated talin (−/−) ES cells were able to spread and form focal adhesion-like structures containing vinculin and paxillin on fibronectin. (rupress.org)
  • We conclude that talin is essential for β1 integrin expression and focal adhesion assembly in undifferentiated ES cells, but that a subset of differentiated cells are talin independent for both characteristics. (rupress.org)
  • T he interaction between animal cells and the adhesive glycoproteins of the extracellular matrix is mediated by the integrin family of cell adhesion molecules, the cytoplasmic domains of which are thought to be linked in many, but not all cases, to the actin cytoskeleton (Burridge et al. (rupress.org)
  • Isolation of radial glia-like neural stem cells from fetal and adult mouse forebrain via selective adhesion to a novel adhesive peptide-conjugate. (peprotech.com)
  • The present study evaluated the effects of these agents on normal and malignant human breast cell lines. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state. (slicksurface.com)
  • BALB/3T3 clone A31 Cell Line, BioGenomics by USBiological, Cat. (lucerna-chem.ch)
  • Jones PA, Benedict WF, Baker MS, Mondai S, Rapp U, Heidelberger C (1976a) Oncogenic transformation of C3H/10T1/2 clone 8 mouse embryo cells by halogenated pyrimidine nucleosides . (springer.com)
  • Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 10:253-258. (cdc.gov)
  • J Cell Biol 81: 635-648, 1979. (springer.com)
  • J. Cell Biol. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). (slicksurface.com)
  • DNA from all five CdCl(2)-induced transformed cell lines tested was found to induce varying degrees of transfection-mediated transformation in NIH-3T3 cells. (cdc.gov)
  • Evidence for multiple steps in neoplastic transformation of normal and preneoplastic Syrian hamster embryo cells following transfection with Harvey murine sarcoma virus oncogene (v-Ha-ras). (nih.gov)
  • We conclude that BALB/3T3 cells are preneoplastic and give rise to different spontaneously transformed clones bearing unique tumor rejection antigens when implanted in vivo attached to a solid substrate. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The level of the protooncogene c-jun protein was increased in all glass fiber and silica transformed cells but not in two spontaneously transformed cell lines. (cdc.gov)
  • Rare cells that spontaneously bypass this block give rise to established cell lines ( 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • At passage 3, cells were allowed to spontaneously differentiate by culturing in growth medium without HS bFGF. (thermofisher.com)
  • Long-term viability of these cells was completely suppressed after a short exposure to the drugs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This transient refractory state was accompanied by a total conservation of long-term viability of these cells at least for the next 6 h following serum and drug addition. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This Test Guideline describes a method to evaluate photo-cytotoxicity by the relative reduction in viability of cells exposed to the chemical in the presence versus absence of light. (oecd-ilibrary.org)
  • Cell viability was determined by 3-(4, 5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl) 2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) release assays. (alliedacademies.org)
  • According to cell viability assays, 160 mg/l concentration of TeO 2 NPs was found to be highly toxic for both cell cultures. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Different commercial assays based on the determination of nucleic acids, metabolic activity, protein content or membrane integrity are available to measure cell proliferation and cell viability. (egms.de)
  • Among 10 Cd-induced transformed cell lines, significant gene amplification was found for c-myc and c-jun in 50% and 80% of the cell lines, respectively. (cdc.gov)
  • These results suggest that cell transformation induced by Cd may be attributed, at least in part, to gene amplification of c-myc and c-jun and that some of the Cd-transformed cells may possess neoplastic potential resulting from genomic instability. (cdc.gov)
  • Both the gene copy number and expressions of K-ras, c-fos and c-jun were higher in the tumor cells compared to those of the control Balb/c-3T3 cells. (cdc.gov)
  • In contrast, p16 exhibited a decrease in both the gene copy number and expression in the tumor cells compared to those of the control cells. (cdc.gov)
  • Although CMV encodes several gene products committed to evasion of adaptive immunity, viral modulation of NK cell activity is only beginning to be appreciated. (rupress.org)
  • MCMV has three gene products, encoded by m04 , m06 , and m152 , which inhibit expression of MHC class I on infected cells ( 1 , 2 ). (rupress.org)
  • We have used gene disruption to isolate two talin (−/−) ES cell mutants that contain no intact talin. (rupress.org)
  • Publications] Onoue,Hitoshi: 'Absence of mast cells in the skin of Ws/Ws rats with a small deletion at tyrosine kinase domain of the c-kit gene. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Different cis-acting DNA elements control expression of the human apolipoprotein AI gene in different cell types. (asm.org)
  • A fetal globin gene mutation in A gamma nondeletion hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin increases promoter strength in a nonerythroid cell. (asm.org)
  • bFGF-target and off-target gene expression was comparable in cells treated with native bFGF and Heat Stable bFGF. (thermofisher.com)
  • The four forms of latent gene expression that have been demonstrated in EBV-infected cell lines, tumor biopsies, and in vivo in normal humans latently infected are shown. (asmscience.org)
  • Green M. H. Lactoferrin interaction with retinoid signaling: cell growth and apoptosis in mammary cells. (springer.com)
  • 2005. [Relationship between spermatogenic cell apoptosis and serum estradiol level in rats exposed to fluoride] [Article in Chinese]. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Apoptosis is a normal physiological process which eliminates cells that do not receive adequate extracellular signals. (cnrs.fr)
  • Another major apoptosis signalling pathway involves the p53 tumour suppressor which is activated by a variety of stress and mediates growth arrest or apoptosis in normal cells. (cnrs.fr)
  • Conversely, inhibition of Rac1 and Cdc42Hs efficiently triggers apoptosis in adherent cells. (cnrs.fr)
  • Interestingly, apoptosis is not observed in p53-/- cells either cultured in suspension or inhibited for Rac1 and Cdc42Hs activity. (cnrs.fr)
  • Some of these components can induce in treated cells a type of cell death known as apoptosis (5, 23, 26, 40). (scielo.br)
  • Apoptosis is a programmed cell death with known morphological changes in the nucleus (24), actin filaments (16, 27) and endoplasmic reticulum (17, 32). (scielo.br)
  • The present results indicate that T. flagelliforme possess a valuable anti-leukemic effect and was able to produce distinctive morphological features of cell death that corresponds to apoptosis. (hindawi.com)
  • It is likely that the role of BHRF1 in EBV is to protect latently infected cells in vivo when they switch from latent infection to lytic infection when there is an absence of or very low Bcl2 expression, thus delaying apoptosis induced by lytic replication and ensuring productive lytic replication. (asmscience.org)
  • Necrostatin-1 is a specific RIP1 (RIPK1) inhibitor and inhibits TNF-α-induced necroptosis with EC50 of 490 nM in 293T cells. (selleckchem.com)
  • p21 in turn inhibits the activity of Cdk2- and Cdk4-cyclin complexes, thereby arresting the cells in a tetraploid G 1 state (reviewed in ref. 21 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • cAMP inhibits both platelet-derived growth factor-stimulated cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) 2 and cdk4 activation through upregulation of the cdk2 inhibitor p27 Kip1 and downregulation of cyclin D1 expression, which leads to a complete arrest of the cells in phase G 1 . (ahajournals.org)
  • We show that expression of the L protein indeed inhibits the production of alpha/beta interferon by infected L929 cells. (asm.org)
  • We show that L inhibits IFN-α/β production and that it selectively blocks the transcription of the immediate-early interferon genes (α4 and β) in L929 cells. (asm.org)
  • ARF can bind p53-DNA complexes, and it depends upon functional p53 to transcriptionally induce mdm2 and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 Cip1 , and to arrest cell proliferation. (pnas.org)
  • Binding of p19 ARF to p53 requires the ARF N-terminal domain (amino acids 1-62) that is necessary and sufficient to induce cell cycle arrest. (pnas.org)
  • In this study, we report that the steroid extract 5alpha, 8alpha-epidioxycholest-6-ene-3beta-ol (MME) from Meretrix meretrix has the ability to inhibit growth of hepatoma cells and to induce G1-phase cell cycle arrest in two human hepatoma cell lines, HepG2 and Hep3B. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We recently described a soluble cell-free system derived from monkey cells that is capable of replicating exogenous plasmid DNA molecules containing the simian virus 40 (SV40) origin of replication (J.J. Li, and T.J. Kelly, Proc. (uniprot.org)
  • We also examined the ability of various DNA molecules containing sequences homologous to the SV40 origin to serve as templates in the cell-free system. (uniprot.org)
  • These findings provide further evidence that replication in the cell-free system faithfully mimics SV40 DNA replication in vivo. (uniprot.org)
  • Integration of viral DNA into host DNA was first discerned for the prophage of the temperate bacteriophage lambda by Andre Lwoff in 1950 and for the simian DNA virus SV40 in cultured mammalian cells in 1968 [ 8 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Cell/Tissue Protein Lysate-Mouse 3T3 (Balb), murine embryo lysate-Alpha Diagnostic International Inc. (4adi.com)
  • Cells were transfected or transduced with Fv1 expression plasmids which can produce green fluorescent protein via an internal ribosome entry site positioned between the Fv1 and green fluorescent protein coding sequences. (asm.org)
  • Fv1 function was then assessed by comparing virus replication in green fluorescent protein-positive and -negative cells, using retroviral vectors encoding a second fluorescent marker, yellow fluorescent protein, or β-galactosidase. (asm.org)
  • Fv1 appears to represent an ancient retroviral gag protein co-opted by the host cell to prevent viral infections ( 2 , 3 ). (asm.org)
  • Cornish J. The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 is a mitogenic receptor for lactoferrin in osteoblastic cells. (springer.com)
  • levels of the protein products of the c-H-ras, p53, c-erb B1, and c-myb genes were similar between transformed and nontransformed cells. (cdc.gov)
  • The INK4a-ARF locus encodes two proteins, p16 INK4a and p19 ARF , that restrain cell growth by affecting the functions of the retinoblastoma protein and p53, respectively. (pnas.org)
  • Increased expression of p16 INK4a can arrest cells in the G 1 phase of the cell cycle, but cells that lack functional retinoblastoma protein are resistant to p16's effects ( 11 - 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • RNA-binding protein Musashi1 modulates glioma cell growth through the post-transcriptional regulation of Notch and PI3 kinase/Akt signaling pathways. (peprotech.com)
  • Eosinophil Cationic Protein Shows Survival Effect on H9c2 Cardiac Myoblast Cells with Enhanced Phosphorylation of ERK and Akt/GSK-3β under Oxidative Stress. (semanticscholar.org)
  • 14 ) postulated that the L protein could antagonize the cell interferon response. (asm.org)
  • Expansion and anti-tumor cytotoxicity of T-cells are augmented by substrate-bound CCL21 and ICAM1. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • The majority of the obtained derivatives exhibited higher cytotoxicity than colchicine, doxorubicin or cisplatin against tested cancer cell lines. (mdpi.com)
  • The obtained fractions were evaluated for its cytotoxicity toward CEMss cells as well as human primary blood lymphocytes (PBLs). (hindawi.com)
  • Phytochemical screening was done by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results shows that 7 out of 12 fractions showed significant cytotoxicity against the selected cell line CEMss, in which fractions DCM/F7, DCM/F11 and DCM/F12 showed exceptional activity with 3, 5 and 6.2 g ml −1 , respectively. (hindawi.com)
  • The BALB/3T3 mouse embryo cell line, noted for its marked postconfluence inhibition of proliferation, anchorage dependence, and high serum requirement, and frequently studied as a prototype nontumorigenic "fibroblast" line that is compared with tumorigenic sublines transformed with various agents, produced tumors within 2 to 3 months when an average of 3 × 10 4 cells were implanted s.c. attached to 1- × 5- × 10-mm polycarbonate platelets. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The tumors, as well as others arising from implants of BALB/3T3 cells attached to 3-mm glass beads, were given the histological diagnosis of "vasoformative saroma" because the tumor cells frequently formed vascular channels. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Association between tumors developed from beryllium-transformed cells and changes in cancer-related genes. (cdc.gov)
  • DNA and ANA isolated from cell lines derived from the tumors were used to determine the alterations of various cancer-related genes, such as p53, p16, K-ras, c-myc, c-fos. (cdc.gov)
  • APUDOMA is a general term collectively applied to tumors associated with APUD cells. (slicksurface.com)
  • The kinetics of acidification of diferric human transferrin in BALB/c mouse 3T3 cells were determined by flow cytometry using a modification of the fluorescein-rhodamine fluorescence ratio technique. (pnas.org)
  • No. Z03116) stimulates cell proliferation of Balb/3T3 cells. (genscript.com)
  • In the CTA, used to assess the carcinogenic potential of AgNPs, cells exposed to AgNPs for 72 hours showed significantly induced morphological neoplastic transformation at all tested doses (0.17, 0.66, 2.65, 5.30, and 10.60 μg/mL), and the transformation frequency was significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner. (e-eht.org)
  • Neoplastic transformation of normal and carcinogen-induced preneoplastic Syrian hamster embryo cells by the v-src oncogene. (nih.gov)
  • DiPaolo JA Jakano K, Popescu NC (1972) Quantitation of chemical induced neoplastic transformation of BALB/3T3 cloned cell lines . (springer.com)
  • We compared the molecular nature of murine KIT mutants with the number of mast cells in thier skin. (nii.ac.jp)
  • and describe the use of conditional lethal mutants to study the regulation of the cell cycle of eukaryotic cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Differences in the biological effects of crocidolite asbestos and two glass fibres on epithelial lung cells. (cdc.gov)
  • The biological activity is measured by its ability to stimulate 3 H-thymidine incorporation in the EGF-responsive BALB/3T3 cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Kerckaert GA, LeBoeuf RA, Isfort RJ (1996) Use of the Syrian hamster embryo cell transformation for determining the carcinogenic potential of heavy metal compounds . (springer.com)
  • Significantly, more antibodies were produced by cells grown with holo-rhLF than cells grown without holo-rhLF. (springer.com)
  • Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. (slicksurface.com)
  • Therefore, we carried out CTA in Balb/c 3T3 A31-1-1 cells to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of silver nanoparticle (AgNPs). (scicombinator.com)
  • Transforming and carcinogenic potential of cadmium chloride in BALB/c-3T3 cells. (cdc.gov)
  • Differential ability of a T-antigen transport-defective mutant of simian virus 40 to transform primary and established rodent cells. (nih.gov)
  • Fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF-19) is a member of the FGF family, which controls several physiological and pathological development processes, including cell growth, cell survival, and morphogenesis. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor-triggered T cells are key modulators for survival/death of neural stem/progenitor cells induced by ischemic stroke. (peprotech.com)
  • Shimamura S. Effects of lactoferrin and its peptides on proliferation of rat intestinal epithelial cell line IEC-18, in the presence of epidermal growth factor. (springer.com)
  • DNA damage induced by fluoride in rat kidney cells. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Rindler MJ, Churman LM, Shaffer L, et al: Retention of differentiated properties in an established dog kidney epithelial cell line (MDCK). (springer.com)
  • Crotalus durissus terrificus venom and its components can affect a variety of cell types, including macrophages (9), neutrophils (34), mast cells (8), platelets (7) and cells in culture (14), as well as the function of organs such as the heart (19) and the kidney (22). (scielo.br)
  • Amphiregulin (AREG) mRNA expression can be identified in several carcinoma cell lines and the epithelial cells of numerous human tissues such as colon, stomach, breast, ovary, kidney, etc. (prospecbio.com)
  • Both drug series were found to stop cell growth and block cells in G 2 phase in exponentially growing cultures and cultures released from a thymidine double block. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Try Gibco Heat Stable Recombinant Human bFGF for greater stability and improved consistency in your cell cultures. (thermofisher.com)
  • 5. A method according to claim 1, wherein said second medium is selected from the group consisting of cell cultures, blood, and pharmaceutical compositions. (google.es)
  • Also, TeO 2 NPs were investigated on the cell cultures in the aspect of Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) and Total Oxidative Stress (TOS) levels. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The TAC values did not change but, The TOS values significantly increased for the cell cultures after TeO 2 NPs application. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The use of cell cultures to test the biocompatibility of drugs, biomaterials or treatment techniques used in various disciplines is gaining in importance. (egms.de)
  • 1993b) Reference to the cytopathic effects is made only in the first paper where it was stated 'The virus positive cultures consistently showed a high proportion of round giant cells containing numerous nuclei', (syncytia) (Popovic et al. (sidasante.com)
  • 1980) and therefore, one may expect to find giant cells containing numerous nuclei in the HT (clones) cell cultures even in the absence of HIV. (sidasante.com)
  • 1985) showed that in mitogenically stimulated lymphocyte cultures from AIDS patients or in cultures from healthy donors 'infected' with HIV, there is a decrease in the total number of viable cells. (sidasante.com)
  • 12 Under the appropriate stimulation, quiescent cells travel through the cell cycle as a consequence of the activation of specific cdks. (ahajournals.org)
  • They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation. (slicksurface.com)
  • Although an appreciable number of mast cells was found in the skin of Wsh/Wsh embryos, mast cells decreased rapidly after birth due to the abolishment of KIT transcription. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The in vivo effects of IGF-I on cell cycle kinetics were investigated in nestin/IGF-I transgenic (Tg) embryos, in which IGF-I is overexpressed in the cerebral cortex and dorsal telencephalon. (jneurosci.org)
  • Cumulative S phase labeling with 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine revealed a decrease in total cell cycle length (T C ) in Tg embryos on E14. (jneurosci.org)
  • Additionally, the proportion of daughter cells reentering the cell cycle was significantly increased by 15% in Tg embryos on E14-E15 compared with littermate controls. (jneurosci.org)
  • Cell lines developed from disaggregated BALB/c mouse embryos. (slicksurface.com)
  • verschiedene murine Zelllinien (C3H-L, Balb/c 3T3, L929 u. a.) sowie Zellen isoliert aus der Milz oder der Leber der Maus und T-Lymphozyten aus Lymphknoten. (egms.de)
  • In this paper, we tested the effect of rice-derived recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF) on mammalian cell growth. (springer.com)
  • Considering all the data obtained, we conclude that rhLF from rice is effective in promoting mammalian cell growth and increasing cell productivity. (springer.com)
  • Recently, mitochondrial transcription specificity factors (TFB1M and TFB2M), which markedly enhance mtDNA transcription in the presence of Tfam and mitochondrial RNA polymerase, have been identified in mammalian cells. (asm.org)
  • The cultured tumor cells showed loss of both postconfluence inhibition of proliferation and anchorage dependence. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this volume are collected 30 papers, 9 round table discus- sions and 11 communications presented at the ASI Course on "The use of human cells for the evaluation of risk from physical and chemical agents", sponsored by NATO and organized by ENEA. (springer.com)
  • Emphasis has been given to the use of human cells or human data in order to attempt to have a correct and realistic evaluation of the damage in humans. (springer.com)
  • In this respect only the use of human cells enable us to detect the individual variability and to identify sensitive subpopu- lations that would be at greater risk. (springer.com)
  • Cooperativity between stromal cytokines drives the invasive migration of human breast cancer cells. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • 3. The method according to claim 1, wherein said human retrovirus is selected from the group consisting of human T-cell lymphotropic virus-III, lymphoadenopathy associated virus, and AIDS-related virus. (google.es)
  • 4. The method according to claim 1, wherein said human retrovirus is selected from the group consisting of human T-cell lymphotropic virus-I, human T-cell lymphotropic virus-II, and Kawasaki disease causative retroviruses. (google.es)
  • Among those infective to human, important ones are adult T-cell leukemia virus (ATLV), or human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I), and type II (HTLV-II). (google.es)
  • We also compared the effect of holo-rhLF to that of human transferrin, a component commonly used in cell culture media as an iron source. (springer.com)
  • Holo-rhLF was as effective as human transferrin in promoting cell growth and antibody production. (springer.com)
  • Figarella C. Effect of lactoferrin on the growth of a human colon adenocarcinoma cell line-comparison with transferrin. (springer.com)
  • Yamauchi K. Stimulatory effect of human lactoferrin on DNA synthesis in BALB/c 3T3 cells. (springer.com)
  • Murakami H. Identification of lactoferrin as an essential growth factor for human lymphocytic cell lines in serum-free medium. (springer.com)
  • The activities of extracts derived from human cell lines HeLa and 293 were approximately the same as those of monkey cell extracts. (uniprot.org)
  • Both human CMV (HCMV) * and murine CMV (MCMV) encode several glycoproteins that are involved in down-regulation of MHC class I molecules on the surface of infected cells ( 1 , 2 ). (rupress.org)
  • Characterization of N-myc amplification units in human neuroblastoma cells. (asm.org)
  • Transformation of mouse BALB/c 3T3 cells with human basic fibroblast growth factor cDNA. (asm.org)
  • Expression was assessed using human induced pluripotent stem cells treated with 10 ng/mL native bFGF or Heat Stable bFGF. (thermofisher.com)
  • In the present work, we examined the effects of microtubule-depolymerizing agents on a series of human breast cancer cell lines and normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs), using conditions previously reported to identify cancer cell lines harboring mitotic checkpoint defects ( 27 - 30 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Initially, Amphiregulin (AREG) was isolated from the conditioned media of a PMA treated MCF 7 human breast carcinoma cell line. (prospecbio.com)
  • In this study, our aim was to delineate the molecular mechanism underlying cAMP and cGMP suppression of cell cycle transition in human SMCs. (ahajournals.org)
  • Thus, cAMP and cGMP differentially affect cell cycle through distinct regulation of cell cycle molecules in human SMCs. (ahajournals.org)
  • Human SMCs (neonatal umbilical artery origin), obtained from Cell System Co, were cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium containing 10% FCS (Life Technologies, Inc) and used for experiments within 3 to 10 passages. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cell Proliferation Induced by TGF‑ alpha and Neutralization by Human TGF‑ alpha Antibody. (rndsystems.com)
  • In this research, tellurium dioxide nanoparticle (TeO 2 NP) which is an important material for industrial areas including biomedical applications was analysed on cultured Human Pulmonary Alveolar Epithelial (HPAEpiC) and peripheral blood cells. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Finally, pretreatment with ST2-Fc markedly inhibited the ability of human monocytic THP1 cells to release TNF-α when cocultured with peripheral blood T cells from rheumatoid patients. (jimmunol.org)
  • Transformation by viral and cellular oncogenes of a mouse BALB/3T3 cell mutant resistant to transformation by chemical carcinogens. (nih.gov)
  • Before mitogenic stimulation, subconfluent cells were arrested in the quiescent state with a culture in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium containing 0.2% FCS for 72 hours. (ahajournals.org)
  • For small DNA tumour viruses, the full replication cycle occurs via non-integrated circular viral genomes, whereas viral integration into host DNA usually leads to abortive infection and sometimes to cell transformation. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In addition, cells infected by several viruses produce extensive syncytia without cytopathy (Shaw et al. (sidasante.com)
  • The invention has particular utility in cell growth systems, where the periodic reversal of flow direction of a nutrient stream passed through the bioreactor equalizes dispersion of cell growth through the bioreactor and enhances the transport of metabolic waste from the cells being grown. (google.es)
  • In this study, amplification, expression, and point mutation of cancer-related genes associated with Cd-induced cell transformation in BALB/c-3T3 cells were studied. (cdc.gov)
  • Myeloma cancer cell responding to shear flow (by scanning electron microscope). (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Warren Jackson (Jack) Pledger is a molecular cell biologist who is a Professor, Department of Surgery, University of Utah School of Medicine and a member of the Cell Response and Regulation Program, Huntsman Cancer Institute. (wikipedia.org)
  • He has held academic appointments and tenure at the University of North Carolina School of Medicine (Assistant and Associate Professor of Pharmacology and Program Leader of the Cell Biology Program at the Lineberger Cancer Center), Vanderbilt University School of Medicine (Professor of Cell Biology) and the University of South Florida College of Medicine (Professor of Biochemistry and Oncology). (wikipedia.org)
  • He was the first to show that the cell cycle is regulated by a series of sequential events and to hypothesize that dysfunction of these events could trigger transformation or cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Matrix metalloproteinase-10 is required for lung cancer stem cell maintenance, tumor initiation and metastatic potential. (peprotech.com)
  • Microtubule-depolymerizing agents are widely used to synchronize cells, screen for mitotic checkpoint defects, and treat cancer. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • After treatment with 1 μM nocodazole, seven of ten breast cancer lines (type A cells) arrested in mitosis, whereas the other three (type B cells) did not. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Our results indicate that HMEC and breast cancer cell lines can be divided into two groups, those that respond with the expected mitotic arrest and those that do not. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Furthermore, all formulations were not cytotoxic for NIH/3T3 cell lineage. (hindawi.com)
  • In the light of these findings, it could be inferenced that TeO 2 NPs is immensely cytotoxic for different cell types and toxicity process might occur through oxidative stress mechanism. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Dual Role of E-cadherin in the regulation of invasive collective migration of mammary carcinoma cells. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Proto-oncogene activation and genomic instability of cadmium-induced cell transformation in BALB/c-3T3 cells. (cdc.gov)
  • The concentration of holo-rhLF in media was critical in promoting cell growth and each cell line had different concentration dependence with the most effective range from 5 to 200 mg/L. The effect of rhLF on antibody production was determined using a hybridoma cell line. (springer.com)
  • In the present work, the action of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus venom on CHO-K1 cell line was analyzed. (scielo.br)
  • however, it subsequently became known that the HT line used by Gallo is in fact HUT78, (Rubinstein, 1990) a cell line established from a patient with mature T4-cell leukaemia (Gazdar et al. (sidasante.com)
  • A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. (slicksurface.com)
  • Colburn NH, Bruegge WFV, Bates JR, Gray RH, Rossen JD, Kelsey WH, Shimada T (1978) Correlation of anchorage-independent growth with tumorigenicity of chemically transformed mouse epithelial cells . (springer.com)
  • 1998. Activation of alveolar macrophages and peripheral red blood cells in rats exposed to fibers/particles. (cdc.gov)
  • At present, evidence also exists showing that other cells permissive for HIV, monocyte-derived macrophages, 'in the absence of infection', form syncytia during cultivation (Collman et al. (sidasante.com)
  • The authors conclude that BALB/c-3T3 cells are capable of activating all the tested chemicals to act as procarcinogens and promutagens, and that this system may prove to be useful for screening genotoxic chemicals since the frequencies of micronuclei produced are higher than those in Chinese-hamster-V79 cells. (cdc.gov)
  • The authors conclude that overexpression of c-jun may be associated with glass fiber and silica induced transformation of BALB/c-3T3 cells. (cdc.gov)