Balantidium: A genus of protozoa parasitic in the digestive tract of vertebrate or invertebrate hosts. Asexual multiplication is accomplished by transverse binary fission. Its organisms are ovoidal in shape and have a ciliated covering over the entire body.Balantidiasis: Infection by parasites of the genus BALANTIDIUM. The presence of Balantidium in the LARGE INTESTINE leads to DIARRHEA; DYSENTERY; and occasionally ULCER.Dysentery: Acute inflammation of the intestine associated with infectious DIARRHEA of various etiologies, generally acquired by eating contaminated food containing TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL derived from BACTERIA or other microorganisms. Dysentery is characterized initially by watery FECES then by bloody mucoid stools. It is often associated with ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and DEHYDRATION.Ciliophora Infections: Infections with protozoa of the phylum CILIOPHORA.Intestine, Large: A segment of the LOWER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the CECUM; the COLON; and the RECTUM.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Trophozoites: Cells or feeding stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. In the malarial parasite, the trophozoite develops from the MEROZOITE and then splits into the SCHIZONT. Trophozoites that are left over from cell division can go on to form gametocytes.Manure: Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.Pathology Department, Hospital: Hospital department which administers and provides pathology services.Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Buffaloes: Ruminants of the family Bovidae consisting of Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer. This concept is differentiated from BISON, which refers to Bison bison and Bison bonasus.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Parasites: Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Entamoeba histolytica: A species of parasitic protozoa causing ENTAMOEBIASIS and amebic dysentery (DYSENTERY, AMEBIC). Characteristics include a single nucleus containing a small central karyosome and peripheral chromatin that is finely and regularly beaded.Apicomplexa: A phylum of unicellular parasitic EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of complex apical organelles generally consisting of a conoid that aids in penetrating host cells, rhoptries that possibly secrete a proteolytic enzyme, and subpellicular microtubules that may be related to motility.Textbooks as Topic: Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.Ciliophora: A phylum of EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of cilia at some time during the life cycle. It comprises three classes: KINETOFRAGMINOPHOREA; OLIGOHYMENOPHOREA; and POLYMENOPHOREA.Octopodiformes: A superorder in the class CEPHALOPODA, consisting of the orders Octopoda (octopus) with over 200 species and Vampyromorpha with a single species. The latter is a phylogenetic relic but holds the key to the origins of Octopoda.Doxycycline: A synthetic tetracycline derivative with similar antimicrobial activity.Tablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)Tablets, Enteric-Coated: Tablets coated with material that delays release of the medication until after they leave the stomach. (Dorland, 28th ed)Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Digestive System Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Digestive System Diseases: Diseases in any part of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or the accessory organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Digestive System: A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Mucus: The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Leeches: Annelids of the class Hirudinea. Some species, the bloodsuckers, may become temporarily parasitic upon animals, including man. Medicinal leeches (HIRUDO MEDICINALIS) have been used therapeutically for drawing blood since ancient times.Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic: Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.Parasitic Diseases: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Trombiculidae: Family of MITES in the superfamily Trombiculoidea, suborder Prostigmata, which attack humans and other vertebrates, causing DERMATITIS and severe allergic reactions. Chiggers, red bugs, and harvest mites commonly refer to the larval stage of Trombiculid mites, the only parasitic stage of the mite's life cycle.Phthiraptera: An order of small, wingless parasitic insects, commonly known as lice. The suborders include ANOPLURA (sucking lice); AMBLYCERA; ISCHNOCERA; and Rhynchophthirina (elephant and warthog lice).Esocidae: A family of freshwater fish of the order ESOCIFORMES, comprising the pikes, inhabiting the waters of the Northern Hemisphere. There is one genus, Esox, with five species: northern pike, grass pickerel, chain pickerel, muskellunge, and Amur pike.Arguloida: An order of CRUSTACEA that are parasitic on freshwater fish.Acari: A large, subclass of arachnids comprising the MITES and TICKS, including parasites of plants, animals, and humans, as well as several important disease vectors.Giardia lamblia: A species of parasitic EUKARYOTES that attaches itself to the intestinal mucosa and feeds on mucous secretions. The organism is roughly pear-shaped and motility is somewhat erratic, with a slow oscillation about the long axis.Toxoplasma: A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.Giardiasis: An infection of the SMALL INTESTINE caused by the flagellated protozoan GIARDIA LAMBLIA. It is spread via contaminated food and water and by direct person-to-person contact.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Cryptosporidium parvum: A species of parasitic protozoa that infects humans and most domestic mammals. Its oocysts measure five microns in diameter. These organisms exhibit alternating cycles of sexual and asexual reproduction.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)BooksBiological Therapy: Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.Animal Welfare: The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.Legislation, Medical: Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of medicine, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.Waiting Lists: Prospective patient listings for appointments or treatments.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Parasite Load: Measure of the number of the PARASITES present in a host organism.Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.Colistin: Cyclic polypeptide antibiotic from Bacillus colistinus. It is composed of Polymyxins E1 and E2 (or Colistins A, B, and C) which act as detergents on cell membranes. Colistin is less toxic than Polymyxin B, but otherwise similar; the methanesulfonate is used orally.Vancomycin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of VANCOMYCIN, an inhibitor of cell wall synthesis.Vancomycin: Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Receptors, Biogenic Amine: Cell surface proteins that bind biogenic amines with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells. Biogenic amine is a chemically imprecise term which, by convention, includes the catecholamines epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine, the indoleamine serotonin, the imidazolamine histamine, and compounds closely related to each of these.Entamoeba: A genus of ameboid protozoa characterized by the presence of beaded chromatin on the inner surface of the nuclear membrane. Its organisms are parasitic in invertebrates and vertebrates, including humans.Entamoebiasis: Infection with amoebae of the genus ENTAMOEBA. Infection with E. histolytica causes DYSENTERY, AMEBIC and LIVER ABSCESS, AMEBIC.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Medical Oncology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of neoplasms.Denture, Partial, Temporary: A partial denture intended for short-term use in a temporary or emergency situation.Compact Disks: Computer disks storing data with a maximum reduction of space and bandwidth. The compact size reduces cost of transmission and storage.Dental Restoration, Temporary: A prosthesis or restoration placed for a limited period, from several days to several months, which is designed to seal the tooth and maintain its position until a permanent restoration (DENTAL RESTORATION, PERMANENT) will replace it. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Dental Impression Technique: Procedure of producing an imprint or negative likeness of the teeth and/or edentulous areas. Impressions are made in plastic material which becomes hardened or set while in contact with the tissue. They are later filled with plaster of Paris or artificial stone to produce a facsimile of the oral structures present. Impressions may be made of a full complement of teeth, of areas where some teeth have been removed, or in a mouth from which all teeth have been extracted. (Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Tospovirus: A genus of plant viruses in the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. Tomato spotted wilt virus is the type species. Transmission occurs by at least nine species of thrips.Tetracycline: A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.Societies, Pharmaceutical: Societies whose membership is limited to pharmacists.Internship, Nonmedical: Advanced programs of training to meet certain professional requirements in fields other than medicine or dentistry, e.g., pharmacology, nutrition, nursing, etc.Reference Books, Medical: Books in the field of medicine intended primarily for consultation.Tetracyclines: Closely congeneric derivatives of the polycyclic naphthacenecarboxamide. (Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1117)Histoplasma: A mitosporic Onygenales fungal genus causing HISTOPLASMOSIS in humans and animals. Its single species is Histoplasma capsulatum which has two varieties: H. capsulatum var. capsulatum and H. capsulatum var. duboisii. Its teleomorph is AJELLOMYCES capsulatus.Naegleria fowleri: A species of parasitic protozoa having both an ameboid and flagellate stage in its life cycle. Infection with this pathogen produces PRIMARY AMEBIC MENINGOENCEPHALITIS.Blastomyces: A genus of onygenacetous mitosporic fungi whose perfect state is Ajellomyces (see ONYGENALES). The species Blastomyces dermatitidis (perfect state Ajellomyces dermatitidis) causes blastomycosis.Trypanosoma brucei gambiense: A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes Gambian or West African sleeping sickness in humans. The vector host is usually the tsetse fly (Glossina).Histoplasmosis: Infection resulting from inhalation or ingestion of spores of the fungus of the genus HISTOPLASMA, species H. capsulatum. It is worldwide in distribution and particularly common in the midwestern United States. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Rhizaria: A large supergroup of mostly amoeboid EUKARYOTES whose three main subgroups are CERCOZOA; FORAMINIFERA; and HAPLOSPORIDA. Nearly all of the species possess MITOCHONDRIA and historically many were considered ANIMALS.Eimeria: A genus of protozoan parasites of the subclass COCCIDIA. Various species are parasitic in the epithelial cells of the liver and intestines of man and other animals.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.Metronidazole: A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).Antitrichomonal Agents: Agents used to treat trichomonas infections.Nitroreductases: Enzymes which reduce nitro groups (NITRO COMPOUNDS) and other nitrogenous compounds.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Dictionaries, MedicalTrichostrongyloidea: A superfamily of nematodes. Most are intestinal parasites of ruminants and accidentally in humans. This superfamily includes seven genera: DICTYOCAULUS; HAEMONCHUS; Cooperia, OSTERTAGIA; Nematodirus, TRICHOSTRONGYLUS; and Hyostrongylus.Ostertagia: A genus of parasitic nematodes occurring in the stomach of ruminants.Trichostrongyloidiasis: Infection by roundworms of the superfamily TRICHOSTRONGYLOIDEA, including the genera TRICHOSTRONGYLUS; OSTERTAGIA; Cooperia, HAEMONCHUS; Nematodirus, Hyostrongylus, and DICTYOCAULUS.Dictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Dictionaries, ChemicalMediterranean SeaPerciformes: The most diversified of all fish orders and the largest vertebrate order. It includes many of the commonly known fish such as porgies, croakers, sunfishes, dolphin fish, mackerels, TUNA, etc.Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Zineb: An agricultural fungicide of the dithiocarbamate class. It has relatively low toxicity and there is little evidence of human injury from exposure.Marine Biology: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.
The prevalence of Balantidium coli infection in fifty-six mammalian species. (1/8)A total of 375 fecal samples of 56 mammalian species belonging to 17 families of 4 orders were examined for the detection of Balantidium coli from December 1994 to August 1995. As a result, B. coli was found from 6 species belonging to 4 families of 2 orders (Primates and Artiodactyla) of host animals examined. White-handed gibbon (Hylobates lar), squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciurea) and Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) were new hosts for B. coli. All the wild boar (Sus scrofa) and chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) examined were positive. The highest number of B. coli was obtained from a chimpanzee (1,230/g feces). No B. coli was detected from the animals of orders Rodentia and Carnivora including dogs and cats. The rarity of B. coli infection in breeding animals in Japan. suggests that there is no serious problem in controlling infections. (+info)
Dysentery caused by Balantidium coli in a patient with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma from Turkey. (2/8)Balantidium coli is the only parasitic ciliate of man. It is a flattened oval organism covered with cilia, and a gullet at the anterior end. It is infrequently pathogenic for man, although epidemic buds in tropical zones have been described. The infection fundamentally affects the colon and causes variable clinic pictures, from asymptomatic to serious dysenteric forms. We present a case of parasitologically diagnosed as causes of diarrhea in a patient with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma from Turkey. In order to find out the causative etiologic agent of diarrhea, stool samples were examined by native, lugol and flotation methods and we detected moving trophozoites, which were approximately 60 microm long and 35 microm wide. These bodies were diagnosed as Balantidium coli. This case underlines that Balantidium coli should also be considered as a possible pathogen in immunocompromised patients with diarrhea. (+info)
Balantidiasis in the gastric lymph nodes of Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia): an incidental finding. (3/8)A 4-year-old female Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia) was found dead in the Gwangju Uchi Park Zoo. The animal had previously exhibited weakness and lethargy, but no signs of diarrhea. The carcass was emaciated upon presentation. The main gross lesion was characterized by severe serous atrophy of the fat tissues of the coronary and left ventricular grooves, resulting in the transformation of the fat to a gelatinous material. The rumen was fully distended with food, while the abomasum evidenced mucosal corrugation with slight congestion. Microscopic examination revealed the presence of Balantidium coli trophozoites within the lymphatic ducts of the gastric lymph node and the abdominal submucosa. On rare occasions, these organisms may invade extra-intestinal organs, in this case the gastric lymph nodes and abomasum. (+info)
Current world status of Balantidium coli. (4/8)(+info)
Investigation of intestinal parasites in pig feces that are also human pathogens. (5/8)A total of 238 pig fecal specimens were collected from pig farms in Corlu (Tekirdag), Ayazma, and Arnavutkoy (Istanbul) during the summer. Out of the 238 pig specimens, 105 were from pigs younger than 6 months and 133 from pigs older than 6 months. These were investigated for intestine parasites in particular the ones that are human pathogens. Cryptosporidium spp. was detected In 21 fecal specimens (8.8%), Giardia spp. in 9 (3.7%), Balantidium coli cysts in 4 (1.6%) and Ascaris suum eggs in 9 (4.1%). Giardia lamblia were found in 8 (7.6%) of 105 pigs younger than 6 months, Cryptosporidium spp. in 12 (11.4%), Balantidium coli cysts in 2 (1.5%). In the pigs older than 6 months Giardia lamblia were found in 1 (0.7%), Cryptosporidium spp. in 9 (6.7%), Balantidium coli cysts in 2 (1.5%). and Ascaris suum eggs in 9 (6.7%). The difference in the rate of G. lamblia (p=0.01) in pigs less than 6 months and of A. suum in those over 6 months was found to be statistically significant (p=0.005). Our results revealed that pigs are important sources of these parasites. (+info)
Novel insights into the genetic diversity of Balantidium and Balantidium-like cyst-forming ciliates. (6/8)(+info)
Dysenteric syndrome due to Balantidium coli: a case report. (7/8)A 28-year-old man was hospitalized for a dysenteric syndrome that had developed during the previous days. Physical examination revealed abdominal pains, fever, vomiting and more than ten liquid stools per day. Fresh stool examination showed numerous mobile ciliated trophozoites of Balantidium coli. The patient reported having been on a hike the previous weekend during which he had drunk water through a hydration pouch bladder. Complete resolution was observed after intravenous rehydration and ten days of oral treatment with metronidazole (Flagyl(R)). Balantidium coli is the largest ciliate protozoan able to infect humans. This parasite is common in pigs and has a worldwide distribution. Human infections, a rare event in industrialised countries, are usually acquired by ingestion of food or water contaminated by mammal faeces. Human B. coli infections are easily treated but may be severe and even fatal if neglected. (+info)
Balantidium honghuensis n. sp. (Ciliophora: Trichostomatidae) from the rectum of Rana nigromaculata and R. limnocharis from Honghu Lake, China. (8/8)(+info)
... acanthuri Balantidium alpha Balantidium amblystomatis Balantidium amygdalli Balantidium aragaoi Balantidium ... Balantidium bovis Balantidium cameli Balantidium caprae Balantidium caviae Balantidium chagasi Balantidium coli Balantidium ... gyranus Balantidium haughwouti Balantidium helenae Balantidium hydrae Balantidium indicum Balantidium kirbyi Balantidium major ... Balantidium marsupialis Balantidium medusarum Balantidium minor Balantidium minutum Balantidium nucleus Balantidium orchestium ...
... lives in the cecum and colon of humans, pigs, rats and other mammals. It is not readily transmissible from one ... Balantidium coli is a parasitic species of ciliate alveolates that causes the disease balantidiasis. It is the only member of ... Balantidium coli has two developmental stages, a trophozoite stage and a cyst stage. In trophozoites, the two nuclei are ... Balantidium is the only ciliated protozoan known to infect humans. Balantidiasis is a zoonotic disease and is acquired by ...
Balantidium) or pseudopods (e.g., Entamoeba, Acanthamoeba, Naegleria). If they had cell walls, they also could be included in ...
Balantidium coli was also found in species from the orders Rodentia and Carnivora. Balantidium coli exists in either of two ... Currently, Balantidium coli is distributed worldwide but less than 1% of the human population is infected. Pigs are a major ... Balantidium is the only ciliated protozoan known to infect humans. Balantidiasis is a zoonotic disease and is acquired by ... "The Prevalence of Balantidium coli Infection in Fifty-Six Mammalian Species." Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 61 (1999): ...
An example is Balantidium coli, a ciliate. In other protozoa, and in cells from multicellular organisms, phagocytosis takes ...
These include the species Balantidium coli, which is the only ciliate parasitic in humans. The group Rhynchostomatia includes ...
Some ciliates parasitize animals, although only one species, Balantidium coli, is known to cause disease in humans. Ciliates ... Balantidium) Class Nassophorea Class Phyllopharyngea Subclass Chonotrichia Subclass Cyrtophoria Subclass Rhynchodia Subclass ...
It is known to be a host of the following parasites: the Cliophoran Balantidium sigani; the copepod Bomolochus parvulus (nomen ...
Balantidium coli) As a phylum the Protozoa were, historically, divided into four subphyla reflecting the means of locomotion: ...
Balantidium coli, Blastocystis homnis, Cryptosporidium (diarrhea in people with immunosuppression), Entamoeba histolytica ( ...
List of MeSH codes (B01)
... balantidium MeSH B01.500.841.185.650 --- oligohymenophorea MeSH B01.500.841.185.650.375 --- hymenostomatida MeSH B01.500. ...
Balantidium coli is a parasitic species of ciliate alveolates that causes the disease balantidiasis. It is the only member of the ciliate phylum known to be pathogenic to humans. Balantidium coli has two developmental stages, a trophozoite stage and a cyst stage. In trophozoites, the two nuclei are visible. The macronucleus is long and sausage-shaped, and the spherical micronucleus is nested next to it, often hidden by the macronucleus. The opening, known as the peristome, at the pointed anterior end leads to the cytostome, or the mouth. Cysts are smaller than trophozoites and are round and have a tough, heavy cyst wall made of one or two layers. Usually only the macronucleus and sometimes cilia and contractile vacuoles are visible in the cyst. Living trophozoites and cysts are yellowish or greenish in color. Balantidium is the only ciliated protozoan known to infect humans. Balantidiasis is a zoonotic disease and is acquired by humans via the feco-oral route from the normal host, the pig, where ...
Balantidium coli are a ciliate protozoan and it is frequently found in the intestinal tract of the different animals including humans. Acute fulminating form of Balantidi..
Hernández, F.; Argüello, A.P.; Rivera, P.; Jiménez, E., 1993: Balantidium coli (Vestibuliferida: Balantidiidae): the persistence of an old problem
Comprehensive instructions for specimen collection, special requirements, specimen handling, testing methods and turnaround times.
lambliase, Lamblia intestinalis, surtout vers la fin de l comme lexcrétion de Giardia lamblia est intermittente, la recherche du.
Looking for balantidiosis? Find out information about balantidiosis. An intestinal infection of humans caused by the protozoan Balantidium coli . , a disease of swine and man caused by the holotrichous infusoria Balantidium .... Explanation of balantidiosis
0062] Parasital pathogens may also be detected by the kit and the methods disclosed. In one example, the antigen is a protozoan parasite and the antigen is from Babesia. In one example, the antigen is a protozoan parasite and the antigen is from Balantidium. In one example, the antigen is a protozoan parasite and the antigen is from Balantidium. In one example, the antigen is a protozoan parasite and the antigen is from Besnoitia. In one example, the antigen is a protozoan parasite and the antigen is from Cryptosporidium. In one example, the antigen is a protozoan parasite and the antigen is from Eimeria. In one example, the antigen is a protozoan parasite and the antigen is from Encephalitozoon. In one example, the antigen is a protozoan parasite and the antigen is from Entamoeba. In one example, the antigen is a protozoan parasite and the antigen is from Giardia. In one example, the antigen is a protozoan parasite and the antigen is from Hammondia. In one example, the antigen is a protozoan ...
Discussion B. coli, a ciliated protozoan parasite, infects primates and pigs, and is the largest protozoan to infect humans. Pigs may be the primary reservoir; consequently, balantidiasis is a greater risk among pig or pig manure handlers.1,8 The asexual life-cycle consists of cysts or trophozoites. Transmission is direct with no intermediate host involvement. Usually, humans ingest infective cysts in contaminated food or water that develop into trophozoites and migrate to the large intestine, which is the organ mostly affected. The organism produces no known toxins, but can penetrate the mucosa and cause ulcers, probably owing to the production of hyaluronidase.2 Tetracyclines and metronidazole are the treatments of choice.1,3 Human infection is usually associated with intestinal symptoms such as diarrhoea and dysentery, but ranges from an asymptomatic carrier state through a chronic symptomatic infection presenting with non-bloody diarrhoea, to a dysentery-like picture. Extra-intestinal spread ...
Malaria, African trypanosomiasis, theileriosis, babesiosis and coccidiosis are of great public health and/or economic importance in eastern Africa. Leishmaniasis is an increasing problem in this area and other protozoal diseases which are found among human and/or livestock populations include toxoplasmosis, trichomoniasis, amoebiasis, giardiasis, sarcocystosis, Balantidium coli infection and histomoniasis. Control of the vector-borne parasitic protozoan diseases has been based mainly on the use of pesticides with their attendant, adverse effects on the environment. The paper describes the public health and economic problems posed by the main protozoan diseases in eastern Africa and discusses their control, stressing the importance of environmental considerations when planning control measures. Further, a consideration of the public health impact of these diseases when drawing up, and during implementation of, major agricultural, hydro-electric or irrigation schemes, is emphasized. The possible ...
A cytostome (from cyto-, cell and stome-, mouth) or cell mouth is a part of a cell specialized for phagocytosis, usually in the form of a microtubule-supported funnel or groove. Food is directed into the cytostome, and sealed into vacuoles. Only certain groups of protozoa, such as the ciliates and excavates, have cytostomes. An example is Balantidium coli, a ciliate. In other protozoa, and in cells from multicellular organisms, phagocytosis takes place at any point on the cell or feeding takes place by absorption. The cytostome forms an invagination on the cell surface and is typically directed towards the nucleus of the cell. The cytostome is often labeled as the entire invagination, but in fact the cytostome only constitutes the opening of the invagination at the surface of the cell. The rest of the invagination is classified as the cytopharynx. The cytopharynx works in conjunction with the cytostome in order to import macromolecules into the cell. This strong association between the cytostome ...
Summary 1. The pathology of lesions of dysentery is determined by the parasite, protozoon or bacterium causing it. 2. The pathology of infection with Endamoeba histolytica is characterized by lysis of tissue cells, leucocytes and red blood corpuscles with little or no inflammatory reaction until and unless secondary bacterial infection of the lesions occurs. 3. The pathology of infection with Balantidium coli is characterized by traumatic injury to the intestinal mucosa and secondary infection of the traumatized areas by bacteria carried in by the parasite. 4. The pathology of infection by bacteria of the dysentery and food poisoning group is acute inflammation, the intensity of which varies over a wide range. 5. The differentiation of the kinds of dysentery requires a consideration of the characteristic action of the etiologic agent which is mirrored by the epidemiology, clinical picture, cytology of the exudate,and confirmed by the pathological anatomy.
The Dangers of Flagyl and Alcohol: Find Out the Serious Find out why you should not drink alcohol while taking Flagyl Find out what happens when these two Flagyl and.. Flagyl ER is an oral antiprotozoal and antibacterial. For dogs loose stool 400 mg anwendungsgebiete flagyl dose for j pouchitis resistanceppt side effect of taking.Conditions that Flagyl oral Treats - WebMD What conditions does Flagyl treat? Flagyl oral may also be used to treat: Infection caused by the Parasite Balantidium ...
Note: EXIF data is stored on valid file types when a photo is uploaded. The photo may have been manipulated since upload (rotated, flipped, cropped etc).. ...
It seems like just a few days ago I learned what hunts I received from the 2015 New Mexico lottery. I had put in for six species, but only drew one tag...
Balantidiasis is an infectious disease caused by the ciliated protozoan parasite called Balantidium coli. The life cycle of the Balantidium coli begins with cysts in the host. The host consumes contaminated water or food, developing cysts which are considered as the parasite stage that transmits Balantidiasis. Excystation then takes place within the small intestine of the host. During this stage, trophozoites inhabit the large intestine. Within the lumen of the large intestine, the trophozoites replicate through binary fission and it is possible for conjugation to take place during this stage. Encystation of the trophozoites follows resulting in infectious cysts. A number of trophozoites will occupy the colon and multiply there while others go back to the lumen of the large intestine for disintegration. Finally, mature cysts are expelled from the body of the host with feces. Balantidium coli bacterium can be found all over the world. Pigs serve as its ideal animal reservoir, thus, Balantidiasis ...
Dogs are very sensitive creatures when it comes to digestive tract diseases. A dog gets diagnosed for intestinal cancer usually when it is already too late to be cured. In most of the cases, the dog is a male and over the age of ten years.. Cancer starts in the stomach wall and quickly spreads to the gastric lymph nodes, which are the fat cells on the bottom edge of the stomach. This cancer is usually spread over other parts of the body as well, like, liver, the small intestine, pancreas, spleen, esophagus, adrenal glands and lungs.. Symptoms of Canine Intestinal Cancer. The symptoms that are associated with canine intestinal cancer and stomach cancer include:. · Vomiting (with or without blood). · Weight loss. · Loss of appetite. · Diarrhea (cancer in the lower intestine). · Projectile vomiting. · Diagnosis of Canine Stomach and Intestinal Cancer. Diagnosis Procedure for Intestinal Cancer. Your Veterinarian will perform a series of tests as part of a standard diagnosis procedure:. · ...
2-Bromo-2-nitro-1,3-propanediol (BNP) was a skin and eye irritant in man and laboratory animals. It has demonstrated skin sensitization potential in humans and guinea-pigs. The acute oral toxicity to rats, mice and dogs was moderate with toxic effects including gastro-intestinal damage. In rats, single exposure was moderately toxic by the dermal route. Effects seen on repeated oral administration to rats included changes to the gastro-intestinal tract, kidneys, gastric lymph nodes and salivary glands. A decrease in maternal weight gain has been reported in pregnant rats and rabbits fed BNP but there were no effects on the foetuses apart from delayed skeletal development in rats. A limited report noted no evidence of carcinogenicity in rats treated orally or in mice treated dermally. BNP gave no indication of mutagenicity in mice or in Ames bacterial tests.. Date of Publication: 1995. Number of Pages: 9. CAS Number*: 52-51-7. Format: PDF available for immediate download. Toxicity Profiles ...
Memoirs: Morphological observations on the fate of the Lateral Appendix in the embryonic Olfactory Organ of Rana nigromaculata ...
1. The anlage of the lateral appendix is formed from the dorso-Iateral part of the olfactory placode in Rana nigro-maculata Hallowell.. 2. The lateral appendix, a blind sac, is formed when the dorsal lumen is differentiated in its anterior part.. 3. It increases in dimension as the olfactory placode further develops, but growth stops as soon as the anterior lower sac appears; it begins to degenerate when the medial nasal gland makes its appearance; and completely disappears towards the end of metamorphosis.. 4. Histological changes are described.. ...
The evolutionary relationships among Japanese pond frogs (,i,Rana nigromaculata,/i,, ,i,R. porosa porosa,/i,, and ,i,R. p. brevipoda,/i,) were investigated by analyzing nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome ,i,b,/i, (,i,cyt b,/i,) and 12S rRNA genes. The nucleotide sequences of 444-bp segment of the ,i,cyt b,/i, gene and 410-bp segment of 12S rRNA gene were determined by the PCR-direct sequencing method using 18 frogs from 13 populations of Japanese pond frogs, and phylogenetic trees were constructed by the neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood methods using ,i,R. catesbeiana,/i, as an outgroup. The sequenced 444-bp segment of ,i,cyt b,/i, gene provided 69 variable sites, and the sequenced 410-bp segment of 12S rRNA gene provided 21 variable sites. The numbers of nucleotide substitutions per site of the ,i,cyt b,/i, gene within ingroup were 0.0022~0.0205 at the populational level, 0.0368~0.0462 at the racial or subspecific level, and 0.1038~0.1244 at the specific level, whereas ...
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A round up of different events around Philadelphia through the lens of photographer Tim Blackwell / Shots Fired. - Tim Blackwell
Marc Marí-DellOlmo, Mercè Gotsens, Laia Palència, Bo Burström, Diana Corman, Giuseppe Costa, Patrick Deboosere, Èlia Díez, Felicitas Domínguez-Berjón, Dagmar Dzúrová, Ana Gandarillas, Rasmus Hoffmann, Katalin Kovács, Pekka Martikainen, Moreno Demaria, Hynek Pikhart, Maica Rodríguez-Sanz, Marc Saez, Paula Santana, Cornelia Schwierz, Lasse Tarkiainen, Carme Borrell ...
Balantidiasis (Balantidium Infection)
Balantidium coli bacterium can be found all over the world. Pigs serve as its ideal animal reservoir, thus, Balantidiasis in ... Because Balantidium coli is not resilient and disintegrates outside of the colon, multiple stool samples may be required. ... The life cycle of the Balantidium coli begins with cysts in the host. The host consumes contaminated water or food, developing ... Rarely, cysts may be discovered indicating the presence of Balantidium coli. The treatment for Balantidiasis is a prescription ...http://www.medic8.com/infectious-diseases/balantidiasis.htm
Balantidium coli - Wikipedia
Balantidium coli lives in the cecum and colon of humans, pigs, rats and other mammals. It is not readily transmissible from one ... Balantidium coli is a parasitic species of ciliate alveolates that causes the disease balantidiasis. It is the only member of ... Balantidium coli has two developmental stages, a trophozoite stage and a cyst stage. In trophozoites, the two nuclei are ... Balantidium is the only ciliated protozoan known to infect humans. Balantidiasis is a zoonotic disease and is acquired by ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Balantidium_coli
Balantidium coli (Vestibuliferida: Balantidiidae): the persistence of an old problem
Fatal cases of dysentery caused by Balantidium coli, and diagnosed post mortem, are reported from Costa Rica in 2 males aged 8 ... Hernández, F.; Argüello, A.P.; Rivera, P.; Jiménez, E., 1993: Balantidium coli (Vestibuliferida: Balantidiidae): the ...https://eurekamag.com/research/002/308/002308105.php
Acute Fulminating Form of Balantidium coli Infection in Buffaloes | Open Access Journals
Balantidium coli are a ciliate protozoan and it is frequently found in the intestinal tract of the different animals including ... Balantidium coli are a ciliate protozoan and it is frequently found in the intestinal tract of the different animals including ... Balantidium coli organisms produce the hyaluronidase enzyme, which enhances the ability of the pathogens to invade into the ... Several reports are there on B. coli infection in buffaloes and cattle [6,9]. But, information on acute form of Balantidium ...http://www.rroij.com/open-access/acute-fulminating-form-of-balantidium-coli-infection-in-buffaloes.php?aid=86794
Balantidium - Wikipedia
Balantidium acanthuri Balantidium alpha Balantidium amblystomatis Balantidium amygdalli Balantidium aragaoi Balantidium ... Balantidium bovis Balantidium cameli Balantidium caprae Balantidium caviae Balantidium chagasi Balantidium coli Balantidium ... gyranus Balantidium haughwouti Balantidium helenae Balantidium hydrae Balantidium indicum Balantidium kirbyi Balantidium major ... Balantidium marsupialis Balantidium medusarum Balantidium minor Balantidium minutum Balantidium nucleus Balantidium orchestium ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Balantidium
Balantidium coli-induced pulmonary haemorrhage with iron deficiency
Pulmonary Balantidium coli infection in a leukemic patient. Am J Hematol 2003; 73: 180-183. [ Links ]. ... BACKGROUND: Balantidium coli, a ciliated protozoan parasite that infects primates and pigs, and is the largest protozoan to ... 2. Sharma S, Harding G. Necrotizing lung infection caused by the protozoan Balantidium coli. Can J Infect Dis 2003; 14(3): 163- ... 9. Bel GS, Couret M. Balantidium coli infection in man. J Infect Dis 1910; 7(5): 609-624. [ Links ]. ...http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-95742010000800020&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=en
Balantidium coli-induced pulmonary haemorrhage with iron deficiency
Pulmonary Balantidium coli infection in a leukemic patient. Am J Hematol 2003; 73: 180-183. [ Links ]. ... BACKGROUND: Balantidium coli, a ciliated protozoan parasite that infects primates and pigs, and is the largest protozoan to ... 2. Sharma S, Harding G. Necrotizing lung infection caused by the protozoan Balantidium coli. Can J Infect Dis 2003; 14(3): 163- ... 9. Bel GS, Couret M. Balantidium coli infection in man. J Infect Dis 1910; 7(5): 609-624. [ Links ]. ...http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0256-95742010000800020&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en
Balantidium coli - Faeces | Public Health Ontario
Balantidium coli specimens are examined by microscopy by preparing a smear and concentrate following a centrifugation procedure ...https://www.publichealthontario.ca/en/laboratory-services/test-information-index/balantidium-coli-faeces
Balantidium coli Infection in Bonobos (Parasitic Disease Summary)
Balantidium coli infection is common in apes. (P6.2.w13). *Trophozoites of Balantidium coli were detected in faecal samples ... Balantidium coli, a ciliate. (J11.96.w2) *Trophozoites in the faeces of great apes were 50 - 150 m, ovoid, with longitudinal ... In general, Balantidium coli infections in great apes are asymptomatic (as is generally the case in humans). (B214.3.1.w18, ... Balantidium coli is commonly found in orphaned bonobos in Kinshasa. (D386.4.3.w4c) ...http://wildpro.twycrosszoo.org/S/00dis/Parasitic/balantidium_coli_inf_bonobos.htm
Rare Case of Polymicrobial Keratitis With Balantidium coli - MAHE Digital Repository
Purpose: To report a rare case of polymicrobial keratitis due to Balantidium coli and gram-negative bacteria, Pseudomonas ... Balantidium coli; Contact lens; Ciliated protozoa; Klebsiella pneumoniae; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Polymicrobial keratitis. ... Rare Case of Polymicrobial Keratitis With Balantidium coli. Cornea, 35 (12). pp. 1665-1667. ...http://eprints.manipal.edu/147668/
Balantidium honghuensis n. sp. (Ciliophora: Trichostomatidae) from the Rectum of Rana nigromaculata and R. limnocharis from...
Balantidium sinensis Nie, 1935 and Balantidium andianusis n. sp... Parasitol Res 2008;102: 605-611. PMID: 18043944.. ... Balantidium honghuensis n. sp.. Host. Rana nigromaculata Hallowell, 1861 and Rana limnocharis Boie,1834. ... Key words: Balantidium honghuensis, trichostome ciliate, frog, Rana nigromaculata, Rana limnocharis, China ... Ray H. On the morphology of Balantidium sushilii n. sp., from Rana tigrina Daud. J Roy Micr Soc 1932;52: 374-382.. ...http://parasitol.kr/journal/view.php?number=1683
CDC - Balantidiasis - Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
Where is Balantidium coli endemic?. Balantidium coli infection in humans is rare in the United States. Balantidium coli is ... How is Balantidium coli transmitted?. Balantidium coli is transmitted through the fecal-oral route. Humans can become infected ... What is Balantidium coli?. Balantidium coli is an intestinal protozoan parasite that causes the infection called balantidiasis ... How can I prevent Balantidium coli?. Balantidium coli infection can be prevented when traveling by following good hygiene ...https://www.cdc.gov/parasites/balantidium/faqs.html
CDC - Balantidiasis
Education and information about Balantidium coli, Balantidiasis, frequently asked questions, biology and publications. ... Balantidium coli, though rare in the US, is an intestinal protozoan parasite that can infect humans. These parasites can be ... Images: Left: Balantidium coli cyst. Right: B. coli trophozoite in a wet mount of feces. (Credit: DPDx) ... Balantidium coli infection is mostly asymptomatic, but people with other serious illnesses can experience persistent diarrhea, ...https://www.cdc.gov/parasites/balantidium/index.html
ASTMH - Zaiman Slide Library
Balantidium coll Size: 136 kB. Description: Single trophozoite is present in the bowel wall. Note the cytostome.. Uploaded: 10/ ...http://www.astmh.org/education-resources/zaiman-slide-library?page=123&fileid=2963
Set 29 Fungi Flashcards by james hall | Brainscape
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XIV - Parasitology Flashcards by Grazielle Verzosa | Brainscape
Study XIV - Parasitology flashcards from Grazielle Verzosahttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/xiv-parasitology-2527549/packs/4423998
Table of Contents - October 18, 1929, 70 (1816) | Science
EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION OF RATS WITH THE BALANTIDIUM FROM THE PIG. By E. Schumaker ...http://science.sciencemag.org/content/70/1816
Balantidiasis | Encyclopedia.com
... called Balantidium coli that infects the digestive tract. It is primarily a disease of the tropics, although it is also found ... www.stanford.edu/class/humbio103/ParaSites2003/Balantidium/Balantidium_coli_ParaSite.htm, (accessed February 2, 2007). ... Balantidiasis is caused by Balantidium coli, a parasitic protozoan that infects the large intestine. B. coli is the largest and ... balantidiasis (bal-ăn-ti-dy-ă-sis) n. an infestation of the large intestine of humans with the parasitic protozoan Balantidium ...https://www.encyclopedia.com/medicine/diseases-and-conditions/pathology/balantidiasis
Balantidiasis: (Latin name: Balantidium coli). Lives in the intestinal mucosa. Blastocystosis: (Blastocystis). Affects the ...https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/220302.php
What organisms in kingdom protista are pathogenic?
Balantidium Coli is a species of ciliophora that is a parasitic pathogen of animals such as rats, pigs, and guinea pigs. The ... b,Balantidium Coli,/b, is a species of ,b,ciliophora,/b, that is a parasitic pathogen of animals such as rats, pigs, and guinea ...http://www.answers.com/Q/What_organisms_in_kingdom_protista_are_pathogenic
Doxycycline Tablets - FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses
Balantidium coli. Entamoeba species. Susceptibility Testing Methods. When available, the clinical microbiology laboratory ...https://www.drugs.com/pro/doxycycline-tablets.html
Intestinal Protozoal Diseases Treatment & Management: Medical Care, Surgical Care, Consultations
Although all infectious agents in humans are parasites, by convention, parasitic diseases are defined as those caused by protozoa or helminths. The old classification, in which a single phylum of protozoa encompassed all unicellular eukaryotic microorganisms, is no longer valid because of new ultrastructural and molecular taxonomic information.https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/999282-treatment
Ova and Parasite Exam: The Test
Balantidium coli. *Cyclospora cayetanensis. Worms (helminths):. *Roundworms such as Ascaris, Strongyloides. *Hookworms ...https://labtestsonline.org/understanding/analytes/op/tab/test
Intestinal Protozoal Diseases Differential Diagnoses
Although all infectious agents in humans are parasites, by convention, parasitic diseases are defined as those caused by protozoa or helminths. The old classification, in which a single phylum of protozoa encompassed all unicellular eukaryotic microorganisms, is no longer valid because of new ultrastructural and molecular taxonomic information.https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/999282-differential
Balantidium coli. Numerous protozoa inhabit the gastro-intestinal tract of humans (see Box). This list includes representatives ... Balantidium coli is the only ciliate which infects humans. It is found world wide, but like many other fecal-oral transmitted ... Balantidium exhibits a typical fecal-oral life cycle consisting of trophozoite and cyst stages. The large size and unique ... Similar to many other ciliates, Balantidium is covered by rows of cilia. The cilia give the parasite surface a fuzzy appearance ...http://www.tulane.edu/~wiser/protozoology/notes/intes.html
- Balantidium coli is a parasitic species of ciliate alveolates that causes the disease balantidiasis. (wikipedia.org)
- Balantidium coli has two developmental stages, a trophozoite stage and a cyst stage. (wikipedia.org)
- Balantidium coli lives in the cecum and colon of humans, pigs, rats and other mammals. (wikipedia.org)
- The Parasite: Balantidium coli The Disease: Balantidiasis. (wikipedia.org)
- Fatal cases of dysentery caused by Balantidium coli, and diagnosed post mortem, are reported from Costa Rica in 2 males aged 8 and 28 years. (eurekamag.com)
- Balantidiasis is an infectious disease caused by the ciliated protozoan parasite called Balantidium coli. (medic8.com)
- It contains the parasitic species Balantidium coli, the only known cause of balantidiasis. (wikipedia.org)
- Balantidium coli is a parasitic species of ciliate alveolates that causes the disease balantidiasis. (wikipedia.org)
- The Parasite: Balantidium coli The Disease: Balantidiasis. (wikipedia.org)
- Among the protozoan diseases balantidiasis caused by Balantidium coli , is a common disease and it was present throughout the world with a wide variety of hosts, including man, various domestic and wild mammals. (rroij.com)
- Balantidium coli is an intestinal protozoan parasite that causes the infection called balantidiasis. (cdc.gov)
- Balantidiasis is an infectious disease produced by a single-celled microorganism (protozoan) called Balantidium coli that infects the digestive tract. (encyclopedia.com)
- Balantidiasis is caused by Balantidium coli , a parasitic protozoan that infects the large intestine . (encyclopedia.com)
- Trophozoites of Balantidium coli were detected in faecal samples from 7/23 bonobos (30%) from two of three captive groups (bonobos at Antwerp Zoo, Belgium, Zoologischer Garten Leipzig, Germany and Twycross Zoo, UK were tested). (twycrosszoo.org)
- Microscopic examination of the dung revealed numerous motile ciliated trophozoites of Balantidium coli. (rroij.com)
- Direct smear examination of the dung sample revealed a large number of Balantidium coli cysts and trophozoites (Figures 2 and 3) . (rroij.com)
- Balantidium coli trophozoites (400X). (rroij.com)
- Balantidium coli bacterium can be found all over the world. (medic8.com)
- Balantidium coli is commonly found in orphaned bonobos in Kinshasa. (twycrosszoo.org)
- Balantidium coli is found throughout the world, but it is most prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions and developing countries. (cdc.gov)