A species of free-living soil amoeba in the family Balamuthiidae, causing AMEBIASIS and a deadly form of ENCEPHALITIS in humans.
Infection with any of various amebae. It is an asymptomatic carrier state in most individuals, but diseases ranging from chronic, mild diarrhea to fulminant dysentery may occur.
A class of amoeboid EUKARYOTES that forms either filiform subpseudopodia or lobopodia. Characteristics include the absence of sorocarps, sporangia, or similar fruiting bodies. Lobosea were formerly members of the phylum Sarcomastigophora, subphylum Sarcodina, under the old five kingdom paradigm.
A supergroup (some say phylum) of ameboid EUKARYOTES, comprising ARCHAMOEBAE; LOBOSEA; and MYCETOZOA.
Infections of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges by single celled organisms of the former subkingdom known as protozoa. The central nervous system may be the primary or secondary site of protozoal infection. These diseases may occur as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS or arise in immunocompetent hosts.
A genus of ameboid protozoa. Characteristics include a vesicular nucleus and the formation of several lodopodia, one of which is dominant at a given time. Reproduction occurs asexually by binary fission.
Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.
An inflammatory process involving the brain (ENCEPHALITIS) and meninges (MENINGITIS), most often produced by pathogenic organisms which invade the central nervous system, and occasionally by toxins, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions.
A species of parasitic protozoa having both an ameboid and flagellate stage in its life cycle. Infection with this pathogen produces PRIMARY AMEBIC MENINGOENCEPHALITIS.
Agents which are destructive to amebae, especially the parasitic species causing AMEBIASIS in man and animal.
Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa.
Cells or feeding stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. In the malarial parasite, the trophozoite develops from the MEROZOITE and then splits into the SCHIZONT. Trophozoites that are left over from cell division can go on to form gametocytes.
A genus of free-living soil amoebae that produces no flagellate stage. Its organisms are pathogens for several infections in humans and have been found in the eye, bone, brain, and respiratory tract.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Antiprotozoal agent effective in trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and some fungal infections; used in treatment of PNEUMOCYSTIS pneumonia in HIV-infected patients. It may cause diabetes mellitus, central nervous system damage, and other toxic effects.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.
An infection caused by an organism which becomes pathogenic under certain conditions, e.g., during immunosuppression.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Substances that are destructive to protozoans.
Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
A relatively small nodular inflammatory lesion containing grouped mononuclear phagocytes, caused by infectious and noninfectious agents.

Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis caused by Balamuthia mandrillaris. (1/5)

A 51-year-old immunocompetent Japanese woman presented with a rare case of granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) caused by Balamuthia mandrillaris. She was brought to our hospital with epilepsy. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed a homogeneously enhanced solitary mass in the left frontal lobe. Histological diagnosis was made by a biopsy, which suggested lymphomatoid granulomatosis. After that, her neurological condition got worse. New masses were found and had spread across the whole brain. She died 2 months later of cerebral hernia. Autopsy revealed that the patient had GAE caused by Balamuthia mandrillaris. GAE is usually fatal, and is difficult to diagnose except at autopsy. Therefore, awareness of this disease is important, and earlier diagnosis and the development of a better therapeutic strategy will improve clinical outcome.  (+info)

Balamuthia mandrillaris and Acanthamoeba amebic encephalitis with neurotoxoplasmosis coinfection in a patient with advanced HIV infection. (2/5)

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Fatal Balamuthia amebic encephalitis in a healthy child: a case report with review of survival cases. (3/5)

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Investigational drug available directly from CDC for the treatment of infections with free-living amebae. (4/5)

Infections caused by free-living amebae (FLA) are severe and life-threatening. These infections include primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) caused by Naegleria fowleri and granulomatous amebic encephalitis caused by Balamuthia mandrillaris and Acanthamoeba species. Although several drugs have in vitro activity against FLA, mortality from these infections remains>90% despite treatment with combinations of drugs.  (+info)

Successful treatment of granulomatous amoebic encephalitis with combination antimicrobial therapy. (5/5)

Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) is a rare but fatal infection. Due to its nonspecific symptoms and laboratory and neuroradiological findings, it is rarely diagnosed antemortem. We herein present the case of a 72-year-old Japanese woman who was diagnosed with GAE following the detection of a pathogen similar to Balamuthia mandrillaris under a microscopic examination of cerebrospinal fluid sediment and who achieved remission with combination antimicrobial therapy. There are no previous reports of pathogens similar to B. mandrillaris being detected in cerebrospinal fluid antemortem; therefore, this case may be used as a benchmark for further studies.  (+info)

'Balamuthia mandrillaris' is a free-living ameba found in soil and water that can cause a rare and often fatal brain infection known as granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE) in humans. This organism was first identified in the mandrill, a type of primate, hence its name.

The infection caused by 'Balamuthia mandrillaris' is usually acquired through inhalation or direct contact with contaminated soil, water, or dust. The ameba can then travel to the brain and cause inflammation and damage to the tissue, resulting in severe symptoms such as headache, fever, stiff neck, seizures, and altered mental status.

Diagnosis of 'Balamuthia mandrillaris' infection is often difficult due to its rarity and non-specific symptoms. It requires specialized laboratory tests, including brain biopsy or examination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. Treatment typically involves a combination of antimicrobial drugs, such as pentamidine, fluconazole, azithromycin, and miltefosine, although the prognosis is generally poor.

Preventive measures include avoiding contact with soil or water that may be contaminated with 'Balamuthia mandrillaris', wearing masks in areas where the ameba is known to exist, and practicing good hygiene.

Amebiasis is defined as an infection caused by the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica, which can affect the intestines and other organs. The infection can range from asymptomatic to symptomatic with various manifestations such as abdominal pain, diarrhea (which may be mild or severe), bloody stools, and fever. In some cases, it can lead to serious complications like liver abscess. Transmission of the parasite typically occurs through the ingestion of contaminated food or water.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Lobosea" is not a recognized term in medical terminology. It is possible that you may be referring to a term used in biology or zoology. In fact, "Lobosea" is an informal grouping of certain aquatic arthropods, including some species of copepods and tanaids.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or healthcare, please don't hesitate to ask!

Amoebozoa is a supergroup of unicellular eukaryotic organisms that includes various kinds of amoebas and slime molds. These organisms are characterized by the presence of lobose pseudopodia, which are temporary protrusions of cytoplasm used for locomotion and feeding. Amoebozoa is a diverse group with over 9,000 described species, including both free-living and symbiotic forms. Some amoebozoans can form multicellular structures during their life cycle, such as slime molds, which are known for their complex behaviors and social interactions. The study of Amoebozoa is important for understanding the evolutionary history and diversity of eukaryotic organisms.

Central nervous system (CNS) protozoal infections refer to diseases caused by protozoa that invade and infect the brain and spinal cord. These infections can lead to serious neurological symptoms and complications.

There are several types of protozoa that can cause CNS infections, including:

1. Toxoplasma gondii: This parasite is commonly found in cats and can be transmitted to humans through contact with infected cat feces or consumption of undercooked meat. In people with weakened immune systems, T. gondii can cause severe CNS symptoms such as seizures, confusion, and coma.
2. Naegleria fowleri: Also known as the "brain-eating amoeba," N. fowleri is a free-living protozoan found in warm freshwater environments. When people swim or dive in infected water, the amoeba can enter the body through the nose and travel to the brain, causing primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), a rare but often fatal CNS infection.
3. Acanthamoeba: Like N. fowleri, Acanthamoeba is a free-living protozoan found in freshwater and soil. It can cause a range of CNS infections, including granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE), which typically affects people with weakened immune systems.
4. Trypanosoma brucei: This parasite is transmitted through the bite of infected tsetse flies and causes African sleeping sickness, a CNS infection that can lead to coma and death if left untreated.
5. Plasmodium falciparum: While not strictly a protozoan, P. falciparum is a parasite that causes malaria, a mosquito-borne disease that can cause severe CNS symptoms such as seizures, coma, and cerebral malaria.

Treatment for CNS protozoal infections depends on the specific type of infection and may include antiprotozoal medications, antibiotics, or supportive care to manage symptoms. Prevention measures include avoiding contact with infected animals or insects, practicing good hygiene, and using appropriate protective measures such as insect repellent or bed nets in areas where these infections are common.

An Amoeba is a type of single-celled organism that belongs to the kingdom Protista. It's known for its ability to change shape and move through its environment using temporary extensions of cytoplasm called pseudopods. Amoebas are found in various aquatic and moist environments, and some species can even live as parasites within animals, including humans.

In a medical context, the term "Amoeba" often refers specifically to Entamoeba histolytica, a pathogenic species that can cause amoebiasis, a type of infectious disease. This parasite typically enters the human body through contaminated food or water and can lead to symptoms such as diarrhea, stomach pain, and weight loss. In severe cases, it may invade the intestinal wall and spread to other organs, causing potentially life-threatening complications.

It's important to note that while many species of amoebas exist in nature, only a few are known to cause human disease. Proper hygiene practices, such as washing hands thoroughly and avoiding contaminated food and water, can help prevent the spread of amoebic infections.

Encephalitis is defined as inflammation of the brain parenchyma, which is often caused by viral infections but can also be due to bacterial, fungal, or parasitic infections, autoimmune disorders, or exposure to toxins. The infection or inflammation can cause various symptoms such as headache, fever, confusion, seizures, and altered consciousness, ranging from mild symptoms to severe cases that can lead to brain damage, long-term disabilities, or even death.

The diagnosis of encephalitis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies (such as MRI or CT scans), and laboratory tests (such as cerebrospinal fluid analysis). Treatment may include antiviral medications, corticosteroids, immunoglobulins, and supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Meningoencephalitis is a medical term that refers to an inflammation of both the brain (encephalitis) and the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord (meninges), known as the meninges. It is often caused by an infection, such as bacterial or viral infections, that spreads to the meninges and brain. In some cases, it can also be caused by other factors like autoimmune disorders or certain medications.

The symptoms of meningoencephalitis may include fever, headache, stiff neck, confusion, seizures, and changes in mental status. If left untreated, this condition can lead to serious complications, such as brain damage, hearing loss, learning disabilities, or even death. Treatment typically involves antibiotics for bacterial infections or antiviral medications for viral infections, along with supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Naegleria fowleri is a free-living, thermophilic, and opportunistic protozoan parasite that causes the rare but often fatal primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) in humans. It's commonly found in warm freshwater bodies such as lakes, rivers, and hot springs, as well as inadequately chlorinated swimming pools and contaminated soil.

The life cycle of Naegleria fowleri includes three stages: trophozoite, flagellate, and cyst. The infective stage is the motile and feeding trophozoite, which enters the human body through the nasal passages during activities like swimming or diving in infected waters. Once inside the nose, it can migrate to the brain via the olfactory nerve, where it multiplies and causes extensive damage leading to severe inflammation and necrosis of the brain tissue.

The incubation period for PAM is typically between 1 to 14 days after exposure, with symptoms including sudden onset of fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, stiff neck, altered mental status, seizures, and hallucinations. Unfortunately, the infection progresses rapidly, often leading to death within 3 to 7 days post-symptom onset if left untreated.

Early diagnosis and prompt treatment with specific antimicrobial agents such as amphotericin B, miltefosine, rifampin, and azithromycin, along with supportive care, may improve the prognosis of PAM caused by Naegleria fowleri. However, due to its aggressive nature and rapid progression, the overall mortality rate remains high at around 95%. Preventive measures include avoiding water-related activities in warm freshwater bodies during peak temperature months and using nose clips while swimming or diving in suspected infected waters.

Amebicides are medications that are used to treat infections caused by amebae, which are single-celled microorganisms. One common ameba that can cause infection in humans is Entamoeba histolytica, which can lead to a condition called amebiasis. Amebicides work by killing or inhibiting the growth of the amebae. Some examples of amebicides include metronidazole, tinidazole, and chloroquine. It's important to note that these medications should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as they can have side effects and may interact with other medications.

Protozoan infections are diseases caused by microscopic, single-celled organisms known as protozoa. These parasites can enter the human body through contaminated food, water, or contact with an infected person or animal. Once inside the body, they can multiply and cause a range of symptoms depending on the type of protozoan and where it infects in the body. Some common protozoan infections include malaria, giardiasis, amoebiasis, and toxoplasmosis. Symptoms can vary widely but may include diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, fatigue, and skin rashes. Treatment typically involves the use of antiprotozoal medications to kill the parasites and alleviate symptoms.

Trophozoites are the feeding and motile stage in the life cycle of certain protozoa, including those that cause diseases such as amebiasis and malaria. They are typically larger than the cyst stage of these organisms and have a more irregular shape. Trophozoites move by means of pseudopods (false feet) and engulf food particles through a process called phagocytosis. In the case of pathogenic protozoa, this feeding stage is often when they cause damage to host tissues.

In the case of amebiasis, caused by Entamoeba histolytica, trophozoites can invade the intestinal wall and cause ulcers, leading to symptoms such as diarrhea and abdominal pain. In malaria, caused by Plasmodium species, trophozoites infect red blood cells and multiply within them, eventually causing their rupture and release of more parasites into the bloodstream, which can lead to severe complications like cerebral malaria or organ failure.

It's important to note that not all protozoa have a trophozoite stage in their life cycle, and some may refer to this feeding stage with different terminology depending on the specific species.

Acanthamoeba is a genus of free-living, ubiquitous amoebae found in various environments such as soil, water, and air. These microorganisms have a characteristic morphology with thin, flexible pseudopods and large, rounded cells that contain endospores. They are known to cause two major types of infections in humans: Acanthamoeba keratitis, an often painful and potentially sight-threatening eye infection affecting the cornea; and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE), a rare but severe central nervous system infection primarily impacting individuals with weakened immune systems.

Acanthamoeba keratitis typically occurs through contact lens wearers accidentally introducing the organism into their eyes, often via contaminated water sources or inadequately disinfected contact lenses and solutions. Symptoms include eye pain, redness, sensitivity to light, tearing, and blurred vision. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for preventing severe complications and potential blindness.

Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis is an opportunistic infection that affects people with compromised immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS, cancer, or organ transplant recipients. The infection spreads hematogenously (through the bloodstream) to the central nervous system, where it causes inflammation and damage to brain tissue. Symptoms include headache, fever, stiff neck, seizures, altered mental status, and focal neurological deficits. GAE is associated with high mortality rates due to its severity and the challenges in diagnosing and treating the infection effectively.

Prevention strategies for Acanthamoeba infections include maintaining good hygiene practices, regularly replacing contact lenses and storage cases, using sterile saline solution or disposable contact lenses, and avoiding swimming or showering while wearing contact lenses. Early detection and appropriate medical intervention are essential for managing these infections and improving patient outcomes.

A fatal outcome is a term used in medical context to describe a situation where a disease, injury, or illness results in the death of an individual. It is the most severe and unfortunate possible outcome of any medical condition, and is often used as a measure of the severity and prognosis of various diseases and injuries. In clinical trials and research, fatal outcome may be used as an endpoint to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of different treatments or interventions.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

Pentamidine is an antimicrobial drug that is primarily used to treat and prevent certain types of pneumonia caused by the parasitic organisms Pneumocystis jirovecii (formerly known as P. carinii) and Leishmania donovani. It can also be used for the treatment of some fungal infections caused by Histoplasma capsulatum and Cryptococcus neoformans.

Pentamidine works by interfering with the DNA replication and protein synthesis of these microorganisms, which ultimately leads to their death. It is available as an injection or inhaled powder for medical use. Common side effects of pentamidine include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and changes in blood sugar levels. More serious side effects can include kidney damage, hearing loss, and heart rhythm disturbances.

It is important to note that the use of pentamidine should be under the supervision of a healthcare professional due to its potential for serious side effects and drug interactions.

There doesn't seem to be a specific medical definition for "DNA, protozoan" as it is simply a reference to the DNA found in protozoa. Protozoa are single-celled eukaryotic organisms that can be found in various environments such as soil, water, and the digestive tracts of animals.

Protozoan DNA refers to the genetic material present in these organisms. It is composed of nucleic acids, including deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), which contain the instructions for the development, growth, and reproduction of the protozoan.

The DNA in protozoa, like in other organisms, is made up of two strands of nucleotides that coil together to form a double helix. The four nucleotide bases that make up protozoan DNA are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). These bases pair with each other to form the rungs of the DNA ladder, with A always pairing with T and G always pairing with C.

The genetic information stored in protozoan DNA is encoded in the sequence of these nucleotide bases. This information is used to synthesize proteins, which are essential for the structure and function of the organism's cells. Protozoan DNA also contains other types of genetic material, such as regulatory sequences that control gene expression and repetitive elements with no known function.

Understanding the DNA of protozoa is important for studying their biology, evolution, and pathogenicity. It can help researchers develop new treatments for protozoan diseases and gain insights into the fundamental principles of genetics and cellular function.

Opportunistic infections (OIs) are infections that occur more frequently or are more severe in individuals with weakened immune systems, often due to a underlying condition such as HIV/AIDS, cancer, or organ transplantation. These infections are caused by microorganisms that do not normally cause disease in people with healthy immune function, but can take advantage of an opportunity to infect and cause damage when the body's defense mechanisms are compromised. Examples of opportunistic infections include Pneumocystis pneumonia, tuberculosis, candidiasis (thrush), and cytomegalovirus infection. Preventive measures, such as antimicrobial medications and vaccinations, play a crucial role in reducing the risk of opportunistic infections in individuals with weakened immune systems.

Antibodies, protozoan, refer to the immune system's response to an infection caused by a protozoan organism. Protozoa are single-celled microorganisms that can cause various diseases in humans, such as malaria, giardiasis, and toxoplasmosis.

When the body is infected with a protozoan, the immune system responds by producing specific proteins called antibodies. Antibodies are produced by a type of white blood cell called a B-cell, and they recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the protozoan organism.

There are five main types of antibodies: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each type of antibody has a different role in the immune response. For example, IgG is the most common type of antibody and provides long-term immunity to previously encountered pathogens. IgM is the first antibody produced in response to an infection and is important for activating the complement system, which helps to destroy the protozoan organism.

Overall, the production of antibodies against protozoan organisms is a critical part of the immune response and helps to protect the body from further infection.

Antiprotozoal agents are a type of medication used to treat protozoal infections, which are infections caused by microscopic single-celled organisms called protozoa. These agents work by either killing the protozoa or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. They can be administered through various routes, including oral, topical, and intravenous, depending on the type of infection and the severity of the illness.

Examples of antiprotozoal agents include:

* Metronidazole, tinidazole, and nitazoxanide for treating infections caused by Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica.
* Atovaquone, clindamycin, and pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine for treating malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum or other Plasmodium species.
* Pentamidine and suramin for treating African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense or T. b. rhodesiense.
* Nitroimidazoles, such as benznidazole and nifurtimox, for treating Chagas disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi.
* Sodium stibogluconate and paromomycin for treating leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania species.

Antiprotozoal agents can have side effects, ranging from mild to severe, depending on the drug and the individual patient's response. It is essential to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully when taking these medications and report any adverse reactions promptly.

18S rRNA (ribosomal RNA) is the smaller subunit of the eukaryotic ribosome, which is the cellular organelle responsible for protein synthesis. The "18S" refers to the sedimentation coefficient of this rRNA molecule, which is a measure of its rate of sedimentation in a centrifuge and is expressed in Svedberg units (S).

The 18S rRNA is a component of the 40S subunit of the ribosome, and it plays a crucial role in the decoding of messenger RNA (mRNA) during protein synthesis. Specifically, the 18S rRNA helps to form the structure of the ribosome and contains several conserved regions that are involved in binding to mRNA and guiding the movement of transfer RNAs (tRNAs) during translation.

The 18S rRNA is also a commonly used molecular marker for evolutionary studies, as its sequence is highly conserved across different species and can be used to infer phylogenetic relationships between organisms. Additionally, the analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequences has been widely used in various fields such as ecology, environmental science, and medicine to study biodiversity, biogeography, and infectious diseases.

A granuloma is a small, nodular inflammatory lesion that occurs in various tissues in response to chronic infection, foreign body reaction, or autoimmune conditions. Histologically, it is characterized by the presence of epithelioid macrophages, which are specialized immune cells with enlarged nuclei and abundant cytoplasm, often arranged in a palisading pattern around a central area containing necrotic debris, microorganisms, or foreign material.

Granulomas can be found in various medical conditions such as tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, fungal infections, and certain autoimmune disorders like Crohn's disease. The formation of granulomas is a complex process involving both innate and adaptive immune responses, which aim to contain and eliminate the offending agent while minimizing tissue damage.

Balamuthia , Parasites , CDC for images: Cyst of B. mandrillaris and Trophozoite of B. mandrillaris in culture. Credit: DPDx ( ... Balamuthia mandrillaris does not feed on bacteria. Instead, Balamuthia must be cultured on primate hepatocytes or human brain ... B. mandrillaris can infect the body through open wounds or by inhalation. Balamuthia has been isolated from soil. It is ... Balamuthia mandrillaris is a free-living amoeba that causes the rare but deadly neurological condition granulomatous amoebic ...
Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri, and Sappinia diploidea". FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiology. 50 (1): 1-26. doi: ...
and Balamuthia mandrillaris cysts and trophozoites are found in tissue.[citation needed] In Acanthamoeba infections, the ... and Balamuthia mandrillaris are opportunistic free-living amoebae capable of causing granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) ... Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri, and Sappinia diploidea". FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology. 50 (1): 1-26. ... B. mandrillaris however, has not been isolated from the environment but has been isolated from autopsy specimens of infected ...
Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri, and Sappinia diploidea". FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 50 (1): 1-26. doi:10.1111/j. ...
In more modern references, the term "balamuthia amoebic encephalitis" (BAE) is commonly used when Balamuthia mandrillaris is ... Matin A, Siddiqui R, Jung SY, Kim KS, Stins M, Khan NA (August 2007). "Balamuthia mandrillaris interactions with human brain ... October 2004). "Post-mortem culture of Balamuthia mandrillaris from the brain and cerebrospinal fluid of a case of ... In 2018 a metagenomic sequencing analysis identified Nitroxoline as amoebicidal agent against the Balamuthia mandrillaris. In ...
"Fatal Balamuthia mandrillaris brain infection associated with improper nasal lavage". IJID Online. International Journal of ... In 2018, a patient was reported to have contracted Balamuthia mandrillaris after one month of using tap water filtered through ...
January 2023). "Successful Treatment of Balamuthia mandrillaris Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis with Nitroxoline". Emerging ... In 2021 a patient survived an infection of Balamuthia mandrillaris after treatment with nitroxoline. The man had been given a ... sequencing analysis as a compound that could be repurposed as an amoebicidal agent against Balamuthia mandrillaris which causes ... Drugs Identifies the Quinoline Nitroxoline as a Potent Amoebicidal Agent against the Pathogen Balamuthia mandrillaris". mBio. 9 ...
Balamuthia mandrillaris is the cause of (often fatal) granulomatous amoebic meningoencephalitis. Amoeba have been found to ...
... infection Balamuthia mandrillaris Marciano-Cabral F, Cabral G (April 2003). "Acanthamoeba spp. as agents of ...
Balamuthia mandrillaris can also cause cutaneous amoebiasis, but can prove fatal if the amoeba enters the bloodstream It is ... "Fatal granulomatous amebic encephalitis caused by Balamuthia mandrillaris presenting as a skin lesion". J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. ... "The interaction between the amoeba Balamuthia mandrillaris and extracellular matrix glycoproteins in vitro". Parasitology. 134 ...
Balsam of Peru, which has antiparasitic attributes Naegleria fowleri Balamuthia mandrillaris Kappagoda, Shanthi; Singh, Upinder ...
Balamuthia mandrillaris, and Acanthamoeba. However, later studies showed that it is not as potent as other drugs, such as ... Balamuthia mandrillaris, Acanthamoeba spp., and Naegleria fowleri". The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 53 (2): 121-126. ... "The in vitro efficacy of antimicrobial agents against the pathogenic free-living amoeba Balamuthia mandrillaris". The Journal ... mainly used to treat leishmaniasis and free-living amoeba infections such as Naegleria fowleri and Balamuthia mandrillaris. ...
The term has also been applied to Balamuthia mandrillaris, causing some confusion between the two; Balamuthia mandrillaris is ... Balamuthia mandrillaris - unrelated pathogenic organism that shares the same common name as N. fowleri "The Centers for Disease ... Shadrach, WS; Rydzewski, K; Laube, U; Holland, G; Ozel, M; Kiderlen, AF; Flieger, A (May 2005). "Balamuthia mandrillaris, free- ...
drawings, offprints, and research notes from 1931 to 1964) "Parasites - Balamuthia mandrillaris - Granulomatous Amebic ... in 1939 with Kirby as thesis advisor and in whose honor the amoebic genus Balamuthia is named. William Balamuth and Dorothy ...
After extensive research, B. mandrillaris was declared a new species in 1993. Since then, more than 200 cases of Balamuthia ... Scientists at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) first discovered Balamuthia mandrillaris in 1986. The amoeba ... Balamuthia infection is a cutaneous condition resulting from Balamuthia that may result in various skin lesions.: 422 ... The Balamuthia amoebae can then travel to the brain through the bloodstream and cause GAE. GAE is a very rare disease that is ...
Entamoeba histolytica Acanthamoeba Balamuthia mandrillaris Endolimax The recently available Acanthamoeba genome sequence ...
Acanthamoeba species and Balamuthia mandrillaris usually only cause disease in immunocompromised patients and Entamoeba ... Balamuthia mandrillaris, or Entamoeba histolytica. These infections are rare, and usually lethal. Naegleria fowleri causes ...
... causes babesiosis Balamuthia mandrillaris: causes granulomatous amoebic encephalitis Cryptosporidium: causes cryptosporidiosis ...
Balamuthia mandrillaris (category B) St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV, category B) Tick-borne hemorrhagic fever viruses ( ...
... incidence of fatality Balamuthia mandrillaris, which causes a (usually slowly) progressive brain and skin infection with ...
... can cause Amoebiasis Acanthamoeba Balamuthia mandrillaris Giardia Cyclospora cayetanensis Cryptosporidium Toxoplasma gondii ...
Acanthamoeba - an amoeba that can cause amoebic keratitis and encephalitis in humans Balamuthia mandrillaris - an amoeba that ...
... when caused by the amoeba Balamuthia mandrillaris, in combination with miltefosine and fluconazole Arthropods Crusted scabies, ...
Education and information about balamuthia, including fact sheets and information on prevention and control, epidemiology, ... Balamuthia mandrillaris is a free-living ameba (a single-celled living organism) naturally found in the environment. Balamuthia ... Parasites - Balamuthia mandrillaris - Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis (GAE). ...
Balamuthia , Parasites , CDC for images: Cyst of B. mandrillaris and Trophozoite of B. mandrillaris in culture. Credit: DPDx ( ... Balamuthia mandrillaris does not feed on bacteria. Instead, Balamuthia must be cultured on primate hepatocytes or human brain ... B. mandrillaris can infect the body through open wounds or by inhalation. Balamuthia has been isolated from soil. It is ... Balamuthia mandrillaris is a free-living amoeba that causes the rare but deadly neurological condition granulomatous amoebic ...
Balamuthia mandrillaris [balʺə-mooʹthe-ə manʺdril-aʹris]. A free-living ameba naturally found in the environment, Balamuthia ... Balamuthia mandrillaris, n. g., n. sp., agent of amebic meningoencephalitis in humans and other animals. J Eukaryot Microbiol. ... Etymologia: Balamuthia mandrillaris. Volume 21, Number 5-May 2015. Article Views: 183. Data is collected weekly and does not ... Balamuthia mandrillaris transmitted through organ transplantation-Mississippi, 2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2010;59:1165-70 ...
Balamuthia mandrillaris Cell Type. cell by organism eukaryotic cell Eukaryotic Protist Amoeboid Protist Cell Line. RP5 Cellular ... Thelma Dunnebacke (2011) CIL:24578, Balamuthia mandrillaris, cell by organism, eukaryotic cell, Eukaryotic Protist, Amoeboid ... that shows a large rounded monkey kidney cell being penetrated by a pseudopodium followed by the whole Balamuthia ameba. ...
Access Balamuthia Mandrillaris Disease case definitions; uniform criteria used to define a disease for public health ...
... mandrillaris encephalitis. B. mandrillaris has two stages in its life cycle, an active trophozoite stage during which it ... A major concern during the course of therapy is that B. mandrillaris can transform into cysts. Cysts are highly resistant to ... Several lines of evidence suggest that B. mandrillaris encephalitis develops as a result of hematogenous spread, but it is ... Recent studies have identified several parasite-host determinants for B. mandrillaris translocation of the blood-brain barrier ...
Education and information about balamuthia sources of infection and risk factors. ... Balamuthia mandrillaris is a free-living ameba (a single-celled living organism) naturally found in the environment. Balamuthia ... The environmental niche of Balamuthia mandrillaris is not well defined. It has been isolated from soil and dust. It is possible ... Exposure to Balamuthia might be common although disease caused by Balamuthia is rare. Infection is thought to occur by ...
Balamuthia mandrillaris Cell Type. cell by organism eukaryotic cell Eukaryotic Protist Amoeboid Protist Cell Line. RP5 Cellular ... Thelma Dunnebacke (2011) CIL:24578, Balamuthia mandrillaris, cell by organism, eukaryotic cell, Eukaryotic Protist, Amoeboid ... that shows a large rounded monkey kidney cell being penetrated by a pseudopodium followed by the whole Balamuthia ameba. ...
But in the case of infections caused by brain-eating amoebae, including Balamuthia mandrillaris, the very issue lies with the ... Repurposing the quinoline antibiotic nitroxoline to treat infections caused by the brain-eating amoeba Balamuthia mandrillaris ... First, nitroxoline was the most effective inhibitor of B. mandrillaris cysts. Second, recrudescence assays showed that ... This is entirely appropriate because the effective inhibitory concentrations against B. mandrillaris and those used clinically ...
Naegleria fowleri and Balamuthia mandrillari s , as well as species of Acanthamoeba and Sappinia. (See Etiology. ... Amebic encephalitis caused by Balamuthia mandrillaris: report of four cases. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2003 May. 22(5):447-53. [ ... Bravo FG, Alvarez PJ, Gotuzzo E. Balamuthia mandrillaris infection of the skin and central nervous system: an emerging disease ... An autopsy case of Balamuthia mandrillaris amoebic encephalitis, a rare emerging infectious disease, with a brief review of the ...
Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri) have gained increasing attention owing to their capacity to produce se ... Brain-eating amoebae (Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri) have gained increasing attention owing to ... Siddiqui R, Matin A, Warhurst D, Stins M, Khan NA (2007) Effect of antimicrobial compounds on Balamuthia mandrillaris ... Booton GC, Schuster FL, Carmichael JR, Fuerst PA, Byers TJ (2003) Balamuthia mandrillaris: identification of clinical and ...
Balamuthia mandrillaris (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) * Blastocystis hominis (Mayo Foundation for Medical ...
Balamuthia mandrillaris Biological Process. pseudopodium organization Cellular Component. cell A frame from the grouped movie ... Balamuthia mandrillaris Biological Process. pseudopodium organization Cellular Component. cell A frame from the grouped movie ... Balamuthia mandrillaris Biological Process. pseudopodium organization Cellular Component. cell A frame from the grouped movie ... Balamuthia mandrillaris Biological Process. pseudopodium organization Cellular Component. cell A frame from the grouped movie ...
Immunodeficiency... read more or whose general health is poor, although Balamuthia mandrillaris may infect healthy people. ... Balamuthia mandrillaris may cause skin sores in addition to the symptoms above. ... usually fatal infection of the central nervous system caused by Acanthamoeba species or Balamuthia mandrillaris, two types of ...
And when we matched it to the universe of all known microbes, it matched to an organism called Balamuthia mandrillaris, which ... Natasha Spottiswoode, MD, PhD, had a patient at UCSF who was diagnosed with Balamuthia mandrillaris, a so-called brain-eating ... And Balamuthia is one of the evil trio. So these are free living amoeba. The humans are the dead-end hosts. Were not intended ... Balamuthia comes from the soil, eats brains. Naegleria, the one you might hear about, where child gets water up their nose in a ...
... with meningoencephalitis caused by Balamuthia mandrillaris are presented with pathologic correlation. ... Balamuthia Amebic Encephalitis: Radiographic and Pathologic Findings Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... Balamuthia Amebic Encephalitis: Radiographic and Pathologic Findings. John F. Healy. American Journal of Neuroradiology March ... Detection of Balamuthia Mitochondrial 16S rRNA Gene DNA in Clinical Specimens by PCR ...
It is available for treatment of free-living ameba (FLA) infections caused by Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris, and ...
Per NBC News, a 69-year-old woman from Seattle died after contracting Balamuthia mandrillaris, a rare, brain-eating amoebic ... Its important to note that both Balamuthia mandrillaris and Naegleria fowleri are pretty rare: There were 34 reported cases of ... And because amoebal infections like Balamuthia mandrillaris are so rare, public health experts are reassuring the public that ...
Acanthamoeba species and Balamuthia mandrillaris are present worldwide in water, soil, and dust. Human exposure is common, but ... Diagnosis of B. mandrillaris infections In patients with B. mandrillaris infection of the brain, CT and MRI, both with contrast ... infection caused by Acanthamoeba species in immunocompromised or debilitated hosts or by Balamuthia mandrillaris. ... For B. mandrillaris encephalitis, miltefosine in combination with other drugs such as flucytosine, pentamidine, fluconazole, ...
Balamuthia mandrillaris Encephalitis Presenting as a Symptomatic Focal Hypodensity in an Immunocompromised Patient. Sakusic, A. ...
Balamuthia mandrillaris CNS Infection use Central Nervous System Protozoal Infections Balamuthia mandrillaris ... Balamuthia mandrillaris Meningoencephalitis use Central Nervous System Protozoal Infections Balance Sheet use Financial ...
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Balamuthia mandrillaris CNS Infection use Central Nervous System Protozoal Infections Balamuthia mandrillaris ... Balamuthia mandrillaris Meningoencephalitis use Central Nervous System Protozoal Infections Balance Sheet use Financial ...
Balamuthia mandrillaris CNS Infection use Central Nervous System Protozoal Infections Balamuthia mandrillaris ... Balamuthia mandrillaris Meningoencephalitis use Central Nervous System Protozoal Infections Balance Sheet use Financial ...
Balamuthia mandrillaris CNS Infection use Central Nervous System Protozoal Infections Balamuthia mandrillaris ... Balamuthia mandrillaris Meningoencephalitis use Central Nervous System Protozoal Infections Balance Sheet use Financial ...
Balamuthia mandrillaris. Acanthamoeba sp.. Naegleria fowleri. Diseases. Balamuthia amebic encephalitis (BAE); cutaneous and ... Balamuthia mandrillaris. Contributor Comment: Balamuthiasis is an emerging disease of humans and animals with fatal ... 1. Rideout BA, Gardiner CH, Stalis IH, Zuba JR, Hadfield T, Visvesvara GS: Fatal Infections with Balamuthia mandrillaris (a ... Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri, and Sappinia diploidea. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 50:1-26, 2007 ...
Balamuthia mandrillaris disease. Balamuthia mandrillaris disease. Notifiable Event (Disease/Condition) Code List. Nationally ...
Disseminated Balamuthia mandrillaris Infection. Schafer, Katherine R; Shah, Neil; Almira-Suarez, M I; Reese, Jennifer M; Hoke, ... Transmission of Balamuthia mandrillaris by Organ Transplantation. Farnon, Eileen C; Kokko, Kenneth E; Budge, Philip J; Mbaeyi, ... The Epidemiology and Clinical Features of Balamuthia mandrillaris Disease in the United States, 1974-2016. Cope, Jennifer R; ... Serologic survey for exposure following fatal Balamuthia mandrillaris infection. Jackson, Brendan R; Kucerova, Zuzana; Roy, ...
Balamuthia mandrillaris; Balamuthia granulomatous amebic encephalitis - Kidney. *377 - Balamuthia mandrillaris; Balamuthia ... 379 - Balamuthia mandrillaris; Balamuthia granulomatous amebic encephalitis - Kidney Pancreas. *588 - Lymphocytic ... Balamuthia mandrillaris/im [Immunology], Brain/pa [Pathology], Brain/ps [Parasitology], Child, Preschool, Encephalitis/hi [ ... and Balamuthia mandrillaris amebae. In many of the clusters, identification of the cause was complicated by delayed diagnosis ...
  • The amoeba cannot be cultured on an agar plate coated with E. coli because, unlike Naegleria or Acanthamoeba, Balamuthia mandrillaris does not feed on bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is thought that N. Fowleri causes an acute inflammatory cytokine response, whereas Acanthamoeba and Balamuthia spp. (medscape.com)
  • More typically, GAE results from hematogenous seeding of the CNS following primary inoculation of the lungs or skin by B mandrillaris, Acanthamoeba, or Sappinia species. (medscape.com)
  • Granulomatous amebic encephalitis is a very rare, usually fatal infection of the central nervous system caused by Acanthamoeba species or Balamuthia mandrillaris , two types of free-living amebas. (merckmanuals.com)
  • It is available for treatment of free-living ameba (FLA) infections caused by Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris, and Acanthamoeba species. (cdc.gov)
  • Granulomatous amebic encephalitis is a very rare, generally fatal subacute central nervous system (CNS) infection caused by Acanthamoeba species in immunocompromised or debilitated hosts or by Balamuthia mandrillaris . (msdmanuals.com)
  • Acanthamoeba species and Balamuthia mandrillaris are present worldwide in water, soil, and dust. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Acanthamoeba infection of the CNS occurs almost entirely in immunocompromised or otherwise debilitated patients, but B. mandrillaris may also infect healthy hosts. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The life cycle of Acanthamoeba , Balamuthia , and Sappinia involves only 2 stages: cysts and trophozoites (the infective form). (msdmanuals.com)
  • 1,2,5) Encephalitis caused by free-living amoeba (e.g. Acanthamoeba and Balamuthia ) is primarily a problem of immunocompromised patients, although immunocompetent patients are affected by both Balamuthia and Naegleria . (askjpc.org)
  • Acanthamoeba keratitis, and Balamuthia amoebic encephalitis (Balamuthia mandrillaris). (uga.edu)
  • Of these, 113 inhibitors have never been reported to have activity against Naegleria, Acanthamoeba or Balamuthia. (uga.edu)
  • Subacute or chronic CNS infections due to Acanthamoeba spp, Balamuthia mandrillaris , and Sappinia spp. (med-chem.com)
  • Multiplex PCR studies can distinguish Acanthamoeba, Balamuthia , and Naegleria from Sappinia for simultaneous detection of the four genera. (med-chem.com)
  • Pathogenic free-living amebas are of the genera Acanthamoeba , Balamuthia , Naegleria , and Sappinia . (msdmanuals.com)
  • Balamuthia mandrillaris , Naegleria fowleri ) have gained increasing attention owing to their capacity to produce severe human and animal infections involving the brain. (springer.com)
  • For B. mandrillaris , the optimal concentration was determined at 0.4 μg per mL for graphene oxide, copper oxide and alumina nanoparticles, and for Naegleria , the optimal concentration was 0.04, 4.0 and 0.04 μg per mL respectively. (springer.com)
  • It's important to note that both Balamuthia mandrillaris and Naegleria fowleri are pretty rare: There were 34 reported cases of the latter amoebic infection in the United States between 2008 and 2017, only three of which were due to using tap water in a neti pot, according to data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (vox.com)
  • he noted that the large size of the Balamuthia mandrillaris trophozoites is helpful in distinguishing it from those of Naegleria fowleri and Acanthomoeba sp. (askjpc.org)
  • Balamuthia can cause a rare * and serious infection of the brain called granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE). (cdc.gov)
  • Balamuthia mandrillaris is a free-living amoeba that causes the rare but deadly neurological condition granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE). (wikipedia.org)
  • A man treated with nitroxoline at UCSF Medical Center in 2021, following a seizure that was identified to have resulted from Balamuthia mandrillaris granulomatous amebic encephalitis, survived and recovered from the disease, indicating that nitroxoline might be a promising medication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Balamuthia mandrillaris - granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE) [cited 2015 Feb 10]. (cdc.gov)
  • This is due to our incomplete understanding of the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of B. mandrillaris encephalitis. (aku.edu)
  • Several lines of evidence suggest that B. mandrillaris encephalitis develops as a result of hematogenous spread, but it is unclear how circulating amoebae enter the central nervous system and cause inflammation, blood-brain barrier disruption, and neuronal injury. (aku.edu)
  • Here, we present a brief overview of the current understanding of the morphology, biology, pathogenesis, and pathophysiology of B. mandrillaris encephalitis. (aku.edu)
  • 6) Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis associated with Acanthomeba and Balamuthia is typically slow in developing and insidious, and a hematogenous route of entry has been hypothesized but not proven for these disease agents. (askjpc.org)
  • Biopsies of skin lesions, sinuses, lungs, and the brain can detect of B. mandrillaris infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2018, an unsuccessful attempt at treatment of a Balamuthia infection after nasal lavage with untreated tap water was reported. (wikipedia.org)
  • A free-living ameba naturally found in the environment, Balamuthia mandrillaris can cause a serious infection of the brain, other organs (skin, liver, kidneys), and rarely, spinal cord. (cdc.gov)
  • Per NBC News, a 69-year-old woman from Seattle died after contracting Balamuthia mandrillaris, a rare, brain-eating amoebic infection - reportedly from using a neti pot. (vox.com)
  • In patients with B. mandrillaris infection of the brain, CT and MRI, both with contrast, typically show multiple nodular, ring-enhancing lesions. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Cutaneous infection by Balamuthia mandrillaris is a rare condition that is sometimes complicated by life-threatening CNS involvement and which often evades timely diagnosis due to its rarity and nonspecific clinical manifestations. (irosacea.org)
  • Balamuthia mandrillaris is a free-living ameba (a single-celled living organism) naturally found in the environment. (cdc.gov)
  • A single frame from the movie (CIL:20154) that shows a large rounded monkey kidney cell being penetrated by a pseudopodium followed by the whole Balamuthia ameba. (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • A frame from the grouped movie of a Balamuthia mandrillaris ameba within a culture of monkey kidney cells. (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • B. mandrillaris is a soil-dwelling amoeba and was first discovered in 1986 in the brain of a mandrill that died in the San Diego Wild Animal Park. (wikipedia.org)
  • B. mandrillaris is a free-living, heterotrophic amoeba, consisting of a standard complement of organelles surrounded by a three-layered cell wall (thought to be made of cellulose), and with an abnormally large cell nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Natasha Spottiswoode, MD, PhD, had a patient at UCSF who was diagnosed with Balamuthia mandrillaris, a so-called brain-eating amoeba. (sciencefriday.com)
  • Poor Seattle woman dies from brain-eating amoeba Balamuthia mandrillaris she foolishly introduced through her nose. (blogspot.com)
  • A 69-year-old lady, who went to the doctors for a nasal skin rash and seizures, could not be saved from the fatal Balamuthia mandrillaris amoeba that found its way to her brain. (happyproject.in)
  • Formalin-fixed paraffinized biopsy specimens may indicate Balamuthia trophozoites in the perivascular space. (wikipedia.org)
  • and protozoal organisms consistent with Balamuthia mandrillaris . Trophozoites measure 30-60 μm. Also observed is a diffuse mild infiltration of mononuclear cells in the meninges and perivascular spaces. (askjpc.org)
  • A major concern during the course of therapy is that B. mandrillaris can transform into cysts. (aku.edu)
  • Dose-response experiments with various cell lines to represent important physiologic organs (fibroblast, glial cells, kidney, and liver) and both mandrillaris trophozites and cysts revealed that nitroxoline may even be superior to existing drugs used in the standard of care for GAE in two ways. (biologists.com)
  • First, nitroxoline was the most effective inhibitor of B. mandrillaris cysts. (biologists.com)
  • or whose general health is poor, although Balamuthia mandrillaris may infect healthy people. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Originally isolated from the brain of a mandrill that died of meningoencephalitis at the San Diego Zoo, Balamuthia mandrillaris is named for the late professor William Balamuth of the University of California at Berkeley, for his contributions to the study of amebae. (cdc.gov)
  • Summary: The radiographic findings of two patients (one, a rare survivor) with meningoencephalitis caused by Balamuthia mandrillaris are presented with pathologic correlation. (ajnr.org)
  • Brain: Multifocal, marked, necrohemorrhagic and pyogranulomatous meningoencephalitis with fibrinoid vasculitis and protozoal organisms consistent with Balamuthia mandrillaris . (askjpc.org)
  • According to a report published in Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report in September 2010, two confirmed cases of Balamuthia transmission occurred through organ transplantation in December 2009 in Mississippi. (wikipedia.org)
  • More recently, B. mandrillaris has been shown to be transmissible through organ transplantation. (cdc.gov)
  • Balamuthia mandrillaris transmitted through organ transplantation-Mississippi, 2009. (cdc.gov)
  • There have been 109 Balamuthia cases reported to CDC during 1974-2016 in the United States Although cases reported in Latin America, Europe, Asia, and Australia occurred mostly in immunocompetent patients, some of the U.S. cases were immunocompromised individuals For example, during 2009-2012, CDC identified three clusters of Balamuthia GAE transmitted by organ transplantation. (cdc.gov)
  • At the same time, and xenic culture is also performed to help differentiate between Balamuthia and other amebae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cases have been caused by emerging pathogens, including West Nile virus, rabies virus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, and Balamuthia mandrillaris amebae. (cdc.gov)
  • Cases were caused by infections from transplant-transmitted pathogens: West Nile virus, rabies virus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, and Balamuthia mandrillaris amebae. (notifylibrary.org)
  • The generic name Balamuthia was given by Govinda Visvesvara, after his mentor, parasitologist William Balamuth, for his contributions to the study of amoebae. (wikipedia.org)
  • But in the case of infections caused by brain-eating amoebae, including Balamuthia mandrillaris , the very issue lies with the lack of any effective antibiotics at all. (biologists.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction studies identified the organisms as Balamuthia mandrillaris. (irosacea.org)
  • Microscopic examination plus PCR-based and immunohistochemical techniques can identify B. mandrillaris in biopsies of brain or skin lesions. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Balamuthia-induced GAE can cause focal paralysis, seizures, and brainstem symptoms such as facial paralysis, difficulty swallowing, and double vision. (wikipedia.org)
  • B. mandrillaris can infect the body through open wounds or by inhalation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Balamuthia can present with a local skin lesion, isolated neurologic disease, or disseminated disease affecting the skin, brain, and other organs. (cdc.gov)
  • Balamuthia may also cause a variety of non-neurological symptoms, including skin lesions, which can progress to GAE. (wikipedia.org)
  • Balamuthia mandrillaris may cause skin sores in addition to the symptoms above. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Balamuthia mandrillaris has a predilection for infecting skin of the central face. (irosacea.org)
  • Exposure to Balamuthia might be common although disease caused by Balamuthia is rare. (cdc.gov)
  • Since it was first described in 1989, over 200 cases of Balamuthia disease have been reported worldwide. (cdc.gov)
  • And because amoebal infections like Balamuthia mandrillaris are so rare, public health experts are reassuring the public that neti pots are perfectly safe for use, provided you follow the directions. (vox.com)
  • B. mandrillaris has two stages in its life cycle, an active trophozoite stage during which it divides mitotically. (aku.edu)
  • Recent studies have identified several parasite-host determinants for B. mandrillaris translocation of the blood-brain barrier, and host inflammatory markers that may be associated with neuronal injury. (aku.edu)
  • From screening a library of clinically-approved compounds in vitro , the authors found that nitroxoline is a favourable candidate for repurposing for targeting mandrillaris infections. (biologists.com)
  • Instead, Balamuthia must be cultured on primate hepatocytes or human brain microvascular endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several types of animal cells have been used in B. mandrillaris culturing including rat glioma cells, human lung cells, and human brain microvascular endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is possible that Balamuthia may also live in water. (cdc.gov)
  • The environmental niche of Balamuthia mandrillaris is not well defined. (cdc.gov)
  • Booton GC, Schuster FL, Carmichael JR, Fuerst PA, Byers TJ (2003) Balamuthia mandrillaris: identification of clinical and environmental isolates using genus-specific PCR. (springer.com)