A phylum of bacteria comprised of three classes: Bacteroides, Flavobacteria, and Sphingobacteria.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
A family of gram-negative, gliding bacteria in the order Cytophagales, class Cytophagia. They are found in SOIL and SEA WATER.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A phylum of anaerobic, gram-negative bacteria with a chemoorganotrophic heterotrophic metabolism. They are resident flora of the OROPHARYNX.
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
The full collection of microbes (bacteria, fungi, virus, etc.) that naturally exist within a particular biological niche such as an organism, soil, a body of water, etc.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.
A physiologically diverse phylum of acidophilic, gram-negative bacteria found in a wide variety of habitats, but particularly abundant in soils and sediments.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
A phylum of gram-negative bacteria containing seven class-level groups from a wide variety of environments. Most members are chemoheterotrophs.
A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, nonsporeforming, nonmotile rods. Organisms of this genus had originally been classified as members of the BACTEROIDES genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings in 1990 indicated the need to separate them from other Bacteroides species, and hence, this new genus was established.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Class of BACTERIA with diverse morphological properties. Strains of Actinobacteria show greater than 80% 16S rDNA/rRNA sequence similarity among each other and also the presence of certain signature nucleotides. (Stackebrandt E. et al, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1997) 47:479-491)
A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, cocci to short rod-shaped ARCHAEA, in the family METHANOBACTERIACEAE, order METHANOBACTERIALES. They are found in the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or other anoxic environments.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The genomic analysis of assemblages of organisms.
A genus of gram-negative, chemoorganotrophic bacteria in the family CYTOPHAGACEAE. In some species there is a cyclic change in cell morphology.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.
*Medically unexceptional, the Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental body of water that separates Southern Europe from Northern Africa and the Middle East, infamous for historical epidemics like plague, which have significantly shaped human health history.*
A family of bacteria in the order Sphingobacteriales, class Sphingobacteria. They are gram-negative rods, mostly saprophytic in terrestrial and aquatic habitats.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
The processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as their nutrient sources. Contrasts with AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES which make use of simple inorganic substances as the nutrient supply source. Heterotrophs can be either chemoheterotrophs (or chemoorganotrophs) which also require organic substances such as glucose for their primary metabolic energy requirements, or photoheterotrophs (or photoorganotrophs) which derive their primary energy requirements from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; heterotrophy; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.
A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.
A family of gram-negative bacteria found primarily in the intestinal tracts and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Its organisms are sometimes pathogenic.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised mostly of two major phenotypes: purple non-sulfur bacteria and aerobic bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacteria.
Inland bodies of still or slowly moving FRESH WATER or salt water, larger than a pond, and supplied by RIVERS and streams.
The immediate physical zone surrounding plant roots that include the plant roots. It is an area of intense and complex biological activity involving plants, microorganisms, other soil organisms, and the soil.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
A genus of gram-negative gliding bacteria found in SOIL; HUMUS; and FRESHWATER and marine habitats.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.
Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "North Sea" is geographical and refers to the northernmost part of the Atlantic Ocean, located between eastern England, east Scotland, Norway, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France, rather than having a medical definition.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in SOIL and WATER. Its organisms are also found in raw meats, MILK and other FOOD, hospital environments, and human clinical specimens. Some species are pathogenic in humans.
Liquid water present beneath the surface of the earth.
Contaminated water generated as a waste product of human activity.
A phylum of anoxygenic, phototrophic bacteria including the family Chlorobiaceae. They occur in aquatic sediments, sulfur springs, and hot springs and utilize reduced sulfur compounds instead of oxygen.
The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
A group of substances similar to VITAMIN K 1 which contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinione and an isoprenoid side chain of varying number of isoprene units. In vitamin K 2, each isoprene unit contains a double bond. They are produced by bacteria including the normal intestinal flora.
Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.
Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.
Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of archaea.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised of chemoheterotrophs and chemoautotrophs which derive nutrients from decomposition of organic material.
A thick mass of ICE formed over large regions of land; RIVERS; LAKES; ponds; or SEAWATER.
The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)
The phylum of sponges which are sessile, suspension-feeding, multicellular animals that utilize flagellated cells called choanocytes to circulate water. Most are hermaphroditic. They are probably an early evolutionary side branch that gave rise to no other group of animals. Except for about 150 freshwater species, sponges are marine animals. They are a source of ALKALOIDS; STEROLS; and other complex molecules useful in medicine and biological research.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
Phylum of green nonsulfur bacteria including the family Chloroflexaceae, among others.
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.
Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.
'Anaerobic Bacteria' are types of bacteria that do not require oxygen for growth and can often cause diseases in humans, including dental caries, gas gangrene, and tetanus, among others.
The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
A rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-acid-fast, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium that is a genus of the family Bifidobacteriaceae, order Bifidobacteriales, class ACTINOBACTERIA. It inhabits the intestines and feces of humans as well as the human vagina.
The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A genus of aerobic, gram-negative bacteria in the family FLAVOBACTERIACEAE. Many of its species were formerly in the genus FLAVOBACTERIUM.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.

Phylogenetic position of Chitinophaga pinensis in the Flexibacter-Bacteroides-Cytophaga phylum. (1/434)

Comparison of the 16S rRNA gene sequence determined for Chitinophaga pinensis showed that this species is most closely related to Flexibacter filiformis in the Flexibacter-Bacteroides-Cytophaga phylum. These two chitinolytic bacteria, which are characterized by transformation into spherical bodies on ageing, belong to a strongly supported lineage that also includes Cytophaga arvensicola, Flavobacterium ferrugineum and Flexibacter sancti. The lineage is distinct from the microcyst-forming species Sporocytophaga myxococcoides.  (+info)

Coenonia anatina gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel bacterium associated with respiratory disease in ducks and geese. (2/434)

Taxon 1502 was originally described as a Riemerella anatipestifer-like bacterium causing exudative septicaemia in ducks and geese. In the present study, an integrated genotypic and phenotypic approach was used to elucidate the phylogenetic affiliation and taxonomic relationships of 12 strains of taxon 1502. Whole-cell protein and fatty acid analyses and an extensive biochemical examination by using conventional tests and several API microtest systems indicated that all isolates formed a homogeneous taxon, which was confirmed by DNA-DNA hybridizations. 16S rDNA sequence analysis of a representative strain (LMG 14382T) indicated that this taxon belongs to the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides phylum and revealed a moderate but distinct relationship to species of the genus Capnocytophaga (overall 16S rDNA sequence identities were 88.8-90.2%). Taxon 1502 is concluded to represent a single species that should be allocated to a novel genus, and the name Coenonia anatina gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The DNA G + C content of representative strains was 35-36 mol% and the type strain is LMG 14382T.  (+info)

Physicochemical parameters for growth of the sea ice bacteria Glaciecola punicea ACAM 611(T) and Gelidibacter sp. strain IC158. (3/434)

The water activity and pH ranges for growth of Glaciecola punicea (a psychrophile) were extended when this organism was grown at suboptimal rather than optimal temperatures. No such extension was observed for Gelidibacter sp. strain IC158 (a psychrotolerant bacterium) at analogous temperatures. Salinity and pH may be primary physicochemical parameters controlling bacterial community development in sea ice.  (+info)

Dynamics of bacterial community composition and activity during a mesocosm diatom bloom. (4/434)

Bacterial community composition, enzymatic activities, and carbon dynamics were examined during diatom blooms in four 200-liter laboratory seawater mesocosms. The objective was to determine whether the dramatic shifts in growth rates and ectoenzyme activities, which are commonly observed during the course of phytoplankton blooms and their subsequent demise, could result from shifts in bacterial community composition. Nutrient enrichment of metazoan-free seawater resulted in diatom blooms dominated by a Thalassiosira sp., which peaked 9 days after enrichment ( approximately 24 microg of chlorophyll a liter(-1)). At this time bacterial abundance abruptly decreased from 2.8 x 10(6) to 0.75 x 10(6) ml(-1), and an analysis of bacterial community composition, by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments, revealed the disappearance of three dominant phylotypes. Increased viral and flagellate abundances suggested that both lysis and grazing could have played a role in the observed phylotype-specific mortality. Subsequently, new phylotypes appeared and bacterial production, abundance, and enzyme activities shifted from being predominantly associated with the <1.0-microm size fraction towards the >1.0-microm size fraction, indicating a pronounced microbial colonization of particles. Sequencing of DGGE bands suggested that the observed rapid and extensive colonization of particulate matter was mainly by specialized alpha-Proteobacteria- and Cytophagales-related phylotypes. These particle-associated bacteria had high growth rates as well as high cell-specific aminopeptidase, beta-glucosidase, and lipase activities. Rate measurements as well as bacterial population dynamics were almost identical among the mesocosms indicating that the observed bacterial community dynamics were systematic and repeatable responses to the manipulated conditions.  (+info)

Increase in bacterial community diversity in subsurface aquifers receiving livestock wastewater input. (5/434)

Despite intensive studies of microbial-community diversity, the questions of which kinds of microbial populations are associated with changes in community diversity have not yet been fully solved by molecular approaches. In this study, to investigate the impact of livestock wastewater on changes in the bacterial communities in groundwater, bacterial communities in subsurface aquifers were analyzed by characterizing their 16S rDNA sequences. The similarity coefficients of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns of the cloned 16S ribosomal DNAs showed that the bacterial communities in livestock wastewater samples were more closely related to those in contaminated aquifer samples. In addition, calculations of community diversity clearly showed that bacterial communities in the livestock wastewater and the contaminated aquifer were much more diverse than those in the uncontaminated aquifer. Thus, the increase in bacterial-community diversity in the contaminated aquifer was assumed to be due to the infiltration of livestock wastewater, containing high concentrations of diverse microbial flora, into the aquifer. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences from a subset of the RFLP patterns showed that the Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides and low-G+C gram-positive groups originating from livestock wastewater were responsible for the change in the bacterial community in groundwater. This was evidenced by the occurrence of rumen-related sequences not only in the livestock wastewater samples but also in the contaminated-groundwater samples. Rumen-related sequences, therefore, can be used as indicator sequences for fecal contamination of groundwater, particularly from livestock.  (+info)

Dyadobacter fermentans gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel gram-negative bacterium isolated from surface-sterilized Zea mays stems. (6/434)

A Gram-negative bacterium, designated NS114T, was isolated from duplicate treatments of surface-sterilized Zea mays stems. The plants were grown in synthetic soil under greenhouse conditions and watered with fertilizer containing no nitrogen. Strain NS114T could not be isolated from plants watered with the standard level or 20% (w/v) of the standard level of nitrogen. Cells occurred as pairs in young cultures that attached to form angled arrangements in R2A broth and occasionally formed rounded, horseshoe arrangements in YM broth. Cell variation resulted in flocculent chains of coccoid cells in old cultures. Strain NS114T fermented glucose and sucrose. The G + C content was 48 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene showed that the strain was a member of the domain Bacteria and branched from a point equidistant from an aquatic organism, Runella slithyformis and a marine isolate, 'Microscilla furvescens'. Phenotypic and genotypic analyses indicated that strain NS114T could not be assigned to any recognized genus; therefore a new genus and species, Dyadobacter fermentans gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed, for which NS114T is the type strain.  (+info)

Bacterial community structure associated with a dimethylsulfoniopropionate-producing North Atlantic algal bloom. (7/434)

The bacteria associated with oceanic algal blooms are acknowledged to play important roles in carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur cycling, yet little information is available on their identities or phylogenetic affiliations. Three culture-independent methods were used to characterize bacteria from a dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP)-producing algal bloom in the North Atlantic. Group-specific 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotides, 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) clone libraries, and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis all indicated that the marine Roseobacter lineage was numerically important in the heterotrophic bacterial community, averaging >20% of the 16S rDNA sampled. Two other groups of heterotrophic bacteria, the SAR86 and SAR11 clades, were also shown by the three 16S rRNA-based methods to be abundant in the bloom community. In surface waters, the Roseobacter, SAR86, and SAR11 lineages together accounted for over 50% of the bacterial rDNA and showed little spatial variability in abundance despite variations in the dominant algal species. Depth profiles indicated that Roseobacter phylotype abundance decreased with depth and was positively correlated with chlorophyll a, DMSP, and total organic sulfur (dimethyl sulfide plus DMSP plus dimethyl sulfoxide) concentrations. Based on these data and previous physiological studies of cultured Roseobacter strains, we hypothesize that this lineage plays a role in cycling organic sulfur compounds produced within the bloom. Three other abundant bacterial phylotypes (representing a cyanobacterium and two members of the alpha Proteobacteria) were primarily associated with chlorophyll-rich surface waters of the bloom (0 to 50 m), while two others (representing Cytophagales and delta Proteobacteria) were primarily found in deeper waters (200 to 500 m).  (+info)

Description of Cellulophaga algicola sp. nov., isolated from the surfaces of Antarctic algae, and reclassification of Cytophaga uliginosa (ZoBell and Upham 1944) Reichenbach 1989 as Cellulophaga uliginosa comb. nov. (8/434)

A group of strains with potent extracellular enzymic activity were isolated from the surfaces of the chain-forming sea-ice diatom Melosira and from an unidentified macrophyte collected from the Eastern Antarctic coastal zone. 16S rDNA sequence analysis indicated that the strains belonged to the genus Cellulophaga and showed greatest similarity to the species Cellulophaga baltica (sequence similarity 97%). Phenotypic characteristics, DNA base composition and DNA-DNA hybridization values clearly separate the Antarctic strains from Cellulophaga baltica and other Cellulophaga species. Thus, the strains form a distinct and novel species and have the proposed name Cellulophaga algicola sp. nov. (type strain IC166T = ACAM 630T). In addition, it was recognized that the species Cytophaga uliginosa (ZoBell and Upham 1944) Reichenbach 1989, a species phylogenetically remote from the type species of the genus Cytophaga, possessed 16S rDNA sequences and phenotypic and chemotaxonomic traits similar to those of other Cellulophaga species. Thus, it was proposed that the species Cytophaga uliginosa be renamed as Cellulophaga uliginosa comb. nov.  (+info)

Bacteroidetes is a large phylum of gram-negative, predominantly anaerobic bacteria that are commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract of animals, including humans. They play an important role in the breakdown and fermentation of complex carbohydrates in the gut, producing short-chain fatty acids as a byproduct. Some species of Bacteroidetes have also been identified as opportunistic pathogens and can cause infections in immunocompromised individuals or under certain conditions.

The medical relevance of Bacteroidetes lies in their role in maintaining gut homeostasis, modulating the immune system, and protecting against pathogenic bacteria. Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota, including changes in the abundance and diversity of Bacteroidetes, has been associated with various diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, understanding the ecology and function of Bacteroidetes is important for developing novel therapeutic strategies to target these conditions.

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a type of RNA that combines with proteins to form ribosomes, which are complex structures inside cells where protein synthesis occurs. The "16S" refers to the sedimentation coefficient of the rRNA molecule, which is a measure of its size and shape. In particular, 16S rRNA is a component of the smaller subunit of the prokaryotic ribosome (found in bacteria and archaea), and is often used as a molecular marker for identifying and classifying these organisms due to its relative stability and conservation among species. The sequence of 16S rRNA can be compared across different species to determine their evolutionary relationships and taxonomic positions.

A metagenome is the collective genetic material contained within a sample taken from a specific environment, such as soil or water, or within a community of organisms, like the microbiota found in the human gut. It includes the genomes of all the microorganisms present in that environment or community, including bacteria, archaea, fungi, viruses, and other microbes, whether they can be cultured in the lab or not. By analyzing the metagenome, scientists can gain insights into the diversity, abundance, and functional potential of the microbial communities present in that environment.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that are among the earliest known life forms on Earth. They are typically characterized as having a cell wall and no membrane-bound organelles. The majority of bacteria have a prokaryotic organization, meaning they lack a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles.

Bacteria exist in diverse environments and can be found in every habitat on Earth, including soil, water, and the bodies of plants and animals. Some bacteria are beneficial to their hosts, while others can cause disease. Beneficial bacteria play important roles in processes such as digestion, nitrogen fixation, and biogeochemical cycling.

Bacteria reproduce asexually through binary fission or budding, and some species can also exchange genetic material through conjugation. They have a wide range of metabolic capabilities, with many using organic compounds as their source of energy, while others are capable of photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.

Bacteria are highly adaptable and can evolve rapidly in response to environmental changes. This has led to the development of antibiotic resistance in some species, which poses a significant public health challenge. Understanding the biology and behavior of bacteria is essential for developing strategies to prevent and treat bacterial infections and diseases.

Proteobacteria is a major class of Gram-negative bacteria that includes a wide variety of pathogens and free-living organisms. This class is divided into six subclasses: Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, Epsilon, and Zeta proteobacteria. Proteobacteria are characterized by their single circular chromosome and the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in their outer membrane. They can be found in a wide range of environments, including soil, water, and the gastrointestinal tracts of animals. Some notable examples of Proteobacteria include Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, and Yersinia pestis.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) refers to the specific regions of DNA in a cell that contain the genes for ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Ribosomes are complex structures composed of proteins and rRNA, which play a crucial role in protein synthesis by translating messenger RNA (mRNA) into proteins.

In humans, there are four types of rRNA molecules: 18S, 5.8S, 28S, and 5S. These rRNAs are encoded by multiple copies of rDNA genes that are organized in clusters on specific chromosomes. In humans, the majority of rDNA genes are located on the short arms of acrocentric chromosomes 13, 14, 15, 21, and 22.

Each cluster of rDNA genes contains both transcribed and non-transcribed spacer regions. The transcribed regions contain the genes for the four types of rRNA, while the non-transcribed spacers contain regulatory elements that control the transcription of the rRNA genes.

The number of rDNA copies varies between species and even within individuals of the same species. The copy number can also change during development and in response to environmental factors. Variations in rDNA copy number have been associated with various diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

Biodiversity is the variety of different species of plants, animals, and microorganisms that live in an ecosystem. It also includes the variety of genes within a species and the variety of ecosystems (such as forests, grasslands, deserts, and oceans) that exist in a region or on Earth as a whole. Biodiversity is important for maintaining the health and balance of ecosystems, providing resources and services such as food, clean water, and pollination, and contributing to the discovery of new medicines and other useful products. The loss of biodiversity can have negative impacts on the functioning of ecosystems and the services they provide, and can threaten the survival of species and the livelihoods of people who depend on them.

Cytophagaceae is a family of bacteria within the phylum Bacteroidetes. These bacteria are characterized by their ability to degrade complex organic matter, including proteins, polysaccharides, and lipids. They are commonly found in aquatic environments, such as soil, freshwater, and marine systems, as well as in association with animals and plants.

Members of Cytophagaceae are typically gram-negative, non-spore forming, rod-shaped bacteria that may be straight or slightly curved. They often have a polar flagellum for motility and may form filamentous or aggregated growth forms. Some species within this family can also produce extracellular enzymes that help them break down complex organic matter into simpler compounds that can be taken up and used for energy and growth.

Cytophagaceae is a diverse family of bacteria, with many different genera and species that have been identified based on their genetic and biochemical characteristics. Some notable members of this family include Cytophaga, Flavobacterium, and Flexibacter, which are commonly found in aquatic environments and play important roles in the breakdown of organic matter and nutrient cycling. Other genera within Cytophagaceae, such as Capnocytophaga and Sphingobacterium, have been identified as opportunistic pathogens that can cause infections in humans and animals under certain circumstances.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

Fusobacteria is a group of obligate anaerobic, gram-negative bacilli that are commonly found as normal flora in the human oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, and female genital tract. Some species of Fusobacteria have been associated with various human diseases, including periodontal disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and bloodstream infections. They can also play a role in the development of bacterial biofilms and are sometimes found in mixed infections with other anaerobic bacteria.

Fusobacteria have a unique morphology, often appearing as elongated, curved or spiral-shaped rods. They are non-motile and do not form spores. Some species of Fusobacteria can produce butyric acid, which can contribute to the foul odor associated with certain infections.

Fusobacterium nucleatum is one of the most well-known species of Fusobacteria and has been extensively studied for its role in periodontal disease. It is a common colonizer of dental plaque and has been shown to have a variety of virulence factors that allow it to adhere to and invade host tissues, evade the immune response, and cause tissue damage.

Overall, Fusobacteria are important members of the human microbiome, but under certain circumstances, they can also contribute to the development of various infectious diseases.

The gastrointestinal (GI) tract, also known as the digestive tract, is a continuous tube that starts at the mouth and ends at the anus. It is responsible for ingesting, digesting, absorbing, and excreting food and waste materials. The GI tract includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum), large intestine (cecum, colon, rectum, anus), and accessory organs such as the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. The primary function of this system is to process and extract nutrients from food while also protecting the body from harmful substances, pathogens, and toxins.

'Biota' is a term that refers to the total collection of living organisms in a particular habitat, ecosystem, or region. It includes all forms of life such as plants, animals, fungi, bacteria, and other microorganisms. Biota can be used to describe the communities of living things in a specific area, like a forest biota or marine biota, and it can also refer to the study of these organisms and their interactions with each other and their environment. In medical contexts, 'biota' may specifically refer to the microorganisms that inhabit the human body, such as the gut microbiota.

Seawater is not a medical term, but it is a type of water that covers more than 70% of the Earth's surface. Medically, seawater can be relevant in certain contexts, such as in discussions of marine biology, environmental health, or water safety. Seawater has a high salt content, with an average salinity of around 3.5%, which is much higher than that of freshwater. This makes it unsuitable for drinking or irrigation without desalination.

Exposure to seawater can also have medical implications, such as in cases of immersion injuries, marine envenomations, or waterborne illnesses. However, there is no single medical definition of seawater.

Medical Definition of Microbiota:

The community of microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and other microscopic life forms, that inhabit a specific environment or body part. In the human body, microbiota can be found on the skin, in the mouth, gut, and other areas. The largest concentration of microbiota is located in the intestines, where it plays an essential role in digestion, immune function, and overall health.

The composition of the microbiota can vary depending on factors such as age, diet, lifestyle, genetics, and environmental exposures. Dysbiosis, or imbalance of the microbiota, has been linked to various health conditions, including gastrointestinal disorders, allergies, autoimmune diseases, and neurological disorders.

Therefore, maintaining a healthy and diverse microbiota is crucial for overall health and well-being. This can be achieved through a balanced diet, regular exercise, adequate sleep, stress management, and other lifestyle practices that support the growth and maintenance of beneficial microorganisms in the body.

rRNA (ribosomal RNA) is not a type of gene itself, but rather a crucial component that is transcribed from genes known as ribosomal DNA (rDNA). In cells, rRNA plays an essential role in protein synthesis by assembling with ribosomal proteins to form ribosomes. Ribosomes are complex structures where the translation of mRNA into proteins occurs. There are multiple types of rRNA molecules, including 5S, 5.8S, 18S, and 28S rRNAs in eukaryotic cells, each with specific functions during protein synthesis.

In summary, 'Genes, rRNA' would refer to the genetic regions (genes) that code for ribosomal RNA molecules, which are vital components of the protein synthesis machinery within cells.

Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to separate and analyze DNA fragments (or PCR products) based on their melting behavior. This technique is particularly useful for the analysis of complex DNA mixtures, such as those found in environmental samples or in studies of microbial communities.

In DGGE, the DNA samples are subjected to an increasing gradient of denaturing agents (such as urea and formamide) during electrophoresis. As the DNA fragments migrate through the gel, they begin to denature (or melt) at specific points along the gradient, depending on their sequence and base composition. This results in a distinct melting profile for each DNA fragment, which can be visualized as a band on the gel.

The technique allows for the separation of DNA fragments that differ by only a few base pairs, making it a powerful tool for identifying and comparing different DNA sequences within a mixture. DGGE is often used in conjunction with PCR to amplify specific regions of interest in the DNA sample, such as genes or operons involved in specific metabolic pathways. The resulting PCR products can then be analyzed by DGGE to identify and compare different sequence variants (or "types") within a population.

Overall, DGGE is a valuable tool for studying the diversity and composition of complex DNA mixtures, and has applications in fields such as microbial ecology, molecular biology, and genetic engineering.

Acidobacteria is a phylum of bacteria that are widely distributed in various environments, including soil, freshwater, and marine habitats. They are characterized by their ability to tolerate and thrive in acidic conditions, with some species able to grow at pH levels as low as 3.0.

Members of the Acidobacteria phylum are gram-negative bacteria that typically have a rod or coccoid shape. They are slow-growing organisms and can be difficult to cultivate in the laboratory, which has limited our understanding of their physiology and metabolism. However, recent advances in genomic sequencing and analysis have revealed new insights into their genetic diversity and potential ecological roles.

Acidobacteria are believed to play important roles in biogeochemical cycling, particularly in the cycling of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur. Some species are capable of degrading complex organic matter, such as lignin and cellulose, making them important contributors to carbon cycling in soils. Additionally, some Acidobacteria species have been shown to oxidize manganese and iron, which can impact the availability of these elements in the environment.

Overall, while our understanding of Acidobacteria is still evolving, it is clear that they are important members of many ecosystems and play key roles in biogeochemical cycling.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "geologic sediments" is not a term used in medical definitions. Geological sediments are deposits of material that accumulate over time, usually in layers, as a result of natural geological processes such as weathering, erosion, and deposition. These sediments can eventually become rock formations and provide important clues about the Earth's history, including information about past climates, environments, and life on Earth.

Verrucomicrobia is a phylum of bacteria that includes both free-living and symbiotic species. These bacteria are characterized by their unique cell wall structure, which contains a specific type of polysaccharide called Verrucomicrobial polysaccharides. They are widely distributed in various environments, including soil, freshwater, marine habitats, and the guts of animals. Some members of this phylum have been found to play important roles in biogeochemical cycles and in host-associated microbiomes. However, a medical definition of Verrucomicrobia is not commonly used as they are not typically associated with specific human diseases or medical conditions.

Microbial consortia refer to a group or community of microorganisms, including bacteria, archaea, fungi, and viruses, that naturally exist together in a specific environment and interact with each other. These interactions can be synergistic, where the organisms benefit from each other's presence, or competitive, where they compete for resources.

Microbial consortia play important roles in various biological processes, such as biogeochemical cycling, plant growth promotion, and wastewater treatment. The study of microbial consortia is essential to understanding the complex interactions between microorganisms and their environment, and has implications for fields such as medicine, agriculture, and environmental science.

Preventella is a genus of Gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the human oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, and urogenital tract. They are part of the normal microbiota but can also be associated with various infections, particularly in individuals with compromised immune systems or underlying medical conditions.

Prevotella species have been implicated in a variety of diseases, including periodontal disease, dental caries, respiratory tract infections, bacteremia, soft tissue infections, and joint infections. They can also be found in association with abscesses, wound infections, and other types of infections, particularly in the head and neck region.

Prevotella species are generally resistant to antibiotics commonly used to treat anaerobic infections, such as clindamycin and metronidazole, making them difficult to eradicate. Therefore, accurate identification and susceptibility testing of Prevotella isolates is important for the appropriate management of infections caused by these organisms.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Bacteroides are a genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are normally present in the human gastrointestinal tract. They are part of the normal gut microbiota and play an important role in breaking down complex carbohydrates and other substances in the gut. However, some species of Bacteroides can cause opportunistic infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or when they spread to other parts of the body. They are resistant to many commonly used antibiotics, making infections caused by these bacteria difficult to treat.

Base composition in genetics refers to the relative proportion of the four nucleotide bases (adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine) in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, adenine pairs with thymine, and guanine pairs with cytosine, so the base composition is often expressed in terms of the ratio of adenine + thymine (A-T) to guanine + cytosine (G-C). This ratio can vary between species and even between different regions of the same genome. The base composition can provide important clues about the function, evolution, and structure of genetic material.

I apologize, but there seems to be a misunderstanding. "Soil microbiology" is not a medical term; rather, it is a branch of microbiology that deals with the study of microorganisms in soil. It involves understanding the diversity, ecology, and biochemistry of bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa, and other microscopic life forms found in soil. This field has applications in agriculture, environmental science, and waste management but is not directly related to medical definitions or human health.

Actinobacteria are a group of gram-positive bacteria that are widely distributed in nature, including in soil, water, and various organic substrates. They are characterized by their high G+C content in their DNA and complex cell wall composition, which often contains mycolic acids. Some Actinobacteria are known to form branching filaments, giving them a characteristic "actinomycete" morphology. Many species of Actinobacteria have important roles in industry, agriculture, and medicine. For example, some produce antibiotics, enzymes, and other bioactive compounds, while others play key roles in biogeochemical cycles such as the decomposition of organic matter and the fixation of nitrogen. Additionally, some Actinobacteria are pathogenic and can cause diseases in humans, animals, and plants.

Methanobrevibacter is a genus of archaea (single-celled microorganisms) that are methanogens, meaning they produce methane as a metabolic byproduct. These organisms are commonly found in the digestive tracts of animals, including humans, where they help break down organic matter and recycle nutrients. They are strict anaerobes, requiring an environment free of oxygen to survive and grow. Some species within this genus have been associated with dental diseases such as periodontitis. However, more research is needed to fully understand their role in human health and disease.

Bacterial RNA refers to the genetic material present in bacteria that is composed of ribonucleic acid (RNA). Unlike higher organisms, bacteria contain a single circular chromosome made up of DNA, along with smaller circular pieces of DNA called plasmids. These bacterial genetic materials contain the information necessary for the growth and reproduction of the organism.

Bacterial RNA can be divided into three main categories: messenger RNA (mRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and transfer RNA (tRNA). mRNA carries genetic information copied from DNA, which is then translated into proteins by the rRNA and tRNA molecules. rRNA is a structural component of the ribosome, where protein synthesis occurs, while tRNA acts as an adapter that brings amino acids to the ribosome during protein synthesis.

Bacterial RNA plays a crucial role in various cellular processes, including gene expression, protein synthesis, and regulation of metabolic pathways. Understanding the structure and function of bacterial RNA is essential for developing new antibiotics and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Metagenomics is the scientific study of genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples. This field of research involves analyzing the collective microbial genomes found in a variety of environments, such as soil, ocean water, or the human gut, without the need to culture individual species in a lab. By using high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies and computational tools, metagenomics allows researchers to identify and study the functional potential and ecological roles of diverse microbial communities, contributing to our understanding of their impacts on ecosystems, health, and disease.

"Flexibacter" is not typically used as a formal medical term in human medicine. However, it is a genus of gram-negative bacteria that are commonly found in aquatic environments. Some species of Flexibacter can cause infections in fish and are associated with diseases such as columnaris in aquaculture.

In human medicine, certain Flexibacter species have been occasionally isolated from clinical samples, such as wounds, respiratory secretions, and urine. However, their role in human disease remains unclear, and they are not typically considered primary pathogens. Therefore, a specific medical definition for "Flexibacter" is not well-established in the context of human health.

Feces are the solid or semisolid remains of food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, along with bacteria and other waste products. After being stored in the colon, feces are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus during defecation. Feces can vary in color, consistency, and odor depending on a person's diet, health status, and other factors.

Plankton is not a medical term, but it is a term used in the field of marine biology. Plankton are tiny organisms that live in water and are unable to move independently against the current or tide. They include both plants (phytoplankton) and animals (zooplankton). Phytoplankton are photosynthetic and serve as the base of the ocean food chain, while zooplankton consume phytoplankton and in turn serve as a food source for larger animals. Plankton are important for understanding the health and productivity of aquatic ecosystems.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Mediterranean Sea" is a geographical term referring to the body of water located between Europe and Africa, and it is not a medical term. It is connected to the Atlantic Ocean by the Strait of Gibraltar in the west and to the Red Sea through the Suez Canal in the east. The Mediterranean Sea is known for its unique climate and biodiversity. If you have any questions related to medical or health topics, I would be happy to try to help with those!

Flavobacteriaceae is a family of Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria within the phylum Bacteroidetes. These bacteria are typically found in aquatic environments and can also be isolated from soil, plants, and animals, including humans. They are known for their ability to produce yellow-pigmented colonies, which give them their name (flavo- meaning "yellow" in Latin). Flavobacteriaceae are metabolically diverse, with some species capable of breaking down complex organic matter and others that can cause disease in animals and plants. In humans, certain species within this family have been associated with opportunistic infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Fresh Water" is not a medical term. It is a term used to describe water that contains low concentrations of dissolved salts and other dissolved minerals. It is distinguished from saline water, which includes saltwater found in the ocean and brackish water found in estuaries. Fresh water is essential for many biological processes and is the primary source of water for human consumption, agriculture, and industrial use.

Heterotrophic processes refer to the metabolic activities carried out by organisms that cannot produce their own food and have to obtain energy by consuming other organisms or organic substances. These organisms include animals, fungi, and most bacteria. They obtain energy by breaking down complex organic molecules from their environment using enzymes, a process known as respiration or fermentation. The end products of this process are often carbon dioxide, water, and waste materials. This is in contrast to autotrophic processes, where organisms (like plants) synthesize their own food through photosynthesis.

Gammaproteobacteria is a class of proteobacteria, a group of Gram-negative bacteria. This class includes several important pathogens that can cause various diseases in humans, animals, and plants. Some examples of Gammaproteobacteria include Escherichia coli (a common cause of food poisoning), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections), Vibrio cholerae (the causative agent of cholera), and Yersinia pestis (the bacterium that causes plague).

Gammaproteobacteria are characterized by their single flagellum, which is used for motility, and their outer membrane, which contains lipopolysaccharides that can elicit an immune response in host organisms. They are found in a wide range of environments, including soil, water, and the guts of animals. Some species are capable of fixing nitrogen, making them important contributors to nutrient cycling in ecosystems.

It's worth noting that while Gammaproteobacteria includes many pathogenic species, the majority of proteobacteria are not harmful and play important roles in various ecological systems.

Water microbiology is not a formal medical term, but rather a branch of microbiology that deals with the study of microorganisms found in water. It involves the identification, enumeration, and characterization of bacteria, viruses, parasites, and other microscopic organisms present in water sources such as lakes, rivers, oceans, groundwater, drinking water, and wastewater.

In a medical context, water microbiology is relevant to public health because it helps to assess the safety of water supplies for human consumption and recreational activities. It also plays a critical role in understanding and preventing waterborne diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms that can lead to illnesses such as diarrhea, skin infections, and respiratory problems.

Water microbiologists use various techniques to study water microorganisms, including culturing, microscopy, genetic analysis, and biochemical tests. They also investigate the ecology of these organisms, their interactions with other species, and their response to environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and nutrient availability.

Overall, water microbiology is a vital field that helps ensure the safety of our water resources and protects public health.

Archaea are a domain of single-celled microorganisms that lack membrane-bound nuclei and other organelles. They are characterized by the unique structure of their cell walls, membranes, and ribosomes. Archaea were originally classified as bacteria, but they differ from bacteria in several key ways, including their genetic material and metabolic processes.

Archaea can be found in a wide range of environments, including some of the most extreme habitats on Earth, such as hot springs, deep-sea vents, and highly saline lakes. Some species of Archaea are able to survive in the absence of oxygen, while others require oxygen to live.

Archaea play important roles in global nutrient cycles, including the nitrogen cycle and the carbon cycle. They are also being studied for their potential role in industrial processes, such as the production of biofuels and the treatment of wastewater.

Fatty acids are carboxylic acids with a long aliphatic chain, which are important components of lipids and are widely distributed in living organisms. They can be classified based on the length of their carbon chain, saturation level (presence or absence of double bonds), and other structural features.

The two main types of fatty acids are:

1. Saturated fatty acids: These have no double bonds in their carbon chain and are typically solid at room temperature. Examples include palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0).
2. Unsaturated fatty acids: These contain one or more double bonds in their carbon chain and can be further classified into monounsaturated (one double bond) and polyunsaturated (two or more double bonds) fatty acids. Examples of unsaturated fatty acids include oleic acid (C18:1, monounsaturated), linoleic acid (C18:2, polyunsaturated), and alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3, polyunsaturated).

Fatty acids play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as energy storage, membrane structure, and cell signaling. Some essential fatty acids cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through dietary sources.

Cluster analysis is a statistical method used to group similar objects or data points together based on their characteristics or features. In medical and healthcare research, cluster analysis can be used to identify patterns or relationships within complex datasets, such as patient records or genetic information. This technique can help researchers to classify patients into distinct subgroups based on their symptoms, diagnoses, or other variables, which can inform more personalized treatment plans or public health interventions.

Cluster analysis involves several steps, including:

1. Data preparation: The researcher must first collect and clean the data, ensuring that it is complete and free from errors. This may involve removing outlier values or missing data points.
2. Distance measurement: Next, the researcher must determine how to measure the distance between each pair of data points. Common methods include Euclidean distance (the straight-line distance between two points) or Manhattan distance (the distance between two points along a grid).
3. Clustering algorithm: The researcher then applies a clustering algorithm, which groups similar data points together based on their distances from one another. Common algorithms include hierarchical clustering (which creates a tree-like structure of clusters) or k-means clustering (which assigns each data point to the nearest centroid).
4. Validation: Finally, the researcher must validate the results of the cluster analysis by evaluating the stability and robustness of the clusters. This may involve re-running the analysis with different distance measures or clustering algorithms, or comparing the results to external criteria.

Cluster analysis is a powerful tool for identifying patterns and relationships within complex datasets, but it requires careful consideration of the data preparation, distance measurement, and validation steps to ensure accurate and meaningful results.

Sewage is not typically considered a medical term, but it does have relevance to public health and medicine. Sewage is the wastewater that is produced by households and industries, which contains a variety of contaminants including human waste, chemicals, and other pollutants. It can contain various pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, and parasites, which can cause diseases in humans if they come into contact with it or consume contaminated food or water. Therefore, the proper treatment and disposal of sewage is essential to prevent the spread of infectious diseases and protect public health.

Bacteroidaceae is a family of gram-negative, anaerobic or facultatively anaerobic, non-spore forming bacteria that are commonly found in the human gastrointestinal tract. They are rod-shaped and can vary in size and shape. Bacteroidaceae are important breakdowners of complex carbohydrates and proteins in the gut, and play a significant role in maintaining the health and homeostasis of the intestinal microbiota. Some members of this family can also be opportunistic pathogens and have been associated with various infections and diseases, such as abscesses, bacteremia, and periodontal disease.

Bacterial typing techniques are methods used to identify and differentiate bacterial strains or isolates based on their unique characteristics. These techniques are essential in epidemiological studies, infection control, and research to understand the transmission dynamics, virulence, and antibiotic resistance patterns of bacterial pathogens.

There are various bacterial typing techniques available, including:

1. **Bacteriophage Typing:** This method involves using bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) to identify specific bacterial strains based on their susceptibility or resistance to particular phages.
2. **Serotyping:** It is a technique that differentiates bacterial strains based on the antigenic properties of their cell surface components, such as capsules, flagella, and somatic (O) and flagellar (H) antigens.
3. **Biochemical Testing:** This method uses biochemical reactions to identify specific metabolic pathways or enzymes present in bacterial strains, which can be used for differentiation. Commonly used tests include the catalase test, oxidase test, and various sugar fermentation tests.
4. **Molecular Typing Techniques:** These methods use genetic markers to identify and differentiate bacterial strains at the DNA level. Examples of molecular typing techniques include:
* **Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE):** This method uses restriction enzymes to digest bacterial DNA, followed by electrophoresis in an agarose gel under pulsed electrical fields. The resulting banding patterns are analyzed and compared to identify related strains.
* **Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST):** It involves sequencing specific housekeeping genes to generate unique sequence types that can be used for strain identification and phylogenetic analysis.
* **Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS):** This method sequences the entire genome of a bacterial strain, providing the most detailed information on genetic variation and relatedness between strains. WGS data can be analyzed using various bioinformatics tools to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), gene deletions or insertions, and other genetic changes that can be used for strain differentiation.

These molecular typing techniques provide higher resolution than traditional methods, allowing for more accurate identification and comparison of bacterial strains. They are particularly useful in epidemiological investigations to track the spread of pathogens and identify outbreaks.

An "ecosystem" is not a term that has a specific medical definition, as it is a concept that is more commonly used in the fields of ecology and environmental science. However, I can provide you with the general ecological definition of an ecosystem:

An ecosystem is a community of living organisms interacting with each other and their non-living environment, including both biotic factors (plants, animals, microorganisms) and abiotic factors (climate, soil, water, and air). These interactions create a complex network of relationships that form the foundation of ecological processes, such as energy flow, nutrient cycling, and population dynamics.

While there is no direct medical definition for an ecosystem, understanding the principles of ecosystems can have important implications for human health. For example, healthy ecosystems can provide clean air and water, regulate climate, support food production, and offer opportunities for recreation and relaxation, all of which contribute to overall well-being. Conversely, degraded ecosystems can lead to increased exposure to environmental hazards, reduced access to natural resources, and heightened risks of infectious diseases. Therefore, maintaining the health and integrity of ecosystems is crucial for promoting human health and preventing disease.

Alphaproteobacteria is a class of proteobacteria, a group of gram-negative bacteria. This class includes a diverse range of bacterial species that can be found in various environments, such as soil, water, and the surfaces of plants and animals. Some notable members of Alphaproteobacteria include the nitrogen-fixing bacteria Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium, which form symbiotic relationships with the roots of leguminous plants, as well as the pathogenic bacteria Rickettsia, which are responsible for causing diseases such as typhus and Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

The Alphaproteobacteria class is further divided into several orders, including Rhizobiales, Rhodobacterales, and Caulobacterales. These orders contain a variety of bacterial species that have different characteristics and ecological roles. For example, members of the order Rhizobiales are known for their ability to fix nitrogen, while members of the order Rhodobacterales include photosynthetic bacteria that can use light as an energy source.

Overall, Alphaproteobacteria is a diverse and important group of bacteria that play various roles in the environment and in the health of plants and animals.

I'm happy to help, but it seems there might be some confusion in your question. "Lakes" is not a medical term that has a specific definition in the context of medicine or healthcare. It is a geographical term used to describe large bodies of water surrounded by land. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or healthcare, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

The rhizosphere is not a medical term per se, but it is a term used in the field of biology and agriculture. It refers to the narrow region of soil that is directly influenced by root secretions and associated microorganisms, typically including a zone of about 1-2 mm around the root surface. The rhizosphere is characterized by increased microbial activity due to the release of organic compounds from the roots, which can affect nutrient availability, plant growth, and disease suppression.

In the context of medicine and biology, symbiosis is a type of close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms. Generally, one organism, called the symbiont, lives inside or on another organism, called the host. This interaction can be mutually beneficial (mutualistic), harmful to the host organism (parasitic), or have no effect on either organism (commensal).

Examples of mutualistic symbiotic relationships in humans include the bacteria that live in our gut and help us digest food, as well as the algae that live inside corals and provide them with nutrients. Parasitic symbioses, on the other hand, involve organisms like viruses or parasitic worms that live inside a host and cause harm to it.

It's worth noting that while the term "symbiosis" is often used in popular culture to refer to any close relationship between two organisms, in scientific contexts it has a more specific meaning related to long-term biological interactions.

A bacterial genome is the complete set of genetic material, including both DNA and RNA, found within a single bacterium. It contains all the hereditary information necessary for the bacterium to grow, reproduce, and survive in its environment. The bacterial genome typically includes circular chromosomes, as well as plasmids, which are smaller, circular DNA molecules that can carry additional genes. These genes encode various functional elements such as enzymes, structural proteins, and regulatory sequences that determine the bacterium's characteristics and behavior.

Bacterial genomes vary widely in size, ranging from around 130 kilobases (kb) in Mycoplasma genitalium to over 14 megabases (Mb) in Sorangium cellulosum. The complete sequencing and analysis of bacterial genomes have provided valuable insights into the biology, evolution, and pathogenicity of bacteria, enabling researchers to better understand their roles in various diseases and potential applications in biotechnology.

Cytophaga is a genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are found in various environments such as soil, water, and decaying organic matter. They are known for their gliding motility and unique method of cell division, where the cells divide transversely into several disc-shaped protoplasts that then separate from each other.

Cytophaga species are capable of breaking down complex polysaccharides, such as cellulose and chitin, due to their ability to produce a variety of enzymes that can degrade these substances. They play an important role in the carbon cycle by helping to recycle organic matter in the environment.

While Cytophaga species are not typically associated with human diseases, they have been isolated from clinical specimens such as wounds, sputum, and feces. However, their exact role in human health and disease is not well understood.

Gram-positive bacteria are a type of bacteria that stain dark purple or blue when subjected to the Gram staining method, which is a common technique used in microbiology to classify and identify different types of bacteria based on their structural differences. This staining method was developed by Hans Christian Gram in 1884.

The key characteristic that distinguishes Gram-positive bacteria from other types, such as Gram-negative bacteria, is the presence of a thick layer of peptidoglycan in their cell walls, which retains the crystal violet stain used in the Gram staining process. Additionally, Gram-positive bacteria lack an outer membrane found in Gram-negative bacteria.

Examples of Gram-positive bacteria include Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Bacillus subtilis. Some Gram-positive bacteria can cause various human diseases, while others are beneficial or harmless.

Bacterial physiological phenomena refer to the various functional processes and activities that occur within bacteria, which are necessary for their survival, growth, and reproduction. These phenomena include:

1. Metabolism: This is the process by which bacteria convert nutrients into energy and cellular components. It involves a series of chemical reactions that break down organic compounds such as carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins to produce energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).
2. Respiration: This is the process by which bacteria use oxygen to convert organic compounds into carbon dioxide and water, releasing energy in the form of ATP. Some bacteria can also perform anaerobic respiration, using alternative electron acceptors such as nitrate or sulfate instead of oxygen.
3. Fermentation: This is a type of anaerobic metabolism in which bacteria convert organic compounds into simpler molecules, releasing energy in the form of ATP. Unlike respiration, fermentation does not require an external electron acceptor.
4. Motility: Many bacteria are capable of moving independently, using various mechanisms such as flagella or twitching motility. This allows them to move towards favorable environments and away from harmful ones.
5. Chemotaxis: Bacteria can sense and respond to chemical gradients in their environment, allowing them to move towards attractants and away from repellents.
6. Quorum sensing: Bacteria can communicate with each other using signaling molecules called autoinducers. When the concentration of autoinducers reaches a certain threshold, the bacteria can coordinate their behavior, such as initiating biofilm formation or producing virulence factors.
7. Sporulation: Some bacteria can form spores, which are highly resistant to heat, radiation, and chemicals. Spores can remain dormant for long periods of time and germinate when conditions are favorable.
8. Biofilm formation: Bacteria can form complex communities called biofilms, which are composed of cells embedded in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Biofilms can provide protection from environmental stressors and host immune responses.
9. Cell division: Bacteria reproduce by binary fission, where the cell divides into two identical daughter cells. This process is regulated by various cell cycle checkpoints and can be influenced by environmental factors such as nutrient availability.

A bioreactor is a device or system that supports and controls the conditions necessary for biological organisms, cells, or tissues to grow and perform their specific functions. It provides a controlled environment with appropriate temperature, pH, nutrients, and other factors required for the desired biological process to occur. Bioreactors are widely used in various fields such as biotechnology, pharmaceuticals, agriculture, and environmental science for applications like production of therapeutic proteins, vaccines, biofuels, enzymes, and wastewater treatment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "North Sea" is not a medical term. It refers to the northernmost part of the Atlantic Ocean, located between eastern England, eastern Scotland, Norway, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health science, I'd be happy to help with those!

Flavobacterium is a genus of Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed in various environments such as water, soil, and associated with plants and animals. They are facultative anaerobes, which means they can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen. Some species of Flavobacterium are known to cause opportunistic infections in humans, particularly in individuals with compromised immune systems. These infections can include respiratory tract infections, wound infections, and bacteremia (bloodstream infections). However, Flavobacterium infections are relatively rare in healthy individuals.

It's worth noting that while some species of Flavobacterium have been associated with human disease, many others are important members of the microbial community in various environments and play beneficial roles in biogeochemical cycles and food webs.

Groundwater, in the context of environmental or public health, is often referred to in relation to potential sources of drinking water or as a potential route of exposure for contaminants. However, groundwater itself is not a medical term, but rather a geological one. Here's a simple definition:

Groundwater is the water that saturates the pore spaces within soil and rock formations below the land surface of Earth. It's a significant source of fresh water for many uses, including drinking, agriculture, and industry. However, it can also be vulnerable to contamination from various sources, such as agricultural runoff, industrial discharge, or improper waste disposal. Therefore, protecting groundwater quality is a critical public health issue.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "waste water" is not a term that is typically used in medical definitions. Wastewater is a term that is more commonly used in the fields of environmental science and engineering. Here is a definition from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA):

Wastewater: Water that has been affected by human use and is no longer suitable for immediate reuse without treatment. Wastewater includes sewage, which is a combination of liquid wastes from homes, businesses, and industries, as well as runoff from streets and agricultural operations.

It's important to note that while wastewater may not be a medical term, there are certainly public health implications when it comes to the treatment and disposal of wastewater. Improperly treated wastewater can contain pathogens and other contaminants that can pose risks to human health.

Chlorobi, also known as green sulfur bacteria, are a group of anaerobic, phototrophic bacteria that contain chlorophylls a and b, as well as bacteriochlorophyll c, d, or e. They obtain energy through photosynthesis, using light as an energy source and sulfide or other reduced sulfur compounds as electron donors. These bacteria are typically found in environments with limited sunlight and high sulfide concentrations, such as in sediments of stratified water bodies or in microbial mats. They play a significant role in the global carbon and sulfur cycles.

Eutrophication is the process of excessive nutrient enrichment in bodies of water, which can lead to a rapid growth of aquatic plants and algae. This overgrowth can result in decreased levels of oxygen in the water, harming or even killing fish and other aquatic life. The primary cause of eutrophication is the addition of nutrients, particularly nitrogen and phosphorus, from human activities such as agricultural runoff, sewage and wastewater discharge, and air pollution.

In advanced stages, eutrophication can lead to a shift in the dominant species in the aquatic ecosystem, favoring those that are better adapted to the high-nutrient conditions. This can result in a loss of biodiversity and changes in water quality, making it difficult for many organisms to survive.

Eutrophication is a significant global environmental problem, affecting both freshwater and marine ecosystems. It can lead to harmful algal blooms (HABs), which can produce toxins that are dangerous to humans and animals. In addition, eutrophication can impact water use for drinking, irrigation, recreation, and industry, making it a critical issue for public health and economic development.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "soil" is not a term that has a medical definition. Soil is defined as the top layer of earth in which plants grow, a mixture of organic material, clay, sand, and silt. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you.

The intestines, also known as the bowel, are a part of the digestive system that extends from the stomach to the anus. They are responsible for the further breakdown and absorption of nutrients from food, as well as the elimination of waste products. The intestines can be divided into two main sections: the small intestine and the large intestine.

The small intestine is a long, coiled tube that measures about 20 feet in length and is lined with tiny finger-like projections called villi, which increase its surface area and enhance nutrient absorption. The small intestine is where most of the digestion and absorption of nutrients takes place.

The large intestine, also known as the colon, is a wider tube that measures about 5 feet in length and is responsible for absorbing water and electrolytes from digested food, forming stool, and eliminating waste products from the body. The large intestine includes several regions, including the cecum, colon, rectum, and anus.

Together, the intestines play a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being by ensuring that the body receives the nutrients it needs to function properly.

Vitamin K2, also known as menaquinone, is a fat-soluble vitamin that plays a crucial role in the blood clotting process and bone metabolism. It is one of the two main forms of Vitamin K (the other being Vitamin K1 or phylloquinone), and it is found in animal-based foods and fermented foods.

Vitamin K2 is a collective name for a group of vitamin K compounds characterized by the presence of a long-chain fatty acid attached to the molecule. The most common forms of Vitamin K2 are MK-4 and MK-7, which differ in the length of their side chains.

Vitamin K2 is absorbed more efficiently than Vitamin K1 and has a longer half-life, which means it stays in the body for a longer period. It is stored in various tissues, including bones, where it plays an essential role in maintaining bone health by assisting in the regulation of calcium deposition and helping to prevent the calcification of blood vessels and other soft tissues.

Deficiency in Vitamin K2 is rare but can lead to bleeding disorders and weakened bones. Food sources of Vitamin K2 include animal-based foods such as liver, egg yolks, and fermented dairy products like cheese and natto (a Japanese food made from fermented soybeans). Some studies suggest that supplementing with Vitamin K2 may have benefits for bone health, heart health, and cognitive function. However, more research is needed to confirm these potential benefits.

Bacterial load refers to the total number or concentration of bacteria present in a given sample, tissue, or body fluid. It is a measure used to quantify the amount of bacterial infection or colonization in a particular area. The bacterial load can be expressed as colony-forming units (CFU) per milliliter (ml), gram (g), or other units of measurement depending on the sample type. High bacterial loads are often associated with more severe infections and increased inflammation.

Biological pigments are substances produced by living organisms that absorb certain wavelengths of light and reflect others, resulting in the perception of color. These pigments play crucial roles in various biological processes such as photosynthesis, vision, and protection against harmful radiation. Some examples of biological pigments include melanin, hemoglobin, chlorophyll, carotenoids, and flavonoids.

Melanin is a pigment responsible for the color of skin, hair, and eyes in animals, including humans. Hemoglobin is a protein found in red blood cells that contains a porphyrin ring with an iron atom at its center, which gives blood its red color and facilitates oxygen transport. Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in plants, algae, and some bacteria that absorbs light during photosynthesis to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen. Carotenoids are orange, yellow, or red pigments found in fruits, vegetables, and some animals that protect against oxidative stress and help maintain membrane fluidity. Flavonoids are a class of plant pigments with antioxidant properties that have been linked to various health benefits.

Salinity is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in general terms, salinity refers to the level of salt or sodium content in a substance, usually measured in parts per thousand (ppt). In a medical context, salinity might be discussed in relation to things like the body's fluid balance or the composition of certain bodily fluids, such as sweat or tears.

It is worth noting that in some cases, high salinity levels can have negative effects on health. For example, consuming water with very high salt content can lead to dehydration and electrolyte imbalances, which can be dangerous. Similarly, exposure to high-salinity environments (such as seawater) can cause skin irritation and other problems in some people. However, these are not direct medical definitions of salinity.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

Archaeal DNA refers to the genetic material present in archaea, a domain of single-celled microorganisms lacking a nucleus. Like bacteria, archaea have a single circular chromosome that contains their genetic information. However, archaeal DNA is significantly different from bacterial and eukaryotic DNA in terms of its structure and composition.

Archaeal DNA is characterized by the presence of unique modifications such as methylation patterns, which help distinguish it from other types of DNA. Additionally, archaea have a distinct set of genes involved in DNA replication, repair, and recombination, many of which are more similar to those found in eukaryotes than bacteria.

One notable feature of archaeal DNA is its resistance to environmental stressors such as extreme temperatures, pH levels, and salt concentrations. This allows archaea to thrive in some of the most inhospitable environments on Earth, including hydrothermal vents, acidic hot springs, and highly saline lakes.

Overall, the study of archaeal DNA has provided valuable insights into the evolutionary history of life on Earth and the unique adaptations that allow these organisms to survive in extreme conditions.

Methane is not a medical term, but it is a chemical compound that is often mentioned in the context of medicine and health. Medically, methane is significant because it is one of the gases produced by anaerobic microorganisms during the breakdown of organic matter in the gut, leading to conditions such as bloating, cramping, and diarrhea. Excessive production of methane can also be a symptom of certain digestive disorders like irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO).

In broader terms, methane is a colorless, odorless gas that is the primary component of natural gas. It is produced naturally by the decomposition of organic matter in anaerobic conditions, such as in landfills, wetlands, and the digestive tracts of animals like cows and humans. Methane is also a potent greenhouse gas with a global warming potential 25 times greater than carbon dioxide over a 100-year time frame.

Betaproteobacteria is a class of proteobacteria, a group of gram-negative bacteria. This class includes several genera of bacteria that are widely distributed in the environment, and can be found in soil, water, and various organisms including humans. Some members of Betaproteobacteria are important pathogens, causing diseases such as meningitis, pneumonia, and urinary tract infections. Other members of this class are capable of breaking down environmental pollutants, making them useful in bioremediation applications.

I am not aware of a medical definition for the term "Ice Cover." The term "ice" is used in a medical context to refer to a solid piece of frozen urine that can form in the urinary tract, but "cover" does not have a specific medical meaning in this context. If you are looking for information about frostbite or cold-related injuries, I would be happy to help with that. Frostbite is a medical condition caused by exposure to extreme cold, often resulting in damage or destruction of the skin and underlying tissues.

The Arctic region is not a medical term per se, but it is a geographical and environmental term that can have health-related implications. The Arctic is defined as the region surrounding the North Pole, encompassing the Arctic Ocean and parts of Canada, Greenland (Denmark), Russia, the United States (Alaska), Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Iceland. It is characterized by its cold climate, permafrost, and unique ecosystems.

Exposure to the harsh Arctic environment can pose significant health risks, such as hypothermia, frostbite, and other cold-related injuries. Additionally, the Arctic region has been impacted by climate change, leading to changes in the distribution of wildlife, which can have implications for food security and infectious disease transmission.

Therefore, while not a medical term itself, understanding the Arctic regions and their unique environmental and health challenges is important in fields such as wilderness medicine, environmental health, and public health.

Porifera, also known as sponges, is a phylum of multicellular aquatic organisms characterized by having pores in their bodies. These pores allow water to circulate through the body, bringing in food and oxygen while expelling waste products. Sponges do not have true tissues or organs; instead, they are composed of specialized cells that perform specific functions. They are generally sessile (non-mobile) and live attached to rocks, coral reefs, or other underwater structures. Some species can be quite large, while others are microscopic in size. Sponges have a long fossil record dating back over 500 million years and play important roles in marine ecosystems as filter feeders and habitat providers for many other marine organisms.

Locomotion, in a medical context, refers to the ability to move independently and change location. It involves the coordinated movement of the muscles, bones, and nervous system that enables an individual to move from one place to another. This can include walking, running, jumping, or using assistive devices such as wheelchairs or crutches. Locomotion is a fundamental aspect of human mobility and is often assessed in medical evaluations to determine overall health and functioning.

Chloroflexi is a phylum of bacteria that contains gram-negative, filamentous, and often thermophilic or piezophilic species. These bacteria are characterized by their unique flexirubin-type pigments and the presence of chlorosomes, which are specialized structures for light-harvesting in some photosynthetic members of the phylum. Chloroflexi bacteria are widely distributed in various environments, including soil, freshwater, marine habitats, and hot springs. Some species are capable of anaerobic respiration or fermentation, while others perform oxygenic photosynthesis. The phylum was previously known as green non-sulfur bacteria or flexibacteria.

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT), also known as lateral gene transfer, is the movement of genetic material between organisms in a manner other than from parent to offspring (vertical gene transfer). In horizontal gene transfer, an organism can take up genetic material directly from its environment and incorporate it into its own genome. This process is common in bacteria and archaea, but has also been observed in eukaryotes including plants and animals.

Horizontal gene transfer can occur through several mechanisms, including:

1. Transformation: the uptake of free DNA from the environment by a cell.
2. Transduction: the transfer of genetic material between cells by a virus (bacteriophage).
3. Conjugation: the direct transfer of genetic material between two cells in physical contact, often facilitated by a conjugative plasmid or other mobile genetic element.

Horizontal gene transfer can play an important role in the evolution and adaptation of organisms, allowing them to acquire new traits and functions rapidly. It is also of concern in the context of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and antibiotic resistance, as it can facilitate the spread of genes that confer resistance or other undesirable traits.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "industrial waste" is not a term that has a medical definition. Industrial waste is a term used to describe waste produced by industrial activities, such as manufacturing, mining, and construction. It can include a wide variety of materials, including chemicals, metals, soil, and water. Proper management and disposal of industrial waste are important for protecting the environment and public health. If you have any questions related to healthcare or medical terminology, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

Sequence homology in nucleic acids refers to the similarity or identity between the nucleotide sequences of two or more DNA or RNA molecules. It is often used as a measure of biological relationship between genes, organisms, or populations. High sequence homology suggests a recent common ancestry or functional constraint, while low sequence homology may indicate a more distant relationship or different functions.

Nucleic acid sequence homology can be determined by various methods such as pairwise alignment, multiple sequence alignment, and statistical analysis. The degree of homology is typically expressed as a percentage of identical or similar nucleotides in a given window of comparison.

It's important to note that the interpretation of sequence homology depends on the biological context and the evolutionary distance between the sequences compared. Therefore, functional and experimental validation is often necessary to confirm the significance of sequence homology.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hemiptera" is not a medical term. It is a taxonomic order in the classification of living things, also known as "true bugs." This group includes species such as cicadas, aphids, and bedbugs. If you have a medical term in mind, please provide it so I can give you an accurate definition.

Phytoplankton are microscopic photosynthetic organisms that live in watery environments such as oceans, seas, lakes, and rivers. They are a diverse group of organisms, including bacteria, algae, and protozoa. Phytoplankton are a critical component of the marine food chain, serving as primary producers that convert sunlight, carbon dioxide, and nutrients into organic matter through photosynthesis. This organic matter forms the base of the food chain and supports the growth and survival of many larger organisms, including zooplankton, fish, and other marine animals. Phytoplankton also play an important role in global carbon cycling and help to regulate Earth's climate by absorbing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and releasing oxygen.

Anaerobic bacteria are a type of bacteria that do not require oxygen to grow and survive. Instead, they can grow in environments that have little or no oxygen. Some anaerobic bacteria can even be harmed or killed by exposure to oxygen. These bacteria play important roles in many natural processes, such as decomposition and the breakdown of organic matter in the digestive system. However, some anaerobic bacteria can also cause disease in humans and animals, particularly when they infect areas of the body that are normally oxygen-rich. Examples of anaerobic bacterial infections include tetanus, gas gangrene, and dental abscesses.

Fluid waste disposal in a medical context refers to the proper and safe management of liquid byproducts generated during medical procedures, patient care, or research. These fluids can include bodily excretions (such as urine, feces, or vomit), irrigation solutions, blood, or other biological fluids.

The process of fluid waste disposal involves several steps:

1. Collection: Fluid waste is collected in appropriate containers that are designed to prevent leakage and contamination.
2. Segregation: Different types of fluid waste may require separate collection and disposal methods based on their infectious or hazardous nature.
3. Treatment: Depending on the type and volume of fluid waste, various treatments can be applied, such as disinfection, sterilization, or chemical neutralization, to reduce the risk of infection or harm to the environment and personnel.
4. Disposal: Treated fluid waste is then disposed of according to local regulations, which may involve transporting it to a designated waste management facility for further processing or disposal in a safe and environmentally friendly manner (e.g., deep well injection, incineration, or landfilling).
5. Documentation and tracking: Proper records should be maintained to ensure compliance with regulatory requirements and to enable effective monitoring and auditing of the waste disposal process.

It is essential to handle fluid waste disposal carefully to minimize the risk of infection, protect the environment, and maintain regulatory compliance. Healthcare facilities must adhere to strict guidelines and regulations regarding fluid waste management to ensure the safety of patients, staff, and the community.

In situ hybridization, fluorescence (FISH) is a type of molecular cytogenetic technique used to detect and localize the presence or absence of specific DNA sequences on chromosomes through the use of fluorescent probes. This technique allows for the direct visualization of genetic material at a cellular level, making it possible to identify chromosomal abnormalities such as deletions, duplications, translocations, and other rearrangements.

The process involves denaturing the DNA in the sample to separate the double-stranded molecules into single strands, then adding fluorescently labeled probes that are complementary to the target DNA sequence. The probe hybridizes to the complementary sequence in the sample, and the location of the probe is detected by fluorescence microscopy.

FISH has a wide range of applications in both clinical and research settings, including prenatal diagnosis, cancer diagnosis and monitoring, and the study of gene expression and regulation. It is a powerful tool for identifying genetic abnormalities and understanding their role in human disease.

Aerobiosis is the process of living, growing, and functioning in the presence of oxygen. It refers to the metabolic processes that require oxygen to break down nutrients and produce energy in cells. This is in contrast to anaerobiosis, which is the ability to live and grow in the absence of oxygen.

In medical terms, aerobiosis is often used to describe the growth of microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi, that require oxygen to survive and multiply. These organisms are called aerobic organisms, and they play an important role in many biological processes, including decomposition and waste breakdown.

However, some microorganisms are unable to grow in the presence of oxygen and are instead restricted to environments where oxygen is absent or limited. These organisms are called anaerobic organisms, and their growth and metabolism are referred to as anaerobiosis.

Carbohydrate metabolism is the process by which the body breaks down carbohydrates into glucose, which is then used for energy or stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen. This process involves several enzymes and chemical reactions that convert carbohydrates from food into glucose, fructose, or galactose, which are then absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to cells throughout the body.

The hormones insulin and glucagon regulate carbohydrate metabolism by controlling the uptake and storage of glucose in cells. Insulin is released from the pancreas when blood sugar levels are high, such as after a meal, and promotes the uptake and storage of glucose in cells. Glucagon, on the other hand, is released when blood sugar levels are low and signals the liver to convert stored glycogen back into glucose and release it into the bloodstream.

Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism can result from genetic defects or acquired conditions that affect the enzymes or hormones involved in this process. Examples include diabetes, hypoglycemia, and galactosemia. Proper management of these disorders typically involves dietary modifications, medication, and regular monitoring of blood sugar levels.

Bifidobacterium is a genus of Gram-positive, non-motile, often branching anaerobic bacteria that are commonly found in the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and other animals, as well as in fermented foods. These bacteria play an important role in maintaining the health and balance of the gut microbiota by aiding in digestion, producing vitamins, and preventing the growth of harmful bacteria.

Bifidobacteria are also known for their probiotic properties and are often used as dietary supplements to improve digestive health, boost the immune system, and alleviate symptoms of various gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease.

There are over 50 species of Bifidobacterium, with some of the most common ones found in the human gut being B. bifidum, B. longum, B. breve, and B. adolescentis. These bacteria are characterized by their ability to ferment a variety of carbohydrates, including dietary fibers, oligosaccharides, and sugars, producing short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) such as acetate, lactate, and formate as end products.

Bifidobacteria have a complex cell wall structure that contains unique polysaccharides called exopolysaccharides (EPS), which have been shown to have prebiotic properties and can stimulate the growth of other beneficial bacteria in the gut. Additionally, some strains of Bifidobacterium produce antimicrobial compounds that inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria, further contributing to their probiotic effects.

Overall, Bifidobacterium is an important genus of beneficial bacteria that play a crucial role in maintaining gut health and promoting overall well-being.

The rumen is the largest compartment of the stomach in ruminant animals, such as cows, goats, and sheep. It is a specialized fermentation chamber where microbes break down tough plant material into nutrients that the animal can absorb and use for energy and growth. The rumen contains billions of microorganisms, including bacteria, protozoa, and fungi, which help to break down cellulose and other complex carbohydrates in the plant material through fermentation.

The rumen is characterized by its large size, muscular walls, and the presence of a thick mat of partially digested food and microbes called the rumen mat or cud. The animal regurgitates the rumen contents periodically to chew it again, which helps to break down the plant material further and mix it with saliva, creating a more favorable environment for fermentation.

The rumen plays an essential role in the digestion and nutrition of ruminant animals, allowing them to thrive on a diet of low-quality plant material that would be difficult for other animals to digest.

Anaerobiosis is a state in which an organism or a portion of an organism is able to live and grow in the absence of molecular oxygen (O2). In biological contexts, "anaerobe" refers to any organism that does not require oxygen for growth, and "aerobe" refers to an organism that does require oxygen for growth.

There are two types of anaerobes: obligate anaerobes, which cannot tolerate the presence of oxygen and will die if exposed to it; and facultative anaerobes, which can grow with or without oxygen but prefer to grow in its absence. Some organisms are able to switch between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism depending on the availability of oxygen, a process known as "facultative anaerobiosis."

Anaerobic respiration is a type of metabolic process that occurs in the absence of molecular oxygen. In this process, organisms use alternative electron acceptors other than oxygen to generate energy through the transfer of electrons during cellular respiration. Examples of alternative electron acceptors include nitrate, sulfate, and carbon dioxide.

Anaerobic metabolism is less efficient than aerobic metabolism in terms of energy production, but it allows organisms to survive in environments where oxygen is not available or is toxic. Anaerobic bacteria are important decomposers in many ecosystems, breaking down organic matter and releasing nutrients back into the environment. In the human body, anaerobic bacteria can cause infections and other health problems if they proliferate in areas with low oxygen levels, such as the mouth, intestines, or deep tissue wounds.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

Chryseobacterium is a genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in various environments such as water, soil, and plants. Some species of Chryseobacterium can also be found in association with animals and humans, where they are often considered to be opportunistic pathogens. These bacteria are known for their ability to produce pigments, which can give them a yellow or orange color. They are generally resistant to many antibiotics and can cause infections in people with weakened immune systems, such as those who are hospitalized or have underlying medical conditions. Examples of Chryseobacterium infections include pneumonia, bloodstream infections, and wound infections.

A "gene library" is not a recognized term in medical genetics or molecular biology. However, the closest concept that might be referred to by this term is a "genomic library," which is a collection of DNA clones that represent the entire genetic material of an organism. These libraries are used for various research purposes, such as identifying and studying specific genes or gene functions.

Lineage( full ) cellular organisms; Bacteria; FCB group; Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi group; Bacteroidetes; Flavobacteriia; ...
Bacteroidetes phyl. nov.". In Krieg NR, Staley JT, Brown DR, Hedlund BP, Paster BJ, Ward NL, Ludwig W, Whitman WB (eds.). ... "Bacteroidetes"". List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN). Retrieved June 23, 2021. Krieg NR, Ludwig W, ... The class Bacteroidia was formerly called Bacteroidetes; as it was until recently the only class in the phylum, the name was ... The phylum Bacteroidota (synonym Bacteroidetes) is composed of three large classes of Gram-negative, nonsporeforming, anaerobic ...
Bacteroidetes phyl. nov.". In Krieg NR, Staley JT, Brown DR, Hedlund BP, Paster BJ, Ward NL, Ludwig W, Whitman WB (eds.). ... "Genome-Based Taxonomic Classification of Bacteroidetes". Front Microbiol. 7: 2003. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2016.02003. PMC 5167729. ...
in the phylum Bacteroidetes". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 63 (Pt 4): 1219-1228. doi: ... Subcommittee on the Taxonomy of Aerobic Bacteroidetes met to discuss taxonomic changes in 2017. Additionally, García-López et ... "Analysis of 1,000 Type-Strain Genomes Improves Taxonomic Classification of Bacteroidetes". Front Microbiol. 10: 2083. doi: ... "Analysis of 1,000 Type-Strain Genomes Improves Taxonomic Classification of Bacteroidetes". Frontiers in Microbiology. 10: 2083 ...
within the phylum Bacteroidetes; includes a microaerobic filamentous bacterium isolated from specimens from diseased rodent ... 4 (The Bacteroidetes, Spirochaetes, Tenericutes (Mollicutes), Acidobacteria, Fibrobacteres, Fusobacteria, Dictyoglomi, ...
in the phylum Bacteroidetes". Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 63 (Pt 4): 1219-1228. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.043752-0. PMC 3709535. PMID ...
within the phylum Bacteroidetes; includes a microaerobic filamentous bacterium isolated from specimens from diseased rodent ...
in the phylum Bacteroidetes". Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 63 (Pt 4): 1219-1228. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.043752-0. PMC 3709535. PMID ...
in the phylum Bacteroidetes". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 63 (Pt_4): 1219-1228. doi: ...
Munoz R, Rosselló-Móra R, Amann R. (2016). "Revised phylogeny of Bacteroidetes and proposal of sixteen new taxa and two new ... Revised phylogeny of Bacteroidetes and proposal of sixteen new taxa and two new combinations including Rhodothermaeota phyl. ... "Analysis of 1,000 Type-Strain Genomes Improves Taxonomic Classification of Bacteroidetes". Front Microbiol. 10: 2083. doi: ... "Genome-Based Taxonomic Classification of Bacteroidetes". Front Microbiol. 7: 2003. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2016.02003. PMC 5167729. ...
"Genome-Based Taxonomic Classification of Bacteroidetes". Front Microbiol. 7: 2003. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2016.02003. PMC 5167729. ...
... later renamed Bacteroidetes Bacteroides (Bacteroides, Fusobacterium) Flavobacterium group (Flavobacterium, Cytophaga, ... "Genome-Based Taxonomic Classification of Bacteroidetes". Frontiers in Microbiology. 7: 2003. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2016.02003. ISSN ...
Munoz, R; Rosselló-Móra, R; Amann, R (July 2016). "Revised phylogeny of Bacteroidetes and proposal of sixteen new taxa and two ... "Genome-Based Taxonomic Classification of Bacteroidetes". Frontiers in Microbiology. 7: 2003. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2016.02003. PMC ...
"Genome-Based Taxonomic Classification of Bacteroidetes". Front Microbiol. 7: 2003. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2016.02003. PMC 5167729. ...
"Genome-Based Taxonomic Classification of Bacteroidetes". Front Microbiol. 7: 2003. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2016.02003. PMC 5167729. ...
"Analysis of 1,000 Type-Strain Genomes Improves Taxonomic Classification of Bacteroidetes". Front Microbiol. 10: 2083. doi: ... "Genome-Based Taxonomic Classification of Bacteroidetes". Front Microbiol. 7: 2003. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2016.02003. PMC 5167729. ...
"Genome-Based Taxonomic Classification of Bacteroidetes". Frontiers in Microbiology. 7: 2003. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2016.02003. ISSN ...
nov., a novel member of the phylum Bacteroidetes isolated from seawater in a mussel farm". International Journal of Systematic ... nov., a member of the phylum Bacteroidetes". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 62 (Pt 9): 2213 ...
nov., a member of the phylum Bacteroidetes". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 62 (Pt 9): 2213 ...
nov., of the phylum Bacteroidetes, isolated from compost". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. ...
In this early succession stage, members of the class Flavobacteria (Bacteroidetes) are typically the dominant components of the ... "Ecology of marine Bacteroidetes: a comparative genomics approach". The ISME Journal. 7 (5): 1026-37. doi:10.1038/ismej.2012.169 ...
nov., of the phylum Bacteroidetes, isolated from marine sediment". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary ...
nov., of the phylum Bacteroidetes, isolated from marine sediment". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary ...
nov., Novel Bacteroidetes Isolated from Subsurface Sediments of the Baltic Sea". Frontiers in Microbiology. 8: 2614. doi: ...
nov., a member of the phylum Bacteroidetes isolated from seawater". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary ...
nov., a member of the phylum Bacteroidetes isolated from soil". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary ...
nov., an alkaliphilic bacterium of the family 'Cyclobacteriaceae', phylum Bacteroidetes. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 60: 2320- ... Cyanobacteria and Bacteroidetes, and endolithic archaea belonging to the phyla Thaumarchaeota and Euryarchaeota were detected ...
nov., a member of the phylum Bacteroidetes isolated from soil". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary ...
nov., a member of the phylum Bacteroidetes isolated from seawater". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary ...
nov., a new member of the family 'Flexibacteraceae', phylum Bacteroidetes". International Journal of Systematic and ...
Lineage( full ) cellular organisms; Bacteria; FCB group; Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi group; Bacteroidetes; Flavobacteriia; ...
... and increasing beneficial microbiota such as Bacteroidetes, Alloprevotella, and other bacterial species. Moreover, SMYA was ... SMYA modified the composition of gut microbiota by decreasing the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, modulating Prevotellaceae_ ... LPS was negatively correlated with Bacteroidetes and Prevotellaceae_UCG_001. Bacteroidetes and Prevotellaceae_UCG_001 were ... However, in the I/R + SMYA rats, these changes were reversed, and there was an increase in Bacteroidetes (Fig. 6A). Previous ...
Of these six, the two most common are Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, consisting of 90% of the microbiome. Both Bacteroidetes and ... It is also important to note that some Bacteroidetes produce butyrate as well, meaning that in an ideal B/F ratio, the butyrate ... It is important to note that while Bacteroidetes decreased, the phylum was still present in higher amounts than in Firmicutes, ... The Bacteroidetes phylum consists of four major classes, namely, Bacteroidia, Flavobacteria, Sphingobacteria, and Cytophagia, ...
"A Conserved Bacteroidetes Antigen Induces Anti-Inflammatory Intestinal T Lymphocytes." ,i>Science (New York, N.Y.),/i> 377 ( ... "A Conserved Bacteroidetes Antigen Induces Anti-Inflammatory Intestinal T Lymphocytes." ,i>Science (New York, N.Y.),/i> 377.6606 ... We identified β-hexosaminidase, a conserved enzyme across commensals of the Bacteroidetes phylum, as a driver of CD4IEL ... We identified β-hexosaminidase, a conserved enzyme across commensals of the Bacteroidetes phylum, as a driver of CD4IEL ...
... along with a negative correlation between the Bacteroidetes phylum and obesity parameters. The Bacteroidetes phylum was also ... Moreover, reduced levels of the Bacteroidetes phylum and increased levels of Firmicutes phylum were observed in obese ...
Categories: Bacteroidetes Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 48 ...
The main phyla identified in the wastewater were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Planctomycetes and Actinobacteria ...
Other molecules, such as triterpenes, can also promote the enrichment of Bacteroidetes and the depletion of Deltaproteobacteria ...
The gut microbiota is made up mainly of four phyla, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria16. Recently, ... Most samples had high abundance of Bacteroidetes and tumor samples (the control group) had higher abundance of Tenericutes ...
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The two most common bacterial groups were Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes which were present in all samples and constituted 29.7 ... Bacteroidetes or Tenericutes levels in the 16S rRNA Operational Taxonomic Unit (OTU)-based analysis of the caecal microbiome, ...
Lineage: Bacteria;Bacteroidetes;Flavobacteriia;Flavobacteriales #life-table{width:80%;}. eHOMD Taxonomy. Life. Cellular ...
Comme dans les parties précédentes des voies digestives, nous pouvons voir la présence de Bacteroidetes, ainsi que de ... Nous pouvons ici trouver Bacteroidetes ainsi que dautres bactéries qui nutilisent pas doxygène, cest-à-dire anaérobies. ... Actinobacteria et Bacteroidetes. Ces phylums comprennent des centaines despèces différentes pouvant sétablir dans lintestin ...
The normal human gut microbiota comprises of two major phyla, namely Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes.[4] Though the gut microbiota ...
Oral Microbiome: Models with Lautropia, Streptococcus, and Bacteroidetes showed the greatest discrimination between BE and ...
Bacteroidetes;Bacteroidetes_VC2.1_Bac22;NA;NA;NA RSV_genus230 Bacteria;Bacteroidetes;Bacteroidetes_vadinHA17;NA;NA;NA RSV_ ... Bacteroidetes;Bacteroidetes_VC2.1_Bac22;NA;NA RSV_family101 Bacteria;Bacteroidetes;Bacteroidetes_vadinHA17;NA;NA RSV_family102 ... Bacteroidetes;Bacteroidetes_VC2.1_Bac22;NA RSV_order44 Bacteria;Bacteroidetes;Bacteroidetes_vadinHA17;NA RSV_order45 Bacteria; ... Bacteroidetes;Bacteroidetes_VC2.1_Bac22 RSV_class18 Bacteria;Bacteroidetes;Bacteroidetes_vadinHA17 RSV_class19 Bacteria; ...
3C, supplementary Table 3 and Table 4). In agreement with this, more families and genera under the phylum Bacteroidetes, ... 5A and 5B). The Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were enriched in CuAF and CuMF group, respectively, in both male and female ... A higher abundance of Firmicutes and a lower abundance of Bacteroidetes were observed in female rats than in male rats, leading ... In male rats, only the abundance of Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria was altered by dietary fructose and the effect was less ...
Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria for Bacteria. Primary source Zimmerman et al abstract: Using a common-garden experimental ...
... as well as more than twice the abundance of proteobacteria and significantly reduced levels of Bacteroidetes. These differences ...
Hunter has found a bacterial symbiont in the Bacteroidetes, recently named Cardinium hertigii, that is unrelated to the better ...
High-level differences were evident at both the phylum and genus levels, with Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and ...
... with no significant differences in the OTU number of Bacteroidetes among groups and an increase of Proteobacteria OTUs for the ...
... and an increase in Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, which are both associated with glycan fermentation and SCFA production. This ... and an increase in Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, which are both associated with glycan fermentation and SCFA production. This ... and an increase in Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, which are both associated with glycan fermentation and SCFA production. This ... and an increase in Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, which are both associated with glycan fermentation and SCFA production. This ...
... obesity alters the composition of microbiome characterized by an expansion of Firmicutes and reduction in Bacteroidetes at the ...
Microbial colonization also changes along the length of the gut: Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes predominate in the distal colon, ... rather than the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes that predominate in a healthy gut. Inoculation with microbes obtained from the ...
Bacteroidetes (2003-2011). Public MeSH Note:. 2012. History Note:. 2012. DeCS ID:. 54452 ...
Bacteroidetes subphylum Bacteroidetes sbp Incertae sedis class Bacteroidia order Bacteroidales family Rikenellaceae genus ...
An LEfSe analysis showed 18 significantly differentially abundant bacterial taxa in PE, including enriched Bacteroidetes and ... An LEfSe analysis showed 18 significantly differentially abundant bacterial taxa in PE, including enriched Bacteroidetes and ...
  • SMYA modified the composition of gut microbiota by decreasing the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, modulating Prevotellaceae_Ga6A1 and Prevotellaceae_NK3B3 linked to the LPS/TLR4/NF-κB pathway, and increasing beneficial microbiota such as Bacteroidetes, Alloprevotella, and other bacterial species. (springer.com)
  • Moreover, reduced levels of the Bacteroidetes phylum and increased levels of Firmicutes phylum were observed in obese individuals as compared to normal-weight people. (news-medical.net)
  • A positive correlation between the Firmicutes phylum and obesity parameters, such as elevated body mass index (BMI), fat mass, and waist circumference, was observed, along with a negative correlation between the Bacteroidetes phylum and obesity parameters. (news-medical.net)
  • The two most dominant gut microbial phyla are Firmicutes (F) and Bacteroidetes (B). Human and animal studies have identified differences in the Firmicutes/Bacteriodetes (F/B) ratio in gut microbiota in obese compared to lean subjects. (nutrimedical.com)
  • [ 1 ] In healthy individuals, it is dominated by 2 major bacterial phyla: Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, with smaller representation from Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. (medscape.com)
  • We statistically evaluated if intake of added sugar (as well as with the support of the urinary sucrose and fructose biomarker as mentioned in a previous blog post ), sugar-sweetened beverages and artificially sweetened beverages associated with any of the 64 bacterial genera or with various measures of microbiota composition and diversity, such as alpa diversity, beta diversity and the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio. (lu.se)
  • We directly detected the causative pathogenic bacterial species in both samples belonged to the phylum microbe in a clinical human sample (diarrheic feces) by Bacteroidetes, the normal fl ora of the human intestine. (cdc.gov)
  • The Bacteroidetes phylum was also positively correlated with muscle and lean body mass. (news-medical.net)
  • Bacterial strains contributing to this subset of HGT events predominantly belonged to the phylum Bacteroidetes. (broadinstitute.org)
  • The bacteria endowed with this talent are species of Sa-pro-spira , gliding members of the phylum Bacteroidetes. (asmblog.org)
  • An LEfSe analysis showed 18 significantly differentially abundant bacterial taxa in PE, including enriched Bacteroidetes and depleted Verrucomicrobia and Syntergistota at the phylum level and depleted Akkermansia at the genus level, suggesting a role in the pathophysiology of PE. (lu.se)
  • The Proteobacteria (the class Alphaproteobacteria, followed by the Gammaproteobacteria) and the Bacteroidetes (the class Flavobacteriia) were two abundant phyla in both the stations. (scirp.org)
  • The main phyla identified in the wastewater were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Planctomycetes and Actinobacteria. (csic.es)
  • In the Canada Basin, the most abundant bacterial groups in two sites of water at 10m depth were the Proteobacteria (mainly Alphaproteobacteria), Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Cyanobacteria. (gbif.org)
  • The Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes also formed the dominant bacterial groups in surface water of Kongsfjorden. (gbif.org)
  • Vancomycin was also associated with a significant decrease in Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria groups. (hcplive.com)
  • The Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes bacteria phyla comprise 90% of the human gut microbiota. (nih.gov)
  • The gastrointestinal microbiota is dominated by four major phyla, which in order of abundance are: Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacter and Proteobacter. (nih.gov)
  • In our current study, we found that resveratrol can remodel the gut microbiota including increasing the Bacteroidetes-to-Firmicutes ratios, significantly inhibiting the growth of Prevotella, and increasing the relative abundance of Bacteroides, Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Akkermansia in mice," said Mi. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • Interestingly, Bacteroidetes dominated the intestinal microbiota of streptomycin-treated animals, while vancomycin promoted the expansion of the Firmicutes. (gla.ac.uk)
  • CS delivered infants also had a lower abundance and diversity of the Bacteroidetes phylum and were less often colonised with the Bacteroidetes phylum. (nih.gov)
  • White women (n = 10) had greater abundance of Firmicutes (23 ± 0.15 vs. 16% ± 0.75, p = 0.007) and Bacteroidetes (24 ± 0.14 vs. 19% ± 0.68, p = 0.015) compared with non-White women (n = 6). (nih.gov)
  • In the 11 paired specimens, Bacteroidetes increased in abundance from baseline to follow-up. (nih.gov)
  • 15.4 kg), those who gained above the median GWG had increased abundance of Bacteroidetes (p = 0.02) and other phyla (p = 0.04).Maternal microbiome biodiversity changes as pregnancy progresses and correlates with GWG. (nih.gov)
  • The microbiome of the respiratory tract is dominated by two major bacterial genera, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. (le.ac.uk)
  • That is, the ratio of Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes populations in the OVX group were increased significantly. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Obesity has been associated with a different bacteria composition (less bacterial diversity and reduced Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio). (nih.gov)
  • When OVX animals were given dietary GSE, the imbalanced proportion of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes populations was normalized to that seen in control mice. (elsevierpure.com)
  • In this study, lower Bacteroidetes was linked to a 4.4 increased likelihood of having PCOS. (medscape.com)