Bacteroides fragilis: Gram-negative bacteria occurring in the lower intestinal tracts of man and other animals. It is the most common species of anaerobic bacteria isolated from human soft tissue infections.Bacteroides: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.Bacteroides Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus BACTEROIDES.Bacteria, AnaerobicPrevotella melaninogenica: A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium has been isolated from the mouth, urine, feces, and infections of the mouth, soft tissue, respiratory tract, urogenital tract, and intestinal tract. It is pathogenic, but usually in association with other kinds of organisms.Fusobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of humans and other animals. No endospores are formed. Some species are pathogenic and occur in various purulent or gangrenous infections.Clindamycin: An antibacterial agent that is a semisynthetic analog of LINCOMYCIN.Cefoxitin: A semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Abscess: Accumulation of purulent material in tissues, organs, or circumscribed spaces, usually associated with signs of infection.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Metronidazole: A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Imipenem: Semisynthetic thienamycin that has a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, including many multiresistant strains. It is stable to beta-lactamases. Clinical studies have demonstrated high efficacy in the treatment of infections of various body systems. Its effectiveness is enhanced when it is administered in combination with CILASTATIN, a renal dipeptidase inhibitor.Cefotetan: A semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic that is administered intravenously or intramuscularly. The drug is highly resistant to a broad spectrum of beta-lactamases and is active against a wide range of both aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms.Prevotella: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, nonsporeforming, nonmotile rods. Organisms of this genus had originally been classified as members of the BACTEROIDES genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings in 1990 indicated the need to separate them from other Bacteroides species, and hence, this new genus was established.Peptostreptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of humans. Its organisms are opportunistic pathogens causing bacteremias and soft tissue infections.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Bacteria, AerobicAbdominal Abscess: An abscess located in the abdominal cavity, i.e., the cavity between the diaphragm above and the pelvis below. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Naphthyridinesbeta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Gram-Negative Anaerobic Bacteria: A large group of anaerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the Gram-staining method.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Suppuration: A pathologic process consisting in the formation of pus.Cephamycins: Naturally occurring family of beta-lactam cephalosporin-type antibiotics having a 7-methoxy group and possessing marked resistance to the action of beta-lactamases from gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.Moxalactam: Broad- spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic similar in structure to the CEPHALOSPORINS except for the substitution of an oxaazabicyclo moiety for the thiaazabicyclo moiety of certain CEPHALOSPORINS. It has been proposed especially for the meningitides because it passes the blood-brain barrier and for anaerobic infections.CephalosporinaseThienamycins: Beta-lactam antibiotics that differ from PENICILLINS in having the thiazolidine sulfur atom replaced by carbon, the sulfur then becoming the first atom in the side chain. They are unstable chemically, but have a very broad antibacterial spectrum. Thienamycin and its more stable derivatives are proposed for use in combinations with enzyme inhibitors.Porphyromonas: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, nonsporeforming, nonmotile rods or coccobacilli. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the BACTEROIDES genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Bacteroides species, and hence, this new genus was created.Fluoroquinolones: A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Cephalosporins: A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.Penicillanic Acid: A building block of penicillin, devoid of significant antibacterial activity. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Ceftizoxime: A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic which can be administered intravenously or by suppository. The drug is highly resistant to a broad spectrum of beta-lactamases and is active against a wide range of both aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It has few side effects and is reported to be safe and effective in aged patients and in patients with hematologic disorders.Bacteroidaceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria found primarily in the intestinal tracts and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Its organisms are sometimes pathogenic.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Tetracycline: A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Lactams: Cyclic AMIDES formed from aminocarboxylic acids by the elimination of water. Lactims are the enol forms of lactams.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.beta-Lactams: Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Aza CompoundsCefmetazole: A semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic with a broad spectrum of activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. It has a high rate of efficacy in many types of infection and to date no severe side effects have been noted.Cedrus: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. It is the source of cedarwood oil. Cedar ordinarily refers to this but also forms part of the name of plants in other genera.Enterotoxins: Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.Metalloendopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which use a metal such as ZINC in the catalytic mechanism.Piperacillin: Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum, AMPICILLIN derived ureidopenicillin antibiotic proposed for PSEUDOMONAS infections. It is also used in combination with other antibiotics.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Erythromycin: A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Sulbactam: A beta-lactamase inhibitor with very weak antibacterial action. The compound prevents antibiotic destruction of beta-lactam antibiotics by inhibiting beta-lactamases, thus extending their spectrum activity. Combinations of sulbactam with beta-lactam antibiotics have been used successfully for the therapy of infections caused by organisms resistant to the antibiotic alone.Clavulanic Acids: Acids, salts, and derivatives of clavulanic acid (C8H9O5N). They consist of those beta-lactam compounds that differ from penicillin in having the sulfur of the thiazolidine ring replaced by an oxygen. They have limited antibacterial action, but block bacterial beta-lactamase irreversibly, so that similar antibiotics are not broken down by the bacterial enzymes and therefore can exert their antibacterial effects.Peptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of the mouth, upper respiratory tract, and large intestine in humans. Its organisms cause infections of soft tissues and bacteremias.Fusobacterium Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus FUSOBACTERIUM.Clavulanic Acid: Clavulanic acid and its salts and esters. The acid is a suicide inhibitor of bacterial beta-lactamase enzymes from Streptomyces clavuligerus. Administered alone, it has only weak antibacterial activity against most organisms, but given in combination with other beta-lactam antibiotics it prevents antibiotic inactivation by microbial lactamase.Cefotaxime: Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin.Ticarcillin: An antibiotic derived from penicillin similar to CARBENICILLIN in action.Lincomycin: An antibiotic produced by Streptomyces lincolnensis var. lincolnensis. It has been used in the treatment of staphylococcal, streptococcal, and Bacteroides fragilis infections.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.

The in-vitro activity of linezolid (U-100766) and tentative breakpoints. (1/843)

The in-vitro activity of linezolid, a novel oxazolidinone, was investigated in comparison with those of amoxycillin, cefuroxime, quinupristin/dalfopristin, trovafloxacin and vancomycin against 420 recent Gram-positive and anaerobic clinical isolates. Linezolid was equally active (MIC90 1 mg/L) against methicillin-susceptible and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus. It demonstrated uniform activity against streptococci and enterococci and no cross-resistance with other agents. The time-kill kinetic data demonstrated that the in-vitro activity of linezolid was predominantly bacteriostatic; slow bactericidal activity was only observed at the higher concentration with streptococci. An increase in inoculum from 10(4) to 10(6) cfu on selected strains had little effect on the MICs (MIC90 within one dilution step) of linezolid and an increase in inoculum from 10(5) to 10(7) cfu/mL had no notable effect on the in-vitro bactericidal activity. A tentative linezolid breakpoint of 2 mg/L was chosen after analysis of distribution of susceptibilities.  (+info)

Bacteroides fragilis toxin 2 damages human colonic mucosa in vitro. (2/843)

BACKGROUND: Strains of Bacteroides fragilis producing a 20 kDa protein toxin (B fragilis toxin (BFT) or fragilysin) are associated with diarrhoea in animals and humans. Although in vitro results indicate that BFT damages intestinal epithelial cells in culture, the effects of BFT on native human colon are not known. AIMS: To examine the electrophysiological and morphological effects of purified BFT-2 on human colonic mucosa in vitro. METHODS: For resistance (R) measurements, colonic mucosa mounted in Ussing chambers was exposed to luminal or serosal BFT-2 (1.25-10 nM) and after four hours morphological damage was measured on haematoxylin and eosin stained sections using morphometry. F actin distribution was assessed using confocal microscopy. RESULTS: Serosal BFT-2 for four hours was four-, two-, seven-, and threefold more potent than luminal BFT-2 in decreasing resistance, increasing epithelial 3H-mannitol permeability, and damaging crypt and surface colonocytes, respectively (p<0.05). Confocal microscopy showed reduced colonocyte F actin staining intensity after exposure to BFT-2. CONCLUSIONS: BFT-2 increases human colonic permeability and damages human colonic epithelial cells in vitro. These effects may be important in the development of diarrhoea and intestinal inflammation caused by B fragilis in vivo.  (+info)

Microbiological and inflammatory effects of murine recombinant interleukin-10 in two models of polymicrobial peritonitis in rats. (3/843)

A protective effect of interleukin-10 (IL-10) against the development of lethal shock has been demonstrated in various animal models. In contrast, the immunosuppressant properties of this mediator have been minimally evaluated in low-mortality models of infections. The clinical, microbiological, and inflammatory effects of murine recombinant IL-10 (mrIL-10) therapy were evaluated in two models of peritonitis in rats, which differed in the degree of severity of peritoneal inflammation 3 days after inoculation of Escherichia coli and Bacteroides fragilis with or without Enterococcus faecalis. The severity of the disease remained unchanged compared to that in control animals. A dose-related decrease in the peritoneal phagocyte count was observed in the treated groups compared to the counts in control animals. The subsequent experiments were performed exclusively in the mixed gram-positive-gram negative model, which exhibits an intense and prolonged inflammatory response with similar criteria. The early effects of mrIL-10 (evaluated 6 h after inoculation), repeated injections of mrIL-10 (four doses injected from 0 to 9 h after bacterial challenge), and pretreatment (two doses injected 6 and 3 h before inoculation) were evaluated. The clinical and microbiological parameters remained unchanged in the treated animals. Decreases in the peritoneal phagocyte count and the peritoneal concentration of tumor necrosis factor were observed following repeated injections of mrIL-10. In summary, our data suggest that mrIL-10 does not worsen the manifestations of sepsis. However, these results need to be confirmed in clinical practice.  (+info)

Antimicrobial resistance patterns of Bacteroides fragilis group organisms in Korea. (4/843)

Antimicrobial resistance patterns of 913 clinical isolates of Bacteroides fragilis group organisms were monitored during an 8-year period in Korea. In general the resistance rates of the non-fragilis B. fragilis group species were higher than those of B. fragilis for all the drugs tested. The rate of resistance to clindamycin remarkably increased and those to some beta-lactam drugs such as piperacillin and cefotaxime also increased. No isolates were found to be resistant to imipenem, metronidazole, or chloramphenicol. beta-lactam and beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations and cefoxitin were more active than the other beta-lactams. Therefore, these agents may be considered when empirical selection of antimicrobial agents is required to treat severe anaerobic infections.  (+info)

Diversity of bacteroides fragilis strains in their capacity to recover phages from human and animal wastes and from fecally polluted wastewater. (5/843)

Great differences in capability to detect bacteriophages from urban sewage of the area of Barcelona existed among 115 strains of Bacteroides fragilis. The capability of six of the strains to detect phages in a variety of feces and wastewater was studied. Strains HSP40 and RYC4023 detected similar numbers of phages in urban sewage and did not detect phages in animal feces. The other four strains detected phages in the feces of different animal species and in wastewater of both human and animal origin. Strain RYC2056 recovered consistently higher counts than the other strains and also detected counts ranging from 10(1) to approximately 10(3) phages per ml in urban sewage from different geographical areas. This strain detected bacteriophages in animal feces even though their relative concentration with respect to the other fecal indicators was significantly lower in wastewater polluted with animal feces than in urban sewage.  (+info)

Bacteroides fragilis transfer factor Tn5520: the smallest bacterial mobilizable transposon containing single integrase and mobilization genes that function in Escherichia coli. (6/843)

Many bacterial genera, including Bacteroides spp., harbor mobilizable transposons, a class of transfer factors that carry genes for conjugal DNA transfer and, in some cases, antibiotic resistance. Mobilizable transposons are capable of inserting into and mobilizing other, nontransferable plasmids and are implicated in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance. This paper presents the isolation and characterization of Tn5520, a new mobilizable transposon from Bacteroides fragilis LV23. At 4,692 bp, it is the smallest mobilizable transposon reported from any bacterial genus. Tn5520 was captured from B. fragilis LV23 by using the transfer-deficient shuttle vector pGAT400DeltaBglII. The termini of Tn5520 contain a 22-bp imperfect inverted repeat, and transposition does not result in a target site repeat. Tn5520 also demonstrates insertion site sequence preferences characterized by A-T-rich nucleotide sequences. Tn5520 has been sequenced in its entirety, and two large open reading frames whose predicted protein products exhibit strong sequence similarity to recombinase-integrase enzymes and mobilization proteins, respectively, have been identified. The transfer, mobilization, and transposition properties of Tn5520 have been studied, revealing that Tn5520 mobilizes plasmids in both B. fragilis and Escherichia coli at high frequency and also transposes in E. coli.  (+info)

TNF-binding protein ameliorates inhibition of skeletal muscle protein synthesis during sepsis. (7/843)

We examined the effects of TNF-binding protein (TNFBP) on regulatory mechanisms of muscle protein synthesis during sepsis in four groups of rats: Control; Control+TNFBP; Septic; and Septic+TNFBP. Saline (1. 0 ml) or TNFBP (1 mg/kg, 1.0 ml) was injected daily starting 4 h before the induction of sepsis. The effect of TNFBP on gastrocnemius weight, protein content, and the rate of protein synthesis was examined 5 days later. Sepsis reduced the rate of protein synthesis by 35% relative to controls by depressing translational efficiency. Decreases in protein synthesis were accompanied by similar reductions in protein content and muscle weight. Treatment of septic animals with TNFBP for 5 days prevented the sepsis-induced inhibition of protein synthesis and restored translational efficiency to control values. TNFBP treatment of Control rats for 5 days was without effect on muscle protein content or protein synthesis. We also assessed potential mechanisms regulating translational efficiency. The phosphorylation state of p70(S6) kinase was not altered by sepsis. Sepsis reduced the gastrocnemius content of eukaryotic initiation factor 2Bepsilon (eIF2Bepsilon), but not eIF2alpha. The decrease in eIF2Bepsilon content was prevented by treatment of septic rats with TNFBP. TNFBP ameliorates the sepsis-induced changes in protein metabolism in gastrocnemius, indicating a role for TNF in the septic process. The data suggest that TNF may impair muscle protein synthesis by reducing expression of specific initiation factors during sepsis.  (+info)

Structural consequences of the active site substitution Cys181 ==> Ser in metallo-beta-lactamase from Bacteroides fragilis. (8/843)

The metallo-beta-lactamases require divalent cations such as zinc or cadmium for hydrolyzing the amide bond of beta-lactam antibiotics. The crystal structure of the Zn2+ -bound enzyme from Bacteroides fragilis contains a binuclear zinc center in the active site. A hydroxide, coordinated to both zinc atoms, is proposed as the moiety that mounts the nucleophilic attack on the carbonyl carbon atom of the beta-lactam bond of the substrate. It was previously reported that the replacement of the active site Cys181 by a serine residue severely impaired catalysis while atomic absorption measurements indicated that binding of the two zinc ions remained intact. Contradicting data emerge from recent mass spectrometry results, which show that only a single zinc ion binds to the C181S metallo-beta-lactamase. In the current study, the C181S mutant enzyme was examined at the atomic level by determining the crystal structure at 2.6 A resolution. The overall structure of the mutant enzyme is the same as that of the wild-type enzyme. At the mutation site, the side chain of Ser181 occupies the same position as that of the side chain of Cys181 in the wild-type protein. One zinc ion, Zn1, is present in the crystal structure; however, the site of the second zinc ion, Zn2 is unoccupied. A water molecule is associated with Zn1, reminiscent of the hydroxide seen in the structure of the wild-type enzyme but farther from the metal. The position of the water molecule is off the plane of the carboxylate group of Asp103; therefore, the water molecule may be less nucleophilic than a water molecule which is coplanar with the carboxylate group.  (+info)

*Bacteroides fragilis

Bacteroides references in Baron's Medical Microbiology (online at the NCBI bookshelf). Type strain of Bacteroides fragilis at ... Bacteroides fragilis is an obligately anaerobic, Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium. It is part of the normal flora of the ... Although the B. fragilis group is the most common species found in clinical specimens, it is the least common Bacteroides ... B. fragilis is the most prevalent organism in the B. fragilis group, accounting for 41% to 78% of the isolates of the group. ...

*Nanaerobe

Bacteroides fragilis). Like other anaerobes, these organisms do not require oxygen for growth. This growth benefit requires the ...

*Peritonitis

Bacteroides fragilis). Fecal peritonitis results from the presence of faeces in the peritoneal cavity. It can result from ...

*Cefpirome

Bacteroides fragilis, enterococci, Pseudomonas spp. and staphylococci are resistant to cefpirome sulfate, and some Haemophilus ...

*Phosphonopyruvate decarboxylase

Zhang G, Dai J, Lu Z, Dunaway-Mariano D (2003). "The phosphonopyruvate decarboxylase from Bacteroides fragilis". J. Biol. Chem ...

*Vaginal flora

Lactobacilli have been shown to inhibit in vitro growth of pathogenic microorganisms, e.g. Bacteroides fragilis, Escherichia ... and Bacteroides spp., Fusobacterium spp., Gardnerella vaginalis, Mobiluncus, Prevotella spp., and Gram-negative enteric ...

*Fragilysin

Obiso, R.J.; Jr.; Lyerly, D.M.; Van Tassell, R.L.; Wilkins, T.D. (1995). "Proteolytic activity of the Bacteroides fragilis ... Fragilysin (EC 3.4.24.74, Bacteroides fragilis (entero)toxin) is an enzyme. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical ... Donelli, G.; Fabbri, A.; Fiorentini, C. (1996). "Bacteroides fragilis enterotoxin induces cytoskeletal changes and surface ... "The enterotoxin of Bacteroides fragilis is a metalloprotease". Infect. Immun. 63: 175-181. PMC 172975 . PMID 7806355. ...

*Tigecycline

Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides uniformis, Bacteroides vulgatus, Clostridium perfringens, and ... and Bacteroides fragilis. Tigecycline is indicated for treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections caused by; ...

*Pharmacomicrobiomics

Bacteroides fragilis RecA protein overexpression causes resistance to metronidazole. Res Microbiol. 2010;161(5):346-354. doi: ...

*Cefpodoxime

Notable exceptions include Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus, and Bacteroides fragilis. Currently, it is only marketed as ...

*Hereditary spherocytosis

"Complete nucleotide sequence of insertion element IS4351 from Bacteroides fragilis. - UKPMC Article - UK PubMed Central". UKPMC ...

*7alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase

... and NADP-dependent 7alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases from Bacteroides fragilis". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 384 (1): 12-24. doi ...

*Cefotaxime

As listed, it has modest activity against the anaerobic Bacteroides fragilis. The following represents MIC susceptibility data ... Bacteroides spp. Fusobacterium spp. Notable organisms against which cefotaxime is not active include Pseudomonas and ...

*Host-Cell Reactivation

"Effect of oxygen on Bacteroides fragilis survival after far-ultraviolet irradiation". Journal of Bacteriology. 144 (3): 1179- ...

*Choloylglycine hydrolase

"Purification and characterization of bile salt hydrolase from Bacteroides fragilis subsp. fragilis". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. ...

*List of restriction enzyme cutting sites: Bd-Bp

Reinecke SN, Morgan RD (March 1991). "BfaI, a new MaeI isoschizomer from Bacteroides fragilis, recognizes the sequence 5' C ... Azeddoug H, Reysset G, Sebald M (August 1992). "Characterization of restriction endonuclease BfrBI from Bacteroides fragilis ...

*Microbial symbiosis and immunity

The human symbiont Bacteroides fragilis produces polysaccharide A (PSA), which may prevent colitis. PSA induces production of ... For example, the human symbiont Bacteroides fragilis produces polysaccharide A (PSA), which binds to toll-like receptor 2 (TLR- ... These data suggest that PSA secreted by Bacteroides fragilis suppresses the inflammatory process during colitis by leading to ... Furthermore, after intestinal colonization with B. fragilis, IL-23 expression by splenocytes was markedly reduced. ...

*Bacteroidales-1 RNA motif

Bayley DP, Rocha ER, Smith CJ (December 2000). "Analysis of cepA and other Bacteroides fragilis genes reveals a unique promoter ...

*Imipenem

Bacteroides fragilis, and Enterococcus faecalis have developed resistance to imipenem to varying degrees. Not many species are ... Acinetobacter anitratus, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Actinomyces odontolyticus, Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacteroides distasonis, ... Bacteroides uniformis, and Clostridium perfringens are generally susceptible to imipenem, while Acinetobacter baumannii, some ...

*List of sequenced bacterial genomes

2004). "Genomic analysis of Bacteroides fragilis reveals extensive DNA inversions regulating cell surface adaptation". PNAS. ... 2005). "Extensive DNA inversions in the B. fragilis genome control variable gene expression". Science. 307 (5714): 1463-5. ... 2003). "A genomic view of the human-Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron symbiosis". Science. 299 (5615): 2074-6. Bibcode:2003Sci... ...

*Anaerobic infection

Bacteroides fragilis group is rarely recovered in these infections compared to intra-abdominal infection. Actinomyces spp. and ... Agents no longer recommended are: cefotetan and clindamycin ( Bacteroides fragilis group resistance) and ampicillin-sulbactam ( ... Bacteroides fragilis).Clostridium perfringens can cause of brain abscesses and meningitis following intracranial surgery or ... Anaerobes (mostly B. fragilis group, and rarely C. perfringens) can be recovered in complicated infections associated with ...

*Bacteroides

One of the most important clinically is Bacteroides fragilis. Bacteroides melaninogenicus has recently been reclassified and ... Bacteroides species also benefit their host by excluding potential pathogens from colonizing the gut. Some species (B. fragilis ... Bacteroides converts these sugars to fermentation products which are beneficial to humans. Bacteroides also have the ability to ... Bacteroides is a genus of Gram-negative, obligate anaerobic bacteria. Bacteroides species are nonendospore-forming bacilli, and ...

*Ampicillin/sulbactam

It is also capable of binding to the PBP of Bacteroides fragilis and Acinetobacter spp., even when it is given alone. The ... and Bacteroides (including B. fragilis). Bone and Joint infections Ampicillin/sulbactam can be used in the treatment of bone ... Bacteroides fragilis, and Enterobacter. Skin & skin structure Infections This medication can be used to treat skin and skin ... Bacteroides species including B. fragilis. Gynecological Infections Ampicillin/sulbactam can be used to treat gynecological ...

*Lipopolysaccharide binding protein

Erridge, C; Pridmore, A; Eley, A; Stewart, J; Poxton, IR (2004). "Lipopolysaccharides of Bacteroides fragilis, Chlamydia ...

*Glutamine synthetase

Class III enzymes (GSIII) have, currently, only been found in Bacteroides fragilis and in Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens. It is a ...

*Innate immune system

Bacteroides species are normally mutualistic bacteria, making up a substantial portion of the mammalian gastrointestinal flora ... Some species like B. fragilis for example are opportunistic pathogens, causing infections of the peritoneal cavity inhibit ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular evolution of the pathogenicity island of enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis strains. AU - Franco, Augusto A.. AU - Cheng, Rodney K.. AU - Chung, Gyung Tae. AU - Wu, Shaoguang. AU - Oh, Hee Bok. AU - Sears, Cynthia Louise. PY - 1999/11. Y1 - 1999/11. N2 - Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF) strains, which produce a 20- kDa zinc metalloprotease toxin (BFT), have been associated with diarrheal disease in animals and young children. Studying a collection of ETBF and nontoxigenic B. fragilis (NTBF) strains, we found that bft and a second metalloprotease gene (mpII) are contained in an ~6-kb pathogenicity island (termed B. fragilis pathogenicity island or BfPAI) which is present exclusively in all 113 ETBF strains tested (pattern I). Of 191 NTBF strains, 100 (52%) lack both the BfPAI and at least a 12-kb region flanking BfPAI (pattern II), and 82 of 191 NTBF strains (43%) lack the BfPAI but contain the flanking region (pattern III). The nucleotide sequence flanking ...
Bacteroides species, saccharolytic Gram-negative obligate anaerobes, are frequently isolated from human infections such as peritonitis, abscesses and bacteremia. Among the species in the genus Bacteroides, thespecies called "B. fragilis group" areparticularly involved inhuman infections andaremedically important because they account for a major part of anaerobic isolates from clinical specimens. The purpose of this study was to develop PCR primers that specifically and simultaneously amplify theβ-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase gene leuB in B. fragilis group species. We determined partial nucleotide sequences of leuB genes and compared them in seventeen strains of nine B. fragilis group species, and the regions that are conserved among Bacteroides strains but different from other species were used as a B. fragilis group-specific PCR primer set, BacLBF-BacLBR. Specificity tests of the primer set using 52 phenotypically characterized strains and 75 isolates from rat feces showed only one case each ...
We identified enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis in stool specimens of patients with inflammatory bowel disease and other gastrointestinal disorders. The organism was detected in 11 (13.2%) of 83 patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Of 57 patients with active disease, 19.3% were toxin positive; none of those with inactive disease had specimens positive for enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis gene sequences.
The results of a multicenter US survey using the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards currently recommended methodology for measuring in vitro susceptibility of 2673 isolates of Bacteroides fragilis group species were compared from 1997 to 2000. The test panel consisted of 14 antibiotics: 3 carbapenems, 3 β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitors, 3 cephamycins, 2 fluoroquinolones, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, and metronidazole. Declines in the geometric mean minimum inhibitory concentrations were seen with imipenem, meropenem, ampicillin-sulbactam, and the cephamycins. Increased geometric means were observed with the fluoroquinolones and were usually accompanied by an increase in resistance rates. Bacteroides distasonis shows the highest resistance rates among β-lactam antibiotics, whereas Bacteroides vulgatus shows the highest resistance levels among fluoroquinolones. B. fragilis shows the lowest resistance rates for all antibiotics. All strains were susceptible to chloramphenicol ...
Of 1284 Bacteroides strains collected in Europe in 2000 for antibiotic susceptibility surveillance, 65 isolates displayed imipenem minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) , or =1 mg/L and were chosen for a thorough analysis of their resistance mechanism. Twenty-five of the isolates were positive for the cfiA carbapenem resistance gene. The resistance rates were 0.8% and 1.3% for imipenem and meropenem, respectively. In six of the strains, insertion sequence (IS) elements (IS613, IS614B, IS1186 and IS1187) activated the cfiA gene. However, other strains displayed at least elevated carbapenem MICs or were carbapenem resistant and produced measurable carbapenemase activities but did not harbour IS elements in the region upstream of the cfiA gene. The major determinant of carbapenem resistance in Bacteroides fragilis is production of CfiA metallo-beta-lactamase via activation of the cfiA gene by IS elements (higher level resistance) or by activation of its putative own promoter.. ...
Second and third generation sequencing technologies have revolutionised bacterial genomics. Short-read Illumina reads result in cheap but fragmented assemblies, whereas longer reads are more expensive but result in more complete genomes. The Oxford Nanopore MinION device is a revolutionary mobile sequencer that can produce thousands of long, single molecule reads.|br| We sequenced |em|Bacteroides fragilis|/em| strain BE1 using both the Illumina MiSeq and Oxford Nanopore MinION platforms. We were able to assemble a single chromosome of 5.18 Mb, with no gaps, using publicly available software and commodity computing hardware. We identified gene rearrangements and the state of invertible promoters in the strain. |br| The final assembly and annotations are available from the public archives (EBI/NCBI/DDBJ) and additionally here we provide the assemblies done for comparison from each of the individual technologies and the alignments of the original raw reads to the final assembly.|br|
The polysaccharide capsule of Bacteroides fragilis has been shown to be important in the virulence of the organism. The capsular polysaccharide (CP) of B. fragilis has been extensively purified. Using a murine model of intraabdominal abscess formation, we have been able to demonstrate cellular immunity to the capsular polysaccharide of B. fragilis. Immunization of C57BL/10J mice with the CP over 5 wk prevents abscess formation when the mice are challenged with B. fragilis intraperitoneally. This immunity can be transferred to naive mice with spleen cells from immune animals. The immune cells bear Thy-1.2 and Ly-2.2 antigens. The immune response has been shown to be antigen specific, but not H-2 restricted. The possibility that these immune cells are suppressor T cells is discussed. The experimental system presented provides a model for the examination of the cellular interactions responsible for abscess formation and the cellular response to bacterial pathogens. ...
Small-subunit ribosomal DNA sequences of 16 strains of Bacteroides fragilis were determined and compared with previously published sequences. Three phylogenetic methods (the neighbor-joining, maximum-likelihood, and maximum-parsimony methods) as well as a bootstrap analysis were used to assess the robustness of each topology. All phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that the B. fragilis strains were clearly divided into two robust monophyletic units which corresponded to the cfiA-negative and cfiA-positive groups. Strains of two previously identified DNA homology groups separated similarly into the two monophyletic units. According to the intensity of the hybridization signal with a cfiA probe, the cfiA-positive cluster could be further divided into two groups. This difference might reflect the existence of two, probably closely related cfiA-type genes. In the strongly hybridizing cfiA-positive strains, the gene is capable of conferring high-level resistance to the carbapenems and to most ...
Accepted name: 4-O-β-D-mannosyl-D-glucose phosphorylase. Reaction: 4-O-β-D-mannopyranosyl-D-glucopyranose + phosphate = D-glucose + α-D-mannose 1-phosphate. Glossary: 4-O-β-D-mannopyranosyl-D-glucopyranose = β-D-mannopyranosyl-(1→4)-D-glucopyranose. Other name(s): mannosylglucose phosphorylase. Systematic name: 4-O-β-D-mannopyranosyl-D-glucopyranose:phosphate α-D-mannosyltransferase. Comments: This enzyme forms part of a mannan catabolic pathway in the anaerobic bacterium Bacteroides fragilis NCTC 9343.. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, CAS registry number: References:. 1. Senoura, T., Ito, S., Taguchi, H., Higa, M., Hamada, S., Matsui, H., Ozawa, T., Jin, S., Watanabe, J., Wasaki, J. and Ito, S. New microbial mannan catabolic pathway that involves a novel mannosylglucose phosphorylase. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 408 (2011) 701-706. [PMID: 21539815]. ...
Bacteroides fragilis is a Gram-negative member of the normal human gut microbiota. The Bacteroidetes constitutes one of the major bacterial phyla in the healthy human gut [1]. However, B. fragilis is also an important opportunistic pathogen, and it is the most frequently isolated anaerobic bacterium in clinical specimens, including abdominal abscesses and bloodstream infections [2]. Indeed, while B. fragilis accounts for only 4 to 13% of the normal human fecal microbiota, it is responsible for 63 to 80% of Bacteroides infections [3]. Only a few virulence factors have been described for B. fragilis, with the best characterized being the polysaccharide (PS) capsule [4] and a secreted metalloprotease, fragilysin [5]. The capsule, which displays antigenic variation, promotes the formation of abscesses [4], and the reduction of pro-inflammatory responses to B. fragilis[4, 6]. The metalloprotease fragilysin, which has been linked to diarrheal disease [5], has activity against the zonula junctions ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
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Bacteroides fragilis is an obligately anaerobic bacterium that can be isolated from a variety of human infections (2). In the mid-1980s it was recognized that some strains produce an enterotoxin (ET) that can cause acute diarrhea in humans, young lambs, calves, pigs, and foals (6,7). Enterotoxigenic B. fragilis (ETBF) strains have also been isolated from the feces of children with diarrhea (9). Kato et al. (4) showed that B. fragilis blood culture isolates were more likely to be ETBF and suggested that ETBF strains are more virulent than enterotoxin-negative strains. Recently, the enterotoxin gene of B. fragilis has been cloned, sequenced, and identified as producing a zinc metalloprotease of 44.4 kDa (5).. In order to determine the relative frequency of ETBF in different geographic locations, 93 B. fragilis clinical isolates from Germany and Southern California were analyzed. Two PCR assays were used to detect two independent genetic sequences of the B. fragilis enterotoxin gene. In addition, ...
We have cloned the Bacteroides fragilis TAL2480 neuraminidase (NANase) structural gene, nanH, in Escherichia coli. This was accomplished by using the cloning shuttle vector pJST61 and a partial Sau3A library of TAL2480 chromosomal inserts created in E. coli. The library was mobilized into the NANase-deficient B. fragilis TM4000 derivative TC2. NANase-producing colonies were enriched by taking advantage of the inability of TC2, but not the wild-type of NANase+ revertant, to grow in vitro in fluid aspirated from the rat granuloma pouch. Plasmids pJST61-TCN1 and pJST61-TCN3, containing inserts of 9.1 and 4.5 kilobases (kb), respectively, were found in the TC2 derivatives that grew in the rat pouch medium. In B. fragilis, NANase production from the two plasmids was inducible by free N-acetylneuraminic acid or sialic acid-containing substrates, just as in the parental TAL2480 strain. However, when these plasmids were transferred back to E. coli, NANase activity was barely detectable. A 3.5-kb portion ...
Bacteroides fragilis ATCC ® 25285™ Designation: VPI 2553 TypeStrain=True Application: Media testing Quality control strain Susceptibility testing Quality control strain for BBL and MicroScan ® products Pharmaceutical and Personal Care
Bacteroides fragilis ATCC ® 25285™ Designation: VPI 2553 TypeStrain=True Application: Media testing Quality control strain Susceptibility testing Quality control strain for BBL and MicroScan ® products Pharmaceutical and Personal Care
[Biological activity of Bacteroides fragilis].: The investigation was performed with 9 strains of B. fragilis isolated from pregnant women in their 38th week of
Significantly more reads were assigned to the Bacteroidetes phylum in the experimental sample (36%) as compared to the control sample (8.2%). At the class level, Bacteroidia (1.3% in the control sample vs. 24.4% in the experimental sample) and Sphingobacteria (1.1% in the control sample vs. 7.8% in the experimental sample) contributed to higher percentages of the microbiota in the experimental sample than in the control sample. The significant elevation of Bacteroidetes in the intestinal community of the starved seabass sample is in agreement with some other studies [2, 34, 35] on dietary shifts. For example, in mice [34], fasting was associated with a significant increase in the proportional representation of the Bacteroidetes [from 20.6% (fed) to 42.3% (fasted)]. Bacteroides with a much larger genome size (e.g., Bacteroides fragilis Strain NCTC9343: 5,205,140 bp) are normally mutualistic in the animal gastrointestinal flora. A large part of the proteins made by the Bacteroides genome are able ...
The immune system protects against infection and disease, but there are numerous examples where it has switched sides, as in autoimmune diseases and in cancer. Cells become cancerous when they acquire genetic mutations that enable them to evade the regular controls on growth. In addition, stomach (Helicobacter pylori) and liver (hepatitis viruses B and C) cancers have been associated with infection-induced inflammation, which involves immune cells, such as macrophages, and inflammation signaling molecules that can promote tumorigenesis. Research on the mechanisms of inflammation-induced carcinogenesis has focused mainly on the innate branch of the immune system, primarily the NF-κB intracellular signaling pathway.. Colorectal cancer has been linked to inflammation of the colon (colitis), which can be caused by bacterial infections. Wu et al. have found that the human bacterium enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF), which induces colitis, can promote colon cancer in a mouse model of the ...
Akhi, Mohammad Taghi and Jedari Seifi, Sirus and Asgharzadeh, Mohammad and Ahangarzadeh Rezaee, Mohammad and Abdoli Oskuei, Shahram and Pirzadeh, Tahereh and Memar, Mohammad Yousef and Alizadeh, Naser and Seifi Yarijan Sofla, Hasan (2016) Role of Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis in Children Less Than 5 Years of Age with Diarrhea in Tabriz, Iran. Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology, Inpres (Inpres). ISSN 2008-3645 Akhi, Mohammad Taghi and Ghotaslou, Reza and Beheshtirouy, Samad and Asgharzadeh, Mohammad and Pirzadeh, Tahereh and Asghari, Babak and Alizadeh, Naser and Toloue Ostadgavahi, Ali and Sorayaei Somesaraei, Vida and Memar, Mohammad Yousef (2015) Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria Isolated From Surgical Site Infection of Hospitalized Patients. Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology, 8 (7). ISSN 2008-3645 Akhi, Mohammad Taghi and Ghotaslou, Reza and Beheshtirouy, Samad and Asgharzadeh, Mohammad and Pirzadeh, Tahereh and Asghari, Babak and Alizadeh, Naser ...
Work in the Cynthia Sears Laboratory focuses on the bacterial contributions to the development of human colon cancer and the impact of the microbiome on other cancers and the therapy of cancer. The current work involves mouse and human studies to define how enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis, pks+ Escherichia coli, Fusobacterium nucleatum, biofilms and the colonic microbiota induce chronic colonic inflammation and colon cancer. Prospective human studies of the microbiome and biofilms in screening colonoscopy are in progress as are studies to determine if and how the microbiome impacts the response of individuals with cancer to immunotherapy and other cancer therapies ...
Akhi, Mohammad Taghi and Jedari Seifi, Sirus and Asgharzadeh, Mohammad and Ahangarzadeh Rezaee, Mohammad and Abdoli Oskuei, Shahram and Pirzadeh, Tahereh and Memar, Mohammad Yousef and Alizadeh, Naser and Seifi Yarijan Sofla, Hasan (2016) Role of Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis in Children Less Than 5 Years of Age with Diarrhea in Tabriz, Iran. Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology, Inpres (Inpres). ISSN 2008-3645 ...
The karyotypes of diploid P. fragilis subsp. villosus (2n = 2x = 14) and tetraploid subsp. secaliformis (2n = 4x = 28) were studied by Giemsa C- and N-banding, and AgNO3 staining and compared with the karyotype of subsp. fragilis (2x). The complements of subsp. villosus and subsp. fragilis were similar, with 8 metacentric and 6 SAT-chromosomes, one metacentric and two submetacentric pairs, with small to minute, polymorphic, heterochromatic satellites. The complement of subsp. secaliformis on the whole agreed with a doubling of the complement of diploid P. fragilis, suggesting autopolyploidy. Only the presence of 12 nucleoli in interphases identified 6 SAT-chromosome pairs. In subsp. villosus one or two extra micronucleoli indicated a chromosome pair with very low nucleolus-forming activity, bringing the number of SAT-chromosome pairs to 4. This number may be a characteristic of Psathyrostachys. Besides very small, inconsistently observed bands, the C-banding pattern consisted of 0-3 small bands ...
Synonyms for Bacillus fragilis in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Bacillus fragilis. 1 synonym for bacillus: B. What are synonyms for Bacillus fragilis?
Our laboratories are particularly well placed to conduct this interdisciplinary study. The PI, Dr Abratt at the University of cape Town, has specialised anaerobic growth facilities available, and a proven track record of research in the areas of anaerobic microbiology and molecular genetics, particularly of the Bacteroides nitrogen metabolism.. In addition, we have established the capability to determine protein structure in Africa for the first time through a grant by the Carnegie Corporation of New York to B.T. Sewell (co-investigator). This grant has enabled the creation of the joint UCT/UWC Masters programme in Structural Biology and has, in particular led to the establishment of a facility for protein X-ray crystallography at the University of the Western Cape and the establishment of a protein NMR facility at the University of Stellenbosch. Six masters students have been recruited to the programme in its first year (2003). Each student cohort will take two years, including a year of ...
Introduction. Most peritoneal infections are caused by gram-negative and anaerobic bacteria, specially Escherichia coli and Bacteroides fragilis,. Escherichia coli predominates during the acute phase of the process, whereas in the chronic phase, when abscess formation occurs, the predominance is of anaerobic bacteria, mainly Bacteroides fragilis and enterococci, which act synergistically1,2. The association between sepsis and peritonitis has not been fully clarified. During the acute phase, after invasion by gram-negative bacteria, the organism recognizes lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and its major molecule, lipid A, as signals of bacterial penetration. Lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) transfers LPS to CD14 on the surface of monocytes, macrophages and neutrophils3. This phenomenon induces the production and release of mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukins 1, 6 and 8, generating the amplification of the LPS signal in plasma and its transmission to other cells ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Twenty-eight divergent polysaccharide loci specifying within and amongst strain capsule diversity in three strains of Bacteroides fragilis. AU - Patrick,S.. AU - Blakely,G.W.. AU - Houston,S.. AU - Moore,J.. AU - Abratt,V.R.. AU - dos Santos,Marcelo Bertalan Quintanilha. AU - Cedeño-Tárraga,A.M.. AU - Corton,N.. AU - Corton,C.. AU - Bignell,A.. AU - Barron,A.. AU - Clark,L.. AU - Bentley,S.D.. AU - Parkhill,J.. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. N2 - Comparison of the complete genome sequence of Bacteroides fragilis 638R originally isolated in the USA, was made with two previously sequenced strains isolated in the UK (NCTC 9343) and Japan (YCH46). The presence of 10 loci containing genes associated with polysaccharide biosynthesis, each including a putative Wzx flippase and Wzy polymerase, was confirmed in all three strains, despite a lack of cross-reactivity between NCTC 9343 and 638R surface polysaccharide-specific antibodies by immunolabelling and microscopy. Genomic comparisons revealed ...
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p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Opens the Highlight Feature Bar and highlights feature annotations from the FEATURES table of the record. The Highlight Feature Bar can be used to navigate to and highlight other features and provides links to display the highlighted region separately. Links in the FEATURES table will also highlight the corresponding region of the sequence. More... ...
Alpha-galactosidase is a glycoside hydrolase enzyme that hydrolyses the terminal alpha-galactosyl moieties from glycolipids and glycoproteins. It is encoded by the GLA ge
Dynamics of the metallo-beta-lactamase from Bacteroides fragilis in the presence and absence of a tight-binding inhibitor.: A significant determinant for the br
Avila-Campos, Mario Julio et al. Antimicrobial resistance and plasmid detection in strains of the Bacteroides fragilis group. Rev. Inst. Med. trop. S. Paulo, Feb 1993, vol.35, no.1, p.107-110. ISSN 0036- ...
To study the development of these immune cells in the context of gut microbes, researchers monocolonized germ-free mice with a model human commensal, Bacteroides fragilis, and demonstrated that this single species of bacteria could restore the development of PLZF+ innate and innate-like lymphocytes in the thymus of infant mice.. In further proof-of-concept studies, they showed that a mutant B. fragilis lacking expression of Polysaccharide A (PSA) was unable to do the same, suggesting that specific microbial antigens could regulate this early life developmental process.. A similar deficit in these cells was observed in mutant mice that lacked the expression of Toll like receptor 2, a receptor that recognizes bacteria and bacterial components, including B. fragilis PSA, to initiate host protective immune responses.. To understand how this microbial message was delivered to developing thymic cells, Jains group used a novel mouse model to track the migration of cells from the colon to the thymus. ...
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S1, a new chromogenic cephalosporin (International BioClinical, Inc., Portland, Oreg.), was used to detect beta-lactamase production among a variety of commonly encountered bacteria in a four-center collaborative study. Results of an S1 disk assay were compared with those obtained by a nitrocefin-based disk procedure (Cefinase; Becton-Dickinson Microbiology Systems, Cockeysville, Md.), with repetitive testing of five quality control organisms and with individual tests of recent clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (162 strains), Haemophilus influenzae (162 strains), Moraxella catarrhalis (155 strains), Staphylococcus aureus (161 strains), and Bacteroides fragilis (164 strains). The performances of the two beta-lactamase disk assays were comparable for the first three species cited above. However, the S1 assay appeared to be a more sensitive procedure than the Cefinase assay when applied to S. aureus and B. fragilis, with respect to both total numbers of positive results and length of time to a
The enumeration of phages infecting host-specific strains of Bacteroides has been widely recognised as an effective and low-cost method of microbial source tracking (MST). A recently described human-specific Bacteroides host strain (GB-124) has been shown to detect bacteriophages exclusively in human-impacted waters and is emerging as a useful MST tool. However, a better understanding of the morphology and ecological behaviour of the phages, especially in wastewater disinfection processes, is now required in order to validate their role as MST markers. Bacteriophages infecting Bacteroides fragilis GB-124 (n = 21) were isolated from wastewater effluent and irradiated using laboratory-based UV-C (254 nm) collimated beam experiments. Bacteriophages were found to be both a morphologically and ecologically homogeneous group, with all specimens showing highly similar first order log-linear inactivation profiles (mean fluence required to inactivate phages by 4-log10 was 36 mJ/cm2). These findings ...
1) Rasmussen BA, et al. (1990) Cloning and sequencing of the class B beta-lactamase gene (ccrA) from Bacteroides fragilis TAL3636.. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 34(8):1590-2 PubMed: 2121094 ...
Azithromycin (Zithromax) est un antibiotique macrolide semi-synthétique chimiquement dérivé de lérythromycine qui est actif contre un grand nombre de types de micro-organismes de gram positif et de gram négatif tels que le genre Staphylococcus; S. aureus, S. pneumoiane, S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, Haemophilus influenzae and parainfluenzae, Moraxela catarrhalis, Bacteroides fragilis, Escherichia coli, Bordetella ssp., Borrelia burgdorferi, Haemophilus ducreui, Nisseria gonorrhoeae Ø Chlamidia trachomati. In vitro, il sest caractérisé par une activité contre Legionella pneumophila, Mycoplasma pneumoiae Ø hominis, pylores de Helicobacter, Toxoplasma gondii, Ureaplasma urealiticum. ...
Boldt, H. Genotypic identification of two groups within the species Bacteroides fragilis by ribotyping and by analysis of PCR-generated fragment patterns and insertion sequence content.
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Click here for fragilis bacteria pictures! You can also find pictures of fac bacteria, gilbert bacteria, georgia bacteria, g bacteria.
1970, 3: 1971 to 1977, 4: 1978 to 1984, 5: 1985 to 1991, 6: 1992 to 1998 and 7: 1999 to 2005) and by trimesters. The number of points by year/trimester periods is calculated. For each year/trimester period, the number of non-zero observation for each species/species group is also calculated. If this number is less than 10, the species/group species and period is plotted as a bubble plot. If it is more than 10, the sampling will be interpolated by kriging to have a presence map in the whole ...
The biotopes are characterized by dense mats of brittlestars. There is disagreement concerning the lifespan of the main bed forming brittlestar Ophiothrix fragilis. Davoult et al. (1990) suggested a lifespan of 9 -20 months. Taylor (1958, quoted in Gorzula, 1977) recorded that Ophiothrix reached a disc diameter of about 14 mm in two years, and that most individuals died after spawning in their second summer. However, other researchers have considered the animals to be much longer-lived. Gorzula (1977) quotes evidence that Swedish Ophiothrix can live for up to eight years. A lifespan of over nine years has been suggested based on counts of growth bands in the skeletal arm plates of Ophiothrix (Gage, 1990). It is possible that growth rates may vary widely in different areas, or that the different varieties of Ophiothrix fragilis recognised by French workers may have contrasting population dynamics.. Ophiothrix fragilis has an extended breeding season running roughly from April to October (Smith, ...
As the appreciation for anaerobic bacteriology has grown, it has become apparent that the isolation of Bacteroides species from clinical isolates is a significant finding. Studies by Redondo et al. (15) and Nguyen et al. (14) have linked Bacteroides bacteremia to higher mortality rates, which can be further affected by the use of inactive antimicrobials in the treatment regimen.. The class of 5-nitroimidazole drugs (metronidazole, tinidizole, and ornidizole) exerts antimicrobial actions via inhibition of DNA synthesis (19). This action requires intracellular reduction of the nitro group of these prodrugs to produce reactive radical species. Although the 5-nitroimidazole drugs were introduced into clinical practice in 1960, resistance of B. fragilis to these drugs was not described until 1978 (10) and remains rare (1, 20-22). The first metronidazole-resistant Bacteroides isolates were found to have altered end products of glucose metabolism that conferred distinctive biochemical and growth ...
Bacillus cereus from the Bacillus cereus group species, which consist of: Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus weihenstephanensis, Bacillus mycoides and Bacillus pseudomycoides is one of the most frequently isolated bacterial foodborne pathogens. Growth of B. cereus results in production of several highly active toxins therefore, consumption of food containing 105-106 bacteria (spores)/g or toxins, is sufficient to cause emetic and diarrhoeal syndromes. The most common source of this bacterium is milk and mixed food products that include milk powder, thus is of particular concern in the baby formula industry. In this study 138 strains of B. cereus group spp. were characterized based on their phenotypic and genotypic features. The study developed unique DNA primers for use in PCR and these were then tested via real-time PCR (RT-PCR): (i) the motB gene encoding the flagellar motor protein MotB was used as a PCR primer target. (ii) New primers and probes, targeting ...
Probiotic yogurts and pills promise better health, but the bacteria we ingest find a complex and challenging environment when they enter our gut. Food sources shift with every meal we eat, and the threat of pathogens is ever-present. In this competitive landscape, theres a clear winner already on the field: the genus Bacteroides makes up 30 percent of the bacteria in the human gut, the single most abundant genus.. "Bacteroides are a successful bacterium in our gut microbiome. By offering metabolic capabilities that humans dont have, it helps us to obtain important nutrients. So why are Bacteroides so resilient? If we can understand their success, it will ultimately allow us to design probiotic formulations for human health and aid patients with an imbalance of gut bacteria," said Blanca Barquera, an associate professor of biological sciences at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and lead researcher on a new project investigating Bacteroides.. With support from a four-year $3 million grant from ...
Define Bacteroides salivosus. Bacteroides salivosus synonyms, Bacteroides salivosus pronunciation, Bacteroides salivosus translation, English dictionary definition of Bacteroides salivosus. Noun 1. Bacteroides - type genus of Bacteroidaceae; genus of Gram-negative rodlike anaerobic bacteria producing no endospores and no pigment and living in...
Dezesseis eqüinos adultos foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em 4 grupos (GI, GII, GIII e GIV) constituídos por quatro animais, recebendo cada grupo o seguinte inóculo por via intraperitoneal: GI (100 X 10(7) unidades formadoras de colônia (UFC) de Escherichia coli diluídos em 500 ml de solução salina 0,9% estéril); GII (100 X 10(7) UFC de Bacteroides fragilis diluídos em 500 ml de solução salina 0,9% estéril); GIII (100 X 10(7) UFC de Escherichia coli associados a 100 X 10(7) UFC de Bacteroides fragilis diluídos em 500 ml de solução salina 0,9% estéril); GIV (testemunho - 500 ml de solução salina 0,9% estéril). Leucopenia ocorreu em todos os animais inoculados com bactérias, nas primeiras seis horas após as inoculações. Posteriormente a este período, verificou-se em alguns eqüinos inoculados leucocitose. Os eqüinos inoculados com culturas puras de E. coli ou B. fragilis apresentaram peritonites brandas e autolimitantes, enquanto os inoculados com a associação destas ...
Bacteroides spp. are dominant components of the phylum Bacteroidetes in the gut microbiota and prosper in glycan enriched environments. However, knowledge of the machinery of specific species isolated from humans (like Bacteroides uniformis) contributing to the utilization of dietary and endogenous sources of glycans and their byproducts is limited. We have used the cutting-edge nanopore-based technology to sequence the genome of B. uniformis CECT 7771, a human symbiont with a proven pre-clinical efficacy on metabolic and immune dysfunctions in obesity animal models. We have also used massive sequencing approaches to distinguish the genome expression patterns in response to carbon sources of different complexity during growth. At genome-wide level, our analyses globally demonstrate that B. uniformis strains exhibit an expanded glycolytic capability when compared with other Bacteroides species. Moreover, by studying the growth and whole-genome expression of B. uniformis CECT 7771 in response to different
Rutin and quercitrin are hydrolysed to quercetin, and robinin is hydrolysed to kaempferol, by faecal flora from healthy subjects. The enzymes required for these hydrolyses, namely alpha-rhamnosidase and beta-galactosidase, were produced by some strains of Bacteroides distasonis; other strains, however, synthesized beta-glucosidase. The last-named enzyme was also elaborated by Bacteroides uniformis and Bacteroides ovatus. All the enzymes were produced constitutively. A cell-free extract of B. distasonis containing beta-glucosidase displayed an enzymic activity of 1 mumol/10 min per 10 mg of protein. ...
Bacteroides is a genus of Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria. Bacteroides species are non-endospore-forming, anaerobes, and may either be motile or non-motile, depending on the species.[1] The DNA base composition is 40-48% GC. Unusual in bacterial organisms, Bacteroides membranes contain sphingolipids. They also contain meso-diaminopimelic acid in their peptidoglycan layer. Bacteroides are normally commensal, making up the most substantial portion of the mammalian gastrointestinal flora,[2] where they play a fundamental role in processing of complex molecules to simpler ones in the host intestine. As many as 1010-1011 cells per gram of human feces have been reported.[3] They can use simple sugars when available, but the main source of energy is polysaccharides from plant sources. ...
A molecular method, termed hierarchical oligonucleotide primer extension (HOPE), was used to determine the relative abundances of predominant Bacteroides spp. present in fecal microbiota and wastewaters. For this analysis, genomic DNA in feces of healthy human adults, bovines, and swine and in wastewaters was extracted and total bacterial 16S rRNA genes were PCR amplified and used as the DNA templates for HOPE. Nineteen oligonucleotide primers were designed to detect 14 Bacteroides spp. at different hierarchical levels (domain, order, cluster, and species) and were arranged into and used in six multiplex HOPE reaction mixtures. Results showed that species like B. vulgatus, B. thetaiotaomicron, B. caccae, B. uniformis, B. fragilis, B. eggerthii, and B. massiliensis could be individually detected in human feces at abundances corresponding to as little as 0.1% of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes. Minor species like B. pyogenes, B. salyersiae, and B. nordii were detected only collectively using a primer ...
Humans excrete between 50 to 100 mg of volatile phenols per day, predominantly in the form of 4-cresol and phenol (mainly as glucuronide and sulfate conjugates) with lower amounts of 4-ethylphenol (20). The production of cresols from tyrosine in mammals has been attributed to various species of Clostridium, Bifidobacterium, and Bacteroides fragilis. Other bacteria such as E. coli are associated with phenol production. Altered levels of 4-cresol metabolites in human urine have been associated with diverse physiological and pathological conditions from weight loss to inflammatory bowel disease. These conditions are also associated with altered microbiota composition, namely a reduction in the diversity of the microbiota because of loss of Lactobacillus and Bacteroides species in the case of inflammatory bowel disease (21) and differences in the ratio of the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes species in the case of weight loss (22).. Dietary fiber (complex carbohydrates) can be digested and subsequently ...
Bacteroides barnesiae has a size of 0.5-1.4 micrometer wide and 0.8-10.6 micrometer long that is completely anaerobic and grows at temperature of about 37C which does not require oxygen to survive. It has a cellular fatty acids including C15:0 and iso-C15:0 and in cultured media appears to be circular, raised and grayish-white colonies. Bacteroides barnesiae is predominantly found in gastrointestinal tract of humans as well as in vertebrate animals where bile is present. It gives benefits to the host if this bacterium strictly retained in the gut by hindering pathogenic microorganisms from forming colonies in the intestines. Bacteroides barnesiae play a basic role in the breakdown of polysaccharides a complex molecule into small molecules that is used by the bacterium as well as the host in order to utilize the nitrogenous substances and biotransformation of steroids and bile acids. Scientific classification: ...
Microbiota. The development and function of the intestinal immune system is influenced by the gut microbiota, including bacteria with the capacity to induce specific lineage differentiation in immune cells. Germ-free mice have an underdeveloped intestinal immune system, signifying a role for MAMPs in its establishment (21). Some commensal bacteria such as segmented filamentous bacteria (SFBs) preferentially induce a Th17 response in T cells (22, 23). Other commensals or their products guide an IL-10 Treg response. The capsular polysaccharide-A moiety on Bacteroides fragilis promotes expansion of Foxp3+ Tregs through a TLR2/MyD88 mechanism (24), while Clostridium species can induce Treg formation independent of MyD88, potentially through TGF-β (25). Bacterial metabolites like short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) produced by Akkermansia muciniphila and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii also influence immunity. For instance, butyrate from these organisms increases the differentiation of Tregs in the colon ...
Zithromax is a semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic chemically related to erythromycin which is effective against majority of species of gram positive and gram negative microorganisms such as genus Staphylococcus; S. aureus, S. pneumoiane, S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, Haemophilus influenzae and parainfluenzae, Moraxela catarrhalis, Bacteroides fragilis, Escherichia coli, Bordetella ssp., Borrelia burgdorferi, Haemophilus ducreui, Nisseria gonorrhoeae Ø Chlamidia trachomati. In vitro it showed activity against Legionella pneumophila, Mycoplasma pneumoia Ø hominis, Helicobacter pylori, Toxoplasma gondii, Ureaplasma urealiticum. As a Macrolide antibiotic Zithromax inhibits bacterial protein synthesis and prevents bacteria from growth and propagation. It is used to treat infections of upper and low respiratory organs (tonsillitis, otitis, sinusitis, pneumonia), urogenital infections (urethritis, prostatitis, cervicitis, adnexitis caused by chlamydia, gonorrhea, early syphilis), intestinal ...
Zithromax is a semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic chemically related to erythromycin which is effective against majority of species of gram positive and gram negative microorganisms such as genus Staphylococcus; S. aureus, S. pneumoiane, S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, Haemophilus influenzae and parainfluenzae, Moraxela catarrhalis, Bacteroides fragilis, Escherichia coli, Bordetella ssp., Borrelia burgdorferi, Haemophilus ducreui, Nisseria gonorrhoeae Ø Chlamidia trachomati. In vitro it showed activity against Legionella pneumophila, Mycoplasma pneumoia Ø hominis, Helicobacter pylori, Toxoplasma gondii, Ureaplasma urealiticum. As a Macrolide antibiotic Zithromax inhibits bacterial protein synthesis and prevents bacteria from growth and propagation. It is used to treat infections of upper and low respiratory organs (tonsillitis, otitis, sinusitis, pneumonia), urogenital infections (urethritis, prostatitis, cervicitis, adnexitis caused by chlamydia, gonorrhea, early syphilis), intestinal ...
This HMM describes a set of proteins related to but longer than DNA-binding protein HU. Its distinctive domain architecture compared to HU and related histone-like DNA-binding proteins justifies the designation as superfamily. Members include, so far, one from Bacteroides fragilis, a gut bacterium, and ten from Porphyromonas gingivalis, an oral anaerobe ...
Zithromax is a semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic chemically related to erythromycin which is effective against majority of species of gram positive and gram negative microorganisms such as genus Staphylococcus; S. aureus, S. pneumoiane, S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, Haemophilus influenzae and parainfluenzae, Moraxela catarrhalis, Bacteroides fragilis, Escherichia coli, Bordetella ssp., Borrelia burgdorferi, Haemophilus ducreui, Nisseria gonorrhoeae Ø Chlamidia trachomati. In vitro it showed activity against Legionella pneumophila, Mycoplasma pneumoia Ø hominis, Helicobacter pylori, Toxoplasma gondii, Ureaplasma urealiticum. As a Macrolide antibiotic Zithromax inhibits bacterial protein synthesis and prevents bacteria from growth and propagation. It is used to treat infections of upper and low respiratory organs (tonsillitis, otitis, sinusitis, pneumonia), urogenital infections (urethritis, prostatitis, cervicitis, adnexitis caused by chlamydia, gonorrhea, early syphilis), intestinal ...
Cefpodoxime is an oral, third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic. It is active against most Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. Notable exceptions include Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus, and Bacteroides fragilis. Currently, it is only marketed as generic preparations in the USA, according to the FDA Orange Book. It is commonly used to treat acute otitis media, pharyngitis, sinusitis, and gonorrhea. It also finds use as oral continuation therapy when intravenous cephalosporins (such as ceftriaxone) are no longer necessary for continued treatment.. Zoetis markets cefpodoxime proxetil under the trade name Simplicef for veterinary use. The dose range in dogs is 5-10 mg/kg body weight, administered orally, once a day.. Finecure, India markets the products under trade name Cefpo.. Cefpodoxime inhibits cell wall synthesis by inhibiting the final transpeptidation step of peptidoglycan synthesis in cell walls. It has well established pharmacokinetic profile with absorption of 50%. It is ...
Alpod-CV from Altar LS, Cefpodoxime - Cafage-Cl-P to Cefage O | Cefpodoxime (marketed as the prodrug cefpodoxime proxetil by Pharmacia & Upjohn under the trade name Vantin and under the name Orelox by Sanofi-Aventis), is an oral third generation cephalosporin. Use of Alpod-CV from Altar LS, Pregnancy, lactation in childrens and special precautions for Alpod-CV from Altar LS, prices of Alpod-CV from Altar LS . It is active against most Gram positive and Gram negative organisms. Notable exceptions include Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus, and Bacteroides fragilis. It is commonly used to treat acute otitis media, pharyngitis, and sinusitis. It also finds use as oral continuation therapy when intravenous cephalosporins (such as ceftriaxone) are no longer necessary for continued treatment., drugsupdate.com - Indias leading online platform for Doctors and health care professionals. Updates on Drugs, news, journals, 1000s of videos, national and international events, product-launches and much more..
Asthma is an increasingly common chronic inflammatory airway disorder with phenotypic heterogeneity driven by age, gender, atopy, lung function, lifestyle, body mass indexes, and the underlying cellular and molecular pathways. In asthma, T helper (Th) cells drive inflammatory cascades via cytokine/inflammatory mediators and recruit leukocytes into the airway. While treatments are available, such as inhaled corticosteroids, individuals with severe asthma are often steroid resistant and have a poor quality of life. It is therefore important to develop our understanding of the underlying T cell driven mechanisms leading to pulmonary inflammation such that novel therapies may be developed. Previous work from our lab has demonstrated the importance of commensal microbiota in the development and maintenance of peripheral homeostasis. Exposure to bacterial polysaccharides, such as PSA from Bacteroides fragilis, inhibits Th1 and Th2 activity in murine models by activation of CD4+ FoxP3− CD45Rblo ...
Bacteroides, Bacterial Identification and Bacteria Treatment are considered an interesting alternative to the traditional indicator organisms such as E.coli
7.0 7.1 Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D. (red.) (2011). "Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist.". Species 2000: Reading, UK. Ginkuhà 24 september 2012. ...
Members of the order Siphonophorae include A-form hydroids. Life cycle: The zygote develops into planula inside the gonophore and is later released as an actinula which metamorphoses into polyp stage (Ref. 833). ...
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[좌측부터 체질 1형 2형 3형] 1) 박테로이데스(Bacteroides) : 탄수화물을 분해하고 비타민 B2, B5, C, H를 만드는 것이 주된 기능이다. 박테리오데스 세균이 많은 속에 속하는 피실험자들 중에는 비만을 겪는 사...
Dientamoeba fragilis is a trichomonad protozoan found in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and is implicated as a cause of diarrhoeal disease. Despite its widespread occurrence and associated symptoms, very little is known about the biology and pathogenicity of D. fragilis. Advances in cell biology of other trichomonads means there is a need to advance knowledge on this neglected protozoan. In this study, the morphological characteristics and ultrastructure of D. fragilis were described in detail using different microscopy techniques. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, confocal and light microscopy were used to characterise D. fragilis populations growing in xenic culture. Under the SEM, two types of D. fragilis populations were identified based on cell surface structure: smooth cells and ruffled cells. Typically D. fragilis has a spherical or oval shape with a granular, vacuolated cytoplasm and some cells are amoeboid. Dientamoeba fragilis exhibited different ...
Dientamoeba fragilis is one of the most important diarrhea-causing protozoa and is distributed worldwide. Recent studies demonstrated the pathogenic potential and implicated it as a common cause of gastrointestinal disease. Infection with D. fragilis may be either symptomatic or asymptomatic. Symptoms of dientamoebiasis are abdominal pain and diarrhea. The prevalence of D. fragilis varies from 0.3 % to 52 % and often exceeds that of Giardia lamblia.. Classically, diagnosis of Dientamoeba fragilis is achieved by microscopial examination of faecal samples, which require experienced personal. RIDA®GENE Dientamoeba fragilis real-time PCR is a new and attractive alternative method for testing stool samples and has proven to be highly sensitive and specific for the detection of Dientamoeba fragilis.. ...
Looking for online definition of Bacteroides capillosus in the Medical Dictionary? Bacteroides capillosus explanation free. What is Bacteroides capillosus? Meaning of Bacteroides capillosus medical term. What does Bacteroides capillosus mean?
In 1996, thousands of live Leptodea fragilis were collected from a marsh located in the western basin of Lake Erie that was infested with zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha). Despite the presence of zebra mussels at this site for a number of years, this L. fragilis population showed no signs of competition-induced changes in population dynamics. Biofouling was limited: fewer than 1% of the L. fragilis showed evidence of recent or past zebra mussel colonization. Successful recruitment occurred yearly, with multiple year classes collected that ranged in age from 1 to 12 years. However, age and shell length were not well correlated. Seventy-one percent of the individuals collected were 51-80 mm long, but ranged in age from 2 to 4.5 years. Three different patterns of growth or shell deposition were found. Some individuals grew rapidly, reaching 105 mm in 3.5 years, while others grew only 4.5 mm over the same time period. A few grew poorly during some...
Bacteroides coprosuis Whitehead et al. 2005 belongs to the genus Bacteroides, which is a member of the family Bacteroidaceae. Members of the genus Bacteroides in general are known as beneficial protectors of animal guts against pathogenic microorganisms, and as contributors to the degradation of complex molecules such as polysaccharides. B. coprosuis itself was isolated from a manure storage pit of a swine facility, but has not yet been found in an animal host. The species is of interest solely because of its isolated phylogenetic location. The genome of B. coprosuis is already the 5th sequenced type strain genome from the genus Bacteroides. The 2,991,798 bp long genome with its 2,461 protein-coding and 78 RNA genes and is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
382 aa; Sequence (Fasta) Identical sequences: Bacteroides vulgatus PC510: D4VC18; Bacteroides sp. 3_1_40A: E5UVJ4; Bacteroides sp. 4_3_47FAA: C6Z9F1; Bacteroides vulgatus: A6KX05; Bacteroides vulgatus str. 3975 RP4: A0A069SLD6 ...
My apologies for this message but I cant think of any other way. Would the person who contacted me this weekend asking for information = on Dientamoeba fragilis infections please get back in touch with me as their e-mail message was accidentally deleted... Graham Clark =00 ...
Recent surgical reports indicate that for patients with secondary bacterial peritonitis, surgeons do not routinely use the identification of the bacterial pathogens and determination of their antimicrobial susceptibilities in choosing antimicrobial therapy. Further, some surgeons advocate abandoning the routine practice of obtaining culture specimens from patients with complicated appendicitis, because the data from the clinical laboratory have not been found to have an impact on postoperative care. We review the rationale for continued surveillance of and implementation of bacteriological data in treatment of secondary peritonitis. We also describe in detail the anaerobic flora of secondary peritonitis, the unique susceptibility patterns of these organisms, and the specific virulence factors of anaerobes, particularly Bacteroides fragilis. The fact that clinical investigations sometimes result in treatment failure when gram-negative anaerobes are resistant to the antimicrobials used or when complete
Zithromax is a semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic chemically related to erythromycin which is effective against majority of species of gram positive and gram negative microorganisms such as genus Staphylococcus; S. aureus, S. pneumoiane, S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, Haemophilus influenzae and parainfluenzae, Moraxela catarrhalis, Bacteroides fragilis, Escherichia coli, Bordetella ssp., Borrelia burgdorferi, Haemophilus ducreui, Nisseria gonorrhoeae Ø Chlamidia trachomati. In vitro it showed activity against Legionella pneumophila, Mycoplasma pneumoia Ø hominis, Helicobacter pylori, Toxoplasma gondii, Ureaplasma urealiticum. As a Macrolide antibiotic Zithromax inhibits bacterial protein synthesis and prevents bacteria from growth and propagation. It is used to treat infections of upper and low respiratory organs (tonsillitis, otitis, sinusitis, pneumonia), urogenital infections (urethritis, prostatitis, cervicitis, adnexitis caused by chlamydia, gonorrhea, early syphilis), intestinal ...
Zithromax is a semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic chemically related to erythromycin which is effective against majority of species of gram positive and gram negative microorganisms such as genus Staphylococcus; S. aureus, S. pneumoiane, S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, Haemophilus influenzae and parainfluenzae, Moraxela catarrhalis, Bacteroides fragilis, Escherichia coli, Bordetella ssp., Borrelia burgdorferi, Haemophilus ducreui, Nisseria gonorrhoeae Ø Chlamidia trachomati. In vitro it showed activity against Legionella pneumophila, Mycoplasma pneumoia Ø hominis, Helicobacter pylori, Toxoplasma gondii, Ureaplasma urealiticum. As a Macrolide antibiotic Zithromax inhibits bacterial protein synthesis and prevents bacteria from growth and propagation. It is used to treat infections of upper and low respiratory organs (tonsillitis, otitis, sinusitis, pneumonia), urogenital infections (urethritis, prostatitis, cervicitis, adnexitis caused by chlamydia, gonorrhea, early syphilis), intestinal ...
Ceftazidime: …and third-generation ones (such as ceftazidime) tend to be more effective against gram-negative bacterial species that are resistant to the first-generation cephalosporins. Second-generation cephalosporins have proven effective against gonorrhea, Haemophilus influenzae, and the abscesses caused by Bacteroides fragilis. The ability of many cephalosporin derivatives to penetrate the cerebral spinal fluid…
Bacterial neuraminidase is type of neuraminidase and a virulence factor for many bacteria including Bacteroides fragilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Its function is to cleave a sialic acid residue off ganglioside-GM1 (a modulator of cell surface and receptor activity) turning it into asialo-GM1 to which type 4 pilli (attachment factors) bind preferentially. Gaskell A, Crennell S, Taylor G (November 1995). "The three domains of a bacterial sialidase: a beta-propeller, an immunoglobulin module and a galactose-binding jelly-roll". Structure. 3 (11): 1197-205. doi:10.1016/s0969-2126(01)00255-6. PMID 8591030. Molecular and Cellular Biology ...
Apodox from Uniroyal Biotech, Cefpodoxime - Cefonetic to Ceftop SYR | Cefpodoxime (marketed as the prodrug cefpodoxime proxetil by Pharmacia & Upjohn under the trade name Vantin and under the name Orelox by Sanofi-Aventis), is an oral third generation cephalosporin. Use of Apodox from Uniroyal Biotech, Pregnancy, lactation in childrens and special precautions for Apodox from Uniroyal Biotech, prices of Apodox from Uniroyal Biotech . It is active against most Gram positive and Gram negative organisms. Notable exceptions include Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus, and Bacteroides fragilis. It is commonly used to treat acute otitis media, pharyngitis, and sinusitis. It also finds use as oral continuation therapy when intravenous cephalosporins (such as ceftriaxone) are no longer necessary for continued treatment., drugsupdate.com - Indias leading online platform for Doctors and health care professionals. Updates on Drugs, news, journals, 1000s of videos, national and international events, product
One experimental treatment for autism that has had some success is the use of probiotic therapy.. So the researchers then treated the mice with Bacteroides fragilis, which has been used in probiotic therapy.. After the treatment, the mices leaky guts were fixed.. Not only that, but their behaviour also changed. They were much less likely to engage in repetitive digging behaviours. This is a good sign since repetitive behaviours are a common feature of autism in humans.. They also displayed reduced anxiety and were more likely to communicate with other mice-similarly, communication difficulties are a core feature of autism in humans.. ...
Intestinal bacteria are linked to our diet. When participants in this last Danish study were divided by their level of intestinal bacteria, it was found that people with a high proportion of Prevotella bacteria compared to the bacteria Bacteroides lost 3.5 kg more in 26 weeks, they ate a diet composed of the principles of the "New Nordic Diet" compared to those who consumed a Danish average diet.. Subjects with a low proportion of Prevotella bacteria compared to Bacteroides did not lose any extra weight by following this new Nordic Diet. Overall, about 50% of the population has a high proportion of Prevotella bacteria compared to Bacteroides bacteria.. The study shows that only about half of the population will lose weight if it eats according to the Danish national dietary guidelines - and eats more fruits, vegetables, fiber and whole grains. The other half of the population does not seem to benefit from this change of regime. These people should focus on other feeding recommendations and ...
GrowEm Plant Propagation Database, alphabetical listing for latin binomial species names Nolina recurvata through Opuntia fragilis
Read "Genetic and morphological heterogeneity of Lake Baikal endemic gastropod Benedictia fragilis (Dybowski, 1875), Russian Journal of Genetics" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Bacterioides fragilis is a gram-negative anaerobe and a prototypic gut commensal organism. B. fragilis is able to produce eight different capsular polysaccharides, which envelope the organism and form its protective capsule. Polysaccharide A (PSA) is one of these polysaccharides and, interestingly, has a unique zwitterionic motif that includes alternating positively and negatively charged sugar residues. PSA consists of a tetrasaccharide repeat unit that forms a polymer of between 30-300 repeats.. Such bacterial capsular polysaccharides are well known to industry, and are the basis of polysaccharide conjugate vaccines used successfully for decades in millions of people. The specific zwitterionic polysaccharide PSA was shown, in a series of landmark papers by our companys scientific founders that overturned established immunologic paradigms, to be processed via the endosomal pathway in antigen-presenting cells, depolymerized by NO-dependent deamination, and presented to CD4+ T-cells by MHC class ...
Whether you mount them under windows or hang them from deck railings, flower boxes look great with vines spilling over the sides. Many gardeners choose trailing plants with flowers, but others prefer vibrant green leaves.. Any plants that do well in hanging baskets will thrive in window boxes, but may need to be replanted each year. Because they can hold significantly more growing medium than hanging baskets, window boxes can also support much larger, perennial plants to create container gardens that return year after year. When choosing plants for perennial window boxes, make sure that you group species with similar watering needs that do well in your USDA Hardiness Zone.. ...
S. Hsieh designed the project, performed experiments, and wrote the paper. N.T.P. generated the single CPS-expressing B. thetaiotaomicron mutants with and without GFP. D.L.D. generated the B. thetaiotaomicron Abs. S. Horvath processed the fecal colonization samples. G.S. performed the quick-freeze, deep-etch scanning electron microscopy. N.Z. assisted with peritoneal experiments. B.T.S. and B.Z. captured the india ink images. E.C.M., T.S.S., and P.M.A. guided the overall project design and assisted in data interpretation and writing of the manuscript. ...
Cooperative phenotypes are considered central to the functioning of microbial communities in many contexts, including communication via quorum sensing, biofilm formation, antibiotic resistance, and pathogenesis. The human intestine houses a dense and diverse microbial community critical to health, yet we know little about cooperation within this important ecosystem. Here we test experimentally for evolved cooperation within the Bacteroidales, the dominant Gram-negative bacteria of the human intestine. We show that during growth on certain dietary polysaccharides, the model member Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron exhibits only limited cooperation. Although this organism digests these polysaccharides extracellularly, mutants lacking this ability are outcompeted. In contrast, we discovered a dedicated cross-feeding enzyme system in the prominent gut symbiont Bacteroides ovatus, which digests polysaccharide at a cost to itself but at a benefit to another species. Using in vitro systems and gnotobiotic mouse
Alpha-galactosidase is a glycoside hydrolase enzyme that hydrolyses the terminal alpha-galactosyl moieties from glycolipids and glycoproteins. It is encoded by the GLA ge
This biotope may recover from impacts via in-situ repair of damaged individualsAdults may also be transported in the water column following washout from sediments. Storm events may lead to the displacement of large numbers of individuals. Most bivalves will be able to reposition within the sediment and some, such as Glycymeris glycymeris, are also able to move and to relocate following displacement and disturbance (Thomas, 1975). For immobile species or where depopulation has occurred over a large area, recovery will depend on recolonization by pelagic larvae.. A large number of species are recorded in the biotope and there may be large natural variation in species abundance over the course of a year or between years (see Dauvin, 1985 for Timoclea ovata). These variations may not alter the biotope classification where habitat parameters, such as sediment type, remain as described in the classification and many of the characteristic species groups are present. For many of the bivalve species ...
4HBR: Crystal structure of a putative periplasmic proteins (BACEGG_01429) from Bacteroides eggerthii DSM 20697 at 2.40 A resolution
La stabilité apparente du Cameroun dissimule une multitude tensions internes et externes qui menacent le futur du pays. Sans un changement social et politique, un Cameroun fragilisé pourrait devenir un autre foyer dinstabilité dans la région.
Dernières PublicationsDietary pectic glycans are degraded by coordinated enzyme pathways in human colonic Bacteroides. (2018) Luis AS, Briggs J, (...)
A 68-year-old Japanese man with alcoholic liver cirrhosis was admitted to our hospital because of fever and haematemesis. On day 3, his blood culture became positive for Gram-negative bacilli and Gram-positive cocci, and contrast-enhanced abdominal CT revealed acute septic thrombophlebitis of the superior mesenteric vein with caecal diverculitis. Antimicrobial therapy with ampicillin-sulbactam and anticoagulant therapy were started and the blood culture grew Bacteroides fragilis and Streptococcus intermedius. On hospital day 7, the patients condition began to improve in response to the therapy, therefore, the ampicillin-sulbactam and anticoagulant therapy was continued for 42 days. The patient was discharged home on hospital day 45. B fragilis bacteraemia of unknown source should caution the physician to search for an intra-abdominal focus, such as thrombosis of the portal vein or mesenteric vein. ...
α-L-Arabinofuranosidase B25 (Bacteroides ovatus) [ME-ABFBO25] - High purity α-L-arabinofuranosidase (Bacteroides ovatus) for use in research, biochemical enzyme assays and in vitrodiagnostic analysis. EC 3.2.1.55 CAZy Family: GH43 CAS: 9067-74-7 non-reducing end alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase; alpha-L-arabinofuranoside non-reducing end alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase Recombinant. From Bacteroides ovatus. In 50% Glycerol. Specific activity: ~ 25 U/mg protein (on wheat arabinoxylan) at pH 6.5 and 40oC. Stability: | 4 years at -20oC.
Although Dientamoeba fragilis is an extremely common parasite, many details about its biology remain to be answered. Originally taxonomically grouped with amoebas, later ultrastructural studies followed by molecular work has instead showed that it is more closely related to Trichomonas than Entamoeba. The single-celled organisms are primarily found in the large intestines of people and other animals and can produce classic symptoms of travelers diarrhea. The name of this species comes from the fact that it typically exists in a binucleated state (as in the photo - I think it looks like a Pacman ghost). The exact mechanism of transmission of D. fragilis is still not known. Cysts have never been observed - at least in humans, though a fecal-oral route is presumed. Some theorize that pinworms (Enterobius) or other helminths act as mechanical vectors for the D. fragilis, but this has not borne out in all cases ...
Results One hundred and ninety six patients were recruited: 158 CRC patients, 24 adenoma patients and 14 normal colon controls (median age 70; range 35-90). Tumours were staged as 6 T0, 4 T1, 23 T2, 97 T3, 27 T4; 99 N0, 40 N1, 27 N2; 6 M1. No significant differences were seen in diversity or taxonomy between the UK and Czech cohorts. Adenoma and healthy colon control samples were taxonomically indistinct. However, CRCs were characterised by reduced Shannon diversity (p,0.01), with enrichment of organisms including Bacteroides fragilis,Fusobacterium nucleatum and under-representation of Bacteroides vulgatus,Bacteroides uniformisandFaecalibacterium prausnitzii (all q,0.01). Furthermore, we found a significant progressive reduction in the expression of Bacteroides vulgatus with advancing T stage and a corresponding increase in Fusobacterium nucleatum expression (figure). Additionaly, samples from patients with T4 tumours and cancers expressing histological and molecular markers of poor prognosis ...
Accepted name: α-mannan endo-1,2-α-mannanase. Reaction: Hydrolysis of the terminal α-D-mannosyl-(1→3)-α-D-mannose disaccharide from α-D-mannosyl-(1→3)-α-D-mannosyl-(1→2)-α-D-mannosyl-(1→2)-α-D-mannosyl side chains in fungal cell wall α-mannans.. Systematic name: α-mannan glucosylmannohydrolase. Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the gut bacteria Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Bacteroides xylanisolvens, can also catalyse the reaction of EC 3.2.1.130, glycoprotein endo-α-1,2-mannosidase.. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: References:. 1. Hakki, Z., Thompson, A.J., Bellmaine, S., Speciale, G., Davies, G.J. and Williams, S.J. Structural and kinetic dissection of the endo-α-1,2-mannanase activity of bacterial GH99 glycoside hydrolases from Bacteroides spp. Chemistry 21 (2015) 1966-1977. [PMID: 25487964]. 2. Cuskin, F., Lowe, E.C., Temple, M.J., Zhu, Y., Cameron, E.A., Pudlo, N.A., Porter, N.T., Urs, K., Thompson, A.J., Cartmell, ...
1. Lo SW, Gladstone RA, van Tonder AJ, Hawkins PA, Kwambana-Adams B, Cornick JE, Madhi SA, Nzenze SA, du Plessis M, Kandasamy R, Carter PE, Eser OK, Ho PL, Elmdaghri N, Shakoor S, Clarke SC, Antonio M, Everett DB, von Gottberg A, Klugman KP, McGee L, Breiman RF, Bentley SD. 2018. Global Distribution of Invasive Serotype 35D Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates following Introduction of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine. J Clin Microbiol 56.. 2. Lo SW, Kumar N, Wheeler NE. 2018. Breaking the code of antibiotic resistance. Nat Rev Microbiol 16:262.. 3. Ho PL, Yau CY, Ho LY, Chen JHK, Lai ELY, Lo SW, Tse CWS, Chow KH. 2017. Rapid detection of cfiA metallo-beta-lactamase-producing Bacteroides fragilis by the combination of MALDI-TOF MS and CarbaNP. J Clin Pathol 70:868-873.. 4. Ho PL, Ng KY, Lo WU, Law PY, Lai EL, Wang Y, Chow KH. 2016. Plasmid-Mediated OqxAB Is an Important Mechanism for Nitrofurantoin Resistance in Escherichia coli. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 60:537-43.. 5. Lo WU, Cheung YY, ...
We report the single-contig genome sequence of the anaerobic, mesophilic, cellulolytic bacterium, Bacteroides cellulosolvens. The bacterium produces a particularly elaborate cellulosome system, whereas the types of cohesin-dockerin interactions are opposite of other known cellulosome systems: cell-surface attachment is thus mediated via type-I interactions whereas enzymes are integrated via type-II interactions. ...
Various subspecies of Bacteroides melaninogenicus differ in their pigmentation. Subsp. asaccharolyticus produces protohaem almost exclusively, subsp. intermedicus both protohaem and a smaller proportion of protoporphyrin, and subsp. melaninogenicus mainly protoporphyrin with a trace of protohaem. As a consequence young colonies can be differentiated by their red fluorescence in u.v. light (365nm): subsp. asaccharolyticus does not fluoresce, subsp. intermedicus shows a limited fluorescence, and subsp. melaninogenicus shows a bright fluorescence. The pigments were isolated as the dimethyl esters of protohaemin and of protoporphyrin and identified by electronic spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and comparisons by t.l.c. Incorporation of delta-aminolaevulinate into these pigments was not detected, nor was porphobilinogen formation observed. Subsp. melaninogenicus grown in the presence of [14C]protohaemin formed [14C]protoporphyrin. This appears to represent a novel biological demetallation. ...
Doctors Ask: Anaerobic infections are caused by non-spore-forming anaerobic bacteria (microorganisms that require low oxygen uptake for growth). To extinguish the vital functions of anaerobic bacteria, contact with oxygen, even short-term, is necessary. Therefore, anaerobic microorganisms tend to be located where for their development there are all the appropriate conditions: in the large intestine, genital organs (female), between the gums and the surface of the tooth, etc.
... ! Azitrobac is a macrolide antibiotic of azalides group. Azitrobac inhibits RNA-dependent protein synthesis of sensitive microorganisms. It active against gram-positive bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp. (including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes group A); gram-negative bacteria: Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Haemophilus ducreyi, Moraxella catarrhalis, Escherichia coli, Bordetella pertussis, Bordetella parapertussis, Borrelia burgdorferi, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Campylobacter spp., Legionella pneumophila; anaerobic bacteria: Bacteroides fragilis.
Femisan Cream is indicated in the treatment of the bacterial vaginosis originated by Gardnerella vaginalis, anaerobic Mobiluncus spp and other bacteria like Bacteroides fragilis, as well as in mixed vaginitis and vaginal candidiasis. Available now at Medicines Mexico online Mexican pharmacy! Mexico pharmacy drugs
Many Bacteroidetes, especially Bacteroides are opportunistic pathogens. The figure shows predominant sites colonized by Bacteroides and other anaerobic bacilli. Their levels are higher in celiac disease and more severe forms of IBS (Rome III criteria). Prevotella, and Fusobacterium are prevalent in the body and usually dont cause problems, but may become involved in infections throughout the body (see Fig.). Within the Bacteroides group, B fragilis is the most common pathogen, followed B thetaiotaomicron and other members of the B fragilis group. Among the bile-sensitive Prevotella species, the ones most commonly encountered clinically are P melaninogenica, P oris, and P buccae. Porphyromonas species seem to be much less pathogenic except in dental infections. Fusobacterium nucleatum is the Fusobacterium species most often found as a pathogen, but F necrophorum occasionally produces serious disease. Several species of Flavobacteria are known to cause disease in freshwater fish. Bacteria that ...

Examination of cfiA-mediated carbapenem resistance in Bacteroides fragilis strains from a European antibiotic susceptibility...Examination of cfiA-mediated carbapenem resistance in Bacteroides fragilis strains from a European antibiotic susceptibility...

cfiA, bacteroides fragilis, imipenem, meropenem, insertion sequence (IS) elements Identifiers. URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-26393 ... The major determinant of carbapenem resistance in Bacteroides fragilis is production of CfiA metallo-beta-lactamase via ... Examination of cfiA-mediated carbapenem resistance in Bacteroides fragilis strains from a European antibiotic susceptibility ... Of 1284 Bacteroides strains collected in Europe in 2000 for antibiotic susceptibility surveillance, 65 isolates displayed ...
more infohttp://umu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:245989

Bacteroides fragilis Enterotoxin Gene Sequences in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease - Volume 6, Number 2-April 2000 -...Bacteroides fragilis Enterotoxin Gene Sequences in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease - Volume 6, Number 2-April 2000 -...

... none of those with inactive disease had specimens positive for enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis gene sequences. ... We identified enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis in stool specimens of patients with inflammatory bowel disease and other ... Shetab R, Cohen SH, Prindiville TP, Tang YJ, Cantrell M, Rahmani D, Detection of Bacteroides fragilis enterotoxin gene by PCR. ... Sack RB, Myers LL, Almeido-Hill J, Shoop DS, Bradbury WC, Reid R, Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis: epidemiologic studies ...
more infohttps://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/6/2/00-0210_article

Molecular evolution of the pathogenicity island of enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis strains<...Molecular evolution of the pathogenicity island of enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis strains<...

N2 - Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF) strains, which produce a 20- kDa zinc metalloprotease toxin (BFT), have been ... AB - Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF) strains, which produce a 20- kDa zinc metalloprotease toxin (BFT), have been ... Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF) strains, which produce a 20- kDa zinc metalloprotease toxin (BFT), have been ... abstract = "Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF) strains, which produce a 20- kDa zinc metalloprotease toxin (BFT), have ...
more infohttps://jhu.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/molecular-evolution-of-the-pathogenicity-island-of-enterotoxigeni-3

National Survey on the Susceptibility of Bacteroides fragilis Group: Report and Analysis of Trends for 1997-2000 : Clinical...National Survey on the Susceptibility of Bacteroides fragilis Group: Report and Analysis of Trends for 1997-2000 : Clinical...

Bacteroides distasonis shows the highest resistance rates among β-lactam antibiotics, whereas Bacteroides vulgatus shows the ... B. fragilis shows the lowest resistance rates for all antibiotics. All strains were susceptible to chloramphenicol and ... Standards currently recommended methodology for measuring in vitro susceptibility of 2673 isolates of Bacteroides fragilis ... Standards currently recommended methodology for measuring in vitro susceptibility of 2673 isolates of Bacteroides fragilis ...
more infohttp://oxfordindex.oup.com/view/10.1086/341934

Simultaneous detection of Bacteroides fragilis group species by leuB -directed PCR - Arimochi, Hideki - Authors - Tokushima...Simultaneous detection of Bacteroides fragilis group species by leuB -directed PCR - Arimochi, Hideki - Authors - Tokushima...

Simultaneous detection of Bacteroides fragilis group species by leuB -directed PCR. Simultaneous detection of Bacteroides ... Among the species in the genus Bacteroides, thespecies called "B. fragilis group" areparticularly involved inhuman infections ... and the regions that are conserved among Bacteroides strains but different from other species were used as a B. fragilis group- ... Bacteroides species, saccharolytic Gram-negative obligate anaerobes, are frequently isolated from human infections such as ...
more infohttps://repo.lib.tokushima-u.ac.jp/en/list/author-page/60214/item/110763

Tretinoin cream and clindamycin phosphate : Online and Mail-Order PharmaciesTretinoin cream and clindamycin phosphate : Online and Mail-Order Pharmacies

A Penicillin G or ampicillin Doxycycline Clindamycin Erythromycin Bacteroides fragilis À, R, AN Metronidazole Clindamycin ...
more infohttp://puisicampus.tk/quvev/tretinoin-cream-and-clindamycin-phosphate-382.php

Bacteroides fragilis - WikipediaBacteroides fragilis - Wikipedia

Bacteroides references in Barons Medical Microbiology (online at the NCBI bookshelf). Type strain of Bacteroides fragilis at ... Bacteroides fragilis is an obligately anaerobic, Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium. It is part of the normal flora of the ... Although the B. fragilis group is the most common species found in clinical specimens, it is the least common Bacteroides ... B. fragilis is the most prevalent organism in the B. fragilis group, accounting for 41% to 78% of the isolates of the group. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacteroides_fragilis

Multidrug-Resistant Bacteroides fragilis - Seattle, Washington, 2013Multidrug-Resistant Bacteroides fragilis - Seattle, Washington, 2013

... The Bacteroides fragilis group consists of species of ... Species identification was confirmed as Bacteroides fragilis ssp. fragilis by biochemical testing, mass spectrometry, and ... Multidrug resistant Bacteroides fragilis recovered from blood and severe leg wounds caused by an improvised explosive device ( ... Bacteroides fragilis are anaerobic bacteria found in the human gastrointestinal tract and often cause intra-abdominal ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6234a2.htm?s_cid=mm6234a2_w

Letter: Antibiotics in bacteroides fragilis infectionsLetter: Antibiotics in bacteroides fragilis infections

Bacteroides fragilis subspecies in clinical isolates. Polk, B. Frank; Kasper, Dennis L.; Polk, B F; Kasper, D L // Annals of ... Bacteroides fragilis group infections in HIV-infected patients. Patey, O.; Breuil, J. // AIDS Patient Care & STDs;Oct97, Vol. ... Details on the bacteroides fragilis group; Reference to studies which were performed in hospitals in France; Results of the ... The Role of Bacteroides fragilis in Pelvic Infections. Osborne, Newton G. // Journal of Gynecologic Surgery;Summer2006, Vol. 22 ...
more infohttp://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/64111491/letter-antibiotics-bacteroides-fragilis-infections

Bacteroides fragilis (Veillon and Zuber) Castellani and Chalmers ATCCBacteroides fragilis (Veillon and Zuber) Castellani and Chalmers ATCC

Bacteroides fragilis ATCC ® 23745™ Designation: TypeStrain=False Application: Media testing Quality control strain Quality ... Bacteroides fragilis (Veillon and Zuber) Castellani and Chalmers (ATCC® 23745™) Strain Designations: [ICPB 3498, NCTC l0581] / ... Bacteroides fragilis (Veillon and Zuber) Castellani and Chalmers ATCC® 23745™ freeze-dried ...
more infohttps://www.atcc.org/en/Products/Cells_and_Microorganisms/Bacteria/Quality_Control_Strains/Media_testing/23745.aspx

Bacteroides fragilis (Veillon and Zuber) Castellani and Chalmers ATCCBacteroides fragilis (Veillon and Zuber) Castellani and Chalmers ATCC

Bacteroides fragilis ATCC ® 25285™ Designation: VPI 2553 TypeStrain=True Application: Media testing Quality control strain ... Bacteroides fragilis (Veillon and Zuber) Castellani and Chalmers (ATCC® 25285™) Strain Designations: VPI 2553 [EN-2; NCTC 9343] ... Designation of neotype strains for Bacteroides fragilis (Veillon and Zuber) Castellani and Chalmers and Bacteroides ... Bacteroides fragilis (Veillon and Zuber) Castellani and Chalmers (ATCC® 25285D-5™) Add to ...
more infohttps://www.atcc.org/en/Products/Cells_and_Microorganisms/Fungi_and_Yeast/Quality_Control_Strains/Pharmaceutical_and_Personal_Care/25285.aspx

Cellular immunity to Bacteroides fragilis capsular polysaccharide. | JEMCellular immunity to Bacteroides fragilis capsular polysaccharide. | JEM

Cellular immunity to Bacteroides fragilis capsular polysaccharide.. M E Shapiro, A B Onderdonk, D L Kasper, R W Finberg ... The polysaccharide capsule of Bacteroides fragilis has been shown to be important in the virulence of the organism. The ... Immunization of C57BL/10J mice with the CP over 5 wk prevents abscess formation when the mice are challenged with B. fragilis ... capsular polysaccharide (CP) of B. fragilis has been extensively purified. Using a murine model of intraabdominal abscess ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/155/4/1188

What does bacteroides fragilis mean?What does bacteroides fragilis mean?

Meaning of bacteroides fragilis. What does bacteroides fragilis mean? Information and translations of bacteroides fragilis in ... Definition of bacteroides fragilis in the Definitions.net dictionary. ... Definitions for bacteroides fragilis. Here are all the possible meanings and translations of the word bacteroides fragilis.. ... Bacteroides fragilis. Bacteroides fragilis is a Gram-negative bacillus bacterium species, and an obligate anaerobe of the gut. ...
more infohttps://www.definitions.net/definition/bacteroides%20fragilis

KEGG PATHWAY: Cysteine and methionine metabolism - Bacteroides fragilis YCH46KEGG PATHWAY: Cysteine and methionine metabolism - Bacteroides fragilis YCH46

Cysteine and methionine metabolism - Bacteroides fragilis YCH46 [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML ...
more infohttps://www.genome.jp/kegg-bin/show_pathway?bfr00270

Bacteroides fragilis 3 1 12 supercont1.5 genomic scaffold, whole genom - Nucleotide - NCBIBacteroides fragilis 3 1 12 supercont1.5 genomic scaffold, whole genom - Nucleotide - NCBI

Bacteroides fragilis 3_1_12 supercont1.5 genomic scaffold, whole genome shotgun ... Bacteroides fragilis 3_1_12 supercont1.5 ... Bacteroides fragilis 3_1_12 supercont1.5 genomic scaffold, whole genome shotgun sequence. GenBank: EQ973217.1 ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/EQ973217.1

Bacteroides fragilis (strain ATCC 25285 / DSM 2151 / JCM 11019 / NCTC 9343)Bacteroides fragilis (strain ATCC 25285 / DSM 2151 / JCM 11019 / NCTC 9343)

Bacteroides fragilis NCTC 9343. › Bacteroides fragilis NCTC9343. › Bacteroides fragilis str. NCTC 9343. › Bacteroides fragilis ... Taxonomy - Bacteroides fragilis (strain ATCC 25285 / DSM 2151 / JCM 11019 / NCTC 9343) Basket 0 ... Bacteroides fragilis (strain ATCC 25285 / DSM 2151 / JCM 11019 / NCTC 9343). Taxonomy navigation. › Bacteroides fragilis ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/taxonomy/272559

Bacteroides fragilis subverts mucosal biology: from symbiont to colon carcinogenesis.Bacteroides fragilis subverts mucosal biology: from symbiont to colon carcinogenesis.

The symbiont Bacteroides fragilis constitutes a relatively small proportion (up to 1%-2%) of cultured fecal bacteria, but ... The symbiont Bacteroides fragilis constitutes a relatively small proportion (up to 1%-2%) of cultured fecal bacteria, but ... fragilis toxin (BFT). Strains that do not secrete BFT are nontoxigenic B. fragilis (NTBF), and those that do are called ... There are 2 classes of B. fragilis distinguished by their ability to secrete a zinc-dependent metalloprotease toxin, B. ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Bacteroides-fragilis-subverts-mucosal-biology/25105360.html

Bacteroides fragilis endocarditis: a case report and review of literature.Bacteroides fragilis endocarditis: a case report and review of literature.

This article describes a case of Bacteroides fragilis endocarditis associated with portal and superior mesenteric venous ... Endocarditis due to Bacteroides fragilis is a rare disorder. ... Bacteroides fragilis endocarditis: a case report and review of ... Endocarditis due to Bacteroides fragilis is a rare disorder. This article describes a case of Bacteroides fragilis endocarditis ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Bacteroides-fragilis-endocarditis-case-report/22358367.html

leuS - Leucine--tRNA ligase - Bacteroides fragilis (strain YCH46) - leuS gene & proteinleuS - Leucine--tRNA ligase - Bacteroides fragilis (strain YCH46) - leuS gene & protein

Bacteroides fragilis str. 2-F-2 #4. Bacteroides fragilis CAG:47. Bacteroides fragilis str. 3774 T13. Bacteroides fragilis str. ... Bacteroides fragilis. Bacteroides cellulosilyticus. Bacteroides sp. 2_1_56FAA. Bacteroides fragilis str. S23L17. ... Bacteroides sp. 1_1_6. Bacteroides ovatus. Bacteroides ovatus CL02T12C04. Bacteroides sp. 2_2_4. Bacteroides xylanisolvens XB1A ... Bacteroides ovatus 3_8_47FAA. Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. Bacteroides sp. 1_1_14. Bacteroides finegoldii DSM 17565. ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q64MG4

Transposon Mutagenesis of Bacteroides fragilis | Springer for Research & DevelopmentTransposon Mutagenesis of Bacteroides fragilis | Springer for Research & Development

Bacteroides fragilisis Gram-negative obligatory anaerobe which usually resides in the gut of humans and animals. As an ... Bacteroides fragilis is Gram-negative obligatory anaerobe which usually resides in the gut of humans and animals. As an ... Transposon mutagenesis Bacteroides fragilis Mariner transposon Mutants This is a preview of subscription content, log in to ... Husain F, Veeranagouda Y, Hsi J et al (2013) Two multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of bacteroides fragilis carry a novel ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/protocol/10.1007%2F978-1-4939-9570-7_10

Plasmid transfer from Escherichia coli to Bacteroides fragilis: differential expression of antibiotic resistance phenotypes |...Plasmid transfer from Escherichia coli to Bacteroides fragilis: differential expression of antibiotic resistance phenotypes |...

Characterization of the BatI (Bacteroides aerotolerance) operon in Bacteroides fragilis: isolation of a B. fragilis mutant with ... Plasmid transfer from Escherichia coli to Bacteroides fragilis: differential expression of antibiotic resistance phenotypes. D ... The role of BmoR, a MarR Family Regulator, in the survival of Bacteroides fragilis during oxidative stress ... Dps and DpsL Mediate SurvivalIn VitroandIn Vivoduring the Prolonged Oxidative Stress Response in Bacteroides fragilis ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/81/22/7203/tab-article-info

Analysis of cepA and other Bacteroides fragilis genes reveals a unique promoter structure.  - PubMed - NCBIAnalysis of cepA and other Bacteroides fragilis genes reveals a unique promoter structure. - PubMed - NCBI

Analysis of cepA and other Bacteroides fragilis genes reveals a unique promoter structure.. Bayley DP1, Rocha ER, Smith CJ. ... There is little known about the sequences that mediate the initiation of transcription in Bacteroides fragilis, thus ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11094294?dopt=Abstract

The Bacteroides fragilis Pathogenicity Island Is Contained in a Putative Novel Conjugative Transposon | Journal of BacteriologyThe Bacteroides fragilis Pathogenicity Island Is Contained in a Putative Novel Conjugative Transposon | Journal of Bacteriology

Taxonomy of the Bacteroides. I. Deoxyribonucleic acid homologies among Bacteroides fragilis and other saccharolytic Bacteroides ... The genetic element flanking the Bacteroides fragilis pathogenicity island (BfPAI) in enterotoxigenic B. fragilis (ETBF) strain ... The Bacteroides fragilis Pathogenicity Island Is Contained in a Putative Novel Conjugative Transposon. Augusto A. Franco ... The Bacteroides fragilis toxin fragilysin disrupts the paracellular barrier of epithelial cells. Infect. Immun. 65:1431-1439. ...
more infohttps://jb.asm.org/content/186/18/6077?ijkey=4f092737b25efaf583300a80283635ecddb95012&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Frontiers | CRISPR-Cas Systems in Bacteroides fragilis, an Important Pathobiont in the Human Gut Microbiome | MicrobiologyFrontiers | CRISPR-Cas Systems in Bacteroides fragilis, an Important Pathobiont in the Human Gut Microbiome | Microbiology

Bacteroides make up ~25% of the total gut microbiome. B. fragilis comprises only 2% of the total Bacteroides in the gut, yet ... Bacteroides make up ~25% of the total gut microbiome. B. fragilis comprises only 2% of the total Bacteroides in the gut, yet ... Also, blood isolates of B. fragilis did not have Type IIC CRISPR-Cas systems and had atypical Type IIIB CRISPR-Cas systems that ... Conclusions: This is the first systematic report of CRISPR-Cas systems in a wide range of B. fragilis strains from a variety of ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2017.02234/full

Discerning the Role of Bacteroides fragilis in Celiac Disease Pathogenesis | Applied and Environmental MicrobiologyDiscerning the Role of Bacteroides fragilis in Celiac Disease Pathogenesis | Applied and Environmental Microbiology

The bacterial numbers of the Bacteroides-Prevotella group or the Bacteroides fragilis group in CD patients have been ... Bacteroides fragilis enterotoxin cleaves the zonula adherens protein, E-cadherin. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 95:14979- ... B. fragilis was more frequently identified in CD patients than in healthy controls, in contrast to Bacteroides ovatus. B. ... Discerning the Role of Bacteroides fragilis in Celiac Disease Pathogenesis. E. Sánchez, J. M. Laparra, Y. Sanz ...
more infohttps://aem.asm.org/content/78/18/6507.full
  • The pathogenicity of B. fragilis is related to its production of a potent enterotoxin, a zinc-containing metalloprotease with a molecular weight of 20,000 (10) . (cdc.gov)
  • In May 2013, an MDR B. fragilis strain was isolated from the bloodstream and intra-abdominal abscesses of a patient who had recently received health care in India. (cdc.gov)
  • In B. fragilis, NANase production from the two plasmids was inducible by free N-acetylneuraminic acid or sialic acid-containing substrates, just as in the parental TAL2480 strain. (asm.org)
  • D) Agar spot assay showing sensitivity of B. fragilis strain 0878320-1 to BfUbb versus purified bovine ubiquitin. (asm.org)
  • Veeranagouda Y, Husain F, Tenorio EL, Wexler HM (2014) Identification of genes required for the survival of B. fragilis using massive parallel sequencing of a saturated transposon mutant library. (springer.com)
  • Analysis of cepA and other Bacteroides fragilis genes reveals a unique promoter structure. (nih.gov)
  • There is little known about the sequences that mediate the initiation of transcription in Bacteroides fragilis, thus transcriptional start sites for 13 new genes were determined and a total of 23 promoter regions upstream of the start sites were aligned and similarities were noted. (nih.gov)
  • There are four apparent CRISPR-Cas systems in B. fragilis -three systems have adjacent cas genes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Bacteroides clones ( n = 274) were isolated, identified, and screened for the presence of the virulence genes ( bft and mpII ) coding for metalloproteases. (asm.org)
  • B. fragilis clones carrying virulence genes coding for metalloproteases were more abundant in CD patients than in controls. (asm.org)
  • Yet, despite sharing a similar LβH structure with LpxAs from Escherichia coli and others, previously unseen calcium ions are observed on the threefold axis in B. fragilis LpxA to help stabilize the trimeric assembly. (rcsb.org)
  • Bacteroides fragilis is Gram-negative obligatory anaerobe which usually resides in the gut of humans and animals. (springer.com)
  • Immunization of C57BL/10J mice with the CP over 5 wk prevents abscess formation when the mice are challenged with B. fragilis intraperitoneally. (rupress.org)
  • In general, B. fragilis is susceptible to metronidazole, carbapenems, tigecycline, beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Emergence of metronidazole-resistant Bacteroides fragilis, India. (cdc.gov)
  • Veeranagouda Y, Husain F, Wexler HM (2013) Transposon mutagenesis of Bacteroides fragilis using a mariner transposon vector. (springer.com)
  • Bacteroides fragilis is an obligatory anaerobic microorganism found in the normal intestinal flora of humans. (asm.org)
  • http://prod.hopkins-abxguide.org/pathogens/bacteria/anaerobic_gram-neg._bacilli/bacteroides_fragilis.html?contentInstanceId=255919 Levinson, W. (2010). (wikipedia.org)
  • The symbiont Bacteroides fragilis constitutes a relatively small proportion (up to 1%-2%) of cultured fecal bacteria, but colonizes most humans. (biomedsearch.com)
  • There are 2 classes of B. fragilis distinguished by their ability to secrete a zinc-dependent metalloprotease toxin, B. fragilis toxin (BFT). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Heterogeneity of the B. fragilis genome in the ubb genetic region. (asm.org)
  • The G+C contents of the BfPAI (35%) and the flanking DNA (47 to 50%) differ greatly from that reported for the B. fragilis chromosome (43%) ( http://www.sanger.ac.uk/Projects/B_fragilis ), suggesting that the BfPAI and its flanking region are two distinct genetic elements originating from different organisms. (asm.org)
  • Bacteroides fragilis , a gram-negative rod, constitutes 1% to 2% of the normal colonic bacterial microflora in humans ( 1 , 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • A perfect match with the −7 site of the promoter sequence recognized by the Bacteroides sigma 70 factor is shown (blue letters). (asm.org)
  • Bacteroides fragilis is an obligately anaerobic, Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • This article describes a case of Bacteroides fragilis endocarditis associated with portal and superior mesenteric venous thrombosis in a patient without preexisting valvular heart disease and review the cases of endocarditis due to this anaerobic bacterium in medical literature since 1980. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Bacteroides fragilis subverts mucosal biology: from symbiont to colon carcinogenesis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Molecular biology tools such as transposon mutagenesis help to decipher and understand commensal and pathogenic faces of B. fragilis . (springer.com)
  • Using two mariner transposon vectors we describe the detailed methodology for the transposon mutagenesis of B. fragilis . (springer.com)
  • B) Agar spot assay of BfUbb peptide overlaid with B. fragilis CM11 containing an empty vector or the vector expressing higBA . (asm.org)