In vitro utilization of amylopectin and high-amylose maize (Amylomaize) starch granules by human colonic bacteria. (1/115)It has been well established that a certain amount of ingested starch can escape digestion in the human small intestine and consequently enters the large intestine, where it may serve as a carbon source for bacterial fermentation. Thirty-eight types of human colonic bacteria were screened for their capacity to utilize soluble starch, gelatinized amylopectin maize starch, and high-amylose maize starch granules by measuring the clear zones on starch agar plates. The six cultures which produced clear zones on amylopectin maize starch- containing plates were selected for further studies for utilization of amylopectin maize starch and high-amylose maize starch granules A (amylose; Sigma) and B (Culture Pro 958N). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was used to detect bacterial starch-degrading enzymes. It was demonstrated that Bifidobacterium spp., Bacteroides spp., Fusobacterium spp., and strains of Eubacterium, Clostridium, Streptococcus, and Propionibacterium could hydrolyze the gelatinized amylopectin maize starch, while only Bifidobacterium spp. and Clostridium butyricum could efficiently utilize high-amylose maize starch granules. In fact, C. butyricum and Bifidobacterium spp. had higher specific growth rates in the autoclaved medium containing high-amylose maize starch granules and hydrolyzed 80 and 40% of the amylose, respectively. Starch-degrading enzymes were cell bound on Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides cells and were extracellular for C. butyricum. Active staining for starch-degrading enzymes on SDS-PAGE gels showed that the Bifidobacterium cells produced several starch-degrading enzymes with high relative molecular (M(r)) weights (>160,000), medium-sized relative molecular weights (>66,000), and low relative molecular weights (<66,000). It was concluded that Bifidobacterium spp. and C. butyricum degraded and utilized granules of amylomaize starch. (+info)
Phylogenetic analysis of genus Marinilabilia and related bacteria based on the amino acid sequences of gyrB and emended description of Marinilabilia salmonicolor with Marinilabilia agarovorans as its subjective synonym. (2/115)The detailed phylogenetic relationships for genus Marinilabilia and related taxa were analysed by using DNA gyrase B subunit gene (gyrB) sequences. Anaerobic bacteria in the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides phylum, namely genera Marinilabilia, Bacteroides, Rikenella, Prevotella and Porphyromonas and Cytophaga fermentans, were clustered in the same branch and the facultative anaerobes Marinilabilia and Cytophaga fermentans formed a subcluster in the branch of the anaerobic bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis using 16S rDNA sequences gave a similar result but with a lower bootstrap value for each cluster. The gyrB sequences of Marinilabilia salmonicolor and Marinilabilia agarovorans were the same, and the relatedness of their chromosomal DNA, as determined by DNA-DNA hybridization, was greater than 70%. These genetic aspects led to the conclusion that M. salmonicolor IFO 15948T and M. agarovorans IFO 14957T belong to a single species. Since M. salmonicolor was described first, as Cytophaga salmonicolor, M. salmonicolor is a senior subjective synonym of M. agarovorans. Therefore, the name M. salmonicolor should be retained and strain IFO 14957T should be reclassified as M. salmonicolor. However, the agar-degrading ability of strain IFO 14957T is a prominent biochemical characteristic. It is therefore proposed that strain IFO 14957T should be renamed M. salmonicolor biovar agarovorans. (+info)
Age and disease related changes in intestinal bacterial populations assessed by cell culture, 16S rRNA abundance, and community cellular fatty acid profiles. (3/115)BACKGROUND: The normal intestinal microflora plays an important role in host metabolism and provides a natural defence mechanism against invading pathogens. Although the microbiota in adults has been extensively studied, little is known of the changes that occur in the microflora with aging. These may have important consequences in elderly people, many of whom are receiving antibiotic therapy and who are most susceptible to intestinal dysbiosis. AIMS: To characterise the major groups of faecal bacteria in subjects of different ages using a combination of cultural, molecular, and chemotaxonomic approaches. METHODS: Comparative microbiological studies were made on four different subject groups: children (16 months to seven years, n=10), adults (21-34 years, n=7), healthy elderly subjects (67-88 years, n=5), and geriatric patients (68-73 years, n=4) diagnosed with Clostridium difficile diarrhoea. Selected faecal bacteria were investigated using viable counting procedures, 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) abundance measurements, and the occurrence of specific signature fatty acids in whole community fatty acid methyl ester profiles. RESULTS: The principal microbiological difference between adults and children was the occurrence of higher numbers of enterobacteria in the latter group, as determined by viable counts (p<0.05) and 16S rRNA (p<0.01) measurements. Moreover, a greater proportion of children's faecal rRNA was hybridised by the three probes (bifidobacteria, enterobacteria, bacteroides-porphyromonas-prevotella) used in the study, indicating a less developed gut microbiota. Species diversity was also markedly lower in the Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea group, which was characterised by high numbers of facultative anaerobes and low levels of bifidobacteria and bacteroides. Although it was a considerably less sensitive diagnostic tool, cellular fatty acid analysis correlated with viable bacterial counts and 16S rRNA measurements in a number of bacteria, including bacteroides. CONCLUSIONS: Polyphasic analysis of faecal bacteria showed that significant structural changes occur in the microbiota with aging, and this was especially evident with respect to putatively protective bifidobacteria. Reductions in these organisms in the large bowel may be related to increased disease risk in elderly people. (+info)
Evaluation of enrichment, storage, and age of blood agar medium in relation to its ability to support growth of anaerobic bacteria. (4/115)By measuring the colony size of a variety of anaerobic bacteria isolated from clinical specimens, an evaluation was made of the benefits derived from the addition of several enrichments to blood agar medium commonly used for the growth of anaerobes. Similar methods were used to study the effects of various storage conditions and age of the medium. The results were compared with those obtained on freshly prepared and enriched blood agar plates as well as commercially available blood agar plates. Freshly prepared and enriched blood agar was found to give substantially larger colonies than could be grown on commercially obtained blood agar plates when both were inoculated and incubated under identical conditions. Storage of plating media under CO2 for periods of up to 72 h had only a minor effect on the growth of the anaerobic bacteria studied, but longer periods of storage under CO2 resulted in a less efficient plating medium. Nonenriched brain heart infusion (BHI) was found to be a better basal medium than Trypticase soy agar (TSA) medium. Colony size on fully enriched BHI blood agar plates was greater than nonenriched BHI greater than nonenriched TSA greater than commercially prepared nonenriched TSA plates. The data suggest that freshness of the plates may be as important as using rich media. (+info)
Effect of dietary short-chain fructooligosaccharides on the cecal microflora in gastrectomized rats. (5/115)Total gastric resection is known to lead to changes in the microflora in the whole gastrointestinal tract. Dietary short-chain fructooligosaccharides (Sc-FOS) have been shown to also induce a change in the microflora in the large bowel by promoting an increase in the numbers of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus which have beneficial effects on the host. In the present study, 4-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats received total gastrectomy or laparotomy, and each of these surgically treated groups was randomly divided into two experimental diet groups and given a 7.5% Sc-FOS diet or control diet. Enumeration and identification of the cecal bacteria was performed by using selective and non-selective media. In the gastrectomized rats, the total bacterial count, and the counts of Bacteroidaceae and Enterobacteriaceae were higher than those in the sham-operated rats. Sc-FOS promoted an increase in the numbers of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, In the rats fed on the Sc-FOS diet, the predominant type of bacteria was Lactobacillus and in the rats fed on the control diet, it was Bacteroidaceae irrespective of gastrectomy. We confirmed that both gastrectomy and dietary Sc-FOS changed the composition of cecal microflora in the rats. Dietary Sc-FOS in the gastrectomized rats increased the proportions of Lactobacillus relative to other types of bacteria to levels similar to those seen in healthy normal rats, and decreased the proportion of Bacteroidaceae. (+info)
Establishment of specific pathogen-free guinea-pig colonies using limited-flora guinea-pigs associated with conventional guinea-pig flora, and monitoring of their cecal flora. (6/115)Six groups of limited flora (LF) Hartley guinea-pigs were produced by inoculation of hysterectomy-derived GF guinea-pigs with various combinations of cecal bacteria of conventional (CV) guinea-pigs to determine the effective bacterial cocktails for the establishment of a specific pathogen free (SPF) colony. Bifidobacterium magnum (Bif) isolated from CV guinea-pigs was used for pretreatment. The mortality of LF guinea-pigs inoculated with only Bif was 75%, and that of those inoculated with Bif plus chloroform-treated cecal suspension (CHF) or Bif plus CHF plus 32 isolates from CV guinea-pigs was 40 to 66.7%. These three groups were in an unhealthy condition with mucoid enteritis-like diarrhea. However, the mortality of LF guinea-pigs inoculated with the anaerobic growth on EG plates injected with 10(-5) dilution of cecal contents (CF) or inoculated with Bif plus CF was 6.3 and 15%, respectively. These latter two groups of LF guinea-pigs were transferred to separate barrier rooms and some of the LF guinea-pigs were maintained in isolators as a source of intestinal flora for SPF guinea-pigs. The composition of cecal flora of LF guinea-pigs was stable for a long time, and bacteroidaceae and peptococcaceae were maintained as predominant components. The basic composition of the cecal flora of SPF guinea-pigs originated from LF guinea-pigs, which consists mainly of the anaerobic bacteria, was not changed over a long period, and the flora composition became similar to that in CV guinea-pigs. Guinea-pig-specific pathogens from the SPF colonies were not detected during experiments. (+info)
Virulence properties of oral bacteria: impact of molecular biology. (7/115)Dental caries and periodontitis, although generally not life threatening, are nevertheless of significant importance. An understanding of the molecular nature of these diseases could aid the development of novel methods of prevention and control, and increase our knowledge of their etiology. The identification of virulence factors in oral bacteria could lead to the development of vaccines directed against these organisms, the design of inhibitors of biofilm formation, and the development of replacement therapy strategies. (+info)
Establishment of specific pathogen-free (SPF) rat colonies using gnotobiotic techniques. (8/115)Gnotobiotic Wistar rats were produced using gnotobiotic techniques, which were established in the production of a SPF mouse colony, in order to establish a barrier-sustained colony. One strain of Escherichia coli, 28 strains of Bacteriodaceae (B-strains), three strains of Lactobacillus (L-strains) and a chloroform-treated fecal suspension (CHF, Clostridium mixture) were prepared from conventional Wistar rats as the microflora source. Two groups of limited-flora rats, E. coli plus B-strains and E. coli plus CHF, were produced. After confirmation that Clostridium difficile was not detected in the CHF-inoculated rats, two groups of limited-flora rats were transferred to an isolator and housed together in a cage. These rats were then orally inoculated with L-strains. The gnotobiotic rats showed colonization resistance to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the number of E. coli in the feces was 10(5) to 10(6)/g. The gnotobiotic rats were transferred to a barrier room as a source of intestinal flora for SPF colonies. In the SPF rats, basic cecal flora was mainly composed of Bacteroidaceae, clostridia, fusiform-shaped bacteria and lactobacilli, and did not change over a long period. Their flora became similar to that of conventional rats. (+info)
Some common types of Bacteroidaceae infections include:
1. Bacteroiditis: This is an infection caused by Bacteroides fragilis, which is a common resident of the human gut microbiome. Bacteroiditis can occur when the bacteria enter the bloodstream or other parts of the body, causing symptoms such as fever, chills, and swelling.
2. Parabacteroides infection: This type of infection is caused by the bacterium Parabacteroides distasonis, which is found in the gut microbiome. Parabacteroides infections can cause a range of symptoms, including diarrhea, abdominal pain, and fever.
3. Chryseobacterium infection: This type of infection is caused by the bacterium Chryseobacterium spp., which is found in the environment and can enter the body through wounds or other openings. Chryseobacterium infections can cause symptoms such as fever, chills, and swelling.
Bacteroidaceae infections can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including blood cultures, urine cultures, and tissue biopsies. Treatment typically involves the use of antibiotics, and in some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to remove infected tissue or repair damaged structures.
Preventive measures for Bacteroidaceae infections include good hygiene practices such as handwashing, proper wound care, and avoiding close contact with people who are sick. In some cases, antibiotic prophylaxis may be recommended to prevent infection in individuals who are at high risk of developing Bacteroidaceae infections, such as those with weakened immune systems or chronic medical conditions.
In conclusion, Bacteroidaceae is a family of bacteria that can cause a variety of infections in the body, ranging from mild to severe. Understanding the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options for these infections can help healthcare providers provide effective care for individuals who are affected by Bacteroidaceae infections. Preventive measures such as good hygiene practices and antibiotic prophylaxis can also help reduce the risk of developing these infections.
List of MeSH codes (C01)
List of MeSH codes (B03)
Index of /rsat/data/taxon frequencies/Bacteroidaceae
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- A Globally Distributed Bacteroides caccae Strain Is the Most Prevalent Mother-Child Shared Bacteroidaceae Strain in a Large Scandinavian Cohort. (bvsalud.org)
- Bacteroides and Phocaeicola, members of the family Bacteroidaceae , are among the first microbes to colonize the human infant gut. (bvsalud.org)
- Propionibacterium acnes Gram-negative bacilli Bacteroides fragilis group are the most frequently recovered species of Bacteroidaceae. (symptoma.com)
- Infections with bacteria of the family BACTEROIDACEAE. (bvsalud.org)
- Furthermore, Rikenellaceae , Clostridiaceae , Porphyromonadaceae , Bacteroidaceae and Ruminococcaceae played a crucial role during the anaerobic degradation of cow manure. (ufz.de)