The presence of bacteria in the urine which is normally bacteria-free. These bacteria are from the URINARY TRACT and are not contaminants of the surrounding tissues. Bacteriuria can be symptomatic or asymptomatic. Significant bacteriuria is an indicator of urinary tract infection.
The presence of white blood cells (LEUKOCYTES) in the urine. It is often associated with bacterial infections of the urinary tract. Pyuria without BACTERIURIA can be caused by TUBERCULOSIS, stones, or cancer.
Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.
Infections that do not exhibit symptoms.
Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.
Passage of a CATHETER into the URINARY BLADDER or kidney.
Narrow pieces of material impregnated or covered with a substance used to produce a chemical reaction. The strips are used in detecting, measuring, producing, etc., other substances. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Inflammation of the KIDNEY involving the renal parenchyma (the NEPHRONS); KIDNEY PELVIS; and KIDNEY CALICES. It is characterized by ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; NAUSEA; VOMITING; and occasionally DIARRHEA.
Examination of urine by chemical, physical, or microscopic means. Routine urinalysis usually includes performing chemical screening tests, determining specific gravity, observing any unusual color or odor, screening for bacteriuria, and examining the sediment microscopically.
Inflammation of the URINARY BLADDER, either from bacterial or non-bacterial causes. Cystitis is usually associated with painful urination (dysuria), increased frequency, urgency, and suprapubic pain.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
Radiography of any part of the urinary tract.
Substances capable of killing agents causing urinary tract infections or of preventing them from spreading.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A urinary anti-infective agent effective against most gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. Although sulfonamides and antibiotics are usually the agents of choice for urinary tract infections, nitrofurantoin is widely used for prophylaxis and long-term suppression.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, as well as in manure, soil, and polluted waters. Its species are pathogenic, causing urinary tract infections and are also considered secondary invaders, causing septic lesions at other sites of the body.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is frequently isolated from clinical specimens. Its most common site of infection is the urinary tract.
A sulfathiazole antibacterial agent.
Infections with bacteria of the genus PROTEUS.
Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Gram-negative rods isolated from human urine and feces.
A group of islands in the Atlantic Ocean west of Scotland, comprising the Outer Hebrides and the Inner Hebrides.
A benzothaizole which is oxidized by LUCIFERASES, FIREFLY to cause emission of light (LUMINESCENCE).
Catheters inserted into the URINARY BLADDER or kidney for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.
Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The appearance of an abnormally large amount of GLUCOSE in the urine, such as more than 500 mg/day in adults. It can be due to HYPERGLYCEMIA or genetic defects in renal reabsorption (RENAL GLYCOSURIA).
Retrograde flow of urine from the URINARY BLADDER into the URETER. This is often due to incompetence of the vesicoureteral valve leading to ascending bacterial infection into the KIDNEY.
The duct which coveys URINE from the pelvis of the KIDNEY through the URETERS, BLADDER, and URETHRA.
Dysfunction of the URINARY BLADDER due to disease of the central or peripheral nervous system pathways involved in the control of URINATION. This is often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, but may also be caused by BRAIN DISEASES or PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Insertion of a catheter into the urethra to drain the urine from the bladder at intervals as needed.
Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic that is stable to hydrolysis by beta-lactamases.

Correlation of periurethral bacterial flora with bacteriuria and urinary tract infection in children with neurogenic bladder receiving intermittent catheterization. (1/581)

Periurethral bacteria are inoculated daily into the urine of children with neurogenic bladder during clean intermittent catheterization (CIC). We examined how frequently periurethral bacterial species produced bacteriuria in children followed longitudinally. When Escherichia coli was detected on the periurethra, bacteriuria was also present 93% of the time. When Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, or Enterococcus species or nonpathogens were detected on the periurethra, bacteriuria was present 80%, 40%, 40%, and 25% of the time, respectively. Clonal typing of multiple colonies of E. coli from each periurethral and urine culture revealed that children carried only one or two E. coli clones in their urinary tracts over months of surveillance. When E. coli was detected in the urine, the identical clone was on the periurethra. E. coli persisted for weeks in the urine without causing symptoms. Occasionally the same E. coli clone carried for weeks caused a urinary tract infection. Bacteriuria frequently occurs after inoculation of periurethral E. coli into the urine during CIC.  (+info)

Procedure for expediting determinations of antibiotic susceptibility of gram-negative, urinary tract pathogens. (2/581)

Standardized direct disk diffusion antibiotic susceptibility testing on monomicrobial urine specimens is compared with the Food and Drug Administration method. The direct procedure yields acceptable data and may conserve 24 h in reporting results.  (+info)

Mycoplasma penetrans and other mycoplasmas in urine of human immunodeficiency virus-positive children. (3/581)

Urine samples from children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and healthy controls were examined for mycoplasmas by culture. Standard biochemical assays, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and PCR (16S and 16S-23S spacer rRNA region) were used for identification of isolates. Mycoplasmas were identified from 13 (87%) of 15 HIV-positive patients and 3 (20%) of 15 HIV-negative control patients. The frequency and type of mycoplasma varied with the severity of HIV infection. Mycoplasma penetrans, Mycoplasma pirum, Mycoplasma fermentans, and Mycoplasma genitalium were isolated from patients with severe immunodeficiency. Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum were isolated more frequently from children in the early stages of HIV infection and from HIV-negative patients. Mycoplasma penetrans was isolated from one (50%) of two patients in Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) group B and from five (55.5%) of nine pediatric patients with AIDS (CDC group C). This is the first report that indicates that "AIDS-associated" mycoplasmas are more common in HIV-infected children than in HIV-negative controls.  (+info)

Single-dose oral ciprofloxacin compared with cefotaxime and placebo for prophylaxis during transurethral surgery. (4/581)

To determine the efficacy and safety of single-dose oral ciprofloxacin prophylaxis for the prevention of post-operative bacteriuria following transurethral resection of the prostate or bladder tumour, a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted. Five hundred and eighteen patients were randomized in a 2:2:1 ratio to receive ciprofloxacin 500 mg, cefotaxime 1 g or placebo 30-90 min before surgery. Of the 368 efficacy-evaluable patients, five (3.3%) ciprofloxacin, seven (4.8%) cefotaxime and five (7.0%) placebo recipients had post-operative bacteriuria (> or = 10(4) cfu/mL) during post-operative days 2-15. Five (3.4%) ciprofloxacin, five (3.4%) cefotaxime and one (2.4%) placebo recipients were considered clinical failures, of whom one, two and one patients, respectively, had concomitant bacteriuria. Drug-related adverse events were reported in six of 204 (3%) ciprofloxacin, 12 of 197 (6%) cefotaxime and one of 101 (1%) placebo patients. The observed rates of post-operative bacteriuria suggest that a single 500 mg dose of ciprofloxacin is suitable prophylaxis for transurethral surgery.  (+info)

Effect of glucose and pH on uropathogenic and non-uropathogenic Escherichia coli: studies with urine from diabetic and non-diabetic individuals. (5/581)

It is generally assumed that one of the reasons why diabetics are more susceptible to urinary tract infections than non-diabetics is their 'sweet urine'. However, very little information is available on this subject. Therefore, the growth rates of different Escherichia coli strains were studied in human urine with and without added glucose and with and without a constant pH, and compared with their growth rates in Mueller-Hinton broth (MHB). Eight isolates were used (three from blood cultures from urosepsis patients, two urinary isolates, two faecal isolates and one laboratory strain K12). All isolates grew better in MHB than in urine, but with the exception of the laboratory strain, they had the same growth rate in urine. No significant difference was found between the growth rate in urine from diabetics without glucosuria and that in urine from non-diabetics. The addition of glucose (up to a concentration of 1000 mg/dl) to urine and MHB enhanced the growth rate of all isolates. However, very high concentrations of glucose (up to 10000 mg/dl) in urine and MHB caused a decrease in bacterial growth rate when the urinary pH was not kept constant. The stationary phase was reached later and the final bacterial yield was greater when the urine was made less acidic. As the uropathogenic strains did not grow better in urine than the other isolates, it may be concluded that better growth in urine is not one of the causes of the greater virulence of these strains.  (+info)

Experimental urinary tract infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in mice. (6/581)

Urinary tract infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa was induced in mice by transurethral inoculation of the organism into the bladder, followed by urethral obstruction for 6 h. The infection was mostly localized in the urinary organs. P. aeruginosa P9 was selected as the challenge organism from 10 laboratory strains of P. aeruginosa. After the inoculation of 10(7) colony-forming units of P. aeruginosa P9, transient bacteremia was observed in some of the mice from 6 h to 1 day after the inoculation. The number of organisms in the bladder tissue gradually decreased, whereas that in the kidneys increased to levels of 10(6) to 10(7) colony-forming units in 3 days, and these levels remained up to 2 weeks after the inoculation. The organisms gradually disappeared thereafter, and spontaneous recovery took place. The organisms could be recovered from the kidneys of 95% of the mice, and the gross lesions in the kidneys were observed in 77% of the mice 1 week after inoculation. The method developed here is simple and may be useful in the study of urinary tract infections due to P. aeruginosa and other species of bacteria.20  (+info)

The effect of specimen processing delay on borate urine preservation. (7/581)

AIM: To investigate the effect on urine culture results and their clinical interpretation of delaying the processing of urine samples in which boric acid had been used as a preservative. METHODS: 792 mid-stream specimens of urine from patients attending their general practitioner were received in borate containing plastic jars. The specimens were cultured upon receipt, stored at room temperature, and then recultured the following morning. RESULTS: After overnight delayed culture, the results were altered in 16% of samples and the clinical interpretation of these findings differed in 8% of specimens. In 28 samples (3.5%) the bacterium isolated on initial culture was not the same as that obtained by culture after overnight storage. CONCLUSIONS: Boric acid urine preservation used for overnight delayed processing of samples is associated with a significant alteration in culture results and the attendant clinical interpretation of such specimens. Rapid transportation/processing of urine specimens must remain the optimum procedure.  (+info)

Evaluation of the leukocyte esterase and nitrite urine dipstick screening tests for detection of bacteriuria in women with suspected uncomplicated urinary tract infections. (8/581)

A positive dipstick urinalysis (i.e., leukocyte esterase test and/or nitrite test) did not reliably detect significant bacteriuria in 479 ambulatory women with suspected uncomplicated urinary tract infection; 18.9% of the urine samples that demonstrated significant bacteriuria would have been rejected by the laboratory based on a negative urinalysis screen.  (+info)

Bacteriuria is a medical term that refers to the presence of bacteria in the urine. The condition can be asymptomatic or symptomatic, and it can occur in various populations, including hospitalized patients, pregnant women, and individuals with underlying urologic abnormalities.

There are different types of bacteriuria, including:

1. Significant bacteriuria: This refers to the presence of a large number of bacteria in the urine (usually greater than 100,000 colony-forming units per milliliter or CFU/mL) and is often associated with urinary tract infection (UTI).
2. Contaminant bacteriuria: This occurs when bacteria from the skin or external environment enter the urine sample during collection, leading to a small number of bacteria present in the urine.
3. Asymptomatic bacteriuria: This refers to the presence of bacteria in the urine without any symptoms of UTI. It is more common in older adults, pregnant women, and individuals with diabetes or other underlying medical conditions.

The diagnosis of bacteriuria typically involves a urinalysis and urine culture to identify the type and quantity of bacteria present in the urine. Treatment depends on the type and severity of bacteriuria and may involve antibiotics to eliminate the infection. However, asymptomatic bacteriuria often does not require treatment unless it occurs in pregnant women or individuals undergoing urologic procedures.

Pyuria is a medical term that refers to the presence of pus or purulent exudate (containing white blood cells) in the urine. It's typically indicative of a urinary tract infection (UTI), inflammation, or other conditions that cause an elevated number of leukocytes in the urine. The pus may come from the kidneys, ureters, bladder, or urethra. Other possible causes include sexually transmitted infections, kidney stones, trauma, or medical procedures involving the urinary tract. A healthcare professional will usually confirm pyuria through a urinalysis and might recommend further testing to determine the underlying cause and appropriate treatment.

Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) are defined as the presence of pathogenic microorganisms, typically bacteria, in any part of the urinary system, which includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra, resulting in infection and inflammation. The majority of UTIs are caused by Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria, but other organisms such as Klebsiella, Proteus, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, and Enterococcus can also cause UTIs.

UTIs can be classified into two types based on the location of the infection:

1. Lower UTI or bladder infection (cystitis): This type of UTI affects the bladder and urethra. Symptoms may include a frequent and urgent need to urinate, pain or burning during urination, cloudy or strong-smelling urine, and discomfort in the lower abdomen or back.

2. Upper UTI or kidney infection (pyelonephritis): This type of UTI affects the kidneys and can be more severe than a bladder infection. Symptoms may include fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, and pain in the flanks or back.

UTIs are more common in women than men due to their shorter urethra, which makes it easier for bacteria to reach the bladder. Other risk factors for UTIs include sexual activity, use of diaphragms or spermicides, urinary catheterization, diabetes, and weakened immune systems.

UTIs are typically diagnosed through a urinalysis and urine culture to identify the causative organism and determine the appropriate antibiotic treatment. In some cases, imaging studies such as ultrasound or CT scan may be necessary to evaluate for any underlying abnormalities in the urinary tract.

Asymptomatic infections are those in which an individual carries and may transmit a pathogen, such as a virus or bacteria, but does not develop any symptoms associated with the infection. These individuals are often referred to as being "asymptomatically infected" or "asymptomatic carriers."

Asymptomatic infections can occur with various infectious diseases, including COVID-19, HIV, hepatitis B, and some sexually transmitted infections. In many cases, asymptomatic individuals may not realize they are infected and unknowingly transmit the pathogen to others. This makes identifying and controlling asymptomatic infections crucial for preventing outbreaks and limiting the spread of infectious diseases.

It's important to note that while asymptomatic individuals do not experience symptoms, they can still develop immunity to the infection, similar to those who experienced symptoms. Additionally, some asymptomatic infections may progress to symptomatic illness over time or upon subsequent exposures to the pathogen.

Urine is a physiological excretory product that is primarily composed of water, urea, and various ions (such as sodium, potassium, chloride, and others) that are the byproducts of protein metabolism. It also contains small amounts of other substances like uric acid, creatinine, ammonia, and various organic compounds. Urine is produced by the kidneys through a process called urination or micturition, where it is filtered from the blood and then stored in the bladder until it is excreted from the body through the urethra. The color, volume, and composition of urine can provide important diagnostic information about various medical conditions.

Urinary catheterization is a medical procedure in which a flexible tube (catheter) is inserted into the bladder through the urethra to drain urine. This may be done to manage urinary retention, monitor urine output, or obtain a urine sample for laboratory testing. It can be performed as a clean, intermittent catheterization, or with an indwelling catheter (also known as Foley catheter) that remains in place for a longer period of time. The procedure should be performed using sterile technique to reduce the risk of urinary tract infection.

Reagent strips, also known as diagnostic or test strips, are narrow pieces of plastic material that have been impregnated with chemical reagents. They are used in the qualitative or semi-quantitative detection of various substances, such as glucose, proteins, ketones, blood, and white blood cells, in body fluids like urine or blood.

Reagent strips typically contain multiple pad areas, each with a different reagent that reacts to a specific substance. To perform the test, a small amount of the fluid is applied to the strip, and the reaction between the reagents and the target substance produces a visible color change. The resulting color can then be compared to a standardized color chart to determine the concentration or presence of the substance.

Reagent strips are widely used in point-of-care testing, providing quick and convenient results for healthcare professionals and patients alike. They are commonly used for monitoring conditions such as diabetes (urine or blood glucose levels), urinary tract infections (leukocytes and nitrites), and kidney function (protein and blood).

Pyelonephritis is a type of urinary tract infection (UTI) that involves the renal pelvis and the kidney parenchyma. It's typically caused by bacterial invasion, often via the ascending route from the lower urinary tract. The most common causative agent is Escherichia coli (E. coli), but other bacteria such as Klebsiella, Proteus, and Pseudomonas can also be responsible.

Acute pyelonephritis can lead to symptoms like fever, chills, flank pain, nausea, vomiting, and frequent or painful urination. If left untreated, it can potentially cause permanent kidney damage, sepsis, or other complications. Chronic pyelonephritis, on the other hand, is usually associated with underlying structural or functional abnormalities of the urinary tract.

Diagnosis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, urinalysis, and imaging studies, while treatment often consists of antibiotics tailored to the identified pathogen and the patient's overall health status.

Urinalysis is a medical examination and analysis of urine. It's used to detect and manage a wide range of disorders, such as diabetes, kidney disease, and liver problems. A urinalysis can also help monitor medications and drug compliance. The test typically involves checking the color, clarity, and specific gravity (concentration) of urine. It may also include chemical analysis to detect substances like glucose, protein, blood, and white blood cells, which could indicate various medical conditions. In some cases, a microscopic examination is performed to identify any abnormal cells, casts, or crystals present in the urine.

Cystitis is a medical term that refers to inflammation of the bladder, usually caused by a bacterial infection. The infection can occur when bacteria from the digestive tract or skin enter the urinary tract through the urethra and travel up to the bladder. This condition is more common in women than men due to their shorter urethras, which makes it easier for bacteria to reach the bladder.

Symptoms of cystitis may include a strong, frequent, or urgent need to urinate, pain or burning during urination, cloudy or strong-smelling urine, and discomfort in the lower abdomen or back. In some cases, there may be blood in the urine, fever, chills, or nausea and vomiting.

Cystitis can usually be treated with antibiotics to kill the bacteria causing the infection. Drinking plenty of water to flush out the bacteria and alleviating symptoms with over-the-counter pain medications may also help. Preventive measures include practicing good hygiene, wiping from front to back after using the toilet, urinating after sexual activity, and avoiding using douches or perfumes in the genital area.

Bacteriological techniques refer to the various methods and procedures used in the laboratory for the cultivation, identification, and study of bacteria. These techniques are essential in fields such as medicine, biotechnology, and research. Here are some common bacteriological techniques:

1. **Sterilization**: This is a process that eliminates or kills all forms of life, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and spores. Common sterilization methods include autoclaving (using steam under pressure), dry heat (in an oven), chemical sterilants, and radiation.

2. **Aseptic Technique**: This refers to practices used to prevent contamination of sterile materials or environments with microorganisms. It includes the use of sterile equipment, gloves, and lab coats, as well as techniques such as flaming, alcohol swabbing, and using aseptic transfer devices.

3. **Media Preparation**: This involves the preparation of nutrient-rich substances that support bacterial growth. There are various types of media, including solid (agar), liquid (broth), and semi-solid (e.g., stab agar). The choice of medium depends on the type of bacteria being cultured and the purpose of the investigation.

4. **Inoculation**: This is the process of introducing a bacterial culture into a medium. It can be done using a loop, swab, or needle. The inoculum should be taken from a pure culture to avoid contamination.

5. **Incubation**: After inoculation, the bacteria are allowed to grow under controlled conditions of temperature, humidity, and atmospheric composition. This process is called incubation.

6. **Staining and Microscopy**: Bacteria are too small to be seen with the naked eye. Therefore, they need to be stained and observed under a microscope. Gram staining is a common method used to differentiate between two major groups of bacteria based on their cell wall composition.

7. **Biochemical Tests**: These are tests used to identify specific bacterial species based on their biochemical characteristics, such as their ability to ferment certain sugars, produce particular enzymes, or resist certain antibiotics.

8. **Molecular Techniques**: Advanced techniques like PCR and DNA sequencing can provide more precise identification of bacteria. They can also be used for genetic analysis and epidemiological studies.

Remember, handling microorganisms requires careful attention to biosafety procedures to prevent accidental infection or environmental contamination.

Urography is a medical imaging technique used to examine the urinary system, which includes the kidneys, ureters, and bladder. It involves the use of a contrast material that is injected into a vein or given orally, which then travels through the bloodstream to the kidneys and gets excreted in the urine. This allows the radiologist to visualize the structures and any abnormalities such as tumors, stones, or blockages. There are different types of urography, including intravenous urography (IVU), CT urography, and retrograde urography.

Anti-infective agents for the urinary tract are medications used to prevent or treat infections caused by microorganisms (such as bacteria, fungi, or viruses) in the urinary system. These agents can be administered locally (for example, via catheter instillation) or systemically (orally or intravenously).

Common classes of anti-infective agents used for urinary tract infections include:

1. Antibiotics: These are the most commonly prescribed class of anti-infectives for urinary tract infections. They target and kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria responsible for the infection. Common antibiotics used for this purpose include trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, nitrofurantoin, ciprofloxacin, and fosfomycin.
2. Antifungals: These medications are used to treat fungal urinary tract infections (UTIs). Common antifungal agents include fluconazole, amphotericin B, and nystatin.
3. Antivirals: Although rare, viral UTIs can occur, and antiviral medications may be prescribed to treat them. Examples of antiviral agents used for urinary tract infections include acyclovir and valacyclovir.

It is essential to consult a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment for any suspected urinary tract infection. Improper use or misuse of anti-infective agents can lead to antibiotic resistance, making future treatments more challenging.

Infectious pregnancy complications refer to infections that occur during pregnancy and can affect the mother, fetus, or both. These infections can lead to serious consequences such as preterm labor, low birth weight, birth defects, stillbirth, or even death. Some common infectious agents that can cause pregnancy complications include:

1. Bacteria: Examples include group B streptococcus, Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes, which can cause sepsis, meningitis, or pneumonia in the mother and lead to preterm labor or stillbirth.
2. Viruses: Examples include cytomegalovirus, rubella, varicella-zoster, and HIV, which can cause congenital anomalies, developmental delays, or transmission of the virus to the fetus.
3. Parasites: Examples include Toxoplasma gondii, which can cause severe neurological damage in the fetus if transmitted during pregnancy.
4. Fungi: Examples include Candida albicans, which can cause fungal infections in the mother and lead to preterm labor or stillbirth.

Preventive measures such as vaccination, good hygiene practices, and avoiding high-risk behaviors can help reduce the risk of infectious pregnancy complications. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of infections during pregnancy are also crucial to prevent adverse outcomes.

Escherichia coli (E. coli) infections refer to illnesses caused by the bacterium E. coli, which can cause a range of symptoms depending on the specific strain and site of infection. The majority of E. coli strains are harmless and live in the intestines of healthy humans and animals. However, some strains, particularly those that produce Shiga toxins, can cause severe illness.

E. coli infections can occur through various routes, including contaminated food or water, person-to-person contact, or direct contact with animals or their environments. Common symptoms of E. coli infections include diarrhea (often bloody), abdominal cramps, nausea, and vomiting. In severe cases, complications such as hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) can occur, which may lead to kidney failure and other long-term health problems.

Preventing E. coli infections involves practicing good hygiene, cooking meats thoroughly, avoiding cross-contamination of food during preparation, washing fruits and vegetables before eating, and avoiding unpasteurized dairy products and juices. Prompt medical attention is necessary if symptoms of an E. coli infection are suspected to prevent potential complications.

Nitrofurantoin is an antibacterial medication used to treat urinary tract infections caused by susceptible strains of bacteria. According to the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) of the National Library of Medicine, its medical definition is: "Antibacterial agent with nitrofuran ring and furazan moiety. It is used to treat urinary tract infections and is also used for prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infections."

Nitrofurantoin works by inhibiting bacterial DNA synthesis, leading to bacterial death. It is typically administered orally and is available under various brand names, such as Macrobid® and Furadantin®. The medication is generally well-tolerated; however, potential side effects include gastrointestinal symptoms (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or abdominal pain), headaches, dizziness, and pulmonary reactions. Rare but severe adverse events include peripheral neuropathy and hepatotoxicity.

It is essential to note that nitrofurantoin's effectiveness depends on the susceptibility of the infecting bacteria, and resistance has been reported in some cases. Therefore, it is crucial to consider local resistance patterns when prescribing this antibiotic.

'Proteus' doesn't have a specific medical definition itself, but it is related to a syndrome in medicine. Proteus syndrome is a rare genetic disorder characterized by the overgrowth of various tissues and organs in the body. The name "Proteus" comes from the Greek god Proteus, who could change his form at will, reflecting the diverse and ever-changing nature of this condition's symptoms.

People with Proteus syndrome experience asymmetric overgrowth of bones, skin, and other tissues, leading to abnormalities in body shape and function. The disorder can also affect blood vessels, causing benign tumors called hamartomas to develop. Additionally, individuals with Proteus syndrome are at an increased risk of developing certain types of cancer.

The genetic mutation responsible for Proteus syndrome is found in the AKT1 gene, which plays a crucial role in cell growth and division. This disorder is typically not inherited but instead arises spontaneously as a new mutation in the affected individual. Early diagnosis and management of Proteus syndrome can help improve patients' quality of life and reduce complications associated with the condition.

Proteus mirabilis is a species of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the environment, particularly in soil and water. In humans, P. mirabilis can be part of the normal gut flora but can also cause opportunistic infections, particularly in the urinary tract. It is known for its ability to produce urease, which can lead to the formation of urinary stones and blockages.

P. mirabilis infections are often associated with underlying medical conditions such as diabetes, kidney disease, or urinary catheterization. Symptoms of a P. mirabilis infection may include fever, cloudy or foul-smelling urine, and pain or burning during urination. Treatment typically involves antibiotics that are effective against Gram-negative bacteria, although resistance to certain antibiotics is not uncommon in P. mirabilis isolates.

Sulfamethizole is an antibacterial drug, specifically a sulfonamide. It is defined as a synthetic antibacterial agent that is chemically related to sulfanilamide and is used to treat various infections caused by susceptible bacteria. Sulfamethizole works by inhibiting the growth of bacteria through interfering with the synthesis of bacterial folic acid.

Here's a brief medical definition:

Sulfamethizole (sul-fa-meth-i-zole): A synthetic antibacterial agent, chemically related to sulfanilamide, used to treat various infections caused by susceptible bacteria. It functions as a folic acid antagonist, preventing bacterial growth by interfering with the synthesis of bacterial folic acid.

Please note that this definition is intended to be concise and informative for educational purposes. For more detailed information or medical advice, consult a healthcare professional.

Proteus infections are caused by the bacterium Proteus mirabilis or other Proteus species. These bacteria are gram-negative, opportunistic pathogens that can cause various types of infections, including urinary tract infections (UTIs), wound infections, and bacteremia (bloodstream infections). Proteus infections are often associated with complicated UTIs, catheter-associated UTIs, and healthcare-associated infections. They can be difficult to treat due to their ability to produce enzymes that inactivate certain antibiotics and form biofilms.

Proteus infections can cause symptoms such as fever, chills, fatigue, and discomfort in the affected area. In UTIs, patients may experience symptoms like burning during urination, frequent urges to urinate, and cloudy or foul-smelling urine. Wound infections caused by Proteus can lead to delayed healing, increased pain, and pus formation. Bacteremia can cause sepsis, a life-threatening condition that requires immediate medical attention.

Treatment for Proteus infections typically involves antibiotics, such as fluoroquinolones, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, or carbapenems. The choice of antibiotic depends on the severity and location of the infection, as well as the patient's overall health status and any underlying medical conditions. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to drain abscesses or remove infected devices like catheters.

A "false negative" reaction in medical testing refers to a situation where a diagnostic test incorrectly indicates the absence of a specific condition or disease, when in fact it is present. This can occur due to various reasons such as issues with the sensitivity of the test, improper sample collection, or specimen handling and storage.

False negative results can have serious consequences, as they may lead to delayed treatment, misdiagnosis, or a false sense of security for the patient. Therefore, it is essential to interpret medical test results in conjunction with other clinical findings, patient history, and physical examination. In some cases, repeating the test or using a different diagnostic method may be necessary to confirm the initial result.

"Providencia" is a term that refers to a type of bacteria that can cause infections in humans. The scientific name for this bacterium is "Providencia stuartii." It is part of the Enterobacteriaceae family and is commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals.

Providencia stuartii can cause a variety of infections, including urinary tract infections, wound infections, and bloodstream infections. It is often resistant to many antibiotics, which can make it difficult to treat. People who are hospitalized, have weakened immune systems, or use catheters are at increased risk for Providencia infections.

It's important to note that while "Providencia" refers to a specific type of bacteria, the term is not typically used in medical diagnoses or treatment. Instead, healthcare providers would specify the type of infection and the name of the bacterium causing it.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hebrides" is not a medical term. It refers to an archipelago off the west coast of Scotland, consisting of two main groups of islands: the Inner Hebrides and the Outer Hebrides. The islands are known for their stunning landscapes, rich history, and unique Gaelic culture. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I'd be happy to help!

Firefly luciferin is not a medical term, but a biological term used to describe a compound involved in bioluminescence, specifically in fireflies.

Luciferin is a molecule that can produce light when it reacts with oxygen in the presence of an enzyme called luciferase and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is a source of energy in cells. In fireflies, this reaction occurs in specialized cells within the lantern organ of the insect, producing the characteristic glowing light.

While not directly related to medical terminology, bioluminescence and its underlying mechanisms have been studied for potential applications in medical research, such as developing sensitive biosensors for detecting various biological molecules or monitoring cellular processes.

A urinary catheter is a flexible tube that is inserted into the bladder to drain urine. It can be made of rubber, plastic, or latex and comes in various sizes and lengths. The catheter can be inserted through the urethra (the tube that carries urine out of the body from the bladder) and is called a Foley catheter or an indwelling catheter. A straight catheter, on the other hand, is inserted through the urethra and removed after it has drained the urine.

Urinary catheters are used in various medical situations, such as when a person is unable to empty their bladder due to surgery, anesthesia, medication, or conditions that affect bladder function. They may also be used for long-term management of urinary incontinence or to drain the bladder during certain medical procedures.

It's important to note that the use of urinary catheters carries a risk of complications, such as urinary tract infections, bladder spasms, and injury to the urethra or bladder. Therefore, they should only be used when necessary and under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that are among the earliest known life forms on Earth. They are typically characterized as having a cell wall and no membrane-bound organelles. The majority of bacteria have a prokaryotic organization, meaning they lack a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles.

Bacteria exist in diverse environments and can be found in every habitat on Earth, including soil, water, and the bodies of plants and animals. Some bacteria are beneficial to their hosts, while others can cause disease. Beneficial bacteria play important roles in processes such as digestion, nitrogen fixation, and biogeochemical cycling.

Bacteria reproduce asexually through binary fission or budding, and some species can also exchange genetic material through conjugation. They have a wide range of metabolic capabilities, with many using organic compounds as their source of energy, while others are capable of photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.

Bacteria are highly adaptable and can evolve rapidly in response to environmental changes. This has led to the development of antibiotic resistance in some species, which poses a significant public health challenge. Understanding the biology and behavior of bacteria is essential for developing strategies to prevent and treat bacterial infections and diseases.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

Klebsiella is a genus of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, encapsulated, non-motile, rod-shaped bacteria that are part of the family Enterobacteriaceae. They are commonly found in the normal microbiota of the mouth, skin, and intestines, but can also cause various types of infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems.

Klebsiella pneumoniae is the most common species and can cause pneumonia, urinary tract infections, bloodstream infections, and wound infections. Other Klebsiella species, such as K. oxytoca, can also cause similar types of infections. These bacteria are resistant to many antibiotics, making them difficult to treat and a significant public health concern.

A "false positive reaction" in medical testing refers to a situation where a diagnostic test incorrectly indicates the presence of a specific condition or disease in an individual who does not actually have it. This occurs when the test results give a positive outcome, while the true health status of the person is negative or free from the condition being tested for.

False positive reactions can be caused by various factors including:

1. Presence of unrelated substances that interfere with the test result (e.g., cross-reactivity between similar molecules).
2. Low specificity of the test, which means it may detect other conditions or irrelevant factors as positive.
3. Contamination during sample collection, storage, or analysis.
4. Human errors in performing or interpreting the test results.

False positive reactions can have significant consequences, such as unnecessary treatments, anxiety, and increased healthcare costs. Therefore, it is essential to confirm any positive test result with additional tests or clinical evaluations before making a definitive diagnosis.

Glycosuria is a medical term that refers to the presence of glucose in the urine. Under normal circumstances, the kidneys are able to reabsorb all of the filtered glucose back into the bloodstream. However, when the blood glucose levels become excessively high, such as in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, the kidneys may not be able to reabsorb all of the glucose, and some of it will spill over into the urine.

Glycosuria can also occur in other conditions that affect glucose metabolism or renal function, such as impaired kidney function, certain medications, pregnancy, and rare genetic disorders. It is important to note that glycosuria alone does not necessarily indicate diabetes, but it may be a sign of an underlying medical condition that requires further evaluation by a healthcare professional.

Vesico-Ureteral Reflux (VUR) is a medical condition that affects the urinary system, specifically the junction where the ureters (tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder) connect with the bladder. In normal physiology, once the bladder fills up with urine and contracts during micturition (urination), the pressure within the bladder should prevent the backflow of urine into the ureters.

However, in VUR, the valve-like mechanism that prevents this backflow does not function properly, allowing urine to flow backward from the bladder into the ureters and potentially even into the kidneys. This reflux can lead to recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs), kidney damage, and other complications if left untreated. VUR is more commonly diagnosed in children but can also occur in adults.

The urinary tract is a system in the body responsible for producing, storing, and eliminating urine. It includes two kidneys, two ureters, the bladder, and the urethra. The kidneys filter waste and excess fluids from the blood to produce urine, which then travels down the ureters into the bladder. When the bladder is full, urine is released through the urethra during urination. Any part of this system can become infected or inflamed, leading to conditions such as urinary tract infections (UTIs) or kidney stones.

Neurogenic bladder is a term used to describe bladder dysfunction due to neurological damage or disease. The condition can result in problems with bladder storage and emptying, leading to symptoms such as urinary frequency, urgency, hesitancy, incontinence, and retention.

Neurogenic bladder can occur due to various medical conditions, including spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, diabetic neuropathy, and stroke. The damage to the nerves that control bladder function can result in overactivity or underactivity of the bladder muscle, leading to urinary symptoms.

Management of neurogenic bladder typically involves a multidisciplinary approach, including medications, bladder training, catheterization, and surgery in some cases. The specific treatment plan depends on the underlying cause of the condition and the severity of the symptoms.

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

Intermittent urethral catheterization (IUC) is a medical procedure that involves the periodic insertion of a sterile, flexible tube (catheter) into the urethra to drain urine from the bladder. This procedure is typically performed when a person has difficulty fully emptying their bladder or when continuous catheterization is not necessary or desired. IUC is often used in individuals with neurogenic bladder dysfunction, urinary retention, or post-operative complications. The frequency of catheterization varies depending on the individual's needs and can range from several times a day to once every few days. It is essential to follow proper aseptic techniques during IUC to minimize the risk of urinary tract infections.

In a medical context, nitrites are typically referred to as organic compounds that contain a functional group with the formula R-N=O, where R represents an alkyl or aryl group. They are commonly used in medicine as vasodilators, which means they widen and relax blood vessels, improving blood flow and lowering blood pressure.

One example of a nitrite used medically is amyl nitrite, which was previously used to treat angina pectoris, a type of chest pain caused by reduced blood flow to the heart muscle. However, its use has largely been replaced by other medications due to safety concerns and the availability of more effective treatments.

It's worth noting that inorganic nitrites, such as sodium nitrite, are also used in medicine for various purposes, including as a preservative in food and as a medication to treat cyanide poisoning. However, these compounds have different chemical properties and uses than organic nitrites.

Cefixime is a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic, which is used to treat various bacterial infections. It works by inhibiting the synthesis of the bacterial cell wall. Cefixime is available as an oral suspension or tablet and is commonly prescribed for respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, ear infections, and skin infections.

The medical definition of Cefixime can be stated as follows:

Cefixime: A semisynthetic antibiotic derived from cephalosporin, which is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. It has a broad spectrum of activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including beta-lactamase producing strains. Cefixime is administered orally and is often prescribed for respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, ear infections, and skin infections. It has a long half-life and high oral bioavailability, making it a convenient option for outpatient treatment.

Common side effects of Cefixime include diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and headache. Serious side effects are rare but may include anaphylaxis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis. Caution should be exercised when prescribing Cefixime to patients with a history of allergic reactions to cephalosporins or penicillins.

... in pregnancy also increases the risk of preeclampsia. Symptomatic bacteriuria is bacteriuria with the accompanying ... Bacteriuria is the presence of bacteria in urine. Bacteriuria accompanied by symptoms is a urinary tract infection while that ... Asymptomatic bacteriuria is bacteriuria without accompanying symptoms of a urinary tract infection and is commonly caused by ... People with a long-term Foley catheter always show bacteriuria. Chronic asymptomatic bacteriuria occurs in as many as 50% of ...
Asymptomatic bacteriuria is a condition that typically impacts 3-5% of women, with the most vulnerable populations being the ... "Evidence Summary: Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Adults: Screening". US Preventive Services Task Force. Archived from the original ... Within the female population, the risk of bacteriuria increases with age. Escherichia coli is the most common organism found ... Colgan R, Nicolle LE, McGlone A, Hooton TM (September 2006). "Asymptomatic bacteriuria in adults". American Family Physician. ...
bacteriuria or virus, eg. influenza. A gold standard for diagnosing bacteriuria (urinary tract infections) is microbial culture ...
While pregnant women do not have an increased risk of asymptomatic bacteriuria, if bacteriuria is present they do have a 25-40 ... The risk of bacteriuria (bacteria in the urine) is between three and six percent per day and prophylactic antibiotics are not ... If the urine contains significant bacteria but there are no symptoms, the condition is known as asymptomatic bacteriuria. If a ... Glaser AP, Schaeffer AJ (November 2015). "Urinary Tract Infection and Bacteriuria in Pregnancy". The Urologic Clinics of North ...
This was followed later by studies of bacteriuria in pregnancy and longitundial studies on the natural history of bacteriuria ... Kass, Edward H. (1957). "Bacteriuria and the Diagnosis of Infections of the Urinary Tract". A.M.A. Archives of Internal ... Elder, H.A.; Santamarina, B.A.G.; Smith, S.; Kass, E.H. (1971). "The natural history of asymptomatic bacteriuria during ... Pometta, D.; Rees, S. B.; Younger, D.; Kass, E. H. (1967). "Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Diabetes Mellitus". New England Journal ...
... bacteriuria or infection during the current pregnancy or have had group B streptococcal colonisation, bacteriuria or infection ... in order to detect asymptomatic bacteriuria. As with UTIs, any asymptomatic bacteriuria (not just GBS) cases with high CFU/mL ... In addition to cases of GBS UTI and asymptomatic GBS bacteriuria with high CFU/mL, pregnant women with asymptomatic GBS ... This is because GBS bacteriuria, even asymptomatic, at any CFU/mL is an indication of heavy ano-genital colonization. Samples ( ...
Screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria followed by appropriate treatment reduces pyelonephritis and reduces the risk of preterm ... This review recommended that more research is needed to discover the best way of treating asymptomatic bacteriuria. A different ... Widmer M, Lopez I, Gülmezoglu AM, Mignini L, Roganti A (November 2015). "Duration of treatment for asymptomatic bacteriuria ... A review into giving antibiotics in pregnancy for asymptomatic bacteriuria (urine infection with no symptoms) found the ...
January 2009). "Virulence properties of asymptomatic bacteriuria Escherichia coli". International Journal of Medical ... and asymptomatic bacteriuria. PapGI adhesins bind preferentially to globotriaosylceramide (GbO3), while the isoreceptors of ...
monto, AS; Rantz, LA (1 August 1963). "The development and character of bacteriuria in pregnancy". Annals of Internal Medicine ...
Urinary infections can be identified including bacteriuria and pyuria. The test for nitrites is a rapid screening method for ... Chlamydia and yeasts produce leukocyturia without bacteriuria. The inflammation of the renal tissues (interstitial nephritis) ...
He gained a MD in 1966 with a thesis entitled A Study of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in General Practice. In 1972 he was appointed ... "EThOS: A study of asymptomatic bacteriuria in general practice". University of Edinburgh. Retrieved 11 September 2019. Watt, ...
... the condition is called asymptomatic bacteriuria. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is common in elderly people and in those with long- ... 434-6. Cortes-Penfield, N.W.; Trautner, B.W.; Jump, R.L.P. (2017). "Urinary Tract Infection and Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in ... Exceptions include pregnant women, in whom bacteriuria is associated with poorer pregnancy outcomes, and people undergoing some ...
A culture of the urine is performed when a urinary tract infection is suspected, as bacteriuria without symptoms does not ... Avorn J, Monane M, Gurwitz JH, Glynn RJ, Choodnovskiy I, Lipsitz LA (1994). "Reduction of bacteriuria and pyuria after ... "Benefits and Harms of Treatment of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis by the European Association ...
... of patients develop bacteriuria. Whilst the presence of a catheter does increase the incidence of bloodstream infections ... antimicrobial prescribing on the basis of detection of asymptomatic bacteriuria. The industry is moving to silver-coated ... "Antibiotic use during coronavirus disease 2019 intensive care unit shape multidrug resistance bacteriuria: A Swedish ...
"National Cohort Study of Preoperative Bacteriuria, Surgical Prophylaxis, and Postoperative Outcomes". Open Forum Infectious ...
This suggests that the deaths were due to reasons other than bacteriuria. Total length of hospitalization was somewhat longer ... A 2013 retrospective study at the Shaare Zedek Medical Center of patients with urinary tract infections (bacteriuria) caused by ... "Risk factors for bacteriuria with carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and its impact on mortality: A case-control study ... showed no statistically significant difference in mortality rates from patients with bacteriuria caused by carbapenem- ...
Leukocyturia is mostly a sign of urinary tract infection, especially if significant bacteriuria is found (for most people, the ... Urinalysis Bacteriuria Gilbert J. Wise & Peter N. Schlegel (March 12, 2015). "Sterile Pyuria". N Engl J Med. 372 (11): 1048- ...
Roos V, Ulett GC, Schembri MA, Klemm P (January 2006). "The asymptomatic bacteriuria Escherichia coli strain 83972 outcompetes ...
While there are benefits to catheters, a common complication of long-term catheter use is asymptomatic bacteriuria. Portable ...
Chemical screening methods for bacteriuria, such as, urine nitrate and glucose do not always detect S. saprophyticus infection ...
... asymptomatic recurrent bacteriuria in women, pulmonary tuberculosis, and leprosy. Anti-cardiolipin antibodies are another type ...
... and untreated bacteriuria. PPD 2-3: endometritis ( the most common cause ) risk factors include emergency cesarean section, ...
Rosier PK (July 2004). "Review: silver alloy catheters are more effective than standard catheters for reducing bacteriuria in ... Two systemic reviews in 2004 found that using silver-alloy catheters reduced asymptomatic and symptomatic bacteriuria more than ...
She investigated women who experienced urinary symptoms but whose tests did not show bacteriuria and were therefore diagnosed ...
... penneri bacteriuria. These data substantiate the need for species-level identification of P. penneri in the clinical setting. ...
... syndrome is defined as symptoms suggestive of a lower urinary tract infection but in the absence of significant bacteriuria ...
GBS bacteriuria during this pregnancy History of GBS disease in a previous infant Intrapartum fever (≥38 °C) Preterm labour (. ...
Pyuria and bacteriuria (white blood cells and bacteria in the urine) in patients with acute scrotum suggests an infectious ...
... bacteriuria MeSH C01.539.895.719 - pyuria MeSH C01.539.895.775 - schistosomiasis haematobia MeSH C01.539.947.692 - surgical ...
... a utility uniform of the United States Air Force Asia-Pacific Broadcasting Union Asymptomatic bacteriuria, bacteria in the ...
Bacteriuria in pregnancy also increases the risk of preeclampsia. Symptomatic bacteriuria is bacteriuria with the accompanying ... Bacteriuria is the presence of bacteria in urine. Bacteriuria accompanied by symptoms is a urinary tract infection while that ... Asymptomatic bacteriuria is bacteriuria without accompanying symptoms of a urinary tract infection and is commonly caused by ... People with a long-term Foley catheter always show bacteriuria. Chronic asymptomatic bacteriuria occurs in as many as 50% of ...
Asymptomatic bacteriuria occurs in a small number of healthy people. It affects women more often than men. The reasons for the ... To diagnose asymptomatic bacteriuria, a urine sample must be sent for a urine culture. Most people with no urinary tract ... Antibiotics for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019;11:CD000490. PMID: 31765489 pubmed.ncbi ... If you have these symptoms, you may have a urinary tract infection, but you do not have asymptomatic bacteriuria. ...
Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) is common. The frequency varies among different populations, depending on factors such as age, ... encoded search term (Asymptomatic Bacteriuria) and Asymptomatic Bacteriuria What to Read Next on Medscape ... Asymptomatic Bacteriuria Updated: Sep 03, 2021 * Author: Edgar V Lerma, MD, FACP, FASN, FAHA, FASH, FNLA, FNKF; Chief Editor: ... Asymptomatic bacteriuria, to screen or not to screen - and when to treat?. Curr Opin Urol. 2017 Mar. 27 (2):107-111. [QxMD ...
What are the most likely urinary tract infection (UTI) organisms? What are the most common UTI risk factors? What are the current recommendations for assessment and treatment of UTI? Learn the answers to these questions in this evidence-based program. ...
Each episode of bacteriuria was classified into ABU or urinary tract infection (UTI). ABU was defined as a positive urine ... Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) is common and often leads to unnecessary antimicrobial use. Reducing antibiotic overuse for ABU ... Since the unit of analysis in our study was a single episode of bacteriuria, repeated bacteriuria examinations of a single ... 1, 683 episodes of bacteriuria were excluded. Among the remaining 484 cases of bacteriuria, 219 cases were classified as ABU. ...
Clinico-microbiological Profile and Outcomes of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Pregnancy ... ASB=asymptomatic bacteriuria, GDM=gestational diabetes mellitus, non-ASB=non-asymptomatic bacteriuria, PPROM=preterm premature ... ASB=asymptomatic bacteriuria, IUD=intrauterine death, non-ASB=non-asymptomatic bacteriuria, * - Significant P ... Celen S, Oruc AS, Karayalcin R, Saygan S, Unlu S, Polat B, et al. Asymptomatic bacteriuria and antibacterial susceptibility ...
Bacteriuria. GBS is found in the urine of 2%--7% of pregnant women (46--48,129,130). GBS bacteriuria in a pregnant woman is a ... GBS bacteriuria during any trimester of the current pregnancy*. • GBS bacteriuria during previous pregnancy (unless an ... BOX 4. Identification of group B Streptococcus (GBS) bacteriuria in pregnant women ... Most data on the risk for early-onset GBS disease among infants born to women with GBS bacteriuria are derived from studies of ...
Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) is common. The frequency varies among different populations, depending on factors such as age, ... encoded search term (Asymptomatic Bacteriuria) and Asymptomatic Bacteriuria What to Read Next on Medscape ... Asymptomatic Bacteriuria. Updated: Dec 26, 2014 * Author: William H Shoff, MD, DTM&H; Chief Editor: Vecihi Batuman, MD, FACP, ... Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) is more common in patients with either type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus, as well as in men, ...
Can a standardized approach reduce the unnecessary treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in long-term care residents? ... Unlike symptomatic bacteriuria, asymptomatic bacteriuria should not be treated with antibiotics. ... Rates of asymptomatic bacteriuria in LTC residents are high: 25%-50% in women, 15%-40% in men, and nearly 100% in patients with ... I hope that this new stewardship program will improve the understanding of asymptomatic and symptomatic bacteriuria in LTC ...
... of providencia stuartii correlates with adherence to catheters and with persistence in catheter-associated bacteriuria. ... of providencia stuartii correlates with adherence to catheters and with persistence in catheter-associated bacteriuria. ...
Asymptomatic Bacteriuria - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the MSD Manuals - Medical Consumer ... Bacteriuria can be confirmed by a urine culture Urinalysis and Urine Culture Urinalysis, the testing of urine, may be necessary ... Asymptomatic bacteriuria is also sometimes treated in people who have certain kinds of kidney stones Stones in the Urinary ... Because asymptomatic bacteriuria is not usually treated, doctors do not usually do tests to identify it unless the person has a ...
Enterobacteriaceae Bacteriuria Group) and kidney transplant recipients who did not develop Enterobacteriaceae bacteriuria (No ... Purpose: Uropathogens from the gut is thought to be a source of bacteriuria and urinary tract infection, but the role of gut ... Results: Among the cohort, 53 kidney transplant recipients developed Enterobacteriaceae bacteriuria. The relative abundances of ... Gut Commensal Microbiota are Associated with a Decreased Risk for Enterobacteriaceae Bacteriuria. J. R. Lee1, M. Magruder1, L. ...
Do Cranberry Capsules Prevent or Eliminate Bacteriuria Plus Pyuria in Elderly Women? After decades of controversy about the ...
Gut uropathogen abundance is a risk factor for development of bacteriuria and urinary tract infection. Nat Commun. 2019 12 04; ... Gut uropathogen abundance is a risk factor for development of bacteriuria and urinary tract infection. ... Gut uropathogen abundance is a risk factor for development of bacteriuria and urinary tract infection. ...
Bacteriuria Screening. *. Birth Control. *. Blood Disorders in Pregnancy. *. Breast Cancer Screening. *. Breast Pain. ...
Inappropriate treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria]. Sultan R, Cazaux T, Regina J. Sultan R, et al. Rev Med Suisse. 2024 Apr ...
Asymptomatic Bacteriuria among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care at Sinza District Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania ... Asymptomatic bacteriuria, Pregnancy, Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, Lower-level facility Abstract. Background. ... Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) in pregnancy is associated with poor fetal and maternal outcomes. Treatment of ASB in pregnant ... Asymptomatic Bacteriuria among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care at Sinza District Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. ( ...
Assessing the diagnostic values of bacteriuria and pyuria in urinary tract infections. Findings suggest urine microscopy ... As the same for bacteriuria, these calculations were 97%, 98%, 90%, 99% and for the category with both bacteriuria and pyuria ... This study was conducted to assess the diagnostic values for bacteriuria and pyuria and evaluate their roles in therapeutic ... P. D. Sundvall and R. K. Gunnarsson, "Evaluation of Dipstick Analysis Among Elderly Residents to Detect Bacteriuria: A Cross- ...
The dogs were trained to differentiate urine samples that were culturally positive for bacteriuria and from culturally negative ...
Radiological Abnormalities and Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease. Issue: Vol 66, Issue 4: 2017 ( ... Objective: The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) in sickle cell disease (SCD) in Jamaica is 5.3%. This study sought ... This study investigated the association of radiological abnormalities and asymptomatic bacteriuria in patients with sickle cell ... Read more about Radiological Abnormalities and Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease ...
Bacteriuria Screening * View other providers who treat Bacteriuria Screening Birth Control * View other providers who treat ...
Bacteriuria. 1. 2019. 100. 0.160. Why? Soaps. 1. 2018. 28. 0.160. Why? ...
... pyuria without bacteriuria; unexplained hematuria; recurrent fever without explanation; or evidence on an excretory pyelogram ...
Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy • Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers. • Dental abscess with spreading cellulitis ...
Asymptomatic Bacteriuria * Atrophic Vaginitis * Atypical Glandular Cells Of Undetermined Significance * Atypical Squamous Cells ...
Urinalysis revealed hematuria and bacteriuria; the urine specific gravity was 1.027. Survey radiographs of the thoracolumbar ...
bacteriuria, asymptomatic 646.5. *. bariatric surgery status 649.2. *. bicornis or bicornuate uterus 654.0. ...
has had group B streptococcal colonisation, bacteriuria or infection in a previous pregnancy, and has not had a negative test ... has group B streptococcal colonisation, bacteriuria or infection during the current pregnancy, or ...
  • Screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy is a common routine in many countries, but controversial. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibiotics for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • There is an increased risk of asymptomatic or symptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy due to physiological changes that occur in a pregnant women which promotes unwanted pathogen growth in the urinary tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • Symptomatic bacteriuria is bacteriuria with the accompanying symptoms of a urinary tract infection (such as frequent urination, painful urination, fever, back pain, abdominal pain and blood in the urine) and includes pyelonephritis or cystitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinicians will often treat symptomatic bacteriuria based on the results of the urine dipstick test while waiting for the culture results. (wikipedia.org)
  • [ 3 ] Unlike symptomatic bacteriuria, asymptomatic bacteriuria should not be treated with antibiotics. (medscape.com)
  • I hope that this new stewardship program will improve the understanding of asymptomatic and symptomatic bacteriuria in LTC patients, and that all of those involved-staff, patients, and families-will understand when bacteriuria should, and shouldn't, be treated. (medscape.com)
  • Introduction: Testing for the presence of micro-organisms in the urinary tract, in order to diagnose asymptomatic bacteriuria or symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTI), is very common at all levels of health care. (scirp.org)
  • 28 (11.2%) of 251 asymptomatic and 16 (32.6%) of 49 symptomatic women, which showed that significant bacteriuria rate was higher with symptomatic than asymptomatic women (OR=3.861, 95% CI=1.889-7.893, p =0.0005), but significant bacteriuria rate did not differ with respect to age group of the women ( x 2=1.463, p =0.4811). (who.int)
  • To diagnose asymptomatic bacteriuria, a urine sample must be sent for a urine culture . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Asymptomatic bacteriuria is defined as the presence of one or more species of bacteria growing in the urine at specified quantitative counts (≥10 5 colony-forming units [CFU]/mL or ≥10 8 CFU/L), irrespective of the presence of pyuria, in the absence of signs or symptoms attributable to urinary tract infection (UTI). (medscape.com)
  • Do Cranberry Capsules Prevent or Eliminate Bacteriuria Plus Pyuria in Elderly Women? (medpagetoday.com)
  • This study was conducted to assess the diagnostic values for bacteriuria and pyuria and evaluate their roles in therapeutic decision making. (scirp.org)
  • Conclusion: According to the results, it is concluded that the urine microscopy features seems to be useful to exclude the presence of infection if the results of both bacteriuria and pyuria are negative, but positive test results have to be confirmed. (scirp.org)
  • Zalmanovici Trestioreanu A, Lador A, Sauerbrun-Cutler M-T, Leibovici L. Antibiotics for asymptomatic bacteriuria. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Preventive antibiotics may have little to no effect on surgical site infections, urinary tract infections or bacteriuria (presence of bacteria in the urine), fever after surgery or the appearance of the artificial tape or mesh used in the surgery through the skin beneath the urethra, but we are very uncertain about the results. (cochrane.org)
  • Bacteriuria in pregnancy also increases the risk of preeclampsia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) in pregnancy is associated with poor fetal and maternal outcomes. (or.tz)
  • Urinalysis doesn't distinguish between a UTI and asymptomatic bacteriuria, and many LTC residents are diagnosed with UTI without assessment of whether sufficient clinical signs and symptoms of infection are present. (medscape.com)
  • 4) had asymptomatic bacteriuria with normal urinalysis. (cdc.gov)
  • Bacteriuria is the presence of bacteria in urine. (wikipedia.org)
  • A negative dipstick test does not exclude bacteriuria, as not all bacteria which can colonise the urinary tract are nitrate-reducing. (wikipedia.org)
  • If enough bacteria are found in your urine, you have asymptomatic bacteriuria. (medlineplus.gov)
  • To make the diagnosis of asymptomatic bacteriuria, the culture must show a large growth of bacteria. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Positive urine cultures were defined as the presence of bacteria or yeast ≥10 5 cfu/mL, because only cultures yielding ≥10 5 cfu/mL of microorganisms are routinely reported in the hospital unless there is a request for reporting low-count bacteriuria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Asymptomatic bacteriuria is a condition in which larger than normal numbers of bacteria are present in the urine but symptoms do not result. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Asymptomatic bacteriuria is not normally treated because eradicating the bacteria can be difficult and complications are usually rare. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In this study, we examined whether the abundance of gut commensal bacteria is associated with a decreased risk for Enterobacteriaceae bacteriuria. (atcmeetingabstracts.com)
  • Future studies investigating the utility of commensal bacteria as probiotics for preventing development of bacteriuria and urinary tract infections are warranted. (atcmeetingabstracts.com)
  • This study investigated the association of radiological abnormalities and asymptomatic bacteriuria in patients with sickle cell disease. (uwi.edu)
  • There is an association between asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women with low birth weight, preterm delivery, cystitis, infection of the newborn and fetus death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) is common and often leads to unnecessary antimicrobial use. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bacteriuria accompanied by symptoms is a urinary tract infection while that without is known as asymptomatic bacteriuria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Asymptomatic bacteriuria is bacteriuria without accompanying symptoms of a urinary tract infection and is commonly caused by the bacterium Escherichia coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Testing for bacteriuria is usually performed in people with symptoms of a urinary tract infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • If you have these symptoms, you may have a urinary tract infection, but you do not have asymptomatic bacteriuria. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) is uncommon in the pediatric population (see Table 1 below) with a normal urinary tract and does not appear to be associated with important harms. (medscape.com)
  • Each episode of bacteriuria was classified into ABU or urinary tract infection (UTI). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Uropathogens from the gut is thought to be a source of bacteriuria and urinary tract infection, but the role of gut commensal microbiota in its development has not been previously explored. (atcmeetingabstracts.com)
  • Gut uropathogen abundance is a risk factor for development of bacteriuria and urinary tract infection. (uchicago.edu)
  • Rates of asymptomatic bacteriuria in LTC residents are high: 25%-50% in women, 15%-40% in men, and nearly 100% in patients with indwelling urinary catheters. (medscape.com)
  • Asymptomatic bacteriuria is common in certain groups of people, such as those who have bladder catheters inserted for an extended period. (msdmanuals.com)
  • For the diagnosis of ABU in a catheterized urine specimen of both men and women, organisms present in lower quantitative counts likely represent contamination of the urine specimen from organisms present in the biofilm along the device rather than true bacteriuria and, in these patients, ≥10 5 CFU/mL remains the most appropriate diagnostic criteria for bladder bacteriuria. (medscape.com)
  • We compared the gut abundance of the 16 most abundant genera between kidney transplant recipients who developed Enterobacteriaceae bacteriuria in the first 6 months after transplantation ( Enterobacteriaceae Bacteriuria Group) and kidney transplant recipients who did not develop Enterobacteriaceae bacteriuria (No Enterobacteriaceae Bacteriuria Group). (atcmeetingabstracts.com)
  • [ 7 ] Elderly patients in LTC can show evidence of cognitive decline unrelated to an infection, and bacteriuria alone is unlikely to be the cause of cognitive decline or mental status changes. (medscape.com)
  • Chronic asymptomatic bacteriuria occurs in as many as 50% of the population in long-term care. (wikipedia.org)
  • Asymptomatic bacteriuria occurs in a small number of healthy people. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Catheter-associated bacteriuria, the most common healthcare-associated infection, results from the. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • [ 1 ] Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) is common. (medscape.com)
  • Treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria is a common cause of inappropriate antibiotic use in nursing home residents. (cdc.gov)
  • Inappropriate treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria]. (nih.gov)
  • 10 5 CFU/mL) isolated from urine specimens collected by "in and out" catheterization or following insertion of a new indwelling catheter suggest true bacteriuria, but the clinical significance of these lower quantitative counts in people without symptoms has not been evaluated. (medscape.com)
  • Bacteriuria without symptoms generally does not require treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteriuria without symptoms is present in about 3% of otherwise healthy middle aged women. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of significant bacteriuria (105 CFU/ml) was determined on the culture plate using the plate count method. (who.int)
  • citation needed] The gold standard for detecting bacteriuria is a bacterial culture which identifies the concentration of bacterial cells in the urine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Miniaturization of bacterial culture within dipstick format, Digital Dipstick, allows bacterial detection, identification and quantification for bacteriuria within 10-12 hours at the point-of-care. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Bacteriuria is assumed if a single bacterial species is isolated in a concentration greater than 100,000 colony forming units per millilitre of urine in clean-catch midstream urine specimens. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a time-dependent cox regression model, a top tertile cutoff of 13.8% for the combined gut abundance of Faecalibacterium and Romboutsia was associated with a decreased risk for Enterobacteriaceae bacteriuria development (HR 0.23, 95% CI: 0.08- 0.65, P= 0.006). (atcmeetingabstracts.com)
  • Cite this: UTI Versus Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Long-term Care - Medscape - Aug 21, 2017. (medscape.com)
  • Des prélèvements d'urine ont fait l'objet d'un examen microbi- ologique (examen au microscope et mise en culture) à la recherche d'une infection urinaire, et des tests de sensibilité ont été réalisés avec divers antibiotiques pour les germes isolés. (who.int)
  • People with a long-term Foley catheter always show bacteriuria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The relative abundances of Faecalibacterium and Romboutsia were significantly higher in the 353 fecal specimens from the No Enterobacteriaceae Bacteriuria Group than in the 157 fecal specimens in the Enterobacteriaceae Bacteriuria Group (Wilcoxon rank sum test, Benjamini-Hochberg adjusted p value (atcmeetingabstracts.com)
  • Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) is uncommon in the pediatric population (see Table 1 below). (medscape.com)

No images available that match "bacteriuria"