Streptococcus agalactiae: A bacterium which causes mastitis in cattle and occasionally in man.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Streptococcus mutans: A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.Streptococcus bovis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly found in the alimentary tract of cows, sheep, and other ruminants. It occasionally is encountered in cases of human endocarditis. This species is nonhemolytic.Streptococcus pyogenes: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.Streptococcus thermophilus: A species of thermophilic, gram-positive bacteria found in MILK and milk products.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Streptococcus gordonii: A species of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family STREPTOCOCCACEAE. It is a normal inhabitant of the human oral cavity, and causes DENTAL PLAQUE and ENDOCARDITIS. It is being investigated as a vehicle for vaccine delivery.Streptococcus sobrinus: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from the human tooth surface. Strains have been shown to be cariogenic in experimental animals and may be associated with human dental caries.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.DextranaseBacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Adhesins, Bacterial: Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.Mastitis, Bovine: INFLAMMATION of the UDDER in cows.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Mouth: The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Mastitis: INFLAMMATION of the BREAST, or MAMMARY GLAND.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Streptococcus Phages: Viruses whose host is Streptococcus.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Meningitis, Bacterial: Bacterial infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space, frequently involving the cerebral cortex, cranial nerves, cerebral blood vessels, spinal cord, and nerve roots.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Erythromycin: A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.Streptococcus suis: A species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from pigs. It is a pathogen of swine but rarely occurs in humans.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)Streptococcus mitis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commensal in the respiratory tract.Bacterial Capsules: An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Streptococcus equi: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from abscesses in submaxillary glands and mucopurulent discharges of the upper respiratory tract of horses. This organism belongs to Group C streptococci with regards to antigen response and is known to cause strangles. The subspecies S. zooepidemicus is also considered a pathogen of horses.Streptococcus oralis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria that is numerous in the mouth and throat. It is a common cause of endocarditis and is also implicated in dental plaque formation.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Prophages: Genomes of temperate BACTERIOPHAGES integrated into the DNA of their bacterial host cell. The prophages can be duplicated for many cell generations until some stimulus induces its activation and virulence.Enterococcus faecalis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.Aminoacyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of an aminoacyl group from donor to acceptor resulting in the formation of an ester or amide linkage. EC 2.3.2.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Lincosamides: A family of LINCOMYCIN-related glycosides that contain a pyrrolidine ring linked via an amide-bond to a pyranose moiety. Individual members of this family are defined by the arrangement of specific constituent groups on the lyncomycin molecule. Many lincosamides are ANTIBIOTICS produced by a variety STREPTOMYCES species.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Clindamycin: An antibacterial agent that is a semisynthetic analog of LINCOMYCIN.Pneumococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Keratin-4: A type II keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-13 in the internal stratified EPITHELIUM. Defects in gene for keratin-4 are a cause of HEREDITARY MUCOSAL LEUKOKERATOSIS.Teichoic Acids: Bacterial polysaccharides that are rich in phosphodiester linkages. They are the major components of the cell walls and membranes of many bacteria.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Tetracycline Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TETRACYCLINE which inhibits aminoacyl-tRNA binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit during protein synthesis.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Hemolysin Proteins: Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique: Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.Pyometra: An accumulation of PUS in the uterine cavity (UTERUS). Pyometra generally indicates the presence of infections.Amobarbital: A barbiturate with hypnotic and sedative properties (but not antianxiety). Adverse effects are mainly a consequence of dose-related CNS depression and the risk of dependence with continued use is high. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p565)Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Bacteria, AnaerobicFasciitis, Necrotizing: A fulminating bacterial infection of the deep layers of the skin and FASCIA. It can be caused by many different organisms, with STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES being the most common.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Lactoperoxidase: An enzyme derived from cow's milk. It catalyzes the radioiodination of tyrosine and its derivatives and of peptides containing tyrosine.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Macrolides: A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Arcanobacterium: A genus of facultatively anaerobic, gram-positive bacteria in the family ACTINOMYCETACEAE, order ACTINOMYCETALES. They are obligate parasites of the PHARYNX in humans and farm animals.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Interspersed Repetitive Sequences: Copies of transposable elements interspersed throughout the genome, some of which are still active and often referred to as "jumping genes". There are two classes of interspersed repetitive elements. Class I elements (or RETROELEMENTS - such as retrotransposons, retroviruses, LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS) transpose via reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. Class II elements (or DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS - such as transposons, Tn elements, insertion sequence elements and mobile gene cassettes of bacterial integrons) transpose directly from one site in the DNA to another.Carrier State: The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.Pigments, Biological: Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.Mycoplasma Infections: Infections with species of the genus MYCOPLASMA.Prokaryotic Initiation Factor-2: The largest of the three prokaryotic initiation factors with a molecular size of approximately 80 kD. It functions in the transcription initiation process by promoting the binding of formylmethionine-tRNA to the P-site of the 30S ribosome and by preventing the incorrect binding of elongator tRNA to the translation initiation site.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Receptors, Fibrinogen: Receptors that bind FIBRINOGEN through distinct adhesive sequences on the fibrinogen molecule. Although MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN is considered an important signaling molecule for fibrinogen interaction, a variety of INTEGRINS from all three major families, (beta1, beta2, and beta3) have been shown to bind fibrinogen.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Meningitis: Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)Polysaccharide-Lyases: A group of carbon-oxygen lyases. These enzymes catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond in polysaccharides leading to an unsaturated product and the elimination of an alcohol. EC 4.2.2.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Molecular Typing: Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Tetracycline: A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.Zimbabwe: A republic in southern Africa, east of ZAMBIA and BOTSWANA and west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Harare. It was formerly called Rhodesia and Southern Rhodesia.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.DairyingArthritis, Infectious: Arthritis caused by BACTERIA; RICKETTSIA; MYCOPLASMA; VIRUSES; FUNGI; or PARASITES.Gene Order: The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.Bacteria, AerobicMultilocus Sequence Typing: Direct nucleotide sequencing of gene fragments from multiple housekeeping genes for the purpose of phylogenetic analysis, organism identification, and typing of species, strain, serovar, or other distinguishable phylogenetic level.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Hemolysis: The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.Fimbriae, Bacterial: Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).Enterococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Dental Plaque: A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.Blood: The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.Streptolysins: Exotoxins produced by certain strains of streptococci, particularly those of group A (STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES), that cause HEMOLYSIS.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Genomic Islands: Distinct units in some bacterial, bacteriophage or plasmid GENOMES that are types of MOBILE GENETIC ELEMENTS. Encoded in them are a variety of fitness conferring genes, such as VIRULENCE FACTORS (in "pathogenicity islands or islets"), ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE genes, or genes required for SYMBIOSIS (in "symbiosis islands or islets"). They range in size from 10 - 500 kilobases, and their GC CONTENT and CODON usage differ from the rest of the genome. They typically contain an INTEGRASE gene, although in some cases this gene has been deleted resulting in "anchored genomic islands".Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Rectum: The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Streptococcus intermedius: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the STREPTOCOCCUS MILLERI GROUP. It is commonly found in the oropharynx flora and has a proclivity for abscess formation, most characteristically in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and LIVER.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Pharyngitis: Inflammation of the throat (PHARYNX).Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.Mycoplasma: A genus of gram-negative, mostly facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family MYCOPLASMATACEAE. The cells are bounded by a PLASMA MEMBRANE and lack a true CELL WALL. Its organisms are pathogens found on the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of humans, ANIMALS, and BIRDS.Pneumonia, Pneumococcal: A febrile disease caused by STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Fimbriae Proteins: Proteins that are structural components of bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) or sex pili (PILI, SEX).Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Fibrinogen: Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.Saliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Actinomyces: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are nonmotile. Filaments that may be present in certain species are either straight or wavy and may have swollen or clubbed heads.Penicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.Streptococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Sheep Diseases: Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Pharynx: A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).Dental Caries: Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Endocarditis, Bacterial: Inflammation of the ENDOCARDIUM caused by BACTERIA that entered the bloodstream. The strains of bacteria vary with predisposing factors, such as CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS; HEART VALVE DISEASES; HEART VALVE PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION; or intravenous drug use.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Streptococcus constellatus: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the STREPTOCOCCUS MILLERI GROUP. It is commonly found in the oropharnyx flora and has a proclivity for abscess formation in the upper body and respiratory tract.Glucosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS), Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, ... Possible pathogens include viruses (e.g. Cytomegalovirus (CMV), rubella virus, HIV), bacteria (e.g. Staphylococcus sp., ... B-streptococci, Candida spp. and Chlamydia trachomatis from the mother to the newborn". Archives of gynecology and obstetrics. ...
Streptococcus agalactiae from clinical samples. It grows in Granada medium as red colonies and most of accompanying bacteria ... Examples include Streptococcus haemolyticus. α-Hemolysis will only cause partial lysis of the red blood cells (the cell ... Sabouraud agar is used to culture fungi and has a low pH that inhibits the growth of most bacteria; it also contains the ... It can also be used when working with fungi or bacteria depending on whether or not the strain is capable of forming spores. ...
In vitro susceptible gram positive bacteria include: methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus agalactiae ... Gram positive bacteria it was inactive against include Staphylococcus epidermidis and methicillin-resistant Streptococcus ... In this trial, bacteria were considered susceptible if 90% or more of the strains were inhibited by cefodizime concentrations ... A 1992 study conducted in vitro susceptibility studies for cefodizime and found that gram negative bacteria with consistent ...
Overwhelming post-splenectomy infection
Streptococcus agalactiae, Klebsiella pneumoniae). Capsules made of polysaccharides (sugars) permit bacteria to evade ... and destroy bacteria. In particular, these macrophages are activated when bacteria are bound by IgG antibodies (IgG1 or IgG3) ... When the spleen is no longer present (asplenia), IgG and C3b are still bound to bacteria, but they cannot be removed from the ... Hence the bacteria are free to cause infection. Patients without spleens often need immunizations against pathogens that ...
Streptococcus agalactiae produces a polysaccharide capsule of nine antigenic types that all contain sialic acid (Ia, Ib, II, ... The bacterial capsule is a very large structure of many bacteria. It is a polysaccharide layer that lies outside the cell ... Streptococcus pyogenes synthesizes a hyaluronic acid capsule. Streptococcus pneumoniae has at least 91 different capsular ... The capsule-which can be found in both gram negative and gram-positive bacteria-is different to the second lipid membrane - ...
Mastitis in dairy cattle
Pseudomonas aeruginosa Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus epidermidis Streptococcus agalactiae Streptococcus uberis Brucella ... The bacteria will lay dormant in the udder tissue as the calf grows until it begins to lactate. That is when the bacteria ... Feeding calves on milk may introduce some mastitis causing bacteria strain in the oral cavity of the calf where it will stay ... After milking, the teats can be cleaned again to remove any growth medium for bacteria. A post milking product such as iodine- ...
Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus agalactiae, Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Peptostreptococcus indolicus, and Fusobacterium ... The bacteria appeared in some of the cows and on the bodies of just over a third of the doctored flies. The evidence indicates ... The research allowed flies inoculated with select bacteria from a sample representing summer mastitis to come in contact with ... H. aenescens also carries bacteria, particularly Salmonella serovar Infantis. Hydrotaea species have been helpful in forensic ...
Streptococcus agalactiae and S. pyogenes. A separate study demonstrated growth inhibition against Proteus vulgaris. In a 2009 ... Extracts inhibit the growth of the Gram-negative bacteria Enterococcus faecalis and Listeria monocytogenes, and kill the Gram- ... Laboratory tests show that fruit bodies have antimicrobial activity against several strains of drug-resistant bacteria that are ... and fruit bodies have antimicrobial activity against several species and strains of drug-resistant bacteria that cause disease ...
Beta-hemolytic, non-group A streptococci include Streptococcus agalactiae, also known as group B strep or GBS. Historically, ... The rash is due to an exotoxin, not the Streptococcus bacteria, and is found in areas where no symptoms are present; e.g., the ... usually caused by beta-hemolytic group A Streptococcus bacteria on scratches or otherwise infected areas. Erysipelas is more ... surgical incisions and ulcers and often originate from streptococci bacteria in the subject's own nasal passages. Infection ...
Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus intermedius, and Streptococcus ... There is no clinically significant activity against Gram-negative bacteria. Two trials, DISCOVER 1 and DISCOVER 2, demonstrated ... In May 2014, dalbavancin was approved by the FDA for use in the US for ABSSSIs, including MRSA and Streptococcus pyogenes ... bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus including methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant strains of Streptococcus ...
It distinguishes Streptococcus agalactiae from the others. Ray, C. George; Ryan, Kenneth J.; Kenneth, Ryan (July 2004). Sherris ... This is the nonspecific killing of blood cells by metabolic by-products of bacteria. This can be seen on a blood agar plate, ... Streptococcus pneumoniae and a group of oral streptococci (Streptococcus viridans or viridans streptococci) display alpha ... Streptococcus agalactiae displays this property. Clostridium perfringens can be identified presumptively with this test. ...
Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae (penicillin-susceptible isolates only), Streptococcus pyogenes, Note: ... Ertapenem has been designed to be effective against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. It is not active against MRSA, ... Ertapenem also has clinically useful activity against anaerobic bacteria. Ertapenem has been shown to be active against most ... producing and high level AmpC-producing Gram-negative bacteria. Ertapenem is dosed as 1 g given by intravenous injection over ...
Group B streptococcal infection
... is the infection caused by the bacterium Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) (also known as group B streptococcus or GBS ... S. agalactiae is a Gram-positive coccus (spherical bacterium) with a tendency to form chains (streptococcus), beta-haemolytic, ... UK Group B Strep Association] UK  Ontario Midwives Group B Strep International CDC-Group B Strep (GBS) Group B Strep ... "Group B Strep Infection". MedicineNet.com. Retrieved 10 January 2016. Edwards MS, Baker CJ (2010). Streptococcus agalactiae ( ...
Aerobic Gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus agalactiae Streptococcus (Groups C, F, G) Viridans group streptococci Aerobic Gram ... Aerobic Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus Streptococcus pneumoniae Streptococcus pyogenes Aerobic Gram-negative ... This includes strep throat, pneumonia, skin infections, H. pylori infection, and Lyme disease, among others. Clarithromycin can ... It is in the macrolide class and works by decreasing protein production of some bacteria. Clarithromycin was developed in 1980 ...
Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus anginosus group, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Enterococcus faecalis Gram-negative ... Susceptible bacteria are: Gram-positive organisms: Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-resistant [MRSA] and ... Delafloxacin is used to treat acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections caused by designated susceptible bacteria. ... Delafloxacin is more active (lower MIC90) than other quinolones against Gram-positive bacteria such as methicillin-resistant ...
... as an adjunct to imipenem or colistin for neonatal meningitis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae or Listeria monocytogenes, as ... The only Gram-positive bacteria that amikacin strongly affects are Staphylococcus and Nocardia. Amikacin can also be used to ... Amikacin works by blocking the function of the bacteria's 30S ribosomal subunit, making it unable to produce proteins. Amikacin ... Mutations such as these reduce the binding affinity of amikacin to the bacteria's ribosome. Variations of aminoglycoside ...
Other bacterial pathogens include Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Viridans streptococci, Streptococcus ... Infections that develop one month after the birth of the infant are more likely due to Gram-positive bacteria and coagulase ... Group B streptococcus are typically identified as the cause of the majority of early-onset infections in the neonate. This ... The causative agents of neonatal infection are bacteria, viruses, and fungi. In addition, the immune system of the neonate may ...
Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and other strains of streptococci Gram-Negative Aerobes: Escherichia coli ... Cefazolin does not fight against Enterococcus, anaerobic bacteria or atypical bacteria among others. As a first-generation ... cefazolin and other first-generation antibiotics are very active against gram-positive bacteria and some gram-negative bacteria ... Cefazolin is in the first-generation cephalosporin class of medication and works by interfering with the bacteria's cell wall. ...
... (also known as group B streptococcus or GBS) is a gram-positive coccus (round bacterium) with a ... Group B Strep Association US Group B Strep Support UK Type strain of Streptococcus agalactiae at BacDive - the Bacterial ... 2010). Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus). "In" Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R (eds). Principles and practice of ... Streptococcus agalactiae is the species designation for streptococci belonging to group B of the Lancefield classification. GBS ...
... various Streptococcus species (S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, and S. anginosus group including S. anginosus, S. intermedius, and S ... caused by certain susceptible bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-resistant strains, MRSA, and ... microbial activity through inhibition of protein synthesis by binding to the 50S ribosomal subunit of the bacteria. Tedizolid ...
In molecular biology, Streptococcus sRNAs are small RNAs produced by species of Streptococcus bacteria. Several screens (both ... characterization of antisense RNAs in pathogenic Escherichia coli and Streptococcus agalactiae strains". Nucleic Acids Research ... agalactiae and S.mutans. The function of most of these is currently unknown, however a few have been characterised including ... "A genome-wide analysis of small regulatory RNAs in the human pathogen group A Streptococcus". PLOS ONE. 4 (11): e7668. doi: ...
Spellerberg B, Martin S, Brandt C, Lutticken R (2000). "The cyl genes of Streptococcus agalactiae are involved in the ... inhibitory for anaerobic bacteria), and crystal violet to suppress the accompanying gram-positive bacteria. A key component of ... Granada medium is a selective and differential culture medium designed to selectively isolate Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B ... Proteose peptone, horse serum, glucose and sodium pyruvate provide nutrients for the growth of Streptococcus agalactiae, sodium ...
... saprophyticus Coagulase negative staphylococci Enterococcus faecalis Staphylococcus aureus Streptococcus agalactiae Citrobacter ... It works by slowing growth rather than killing bacteria. Nitrofurantoin was first sold in 1953. It is on the World Health ... testing should always be performed to further elucidate the resistance profile of the particular strain of bacteria causing ...
List of clinically important bacteria
Streptococcus agalactiae Streptococcus avium Streptococcus bovis Streptococcus cricetus Streptococcus faceium Streptococcus ... Streptococcus ferus Streptococcus gallinarum Streptococcus lactis Streptococcus mitior Streptococcus mitis Streptococcus mutans ... Streptococcus oralis Streptococcus pneumoniae Streptococcus pyogenes Streptococcus rattus Streptococcus salivarius ... It is not intended as an exhaustive list of all bacterial species: that should be at List of bacteria. For viruses, see list of ...
The most prevalent pathogen causing CAP in newborns is Streptococcus agalactiae, also known as group-B streptococcus (GBS). GBS ... Enteric gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, are a group of bacteria that typically live ... Primary microoganisms are viruses, atypical bacteria, penicillin-sensitive streptococcus pneumoniae and haemophilus influenzae ... Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an uncommon cause of CAP, is a difficult bacteria to treat. Bacteria and fungi typically enter the ...
GAS infection is generally diagnosed with a rapid strep test or by culture. S. agalactiae, or group B Streptococcus, GBS, ... The viridans streptococci are a large group of commensal bacteria, that are either α-hemolytic, producing a green coloration on ... Streptococcus pneumoniae and a group of oral streptococci (Streptococcus viridans or viridans streptococci) display alpha ... The remaining nonenterococcal group D strains include Streptococcus bovis and Streptococcus equinus. Nonhemolytic streptococci ...
July 2006). "Identification of novel genomic islands coding for antigenic pilus-like structures in Streptococcus agalactiae". ... The sortases are thought to be good targets for new antibiotics as they are important proteins for pathogenic bacteria and some ... "Sortase A utilizes an ancillary protein anchor for efficient cell wall anchoring of pili in Streptococcus agalactiae". ... gallolyticus (Streptococcus bovis Group, biotype I)". Journal of Bacteriology. 191 (21): 6643-53. doi:10.1128/JB.00909-09. PMC ...
Streptococcus agalactiae, a enciclopedia libre
É unha bacteria beta-hemolítica, catalase negativa, e anaerobia facultativa. En xeral, o GBS é unha bacteria comensal ... 2010). Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus). "In" Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R (eds). Principles and practice of ... Streptococcus agalactiae (tamén coñecido como estreptococo do grupo B ou EGB (GBS polas súas siglas en inglés) é unha ... Streptococcus agalactiae é a designación de especie para os estreptococos que pertencen ao grupo B da clasificación de ...
For a bacterium to bind, take up, and recombine exogenous DNA into its chromosome, it must enter a special physiological state ... bacitracin resistant, CAMP test+: S. agalactiae *Group B streptococcal infection. ungrouped. *Streptococcus iniae *Cutaneous ... It was renamed Streptococcus pneumoniae in 1974 because it was very similar to streptococci. ... Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcus, is a Gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic (under aerobic conditions) or beta-hemolytic ( ...
Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome
Urinary tract infection
bacitracin resistant, CAMP test+: S. agalactiae *Group B streptococcal infection. ungrouped. *Streptococcus iniae *Cutaneous ... Rates of asymptomatic bacteria in the urine among men over 75 are between 7-10%. Asymptomatic bacteria in the urine occurs ... The most common cause of infection is Escherichia coli, though other bacteria or fungi may rarely be the cause. Risk factors ... Those who have bacteria in the urine but no symptoms should not generally be treated with antibiotics. This includes those ...
Granada medium is selective and differential for Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus) which grows as distinctive ... Hektoen enteric agar is selective for Gram-negative bacteria.. *Mannitol salt agar is selective for Gram-positive bacteria and ... They remain solid, as very few bacteria are able to decompose agar (the exception being some species in the genera: Cytophaga, ... In contrast, bacteria such as Escherichia coli may be grown on solid or in liquid media. ...
Streptococcus agalactiae • Streptococcus faecalis • Streptococcus mutans • Wolinella recta • Xanthomonas campestris • Yersinia ... At pH 7, it was evaluated that HOSCN represents 2% compare to OSCN− 98%. The action of (OSCN)- against bacteria is reported to ... Thomas EL, Pera KA, Smith KW, Chwang AK (February 1983). "Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans by the lactoperoxidase ... H2O2 in human lung Non exhaustive list of microorganisms Bacteria (+Gram, -Gram) • Acinetobacter species • Aeromonas hydrophila ...
bacitracin resistant, CAMP test+: S. agalactiae *Group B streptococcal infection. ungrouped. *Streptococcus iniae *Cutaneous ... Tetanus is caused by the tetanus bacterium Clostridium tetani. Tetanus is an international health problem, as C. tetani ... Tetanus is caused by an infection with the bacterium Clostridium tetani, which is commonly found in soil, saliva, dust, and ... The diagnosis is based on the presentation of tetanus symptoms and does not depend upon isolation of the bacterium, which is ...
"Bacterial Infection (Streptococcus) in Dogs". petmd.com. Retrieved 12 December 2014.. *^ "Bacteria-Firmicutes-Bacilli- ... S. agalactiae, or group B Streptococcus, GBS, causes pneumonia and meningitis in neonates and the elderly, with occasional ... Streptococcus pneumoniae and a group of oral streptococci (Streptococcus viridans or viridans streptococci) display alpha ... Group G streptococciEdit. These streptococci are usually, but not exclusively, beta-hemolytic. Streptococcus dysgalactiae is ...
bacitracin resistant, CAMP test+: S. agalactiae *Group B streptococcal infection. ungrouped. *Streptococcus iniae *Cutaneous ... Bacillus is a genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria and a member of the phylum Firmicutes. Bacillus species can be ... He had seven years earlier named the genus Bacterium. Bacillus was later amended by Ferdinand Cohn to further describe them as ... The cell wall of Bacillus is a structure on the outside of the cell that forms the second barrier between the bacterium and the ...
Panxenoma, a enciclopedia libre
... cando secuenciaron seis cepas de Streptococcus agalactiae, que podían ser descritas como un xenoma central compartido por todos ... Un estudo de 2015 sobre a bacteria Prevotella illada de humanos, comparada cos repertorios de xenes das súas especies derivadas ... "Genome analysis of multiple pathogenic isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae: Implications for the microbial "pan-genome"". ... O panxenoma de Streptococcus pneumoniae. (a) Número de novos xenes como función do número de xenomas secuenciados. O número ...
bacitracin resistant, CAMP test+: S. agalactiae *Group B streptococcal infection. ungrouped. *Streptococcus iniae *Cutaneous ... It is often seen in infections with C. perfringens or any of myriad soil-borne anaerobic bacteria. Bacteria cause myonecrosis ... rod-shaped bacteria (d) Electron microscopic picture of a bacterium found in a submucosal cyst ... When such bacteria are able to enter a living host, they encounter a vast supply of nutrients, warm conditions, and an ...
Streptokokk - Vikipeedia
B-grupp: Streptococcus agalactiae,. *C-grupp: Streptococcus bovis jt.. Fülogeneetiline klassifikatsioon[muuda , muuda ... Streptococcus mitis ja Streptococcus bovis endokardiiti. Streptococcus mutans hambakaariest. Pneumokokk (Streptococcus ... Streptokokk Streptococcus. Rosenbach 1884. Streptokokk ehk ahelkokk (Streptococcus) on bakteriperekond. Streptokokkide ... Streptokokk Streptococcus pyogenes võib põhjustada neelumandlipõletikku, roosi, haavainfektsioone, veremürgistust, ...
Streptococcus agalactiae produces a polysaccharide capsule of nine antigenic types that all contain sialic acid (Ia, Ib, II, ... As a group where the capsule is present they are known as polysaccharide encapsulated bacteria or encapsulated bacteria. ... Streptococcus pyogenes synthesizes a hyaluronic acid capsule.. *Streptococcus pneumoniae has at least 91 different capsular ... The bacterial capsule is a very large structure of many bacteria. It is a polysaccharide layer that lies outside the cell ...
List of infectious diseases
... is a genus o coccus (spherical) Gram-positive bacteria alangin tae the phylum Firmicutes an the ... Streptococcus. Rosenbach, 1884 Speshies *Streptococcus acidominimus. *Streptococcus agalactiae. *Streptococcus ... LPSN entry for Streptococcus *↑ Ryan KJ, Ray CG, eds. (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-8385- ... Lactobacillales (lactic acid bacteria) order. References[eedit , eedit soorce]. *↑ 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 ...
Streptococcus bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
Streptococcus agalactiae. *Streptococcus anginosus. *Streptococcus bovis. *Streptococcus canis. *Streptococcus constellatus. * ... Domain: Archaea - Bacteria - Eukaryota. G-/. OM. Terra-/Glidobacteria. Eobacteria (Chloroflexi, Deinococcus-Thermus) · ... LPSN entry for Streptococcus *^ a b c d e Hartanto, Mahatmi, Huriawati, Nisa (2001). Kamus Ringkas Kedokteran Stedman Edisi 4. ... Klasifikasi bakteri dari genus Streptococcus disusun berdasarkan sifat-sifat hemolitik yang dimiliki yaitu Streptococcus ...
Gram positive, ang malayang ensiklopedya
B, bacitracin resistant, CAMP test+: S. agalactiae. Gamma hemolytic. D, BEA+: Streptococcus bovis ... Ang Gram Positive Bacteria ay uri ng mga bakteryang may manipis, may mga kaparehong magkakasunod na pader na binubuo ng (40-90 ... Isang Gram-positive Bacillus anthracis bacteria (sa lilang rods) sa halimbawang cerebrospinal fluid. Ang ibang mga selula ay ...
Streptococcus, ang malayang ensiklopedya
S. agalactiae. S. anginosus. S. bovis. S. canis. S. equi. S. iniae. S. mitis. S. mutans. S. oralis. S. parasanguinis. S. ... Ang Streptococcus ay isang uri ng pamilya sa bakterya kahariang Protista. Ito ay Gram-negative bacteria. ... Kinuha mula sa "https://tl.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Streptococcus&oldid=1291930" ...
... affects a small number of people who have either strep throat or streptococcal skin infections. The bacteria ... bacitracin resistant, CAMP test+: S. agalactiae *Group B streptococcal infection. ungrouped. *Streptococcus iniae *Cutaneous ... The disease is caused by secretion of pyrogenic exotoxins by the infecting Streptococcus bacteria. Streptococcal ... Scarlet fever is a disease which can occur as a result of a group A Streptococcus (group A strep) infection. The signs and ...
Streptococcus pyogenes, S. agalactiae, S. viridans- group streptococci, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, ... Imipenem/cilastatin has the ability to kill a wide variety of bacteria. Imipenem is the active antibiotic agent and works by ... Imipenem is in the carbapenem family of medications and works by interfering with the bacteria's cell wall. Cilastatin ... interfering with their ability to form cell walls, so the bacteria break up and die. ...
Liosta de ghalair thógálacha - Vicipéid
Aerobic Gram-positive bacteria *Streptococcus agalactiae. *Streptococcus (Groups C, F, G). *Viridans group streptococci ... Clarithromycin prevents bacteria from multiplying by acting as a protein synthesis inhibitor. It binds to 23S rRNA, a component ... Safety and effectiveness of clarithromycin in treating clinical infections due to the following bacteria have not been ... This includes strep throat, pneumonia, skin infections, H. pylori infection, and Lyme disease, among others. Clarithromycin ...
Kjo në fakt paraqet testin e CAMP-it që është pozitiv për Streptococcus agalactiae. Testi CAMP ka marrë emrin nga inicialet e ... Bacteria Filumi: Firmicutes Klasa: Bacilli Rendi: Lactobacillales Familja: Streptococcaceae Gjinia: Streptococcus. Rosenbach, ... Në hemolizën-α që është karakteristikë për streptococcus pneumoniae dhe një grupi të streptokokeve orale (streptococcus ... Streptococcus agalactiae) kolonizojnë traktin gjenital të disa femrave dhe mund të shkaktojnë sepsisin dhe meningjitin tek të ...
The genus Enterococcus includes lactic acid bacteria formerly classified as gamma-hemolytic Group D in the genus streptococcus ... agalactiae, completely rupture the red blood cells (visible as a halo in culture). Gamma-hemolytic, or non-hemolytic, species ... Many species of the genus Streptococcus cause hemolysis. Streptococcal bacteria species are classified according to their ... Hemolysis inside the body can be caused by a large number of medical conditions, including many Gram-positive bacteria (e.g., ...
A Comparative Investigation of Streptococcus Agalactiae Isolates from Fish and Cattle
Streptococcus agalactiae is the causative bacterium of streptococcosis and causes severe economic losses in wild and cultured ... Streptococcus agalactiae may be isolated from brain, nares, head kidney and eye of infected fish. Streptococcus agalactiae also ... Streptococcus agalactiae is classified as Lancefields group B Streptococcus (GBS). There are also nine GBS capsular ... A Comparative Investigation of Streptococcus Agalactiae Isolates from Fish and Cattle. View/. Open. Extracted text (106.9Kb) ...
Streptococcus agalactiae - Wikipedia
Streptococcus agalactiae (also known as group B streptococcus or GBS) is a gram-positive coccus (round bacterium) with a ... 2010). Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus). "In" Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R (eds). Principles and practice of ... Streptococcus agalactiae is the species designation for streptococci belonging to group B of the Lancefield classification. GBS ... Liu G, Zhu J, Chen K, Gao T, Yao H, Liu Y, Zhang W, Lu C. (2016). "Development of Streptococcus agalactiae vaccines for tilapia ...
Mechanisms of Blood Brain Barrier Disruption by Different Types of Bacteria, and Bacterial-Host Interactions Facilitate the...
Streptococcus agalactiae or Group B Streptococcus toxins (GBS) enhance IL-8 and ICAM-1 as well as nitric oxide (NO) production ... Streptococcus agalactiae Catalase-negative, beta-hemolytic, and facultative anaerobe are the characteristics of Streptococcus ... To show the similarities and differences between three types of bacteria (S. pneumonia, S. agalactiae, and N. meningitidis), ... Seo HS, Mu R, Kim BJ et al (2012) Binding of glycoprotein Srr1 of Streptococcus agalactiae to fibrinogen promotes attachment to ...
Subvisual Subway - Bacteria of the New York City subway on Behance
Ceftriaxone and Dextrose - FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses
Gram-positive bacteria *Streptococcus agalactiae. *Anaerobic bacteria *Porphyromonas (Bacteroides) melaninogenicus. *Prevotella ... Streptococcus species beta-hemolytic group‡ ≤ 0.5. -. -. ≥ 24. -. -. Viridans group streptococci. ≤ 1. 2. ≥ 4. ≥ 27. 25 - 26. ... Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis isolates§ ≤ 0.5. 1. ≥ 2. -. -. -. Streptococcus pneumoniae§non-meningitis isolates. ≤ 1. 2 ... For anaerobic bacteria, the susceptibility to ceftriaxone as MICs can be determined by a standardized agar test method 5,6. The ...
Ceftriaxone - FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses
Gram-positive bacteria. Streptococcus agalactiae. *Anaerobic bacteria. Porphyromonas (Bacteroides) melaninogenicus. Prevotella ... caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Viridans group streptococci, Escherichia ... caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Klebsiella ... caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae (including beta-lactamase producing strains) or Moraxella ...
Pathogen biology (12 entities) | Institut Pasteur
Gram-positive Bacteria; Streptococcus agalactiae; Staphylococcus aureus; Streptoccus gallolyticus; Metabolism Virulence See the ... Wolbachia, bacteria to combat dengue. *Zika virus in the Pacific : the influence of the geographical context on an outbreaks ... Wolbachia, bacteria to combat dengue. *Zika virus in the Pacific : the influence of the geographical context on an outbreaks ... A new bacteria-killing weapon in the fight against antibiotic resistance. *A new breakthrough in developing effective ...
Suprax (Cefixime): Side Effects, Interactions, Warning, Dosage & Uses
Gram-positive Bacteria. Streptococcus agalactiae. Gram-negative Bacteria. Citrobacter amalonaticus. Citrobacter diversus. ... Gram-positive Bacteria. Streptococcus pneumoniae. Streptococcus pyogenes. Gram-negative Bacteria. Escherichia coli. Haemophilus ... and Streptococcus pyogenes. (Efficacy for Streptococcus pyogenes in this organ system was studied in fewer than 10 infections.) ... Streptococcus pneumoniae was isolated from 47% of the patients, Haemophilus influenzae from 34%, Moraxella catarrhalis from 15 ...
Ceftin (Cefuroxime Axetil): Uses, Dosage, Side Effects, Interactions, Warning
Streptococcus agalactiae Gram-Negative Bacteria. Morganella morganii. Proteus inconstans. Proteus mirabilis. Providencia ... Streptococcus pneumoniae. Streptococcus pyogenes Gram-Negative Bacteria. Escherichia colia. Klebsiella pneumoniaea. Haemophilus ... Streptococcus pneumoniae. ≤1. 2. ≥4. -. -. -. a For Enterobacteriaceae, Haemophilus spp., and Moraxella catarrhalis, ... Anaerobic Bacteria. Peptococcus niger Susceptibility Test Methods. When available, the clinical microbiology laboratory should ...
rpsO - 30S ribosomal protein S15 - Streptococcus agalactiae serotype III (strain NEM316) - rpsO gene & protein
cellular organisms › Bacteria › Terrabacteria group › Firmicutes › Bacilli › Lactobacillales › Streptococcaceae › Streptococcus ... sp,Q8E7F7,RS15_STRA3 30S ribosomal protein S15 OS=Streptococcus agalactiae serotype III (strain NEM316) OX=211110 GN=rpsO PE=3 ... Streptococcus agalactiae serotype III (strain NEM316). ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and ...
DailyMed - CEFDINIR capsule
Gram-Positive Bacteria Staphylococcus epidermidis (methicillin-susceptible strains only). Streptococcus agalactiae Viridans ... Gram-Positive Bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-susceptible strains only). Streptococcus pneumoniae (penicillin- ... Gram-Negative Bacteria Haemophilus influenzae Haemophilus parainfluenzae Moraxella catarrhalis The following in vitro data are ... Pharyngitis/Tonsillitis caused by Streptococcus pyogenes (see CLINICAL STUDIES).. NOTE: Cefdinir is effective in the ...
Chlorhexidine maternal-vaginal and neonate body wipes in sepsis and vertical transmission of pathogenic bacteria in South...
Primary outcomes were neonatal sepsis in the first 3 days of life and vertical transmission of group B streptococcus. Analysis ... Chlorhexidine maternal-vaginal and neonate body wipes in sepsis and vertical transmission of pathogenic bacteria in South ... Rates of colonisation with group B streptococcus in newborn babies born to mothers in the chlorhexidine (217 [54%] of 401) and ... assessed the efficacy of chlorhexidine in early-onset neonatal sepsis and vertical transmission of group B streptococcus. ...
DailyMed - CEFTRIAXONE injection, powder, for solution CEFTRIAXONE- ceftriaxone injection, powder, for solution
Gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus agalactiae •Anaerobic bacteria Porphyromonas (Bacteroides) melaninogenicus Prevotella ( ... Ceftriaxone has been shown to be active against most isolates of the following bacteria, both in vitro and in clinical ... Development of Drug-resistant Bacteria Prescribing Ceftriaxone for Injection in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected ... To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Ceftriaxone for Injection, USP and other ...
Craig Shoemaker : USDA ARS
Streptococcus iniae and Streptococcus agalactiae. In: Woo, P.T.K., Cipriano, R.C.,editors. Fish Virus and Bacteria: ... Capsular typing of Streptococcus agalactiae (Lancefield group B streptococci) from fish using multiplex PCR and serotyping - ... Streptococcus iniae and Streptococcus agalactiae - Shoemaker, C.A., Xu, D., Soto, E. 2017. ... Capsular typing of Streptococcus agalactiae (Lancefield group B streptococci) from fish using multiplex PCR and serotyping. ...
KEGG GENOME: Streptococcus agalactiae ILRI005
Streptococcus agalactiae - Wikipedia, a enciclopedia libre
É unha bacteria beta-hemolítica, catalase negativa, e anaerobia facultativa. En xeral, o GBS é unha bacteria comensal ... 2010). Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus). "In" Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R (eds). Principles and practice of ... Streptococcus agalactiae (tamén coñecido como estreptococo do grupo B ou EGB (GBS polas súas siglas en inglés) é unha ... Streptococcus agalactiae é a designación de especie para os estreptococos que pertencen ao grupo B da clasificación de ...
HOGENOM: STAGA3 1 PE875
Mastitis | Countdown | Dairy Australia
Strep agalactiae bacteria tend to locate in duct areas of the udder where antibiotics are effective. Strep agalactiae are very ... Bacteria. Staph aureus. Strep agalactiae. Comments Staph aureus are a major cause of mastitis in Australia. They are difficult ... The main bacteria causing contagious mastitis are Staph aureus and Strep agalactiae. They mostly live inside udders or on teat ... showing an irregular pattern during lactation while ICCCs in cows with Strep agalactiae can be extremely high. Strep agalactiae ...
Clarithromycin 500mg Film-coated Tablets - Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC) - (emc)
Streptococcus (Diplococcus) pneumoniae; Streptococcus agalactiae; Listeria monocytogenes.. Gram-negative Bacteria: Haemophilus ... The organisms include Haemophilus influenzae; Streptococcus pneumoniae; Streptococcus pyogenes; Streptococcus agalactiae; ... The organisms include Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, ... alpha-haemolytic streptococci (viridans group); Streptococcus (Diplococcus) pneumoniae; Streptococcus agalactiae; Listeria ...
Streptococcus Agalactiae Antibody (224/46) (NB100-62933): Novus Biologicals
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Streptococcus Agalactiae Antibody (224/46). Validated: ELISA. Tested Reactivity: Bacteria. 100% ... Bacteria. Not yet tested in other species.. Packaging, Storage & Formulations. Storage. Store at 4C short term. Aliquot and ... Blogs on Streptococcus Agalactiae. There are no specific blogs for Streptococcus Agalactiae, but you can read our latest blog ... Reviews for Streptococcus Agalactiae Antibody (NB100-62933) (0) There are no reviews for Streptococcus Agalactiae Antibody ( ...
Streptococcus agalactiae : Wikis (The Full Wiki)
Regnum: Bacteria. Phylum: Firmicutes. Classis: Bacilli. Ordo: Lactobacillales. Familia: Streptococcaceae. Genus: Streptococcus ... Streptococcus agalactiae 18RS21 - Streptococcus agalactiae 515 - Streptococcus agalactiae H36B - Streptococcus agalactiae COH1 ... Genus: Streptococcus agalactiae. Species: Streptococcus agalactiae serogroup V - Streptococcus agalactiae serogroup III - ... Streptococcus agalactiae serogroup Ia - Streptococcus agalactiae str. Camel -. References. *NCBI link: Streptococcus agalactiae ...
CNS Flashcards by Aron Chacko | Brainscape
Streptococcus or Strep Bacteria: Infection and Disease | HubPages
... but it may cause strep throat, scarlet fever, rheumatic fever, impetigo and necrotizing fasciitis. ... Streptococcus is often a harmless bacterium in our bodies, ... Streptococcus agalactiae. Also like group A bacteria, they may ... Streptococcus is certainly a versatile bacterium! Yes, impetigo is usually caused by the same bacterium that causes a strep ... Streptococcus agalactiae growing on blood agar , Source. Group B Strep Infection in Adults. People aged 65 or older or people ...
Escherichia coli Isolated from Urinary Tract Infections of Lebanese Patients between 2000 and 2009: Epidemiology and Profiles...
... and Streptococcus agalactiae. Candida albicans and Candida sp. were commonly isolated; however, their clinical significance was ... This included 10,013 different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in addition to Candida albicans and Candida sp. There ... and Streptococcus agalactiae. E. coli occurred more frequently in women (69.8%) than in men (61.4%). The lowest percentage of ... Gram-negative bacteria were identified by standard biochemical tests [5, 6]. Gram-positive microorganisms were identified with ...
What Can We Learn from the Pan-Genome?
Colonies of bacteria Streptococcus agalactiae in culture medium plate. Image Credit: Angellodeco / Shutterstock ... This original concept was brought to light by Tettelin et al., when six strains of Streptococcus agalactiae were sequenced. ... 2005) Genome analysis of multiple pathogenic isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae: Implications for the microbial "pan-genome ... Another study also found that the pan-genome could be used as a novel tool to redefine these pathogenic species of bacteria. ...
KEGG PATHWAY: Metabolic pathways - Streptococcus agalactiae 2603 (serotype V)
Current State of Bacteria Pathogenicity and their Relationship with Host and Environment in Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus |...
Bacteria in Fish-Farming: Pathology and Diagnosis. Streptococcus agalactiae. The genus Streptococcus is an emerging Gram- ... Primary pathogenic bacteria in cultured tilapia, Oreochromis spp.. Currently, the genera Aeromonas, Streptococcus, Edwardsiella ... Al- Harbi and Uddin , for example, determined the presence of 19 species of bacteria, including Streptococcus spp., in ... Their potential depends on the capacity to act on a type of bacteria, various inactivated bacteria, or on Gram-positive and ...
Clinical Bacteriology: Gram Positive Bacteria - Staphylococci and Streptococci Flashcards by Aaron Iuppa | Brainscape
Gram Positive Bacteria - Staphylococci and Streptococci flashcards from Aaron Iuppa ... Streptococcus pyogenes - Group A Strep (catalase negative, bacitracin sensitive). Streptococcus agalactiae - Group B strep ( ... What are some other lab tests that are positive in Group B strep (streptococcus agalactiae). ... When should pregnant women be screened for Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B strep)? ...
Method for Lengthening the Seasonal Mobility Period of Fish - Elshout, Van Den Wilhelmus Hubertus Henricus Antonius
IMMUNOGENIC COMPOSITIONS FOR GRAM POSITIVE BACTERIA SUCH AS STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE. September, 2009. Bell et al. ... A well known bacterium, capable of producing free IAA is Azospirillum Brasilense (AB). At the end of the growth phase in a ... Yeast, fungi and many bacteria as well as plants are known to convert precursors of IAA into free IAA. In addition to the L- ... tryptophan conversion by bacteria, also L-tryptophan independent biochemical routes towards free IAA are described extensively ...
Genome analysis of multiple pathogenic isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae: Implications for the microbial "pan-genome" | PNAS
Finally, if we consider that there are 1031 bacteriophages on earth (36), which infect 1024 bacteria per second, we can imagine ... Genome analysis of multiple pathogenic isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae: Implications for the microbial "pan-genome". Hervé ... Genome analysis of multiple pathogenic isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae: Implications for the microbial "pan-genome" ... Genome analysis of multiple pathogenic isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae: Implications for the microbial "pan-genome" ...
Milk Quality on Pennsylvania Dairy Farms Using Robotic Milking Systems - Part 1: Introduction - Dairy - News | Agweb.com
Environmental and Non-Environmental Streptococci, and Coliform bacteria.. ... Streptococcus agalactiae. *Coagulase Negative Staphylococci. *Environmental and Non-Environmental Streptococci. *Coliform and ... Non-coliform bacteria. On two days during the month in which bulk tank samples were collected, robotic milkers were observed to ...
ViridansIniaeInfectionSubspBovineStreptococcosisIsolatesPyogenesHaemophilusPathogenic bacteriaStrainsBacterialAntibioticsFirmicutesNeonatalAnaerobic BacteriaIsolates of Streptococcus agalactiaeOrganismSerotypeTypes of bacteriaColiSpecies of bacteriaBovineGenomePathogensStrainMastitisGroup B strepOrganismsStaphColoniesGastrointestinalLactic acid bacCommonlyGramAureusPairs or chainsKinds of bacteriaVirusesAntibioticSwabsHumansLancefieldStreptococcalHemolyticResistanceInfect
- thermophilus' (previous name Streptococcus thermophilus ) is a Gram-positive bacterium and a homofermentative facultative anaerobe, of the Streptococcus viridans viridans group.European Bioinformatics Institute: [http://www.ebi.ac.uk/2can/genomes/bacteria/Streptococcus_thermophilus.html Bacteria Genomes - Streptococcus Thermophilus] It tests negative for cytochrome, oxidase, and catalase, and positive for alpha-hemolytic activity. (datapunk.net)
- Despite the significance of the disease, only limited information is available on the identification and characterization of the S. agalactiae isolates from fish and cattle. (auburn.edu)
- In the present study, GBS isolates from fish (n = 36), bottlenose dolphin (n=1) and cattle GBS isolates (n=10) were found to have a number of common phenotypic characteristics of the S. agalactiae reference strains (n=4). (auburn.edu)
- Fish isolates were evaluated to determine whether a single clone or multi-clones of S. agalactiae were responsible for streptococcal disease in mullet and seabream during the Kuwait Bay, Kuwait epidemic by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). (auburn.edu)
- SUPRAX is indicated in the treatment of adults and pediatric patients six months of age or older with otitis media caused by susceptible isolates of Haemophilus influenzae , Moraxella catarrhalis , and Streptococcus pyogenes . (rxlist.com)
- Efficacy for Streptococcus pyogenes in this organ system was studied in fewer than 10 infections. (rxlist.com)
- with pharyngitis and tonsillitis caused by susceptible isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes . (rxlist.com)
- Note: Penicillin is the usual drug of choice in the treatment of Streptococcus pyogenes infections. (rxlist.com)
- CEFTIN tablets are indicated for the treatment of adult patients and pediatric patients (13 years and older) with mild-to-moderate pharyngitis / tonsillitis caused by susceptible strains of Streptococcus pyogenes . (rxlist.com)
- CEFTIN for oral suspension is indicated for the treatment of pediatric patients aged 3 months to 12 years with mild-to-moderate pharyngitis/tonsillitis caused by susceptible strains of Streptococcus pyogenes . (rxlist.com)
- The efficacy of CEFTIN in the treatment of penicillin -resistant strains of Streptococcus pyogenes has not been demonstrated in clinical trials. (rxlist.com)
- Streptococcus pyogenes cells (stained red) often join to form chains. (hubpages.com)
- Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus mutans are scientific names. (hubpages.com)
- The human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes , or group A Streptococcus , is responsible for mild infections to life-threatening diseases. (biomedcentral.com)
- To facilitate the characterization of regulatory networks involved in the adaptation of this pathogen to its different environments and their evolution, we have determined the primary transcriptome of a serotype M1 S. pyogenes strain at single-nucleotide resolution and compared it with that of Streptococcus agalactiae, also from the pyogenic group of streptococci. (biomedcentral.com)
- 8.6% of S. pyogenes mRNAs were leaderless, among which 81% were also classified as leaderless in S. agalactiae . (biomedcentral.com)
- One hundred fifty-six operons and 254 monocistrons retained the same organization, despite multiple genomic reorganizations between S. pyogenes and S. agalactiae . (biomedcentral.com)
- Streptococcus pyogenes or Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a Gram-positive human-restricted pathogen responsible for a broad range of mild to severe diseases such as pharyngitis, impetigo, bacteremia, necrotizing fasciitis, streptococcal toxic shock and for post-infectious complications such as acute rheumatic fever or glomerulonephritis. (biomedcentral.com)
- 1 , 2 One bacterium, Streptococcus pyogenes or group A streptococcus (GAS), is responsible for the vast majority of cases. (rsc.org)
- Clinical symptoms like sore throat and fever are not exclusive to S. pyogenes or strep throat making it hard to diagnose. (rsc.org)
- The objective was to develop a MS procedure for the detection of S. pyogenes , the primary pathogen of strep throat. (rsc.org)
- group A strep, Streptococcus pyogenes (which can become the 'skin-eating bacterium' that is so popular nowadays). (bio.net)
- While Gram-negative bacteria, Haemophilus influenza OmpP2 is able to target the common carboxy-terminal domain of LR to start initial interaction with brain endothelium, then invade the brain. (springer.com)
- Chocolate agar is a type of blood agar plate in which the blood cells have been lysed by heating the cells to 56 °C. It is used for growing fastidious respiratory bacteria, such as Haemophilus influenzae. (wikipedia.org)
- Other causative organisms include constituents of vaginal flora, such as anaerobic bacteria, Gardnerella vaginalis , Haemophilus influenzae , enteric gram-negative rods, and Streptococcus agalactiae . (questdiagnostics.com)
- In a subset of mothers (n=5144), we gathered maternal lower vaginal swabs and neonatal skin swabs after delivery to assess colonisation with potentially pathogenic bacteria. (nih.gov)
- Because chlorhexidine intravaginal and neonatal wipes did not prevent neonatal sepsis or the vertical acquisition of potentially pathogenic bacteria among neonates, we need other interventions to reduce childhood mortality. (nih.gov)
- Here, we review the main pathogenic bacteria found in Oreochromis niloticus culture operations and options for controlling the appearance of bacterial pathogens in aquaculture production . (omicsonline.org)
- Pathogenic Bacteria in Oreochromis Niloticus Var. (omicsonline.org)
- Pech ZGH, Chavez CMR, Reynoso FL (2017) Pathogenic Bacteria in Oreochromis Niloticus Var. (omicsonline.org)
- However, species cultivation presents health problems, which are associated with the presence of pathogenic bacteria and causes high economic losses. (omicsonline.org)
- Diverse functions have been ascribed to EF-Tu many of which include important virulence traits in Gram positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria. (frontiersin.org)
- Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a fast and reliable method to identify the most common pathogenic bacteria in humans and animals. (dtu.dk)
- Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is usually caused by aspiration of pathogenic bacteria from the oropharynx. (biomedcentral.com)
- Potentially pathogenic bacteria that were not present at inclusion were identified in oropharyngeal samples from eight of the patients treated with Lp299 and 13 of those treated with CHX (p = 0.13). (biomedcentral.com)
- In this pilot study, we found no difference between the effect of Lp299 and CHX used in oral care procedures, when we examined the effects of those agents on colonisation of potentially pathogenic bacteria in the oropharynx of intubated, mechanically ventilated patients. (biomedcentral.com)
- A detailed analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA gene segments for the diagnosis of pathogenic bacteria. (nih.gov)
- The hypervariable sequence-specific dendrograms and the "MEGALIGN" files provided online will be highly useful tools for designing specific probes and primers for molecular assays to detect pathogenic bacteria, including select agents. (nih.gov)
- when six strains of Streptococcus agalactiae were sequenced. (news-medical.net)
- We have generated the genomic sequence of six strains representing the five major disease-causing serotypes of Streptococcus agalactiae , the main cause of neonatal infection in humans. (pnas.org)
- Surface expression of pilB in S. agalactiae and in recombinant L. lactis strains. (nih.gov)
- Taken together, our results suggest that a polyvalent vaccine consisting of various strains of S. agalactiae might be essential to provide broader protection to Nile tilapia against infections caused by S. agalactiae. (usda.gov)
- The researchers have also worked on vaccines to fight two strains of Streptococcus bacteria, a worldwide disease problem. (thefishsite.com)
- Further analysis of the complete genome sequences of eight isolates of human origin and one of bovine origin has highlighted the composite organization of S. agalactiae genomes with a conserved backbone (representing the core genome of the species) and a dispensable genome composed of genomic islands that are highly variable between the different strains. (thefishsite.com)
- S. agalactiae strains were repeatedly isolated from fish infections and found to cluster into two main groups. (thefishsite.com)
- On the other hand, nitrofurantoin is not active against most strains of Proteus or Serratia bacterium or any Pseudomonas species. (verywellhealth.com)
- Sampling and testing revealed those fish carried strains of several bacteria that could cause soft tissue infections, including Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio cholerae and S. agalactiae. (go.com)
- But scientists from the University of Western Ontario have discovered certain strains of lactobacillus bacteria, that are capable of dampening production of that toxin according to research published in the journal Applied and Environmental Microbiology . (medindia.net)
- This review aims to elucidate the different mechanisms of blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption that may occur due to invasion by different types of bacteria, as well as to show the bacteria-host interactions that assist the bacterial pathogen in invading the brain. (springer.com)
- Therefore, obtaining knowledge of BBB disruption by different types of bacterial species will provide a picture of how the bacteria enter the central nervous system (CNS) which might support the discovery of therapeutic strategies for each bacteria to control and manage infection. (springer.com)
- In the western world, S. agalactiae is the major cause of bacterial septicemia of the newborn, which can lead to death or long-term sequelae. (thefullwiki.org)
- In particular, bacterial meningitis can be caused by a large number of various bacteria. (brightkite.com)
- The replication and the breaking down of the bacteria within the subarachnoid space of the brain is what leads to the release of the bacterial virulence components, causing an inflammatory response (Nudelman & Tunkel, 2009). (brightkite.com)
- It makes FabF an essential target for inhibiting bacterial growth in resistant bacteria. (hindawi.com)
- Most bacterial pathogens, including gram-positive bacteria, have long filamentous structures known as pili extending from their surface. (nih.gov)
- Bacterial vaginosis- Gardnerella vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis and various anaerobic bacteria including Mobiluncus sp. (atsu.edu)
- bacterial members of the genus Streptococcus . (thefreedictionary.com)
- To avoid resistance, your doctor must first ensure that your UTI is caused by bacteria and not a virus or fungus This can be done by obtaining a urine sample and performing a bacterial culture and antibiotic susceptibility test (AST). (verywellhealth.com)
- We hypothesised that the probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum 299 (Lp299) would be as efficient as CHX in reducing the pathogenic bacterial load in the oropharynx of tracheally intubated, mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients. (biomedcentral.com)
- Almost all signals were related either to the acquisition of bacteria during labour and delivery, or to contamination of laboratory reagents with bacterial DNA. (lifeboat.com)
- We conclude that bacterial infection of the placenta is not a common cause of adverse pregnancy outcome and that the human placenta does not have a microbiome, but it does represent a potential site of perinatal acquisition of S. agalactiae , a major cause of neonatal sepsis. (lifeboat.com)
- Bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes contain nine "hypervariable regions" (V1-V9) that demonstrate considerable sequence diversity among different bacteria. (nih.gov)
- Streptococci are subdivided into 5 main pathogenic groups commonly found in humans (A, B, C, D and G). This subdivision is based on the antigenic differences of the carbohydrates in the bacterial cell wall. (quidel.com)
- Strep agalactiae bacteria tend to locate in duct areas of the udder where antibiotics are effective. (dairyaustralia.com.au)
- Strep throat is usually treated by antibiotics, even though the infection may go away without treatment, in order to prevent the bacteria from travelling deeper into the body and causing a more serious illness. (hubpages.com)
- The United States uses the most aggressive strategy: all pregnant women are screened for S. agalactiae [ 2 ] and prophylactic antibiotics are given to all positive women. (thefullwiki.org)
- If the bacteria are detected, women are given antibiotics through a vein during labor. (medlineplus.gov)
- Antibiotics can be given to women during labour or to babies after birth to kill the bacteria. (meningitis.org)
- Also antibiotic-based approach strategy increases the resistance of bacteria to antibiotics. (scirp.org)
- Antibiotics do not work well against these bacteria. (thefishsite.com)
- If you are pregnant and results show you have GBS bacteria, you will be given antibiotics intravenously (by IV) during labor, at least four hours before delivery. (medlineplus.gov)
- Taking antibiotics earlier in your pregnancy is not effective, because the bacteria can grow back very quickly. (medlineplus.gov)
- Bacteria, because they are living things, have evolved to resist many of the antibiotics used to treat them. (unexplained-mysteries.com)
- Even if you had never taken an antibiotic if you become infected with bacteria that have evolved to immunity from such drugs you will suffer just like someone who uses antibiotics for every little ailment. (unexplained-mysteries.com)
- A new paper by the Dynamical Systems Biology lab at UPF shows that the response by bacteria to antibiotics may depend on other species of bacteria they live with, in such a way that some bacteria may make others more tolerant to antibiotics. (brightsurf.com)
- The effect of changes in the consumption of macrolide antibiotics and erythromycin resistance in group A streptococci in Finland. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Because antibiotics tend to be overused or used incorrectly, pathogenic (disease-causing) bacteria can quickly develop resistance to some of the more commonly prescribed drugs. (verywellhealth.com)
- We therefore assessed the efficacy of chlorhexidine in early-onset neonatal sepsis and vertical transmission of group B streptococcus. (nih.gov)
- Primary outcomes were neonatal sepsis in the first 3 days of life and vertical transmission of group B streptococcus. (nih.gov)
- Streptococcus agalactiae also referred to as Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a Gram-positive bacterium that has emerged as a leading cause of neonatal infections during the sixties and represents an increasing cause of infections in the elderly and in adults with underlying diseases. (thefishsite.com)
- Group D streptococci fall far behind in the etiology of neonatal sepsis and/or meningitis. (thefreedictionary.com)
- In the 1970s, the bacterium group B Streptococcus (GBS) emerged as the leading infectious cause of early neonatal morbidity and mortality in the United States ( 1--4 ). (cdc.gov)
Isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae1
- A third organism, Strep uberis is sometimes spread at milking. (dairyaustralia.com.au)
- This report focuses on management of contagious mastitis due to the organism Streptococcus agalactiae. (cornell.edu)
- In particular, Streptococcus agalactiae, often referred to as Group B streptococci, an organism of particular concern when giving birth, increased toxin production 3.7-fold," says Reid. (medindia.net)
Types of bacteria4
- Both types of bacteria can have significant effects on humans. (hubpages.com)
- It is important to remember that GBS bacteria are just one of many types of bacteria which naturally live in our bodies, and most babies are not affected by them. (meningitis.org)
- To date there has been only limited information on the types of bacteria associated with these fish," lead researcher David Verner-Jeffreys said. (medicalxpress.com)
- The risk of potentially fatal toxic shock syndrome appears to be influenced by the types of bacteria present in the vagina," says principal investigator Gregor Reid. (medindia.net)
Species of bacteria4
- Nonetheless, only a small fraction of these species of bacteria have genomes that have been fully sequenced. (news-medical.net)
- Another study also found that the pan-genome could be used as a novel tool to redefine these pathogenic species of bacteria. (news-medical.net)
- We then went on to look at other consignments of apparently healthy imported G. rufa and found some other species of bacteria that can cause disease in humans and fish. (medicalxpress.com)
- In fact, over 500 different species of bacteria can be found on Manhattan's subway lines. (mombloggersclub.com)
- 10. Rainard P., Poutrel B. (1995) Deposition of complement components on Streptococcus agalactiae in bovine milk in the absence of inflammation. (mcmaster.ca)
- Distribution of antimicrobial resistance and virulence-related genes among Brazilian group B streptococci recovered from bovine and human sources. (thefreedictionary.com)
- CC Streptococcus agalactiae A909, complete genome. (univ-lyon1.fr)
- Genome Sequences of Two Pathogenic Streptococcus agalactiae Isolates from the One-Humped Camel Camelus dromedarius. (genome.jp)
- The DNS sequences obtained could be construed as a core genome (shared by all S. agalactiae isolates), which accountis for around 80% of the single genome, as well as an expendable genome consisting of strain-specific and partially-shared genes. (news-medical.net)
- Estimates from this study suggest that the genetic reservoir within the S. agalactiae pan-genome is immense, and that these new genes could continue to be further identified. (news-medical.net)
- Analysis of these genomes and those available in databases showed that the S. agalactiae species can be described by a pan-genome consisting of a core genome shared by all isolates, accounting for ≈80% of any single genome, plus a dispensable genome consisting of partially shared and strain-specific genes. (pnas.org)
- Mathematical extrapolation of the data suggests that the gene reservoir available for inclusion in the S. agalactiae pan-genome is vast and that unique genes will continue to be identified even after sequencing hundreds of genomes. (pnas.org)
- Bolotin A, Wincker P, Mauger S, Jaillon O, Malarme K, Weissenbach J, Ehrlich SD, Sorokin A (2001) The complete genome sequence of the lactic acid bacterium Lactococcus lactis ssp. (springer.com)
- The Nan cluster among bacteria is confined to human pathogens and commensals conferring them the ability to utilize a ubiquitous carbon source in mucus rich surfaces of the human body. (biomedcentral.com)
- Is it the number of good bacteria in the gut, or maybe the ratio good/bad bacteria, or should the efficacy be measured in how many pathogens are reduced by adding probiotics? (allaboutfeed.net)
- Mastitis is inflammation of the cow's mammary gland, caused by bacteria entering the teat canal and moving to the udder. (dairyaustralia.com.au)
- The main bacteria causing contagious mastitis are Staph aureus and Strep agalactiae. (dairyaustralia.com.au)
- Strep agalactiae do not produce black (gangrenous) mastitis but it can occur in all the other forms. (dairyaustralia.com.au)
- However, S. agalactiae was initially described as an animal pathogen causing mastitis in ruminant. (thefishsite.com)
- It's impossible to keep much sterile on a dairy, but could clean udder cloths be transmitting mastitis-causing bacteria in the milking parlor? (oregonstate.edu)
- Get clean towels tested periodically to see if they may be carrying mastitis-causing bacteria. (oregonstate.edu)
- Bacteriologic examination of 32 milk samples from one farm didn't show bacteria known as common etiologic agent of mastitis. (scielo.br)
Group B strep7
- GBS septicemia is caused by the bacterium Streptococcus agalactiae , which is commonly called group B strep, or GBS. (medlineplus.gov)
- What is a group B strep test? (medlineplus.gov)
- Strep B, also known as group B strep (GBS), is a type of bacteria commonly found in the digestive tract, urinary tract, and genital area. (medlineplus.gov)
- A group B strep test checks for GBS bacteria. (medlineplus.gov)
- A group B strep test is most often used to look for GBS bacteria in pregnant women. (medlineplus.gov)
- Why do I need a group B strep test? (medlineplus.gov)
- You don't any special preparations for group B strep tests. (medlineplus.gov)
- Among the disease organisms that cause mortality in tilapia are bacteria such as Flavobacterium columnare, Edwardsiella tarda, Aeromonas spp. (omicsonline.org)
- But what they don't seem to understand is that we determine other organisms are related in the exact same way we determine bacteria are related. (scienceblogs.com)
- Stress-induced mutagenesis is an established stress response in several bacteria and other organisms, but the overall phenomenon and its importance have been very rarely investigated in LAB. (springer.com)
- We show that non-targeted sequencing of human sperm RNA has the potential to provide a profile of micro-organisms (bacteria, viruses, archaea)," said Stephen Krawetz, Ph.D., associate director of the C.S. Mott Center for Human Growth and Development at WSU and the Charlotte B. Failing Professor of Fetal Therapy and Diagnosis in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and the Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics. (brightsurf.com)
- The study, " What human sperm RNA-Seq tells us about the microbiome " published in the Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics , sought to determine if human sperm RNA sequencing data could provide a sensitive method of detection of micro-organisms, including bacteria, viruses and archaea compared to current methods of targeted culturing. (brightsurf.com)
- In general, GBS is a harmless commensal bacterium being part of the human microbiota colonizing the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract of up to 30% of healthy human adults ( asymptomatic carriers ). (wikipedia.org)
- [ 2 ] [ 3 ] En xeral, o GBS é unha bacteria comensal inofensiva que forma parte da microbiota humana que coloniza os tractos gastrointestinal e xenitourinario de ata o 30% dos humanos adultos con boa saúde ( portadores asintomátricos ). (wikipedia.org)
- O GBS é un colonizador asintomático do tracto gastrointestinal e a vaxina en ata o 30% dos adultos sans, incluíndo mulleres preñadas. (wikipedia.org)
- Streptococci form part of the normal human flora that resides on the skin, and can also colonise the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary tracts. (novusbio.com)
- 10-30% of women are positive in their genital tracts although the bacterium is normally a resident of the gastrointestinal tract. (montana.edu)
Lactic acid bac4
- They are known as lactic acid bacteria because they feed on carbohydrates and obtain energy by converting the carbohydrates to lactic acid. (hubpages.com)
- Over the past few decades, the stress physiology of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been a field of rigorous research. (springer.com)
- Delcour J, Ferain T, Hols P (2000) Advances in the genetics of thermophilic lactic acid bacteria. (springer.com)
- Fitzsimons NA, Cogan TM, Condon S, Beresford T (2001) Spatial and temporal distribution of non-starter lactic acid bacteria in Cheddar cheese. (springer.com)
- Streptococcus agalactiae, commonly called group B streptococcus (GBS) is a commensal bacterium of the digestive tract. (scirp.org)
- Proteus vulgaris, which is a bacteria commonly found in fecal matter. (mombloggersclub.com)
- The most commonly isolated Gram-negative bacteria were Proteus spp. (unboundmedicine.com)
- This product is specific for Streptococcus agalactiae a gram-positive streptococcus characterized by the presence of the group B Lancefield antigen. (novusbio.com)
- Streptococcus agalactiae (also known as Group B streptococcus or GBS ) is a beta-hemolytic gram-positive streptococcus . (thefullwiki.org)
- What color are gram positive bacteria on the gram stain? (brainscape.com)
- Gram positive bacteria are purple/blue. (brainscape.com)
- Gram negative bacteria will be pink. (brainscape.com)
- This retrospective study analyzed the data generated between 2000 and 2009 (10,013 Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria). (hindawi.com)
- Within the NanA phylogeny, Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria do not form distinct clades. (biomedcentral.com)
- β -Ketoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein (ACP)) synthase (FabF) whose Gram-positive bacteria need to biosynthesize cell membranes is the target of inhibition of platensimycin. (hindawi.com)
- The antibiotic imipenem was the most effective against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and gentamicin was effective against Gram-negative bacteria. (unboundmedicine.com)
- The Gram positive bacteria Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) is a cause of severe epidemics in fish farms. (thefishsite.com)
- Streptococci are non-motile, Gram-positive cocci with widely varying pathogenic potential that occur in pairs or chains. (uniprot.org)
- In addition to this lysis from within , endolysins from phages of gram-positive hosts are also able to swiftly lyse bacteria upon exogenous application. (scialert.net)
- The CAMP factor produced by S. agalactiae enhances the beta-hemolysis of S. aureus by binding to already damaged red blood cells. (uwyo.edu)
- Rings of hemolysis are evident all around S. aureus , however the hemolysis if greatly enhanced (in an arrow shape) where the S. agalactiae crosses the hemolysis rings. (uwyo.edu)
- Indeed the ethanol extract evidenced high phenolic content (384.33 ± 0.005 mg/g), flavonoids contents (85.8 ± 0.009 mg/g) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (33,590 ± 0.038 mmol/g), with high activity against S. aureus and S. agalactiae (11 ± 0.3 and 12 ± 0.6 mm inhibition zones). (mdpi.com)
- In neonates, acute unilateral cervical lymphadenitis is generally caused by S. aureus and in young infants by Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus). (renalandurologynews.com)
Pairs or chains1
Kinds of bacteria5
- The petri dishes were filled with tryptic soy agar and using a guide supplied by the manufacturers, I was able to visually identify some of the following kinds of bacteria. (behance.net)
- On Wednesday the CDC published a report by the Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science in the United Kingdom, which studied the kinds of bacteria carried by the Garra rufa, or "doctor fish," an inch-long silver carp native to Southeast Asia. (medicalxpress.com)
- It's no secret that water provides a fertile breeding ground for all kinds of bacteria. (medicalxpress.com)
- After an outbreak of strep bacteria last year in a shipment of the fish, the British government seized five containers from London's Heathrow Airport to study what kinds of bacteria the fish were carrying. (medicalxpress.com)
- 7,000 kinds of bacteria in the course of their investigation. (sciencephoto.com)
- Coconut oil contains lauric acid, which is what makes it an excellent medicine for viruses, fungi, and bacteria. (earthclinic.com)
- Viruses are not even considered to be living things as bacteria are. (unexplained-mysteries.com)
- Infectious agents like bacteria, viruses, fungi, and algae are mostly the primary causes of disease. (ispub.com)
- Many viruses, bacteria and protozoa (parasites) are enveloped by a protective membrane composed of lipids (fats). (iherb.com)
- At the same time, tests can be performed to determine what type of antibiotic would be most effective against that particular bacteria. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Worse yet, some of these bacteria can be spread through communities, meaning that you may 'pick up' a bacteria that are already resistant to one or several antibiotic drugs. (verywellhealth.com)
- Not only does monolaurin inactive these bacteria, unlike antibiotic drugs, the bacteria appear to be unable to develop resistance to coconut's natural antimicrobials. (iherb.com)
- Streptococcus agalactiae is the species designation for streptococci belonging to group B of the Lancefield classification . (wikipedia.org)
- GBS is characterized by the presence in the cell wall of the antigen group B of Lancefield classification ( Lancefield grouping ) that can be detected directly in intact bacteria using latex agglutination tests. (wikipedia.org)
- Streptococcus agalactiae é a designación de especie para os estreptococos que pertencen ao grupo B da clasificación de Lancefield . (wikipedia.org)
- O GBS caracterízase pola presenza na parede celular do antíxeno do grupo B da clasificación de Lancefield ( agrupamento de Lancefield ) que pode ser detectado directamente en bacterias intactas usando probas de aglutinación de látex. (wikipedia.org)
- GBS are identified on culture plates by the presence of group B Lancefield antigen, by its ability to hydrolyze sodium hippurate, and by its sensitivity to bile which causes GBS bacteria to lyse. (quidel.com)
- Although viridans streptococci are classified in the alpha-hemolytic group, some are non-hemolytic. (hubpages.com)
- Of the six avirulent sparfloxacin-resistant S. agalactiae isolates, four provided 3-5g Nile tilapia 100% protection against challenges with homologous isolates, including Sag 97-spar isolate that was non-hemolytic. (usda.gov)
- Majority of S. agalactiae used in this study were able to develop at least 80-fold resistance to sparfloxacin. (usda.gov)
- diverse novel mode of action, antibacterial spectrum, low probability of developing resistance and being highly active with explicit specificity against host bacteria. (scialert.net)