Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Bacteria, AnaerobicRNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Bacteria, AerobicDNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria: A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.Gram-Negative Anaerobic Bacteria: A large group of anaerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the Gram-staining method.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Sulfur-Reducing Bacteria: A group of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that is able to oxidize acetate completely to carbon dioxide using elemental sulfur as the electron acceptor.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Gammaproteobacteria: A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Proteobacteria: A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.Bacteroides: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Betaproteobacteria: A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised of chemoheterotrophs and chemoautotrophs which derive nutrients from decomposition of organic material.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Vibrio: A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Cytophaga: A genus of gram-negative gliding bacteria found in SOIL; HUMUS; and FRESHWATER and marine habitats.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Antibiosis: A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Eubacterium: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of man and animals, animal and plant products, infections of soft tissue, and soil. Some species may be pathogenic. No endospores are produced. The genus Eubacterium should not be confused with EUBACTERIA, one of the three domains of life.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Actinobacteria: Class of BACTERIA with diverse morphological properties. Strains of Actinobacteria show greater than 80% 16S rDNA/rRNA sequence similarity among each other and also the presence of certain signature nucleotides. (Stackebrandt E. et al, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1997) 47:479-491)Mouth: The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Corynebacterium: A genus of asporogenous bacteria that is widely distributed in nature. Its organisms appear as straight to slightly curved rods and are known to be human and animal parasites and pathogens.Bacterial Load: Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Deltaproteobacteria: A group of PROTEOBACTERIA represented by morphologically diverse, anaerobic sulfidogens. Some members of this group are considered bacterial predators, having bacteriolytic properties.Gram-Negative Aerobic Rods and Cocci: A group of gram-negative bacteria consisting of rod- and coccus-shaped cells. They are both aerobic (able to grow under an air atmosphere) and microaerophilic (grow better in low concentrations of oxygen) under nitrogen-fixing conditions but, when supplied with a source of fixed nitrogen, they grow as aerobes.Listeria monocytogenes: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Bacteroidetes: A phylum of bacteria comprised of three classes: Bacteroides, Flavobacteria, and Sphingobacteria.Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).Chlorobi: A phylum of anoxygenic, phototrophic bacteria including the family Chlorobiaceae. They occur in aquatic sediments, sulfur springs, and hot springs and utilize reduced sulfur compounds instead of oxygen.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Probiotics: Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Fusobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of humans and other animals. No endospores are formed. Some species are pathogenic and occur in various purulent or gangrenous infections.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Flavobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in SOIL and WATER. Its organisms are also found in raw meats, MILK and other FOOD, hospital environments, and human clinical specimens. Some species are pathogenic in humans.Actinomycetales: An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Gram-Positive Cocci: Coccus-shaped bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Environmental Microbiology: The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.Metagenome: A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.Lactobacillaceae: A family of gram-positive bacteria found regularly in the mouth and intestinal tract of man and other animals, in food and dairy products, and in fermenting vegetable juices. A few species are highly pathogenic.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.PeptidoglycanSulfur: An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Quorum Sensing: A phenomenon where microorganisms communicate and coordinate their behavior by the accumulation of signaling molecules. A reaction occurs when a substance accumulates to a sufficient concentration. This is most commonly seen in bacteria.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Pseudoalteromonas: A genus of GRAM-NEGATIVE AEROBIC BACTERIA of marine origin. Many species were formerly classified under ALTEROMONAS.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Bacteroidaceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria found primarily in the intestinal tracts and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Its organisms are sometimes pathogenic.Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Waste Disposal, Fluid: The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.Bifidobacterium: A rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-acid-fast, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium that is a genus of the family Bifidobacteriaceae, order Bifidobacteriales, class ACTINOBACTERIA. It inhabits the intestines and feces of humans as well as the human vagina.Marine Biology: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Pseudomonas fluorescens: A species of nonpathogenic fluorescent bacteria found in feces, sewage, soil, and water, and which liquefy gelatin.Enterococcus faecalis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.Peptostreptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of humans. Its organisms are opportunistic pathogens causing bacteremias and soft tissue infections.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Gram-Negative Chemolithotrophic Bacteria: A large group of bacteria including those which oxidize ammonia or nitrite, metabolize sulfur and sulfur compounds, or deposit iron and/or manganese oxides.Flagella: A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Enterobacter: Gram-negative gas-producing rods found in feces of humans and other animals, sewage, soil, water, and dairy products.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Fimbriae, Bacterial: Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).Burkholderia: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the PSEUDOMONAS genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Pseudomonas species, and hence, this new genus was created.Gram-Positive Endospore-Forming Bacteria: Bacteria that form endospores and are gram-positive. Representative genera include BACILLUS; CLOSTRIDIUM; MICROMONOSPORA; SACCHAROPOLYSPORA; and STREPTOMYCES.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Microbial Interactions: The inter- and intra-relationships between various microorganisms. This can include both positive (like SYMBIOSIS) and negative (like ANTIBIOSIS) interactions. Examples include virus - bacteria and bacteria - bacteria.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Photobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are common in the marine environment and on the surfaces and in the intestinal contents of marine animals. Some species are bioluminescent and are found as symbionts in specialized luminous organs of fish.Pigments, Biological: Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.PhenazinesActinomyces: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are nonmotile. Filaments that may be present in certain species are either straight or wavy and may have swollen or clubbed heads.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Micrococcus: A genus of gram-positive, spherical bacteria found in soils and fresh water, and frequently on the skin of man and other animals.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Proteus: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, as well as in manure, soil, and polluted waters. Its species are pathogenic, causing urinary tract infections and are also considered secondary invaders, causing septic lesions at other sites of the body.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Bioreactors: Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.Sulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Desulfovibrio: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria capable of reducing sulfur compounds to hydrogen sulfide. Organisms are isolated from anaerobic mud of fresh and salt water, animal intestines, manure, and feces.Serratia marcescens: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Gentian Violet: A dye that is a mixture of violet rosanilinis with antibacterial, antifungal, and anthelmintic properties.Germ-Free Life: Animals not contaminated by or associated with any foreign organisms.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Dental Plaque: A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Bacteriochlorophylls: Pyrrole containing pigments found in photosynthetic bacteria.Alcaligenes: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, motile bacteria that occur in water and soil. Some are common inhabitants of the intestinal tract of vertebrates. These bacteria occasionally cause opportunistic infections in humans.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Thiosulfates: Inorganic salts of thiosulfuric acid possessing the general formula R2S2O3.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Plankton: Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.Adhesins, Bacterial: Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Pseudomonas putida: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.Nitrosomonas: A genus of gram-negative, ellipsoidal or rod-shaped bacteria whose major source of energy and reducing power is from the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite. Its species occur in soils, oceans, lakes, rivers, and sewage disposal systems.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Lactobacillales: An order of gram-positive bacteria in the class Bacilli, that have the ability to ferment sugars to lactic acid. They are widespread in nature and commonly used to produce fermented foods.Rhodopseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped, phototrophic bacteria found in aquatic environments. Internal photosynthetic membranes are present as lamellae underlying the cytoplasmic membrane.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Lactobacillus acidophilus: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the intestinal tract of humans and animals, the human mouth, and vagina. This organism produces the fermented product, acidophilus milk.Methylococcaceae: A family of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria utilizing only one-carbon organic compounds and isolated from in soil and water.Arthrobacter: A genus of asporogenous bacteria isolated from soil that displays a distinctive rod-coccus growth cycle.Klebsiella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.Acetobacteraceae: A family of gram-negative aerobic bacteria consisting of ellipsoidal to rod-shaped cells that occur singly, in pairs, or in chains.Industrial Waste: Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.Streptococcus mutans: A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis: Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.Antarctic Regions: The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)Blood Bactericidal Activity: The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
Bacteria. Pseudomonas syringae, Xanthomonas campestris Fungi. Colletotrichum destructivum, Botrytis cinerea, Golovinomyces ... Microbial consortia naturally formed. on the roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. Scanning electron microscopy pictures of root ... b) Biofilm-forming bacteria. c) Fungal or oomycete hyphae surrounding the root surface. d) Primary root densely covered by ... The central stem that produces flowers grows after about three weeks, and the flowers naturally self-pollinate. In the lab, A. ...
The bacterium is found naturally in fresh water. It can contaminate hot water tanks, hot tubs, and cooling towers of large air ... In the lung, the bacteria are consumed by macrophages, a type of white blood cell, inside of which the Legionella bacteria ... The bacteria grows best at warm temperatures. It thrives at water temperatures between 25 and 45 °C (77 and 113 °F), with an ... The Legionella bacteria can be cultured from sputum or other respiratory samples. Legionella stains poorly with Gram stain, ...
ADP1, a versatile and naturally transformation competent bacterium". Nucleic Acids Res. 32 (19): 5766-79. doi:10.1093/nar/ ... 2004). "The genome sequence of the probiotic intestinal bacterium Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. ... 2003). "The complete genome sequence of the carcinogenic bacterium Helicobacter hepaticus". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100 ( ... 2011). "Genome Sequence of Kosmotoga olearia Strain TBF 19.5.1, a Thermophilic Bacterium with a Wide Growth Temperature Range, ...
It is produced naturally by the bacterium Streptomyces fradiae.[22] Synthesis requires specific nutrient conditions in either ... The compound is then isolated and purified from the bacterium.[23] DNA binding[edit]. Aminoglycosides such as neomycin are ... By killing bacteria in the intestinal tract, it keeps ammonia levels low and prevents hepatic encephalopathy, especially prior ... It works as an antibiotic that is active against streptomycin-resistant bacteria, including in the case of tuberculosis ...
This process is undertaken by the gut bacterium Pantoea agglomerans.[67] Guaiacol is one of the main components of the ... a naturally occurring compound found in sesame seeds Synthetic[edit]. Phenol. the parent compound, used as a disinfectant and ... In biochemistry, naturally occurring phenols refers to phenol functional group that is found in natural products.[1][2][3] ... Dillon, Rod J.; Vennard, Chris T.; Charnley, A. Keith (2000). "Exploitation of gut bacteria in the locust". Nature. 403 (6772 ...
These include bacteria, viruses, and other organisms; biologicals include man-made synthetics of naturally occurring organisms ... Diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, or viruses contribute to the decline of gypsy moth populations, especially during periods ... Nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV), a naturally occurring organism, has been developed as a microbial pesticide. It is presently ... By applying a large number of point sources that continuously emit naturally identical gypsy moth sex pheromone, or disparlure ...
Some bacteria are naturally competent, but usually only for a brief time at a certain stage of their growth cycle. Bacteria can ... Transformation is a naturally occurring process in bacteria. Bacteria need to be in a certain physiological state to ... Transformation of bacteria, plant cells and animal cells has important research and commercial functions. Targeted introduction ... The range of organisms that have been created through transgenesis range from bacteria to mammals, including sheep and monkeys ...
ADEPs are naturally occurring antibiotics. Certain bacteria produce them as defense mechanism in antagonist bacterial ... As a result, Gram-positive bacteria treated with ADEPs form long filaments before cell death. When bacteria are exposed to ... They largely affect Gram-positive bacteria and could be of great use to target antibiotic resistant microbes such as ... Acyldepsipeptide or cyclic acyldepsipeptide (ADEP) is a class of potential antibiotics first isolated from bacteria and act by ...
The bacteria produce them in much milder conditions. B. licheniformis is naturally competent for genetic transformation. ... The bacterium is well adapted to grow in alkaline conditions, so the protease it produces can withstand high pH levels, making ... Feather degrading bacteria may have played an important role in the evolution of molting, and patterns in feather coloration ( ... Bacillus licheniformis is a bacterium commonly found in the soil. It is found on bird feathers, especially chest and back ...
Some bacteria can naturally take up foreign DNA. This ability can be induced in other bacteria via stress (e.g. thermal or ... creating genetically modified bacteria in the process. Bacteria are cheap, easy to grow, clonal, multiply quickly, relatively ... Altered Bacterium Does Its Job : Frost Failed to Damage Sprayed Test Crop, Company Says James, Clive (1996). "Global Review of ... Bacteria consist of a single cell and reproduce clonally so regeneration is not necessary. Selectable markers are used to ...
Plants and photosynthetic bacteria naturally produce all-trans lycopene. When exposed to light or heat, lycopene can undergo ... Carotenoids like lycopene are found in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes in plants, photosynthetic bacteria, fungi, and ...
... s naturally occur in the cell walls of bacteria. Bacteria produce this polysaccharide in a cluster near the ... The polysaccharide is attached to the bacteria cells and then mixed in an alkali solution such as sodium hydroxide to become ... bacteria's cells. Polyglucan's are a source of beta-glucans. Structurally, beta 1.3-glucans are complex glucose homopolymers ...
Discovery of bacterium[edit]. After the end of the 17th century, Norway, Iceland, and England were the countries in Western ... administering naturally occurring oils. They were given by injection and orally, and were believed to cure some people, but ... By the 1960s, the world's only known anti-leprosy drug became ineffective against resistant bacteria. ... making it the first bacterium to be identified as causing disease in humans.[2][16] Hansen observed a number of nonrefractile ...
... s are the naturally occurring form of the element phosphorus, found in many phosphate minerals. In mineralogy and ... B]ioavailable phosphorus - phosphorus that can be utilized by plants and bacteria - is only a fraction of the total, according ... Calcium hydroxyapatite and calcite precipitates can be found around bacteria in alluvial topsoil. As clay minerals promote ... Phosphate deposits can contain significant amounts of naturally occurring heavy metals. Mining operations processing phosphate ...
Live bacteria might not be essential because of beneficial effects of probiotics seems to be mediated by their DNA and by ... Naturally fermented vegetables, milk, and meat may also contain strains of L. paracasei. Lactobacillus paracasei belongs to ... The name includes morphology, a rod-shaped (bacillus shape) bacterium with a width of 2.0 to 4.0μm and length of 0.8 to 1.0μm. ... LAB (Lactic Acid Bacteria) were classified and grouped in the early 1900s after gaining scientists' attention after observing ...
This causes a decreased capacity for survival in the bacteria. Bacteria that are naturally resistant to fosfomycin are less ... No new drugs for the bacteria are in development and the bacteria's rapid adaptation to new drugs makes investment in their ... The class B metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) are found largely in Gram-negative bacteria and environmental bacteria. The subclasses ... "CDC: Action needed now to halt spread of deadly bacteria: Data show more inpatients suffering infections from bacteria ...
The Parachlamydiaceae naturally infect amoebae and can be grown in cultured Vero cells. The Parachlamydiaceae are not ... Parachlamydiaceae is a family of bacteria in the order Chlamydiales. Species in this family have a Chlamydia-like cycle of ...
Imbalance of the naturally occurring bacteria in the vagina[4][5]. Risk factors. Douching, new or multiple sex partners, ... BV is caused by an imbalance of the naturally occurring bacteria in the vagina.[4][5] There is a change in the most common type ... of bacteria and a hundred to thousandfold increase in total numbers of bacteria present.[6] Typically, bacteria other than ... Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a disease of the vagina caused by excessive growth of bacteria.[6][9] Common symptoms include ...
Most commonly this is produced naturally by various strains of bacteria. These bacteria ferment sugars into acids, unlike yeast ... These bacteria can also grow in the mouth; the acid they produce is responsible for the tooth decay known as caries.[9][10][11] ... König H, Fröhlich J (2009). Lactic acid bacteria in Biology of Microorganisms on Grapes, in Must and in Wine. Springer-Verlag. ... After cooling the wort, yeast and bacteria are allowed to "fall" into the open fermenters. Most brewers of more common beer ...
... can be found naturally in Cocos nucifera. It is one of the main catechins metabolites found in humans ... This enzyme participates in toluene and xylene degradation in bacteria such as Pseudomonas mendocina. It is also found in ... This enzyme catalyses the first step in ubiquinone biosynthesis in Escherichia coli and other Gram-negative bacteria. Benzoate ... Cryptanaerobacter phenolicus is a bacterium species that produces benzoate from phenol via 4-hydroxybenzoate. ...
Various microbial insect diseases occur naturally, but may also be used as biological pesticides. When naturally occurring, ... The bacterium is available to organic farmers in sachets of dried spores which are mixed with water and sprayed onto vulnerable ... The bacterium Paenibacillus popilliae which causes milky spore disease has been found useful in the control of Japanese beetle ... Bacteria used for biological control infect insects via their digestive tracts, so they offer only limited options for ...
nov., a gamma- and UV-radiation-resistant bacterium, isolated from a naturally radioactive site. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. ... These bacteria have thick cell walls that give them Gram-positive stains, but they include a second membrane and so are closer ... Where other bacteria change their structure in the presence of radiation, such as endospores, Deinococcus tolerate it without ... nov., a gamma- and UV-radiation-resistant bacterium from China. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2007 Feb;57(Pt 2):370-5. J.P. Euzéby ...
... s can contain harmful bacteria. Oysters are filter feeders, so will naturally concentrate anything present in the ... They were naturally quite popular in New York City, and helped initiate the city's restaurant trade. New York's oystermen ... Not all individual oysters produce pearls naturally. In fact, in a harvest of two and a half tons of oysters, only three to ... Bacteria, dissolved organics and oxygens consumption in salinity stratified Chesapeake Bay, an anoxia paradigm. Am. Zool. 37, ...
These activities stimulate naturally-occurring bacteria to produce more nitrous oxide. Nitrous oxide emissions from soil can be ... Soils under natural vegetation are an important source of nitrous oxide, accounting for 60% of all naturally produced emissions ... oxidizing bacteria and the pathway whereby ammonia (NH 3) is oxidised to nitrite (NO− 2), followed by the reduction of NO− 2 to ... where facultative anaerobe bacteria use NO− 3 as an electron acceptor in the respiration of organic material in the condition ...
The lesions can also become infected with bacteria, complicating the infection. In some cases, it can resolve naturally without ...
However, it is essential for the methanotrophic bacterium Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum SolV, although the general similarity ... Three group 3 elements occur naturally: scandium, yttrium, and either lanthanum or lutetium. Lanthanum continues the trend ...
Many healthy bacteria live in the intestines and vagina where they protect against the "bad" bacteria that cause disease. They ... Prebiotics occur naturally in foods, however, supplements provide a more concentrated source. Prebiotics are oligosaccharides, ... bacteria. Health practitioners often recommend probiotics as a supplement while taking antibiotics. Antibiotics kill bacteria, ... Effects of probiotic bacteria on diarrhea, lipid metabolism, and carcinogenesis: a review of papers published between 1988 and ...
Many healthy bacteria live in the intestines and vagina, where they protect against bad bacteria that can cause disease. They ... Prebiotics occur naturally in foods, but supplements provide a more concentrated source. Prebiotics are oligosaccharides -- ... bacteria. Probiotics are often suggested as a supplement when you take antibiotics. Antibiotics kill bacteria, but dont ... Effects of probiotic bacteria on diarrhea, lipid metabolism, and carcinogenesis: a review of papers published between 1988 and ...
A naturally occurring type of bacteria called Oxalobacter formigenes reduces the risk of recurrent kidney stones by about 70 ... WEDNESDAY, March 5 (HealthDay News) -- A naturally occurring type of bacteria calledOxalobacter formigenesreduces the risk of ... The possibility of using the bacterium as a probiotic is currently in the early stages of investigation," he said. ...
It is thought that bacteria developed the ability to produce restriction enzymes naturally in order to protect the cell from an ... It is thought that bacteria developed the ability to produce restriction enzymes naturally in order to protect the cell from an ... A: Bacteria is a major source of restriction enzymes. Bacteria cells use restriction enzymes to cut foreign DNA at specific ... What Are Some Features of the Clostridium Perfringens Bacterium?. A: Clostridium perfringens is a rod-shaped anaerobic bacteria ...
Bad bacteria can damage your health and it can be hard to recover, eating some anti-microbial foods can ensure your body gets ... This is one of the best ways to kill bad bacteria. If you are prone to yeast infections such as thrush, this may one way you ... Eating this in food is good but having raw garlic in your stomach on its own is the best way to fight and kill that bacteria. ... If you can stomach it, sucking on a raw piece of ginger has been known to help stop coughing, as well as killing the bacteria ...
... are bacteria that make their home in the stomach lining and cause inflammation and infection. An estimated two-thirds of the ... Probiotics 101: What You Should Know About Good Bacteria When I was growing up, we usually thought of all bacteria as the... ... 8 Ways To Naturally Reduce The Appearance of Scars Are you bothered by scars or stretch marks and cant figure out... ... Does Gut Bacteria Affect Obesity? Obesity is almost an epidemic in the U.S. Over a third of all... ...
This study aimed to characterize the naturally occurring lactic acid bacteria obtained from a dairy environment, in order to ... and fermented products are still the main sources of probiotic bacteria [4]. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are one of the most ... Also, these bacteria can endow fermented products with sensorial properties.. The tests carried out in the present study are ... Assessment of probiotic properties in lactic acid bacteria isolated from wine. Food Microbiol. 2014;44:220-5.CrossRefGoogle ...
In naturally occurring low-nutrient environments such as rocky, barren terrain, plants associate with nitrogen-fixing bacteria ... The bacteria in and on our bodies have been shown to be vital for human health, influencing nutrition, obesity and protection ... Bacteria help the roots fix atmospheric nitrogen gas into a form which can be used by the plant. ... Its well documented that nitrogen fixation happens in bacteria-rich nodules on the roots of legumes such as soybeans, clovers ...
Things to know about vibrio vulnificus, a bacteria that occurs naturally in warm coastal areas. By mySA staff on June 24, 2016 ... Things to know about vibrio vulnificus, a bacteria that occurs naturally in warm coastal areas ... Click forward to see what the Centers for Disease Control has to say about the mysterious bacteria that is closing Texas ... Click forward to see what the Centers for Disease Control has to say about the mysterious bacteria that is closing Texas ...
Functional Inclusion Bodies Produced in Bacteria as Naturally Occurring Nanopills for Advanced Cell Therapies. ... Functional Inclusion Bodies Produced in Bacteria as Naturally Occurring Nanopills for Advanced Cell Therapies. Adv. Mater., 24 ...
... "amoeba-resistant bacteria" (ARB). Some of the bacteria are lytic for their amoebal hosts. These bacteria include members of the ... The Isolation and Characterization of Naturally-Occurring Amoeba-Resistant Bacteria from Water Samples. EPA Grant Number: ... Title: The Isolation and Characterization of Naturally-Occurring Amoeba-Resistant Bacteria from Water Samples. Investigators: ... Legionella-like bacteria, amoeba resistant bacteria, infectious organisms, inhalation, lung pathogens Progress and Final ...
NATURALLY GM Naturally Genetically Modified Sweet Potato Found to Naturally Contain Genes from Bacteria ... You are here: Home > June 2015 Magazine > NATURALLY GM: Naturally Genetically Modified Sweet Potato Found to Naturally Contain ... These bacteria infect plants and transfer DNA into their hosts genome, which is how the genes ended up in the sweet potato. ( ... 410) reports on the discovery of a sweet potato cultivar that had apparently been infected by Agrobacterium bacteria in the ...
Hatching eggs goes natural: Researchers discover that naturally occurring bacteria are just as effective at preventing germs as ... Hatching eggs goes natural: Researchers discover that naturally occurring bacteria are just as effective at preventing germs as ... Researchers discover that naturally occurring bacteria are just as effective at preventing germs as formaldehyde,/a,. ... In fact, the fumigation of eggshells with formaldehyde leads to a reduction of 99.85 percent for all present bacteria. In our ...
Tags: antibiotic resistance, bacteria, bacterial infection, badhealth, cholera, Diseases, drug-resistant bacteria, El Tor ... An enzyme found in the bacterium is able to remodel its cell wall to match the peptides. This gives the bacteria resistance to ... The study pointed out that while modifying Lipid A is a defense mechanism that is noted in other bacteria, the manner by which ... Pandemic cholera is naturally resistant to antibiotics: Scientists have discovered it is different than other drug-resistant ...
This is what bacteria, germs, and viruses are for. They change first into viruses, then into bacteria and finally into fungal ... Healing Naturally By Bee. Healing Naturally is Vital to Your Health. Healing ... These bacteria are there as a result, not the cause.. Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) was wrong, these organisms are not caught from ... Bacteria are being found in the diseased tissues of all chronic, degenerative diseases; from The Atlantic Monthly, A New Germ ...
New Vector for Efficient Allelic Replacement in Naturally Nontransformable, Low-GC-Content, Gram-Positive Bacteria. Maryvonne ... New Vector for Efficient Allelic Replacement in Naturally Nontransformable, Low-GC-Content, Gram-Positive Bacteria ... New Vector for Efficient Allelic Replacement in Naturally Nontransformable, Low-GC-Content, Gram-Positive Bacteria ... New Vector for Efficient Allelic Replacement in Naturally Nontransformable, Low-GC-Content, Gram-Positive Bacteria ...
The Rate and Spectrum of Spontaneous Mutations in Mycobacterium smegmatis, a Bacterium Naturally Devoid of the Postreplicative ... Mycobacterium smegmatis is a bacterium that is naturally devoid of known postreplicative DNA mismatch repair (MMR) homologs, ... The Rate and Spectrum of Spontaneous Mutations in Mycobacterium smegmatis, a Bacterium Naturally Devoid of the Postreplicative ... The Rate and Spectrum of Spontaneous Mutations in Mycobacterium smegmatis, a Bacterium Naturally Devoid of the Postreplicative ...
Green tea naturally contains antioxidants and promotes beneficial bacteria in your gut making the environment less attractive ... Contains high levels of catechins known to naturally provide antioxidants You will notice the pot weight has changed from 150g ...
OEM/ODM Bamboo Spice Rack with Naturally Resistance to Bacteria and Odor, Customized Designs Welcomed;publish date:2011-07-19 ... You can find kinds of Bamboo Spice Rack with Naturally Resistance to Bacteria and Odor, Customized Designs Welcomed ,we ... China Bamboo Spice Rack with Naturally Resistance to Bacteria and Odor, Customized Designs Welcomed Manufacturer,Promotional ... Product Name: Bamboo Spice Rack with Naturally Resistance to Bacteria and Odor, Customized Designs Welcomed. ...
These bacteria wipe out all bacteria in the body, good and bad, leaving plenty of empty space for new colonies. The body is ... PROBIOTICS A good bacteria which competes with bad bacteria inside the body. Probiotics eat the food supply and take up all the ... Eating plenty of good bacteria makes it harder for bad bacteria to survive - less food and space. ... A probiotic is a type of good bacteria which competes for survival alongside bad bacteria. ...
Naturally Removes Odors, Allergens and Harmful Pollutants. Prevents Mold, Mildew And Bacteria From Forming By Absorbing Excess ... Naturally Removes Odors, Allergens and Harmful Pollutants. Prevents Mold, Mildew And Bacteria From Forming By Absorbing Excess ... Naturally Removes Odors, Allergens and Harmful Pollutants. Prevents Mold, Mildew And Bacteria From Forming By Absorbing Excess ... Naturally Removes Odors, Allergens and Harmful Pollutants. Prevents Mold, Mildew And Bacteria From Forming By Absorbing Excess ...
... potentially deadly bacteria that thrives in the warm saltwater of Florida beaches, state health officials said on Monday. ... Since it is naturally found in warm marine waters, people with open wounds can be exposed to Vibrio vulnificus through direct ... In 2015 so far, seven people have been infected and two killed by a rare, potentially deadly bacteria that thrives in the warm ... Florida officials warn of rare flesh-eating bacteria at beaches. Published June 12, 2015. Fox News ...
Aquamin & Microbiome Enhance Immunity Naturally Marigot Ltd , 24-Jun-2020 , Technical / White Paper ... Related tags: Probiotic bacteria, Gut flora, Eicosapentaenoic acid, Bacteria The omage-3 fatty acid EPA may help to support the ... Preliminary lab data suggests the omega-3 fatty acid EPA can help support the growth of probiotic bacteria in the gut, say ... Gut bacteria play vital role in benefits and harms of different fats: Mouse data ...
Researchers from the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard and Harvard University have discovered a group of gut bacteria that can ... "Our cells naturally use a diverse collection of molecules including antimicrobial peptides to regulate our gut microbe ... Study pinpoints gut bacteria linked to reduced heart disease risk * Game changing research discovers striking links between ... Coprostanol-generating bacteria have been found in the guts of rats, baboons, pigs, and even humans, but the biology of these ...
The bacteria living in your body can too. Stress signals to bacteria that you are weak and that it is time invade and cause ... The fight-or-flight response naturally slows or shuts down digestive function.. This isnt some flaw in our design. The fight- ... Bacteria Respond to Your Hormones: How Stress Feeds Candida. Youre not the only one that can sense stress. The bacteria living ... Bacteria have evolved with us over time. As our diet and environment have changed, they have too. And bacteria are smart. They ...
  • But the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria as a result of antibiotic misuse is raising fears that by 2050, these same diseases will once again become the leading cause of death worldwide. (phys.org)
  • Over the last two decades there has been a dramatic surge in the number of multidrug resistant bacteria, yet paradoxically the number of pharmaceutical companies developing new antimicrobial agents has dwindled during this same period. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our next step is to test Alphamers in animal models of infection with multidrug-resistant bacteria that pose a public health threat, such as MRSA," said first author Sascha Kristian, PhD, visiting research scholar at UC San Diego and ‎associate research director at Altermune Technologies, a company Mullis founded to develop Alphamers into unique therapeutics. (ucsd.edu)
  • Dishes soaking or being rinsed in the sink can serve as a breeding ground for bacteria such as, E. coli and salmonella. (naturally-clean.ca)
  • ARS scientists observe results of a new test that can detect Shiga toxins from E. coli bacteria. (usda.gov)
  • The Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation monitors bacteria levels in hundreds of locations across Tennessee and uses E. coli as an indicator for the presence of bacteria, following the federal Environmental Protection Agency's guidelines for which contaminants are monitored routinely. (yahoo.com)
  • All by itself it likely wouldn't make anyone sick-but, if ingested, it would mix with other bacteria in the human gut which could lead to very serious problems-E. coli, for example that has the same resistance capabilities, the press release added. (counselheal.com)
  • The superbug family includes Klebsiella and E. coli, which people have naturally in their intestines. (cnn.com)
  • The new study, published in ' Cell Host and Microbe' ​, has linked a specific group of bacteria in the intestines to lower cholesterol levels in their blood. (nutraingredients.com)
  • The whitefly's "frenemy" (a composite word describing a simultaneous friend and enemy) is a member of a group of bacteria called Rickettsia , and it infiltrated a subspecies of sweet potato whitefly in the southwest with amazing speed. (livescience.com)
  • It may come as a shock to some people but genetically modified (GM) crops are not just created by humans, but also occur naturally. (life-enhancement.com)
  • Coprostanol-generating bacteria have been found in the guts of rats, baboons, pigs, and even humans, but the biology of these bacteria was poorly understood. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Bacteria had the genetic propensity to protect themselves from chemicals toxic to them eons before humans and petri dishes evolved. (haaretz.com)
  • As far as I know, no humans are using mosquitoes as a food source, but it might be worthwhile to study the bacteria before we go wholesale with this idea, namely, to see if there's any discernible difference in the output of their excreta or other biological products, and if there are, if those changes would impact their involvement in the food chain. (scienceblogs.com)
  • University of Louvain conducted the first pilot study in humans to observe the impact of the bacteria Akkermansia. (eurekalert.org)
  • Following these discoveries, the UCLouvain team, in collaboration with the Cliniques universitaires Saint-Luc (2), developed a clinical study in order to administer the bacteria to humans. (eurekalert.org)
  • In conclusion, this pilot study demonstrates the feasibility of administrating (pasteurized) Akkermansia bacteria to humans in the form of a food supplement and reports encouraging results on the effectiveness of the Akkermansia-based dietary supplements to reduce cardio-metabolic risk factors. (eurekalert.org)
  • Although human blood is believed to be a sterile environment, recent studies suggest that pleomorphic bacteria exist in the blood of healthy humans. (nature.com)
  • Comparative analysis of the distribution of segmented filamentous bacteria in humans, mice and chickens. (nature.com)
  • Humans naturally produce antibodies against alpha-Gal. (ucsd.edu)
  • Additional studies are needed to address the impact of gut bacteria in humans. (caltech.edu)
  • in the early 1900's, scientists reported the existence of bacteria that could chemically transform cholesterol into a compound called coprostanol. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Scientists reveal how vaginal bacteria can protect against chlamydia. (educationtip.eu)
  • The scientists verified the specific nature of this toxin in Vibrio cholerae, a marine bacterium whose natural hosts are certain fish and shellfish. (phys.org)
  • These bacteria are not agnostic to artificial sweeteners," says computational biologist Eran Segal of the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot, Israel, one of the two scientists leading the study. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The Georgia Aquarium called in Georgia Tech scientists to find out which good bacteria were working to clean the waste from over 1,000 marine animals in six million gallons of. (eurekalert.org)
  • The bacteria are supposed to indicate the presence of sewage, but scientists found they may also grow naturally in the environment. (dailypilot.com)
  • If a management plan can be developed, 'creating a self-disseminating system [to fight chytrid] will be revolutionary,' says Reid Harris, a biologist at James Madison University (J.M.U.) in Harrisonburg, Va., and one of the scientists whose research led to isolating and identifying this bacteria group in a telephone interview. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Scientists have discovered ancient bacteria that rely on arsenic, rather than water, to grow during photosynthesis. (webwire.com)
  • The scientists also isolated a photosynthetic bacterium that demonstrated As(III)-dependent growth under anoxic conditions. (webwire.com)
  • The volunteers were randomly divided into 3 groups (placebo, live bacteria and pasteurized bacteria) and were asked not to change their dietary habits or their physical activity. (eurekalert.org)
  • skin glands also secrete lysozyme , an enzyme (also present in tears and saliva) that can break down the outer wall of certain bacteria. (britannica.com)
  • Previous studies have shown that certain bacteria can stimulate nerve activity in the stomach. (popularmechanics.com)
  • Since it is naturally found in warm marine waters, people with open wounds can be exposed to Vibrio vulnificus through direct contact with seawater. (foxnews.com)
  • A Memphis, Tennessee, man died last week after contracting the flesh-eating bacteria , vibrio vulnificus, while on vacation in Destin, Florida. (yahoo.com)
  • The bacteria associated with saltwater and from eating raw oysters is Vibrio vulnificus, while the bacteria found in freshwater sources like the Tennessee River is Aeromonas. (yahoo.com)
  • Vibrio vulnificus and Aeromonas are naturally occurring in warmer waters. (yahoo.com)
  • The bacteria, Vibrio vulnificus, thrives in water that's a bit salty, but not too salty - and all that freshwater is lowering the lagoon's salinity. (tcpalm.com)
  • The same bacterium has been found to infect the same subspecies of sweet potato whiteflies in Israel, but without offering nearly the reproductive benefits or any manipulation of the sex ratio. (livescience.com)
  • The research describes how 'biofilms' can foster the growth of the bacteria that water-quality testers look for. (dailypilot.com)
  • The authors found that consuming green tea can prevent inflammation of the stomach lining if it is ingested before exposure to the bacteria. (naturallysavvy.com)
  • The length of time between exposure to the bacteria and the appearance of symptoms is generally two to ten days, but can rarely extend to as much as 20 days. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reason for that is that the microbial communities that are present naturally in seawater or at the seafloor are adapted better to those environmental conditions that are there than anything that we can add. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Victims of severe burns often fall prey to infections from normally harmless bacteria, illustrating the importance of intact, healthy skin to a healthy immune system. (britannica.com)
  • The selected bacteria were seen growing throughout the enlarged necrotic regions of tumors after systemic injection of spores. (pnas.org)
  • The disruption of the membrane/coat, or lysis, of bacteria and spores is often a critical step for analyzing the intracellular molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. (springer.com)
  • In this chapter, we review recent advances in the application of microfluidic devices for lysis of bacteria and spores. (springer.com)
  • In 2015 so far, seven people have been infected and two killed by a rare, potentially deadly bacteria that thrives in the warm saltwater of Florida beaches, state health officials said on Monday. (foxnews.com)
  • "TGF-β1 has an important role in promoting tolerance towards commensal bacteria and has a role in dampening immune responses following inflammation," ​ explained the team. (nutraingredients.com)
  • In order for us to live a normal, healthy life, we need to keep our immune system strong in such a way that our body can defend itself against germs and bacteria that cause diseases. (curenaturally.org)
  • Schnupf, P., Gaboriau-Routhiau, V. & Cerf-Bensussan, N. Host interactions with segmented filamentous bacteria: an unusual trade-off that drives the post-natal maturation of the gut immune system. (nature.com)
  • The study offers the first proof-of-concept that Alphamers have the potential to specifically redirect pre-existing antibodies to bacteria and rapidly activate an antibacterial immune response. (ucsd.edu)
  • The study, headed by Michael J. Daly, Ph.D., associate professor at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USU), Department of Pathology, shows that the ability of the bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans to endure and survive enormous levels of ionizing radiation (X-rays and gamma-rays) relies on a powerful mechanism that protects proteins from oxidative damage during irradiation. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Staphylococcus aureus bacteria can survive heat and high salt concentrations, so cooking doesn't always kill them. (wellcome.ac.uk)
  • Legionella bacteria survive in water as intracellular parasites of water-dwelling protozoae, such as amoebae. (wikipedia.org)