Cholera: An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.Cholera Toxin: An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Cholera Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.Vibrio cholerae: The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Bacteria, AnaerobicBacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Vibrio cholerae O1: Strains of VIBRIO CHOLERAE containing O ANTIGENS group 1. All are CHOLERA-causing strains (serotypes). There are two biovars (biotypes): cholerae and eltor (El Tor).Bacteria, AerobicWater Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.G(M1) Ganglioside: A specific monosialoganglioside that accumulates abnormally within the nervous system due to a deficiency of GM1-b-galactosidase, resulting in GM1 gangliosidosis.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Haiti: A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Port-au-Prince. With the Dominican Republic it forms the island of Hispaniola - Haiti occupying the western third and the Dominican Republic, the eastern two thirds. Haiti belonged to France from 1697 until its rule was challenged by slave insurrections from 1791. It became a republic in 1820. It was virtually an American protectorate from 1915 to 1934. It adopted its present constitution in 1964 and amended it in 1971. The name may represent either of two Caribbean words, haiti, mountain land, or jhaiti, nest. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p481 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p225)Antitoxins: Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria: A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.Toxoids: Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.Gram-Negative Anaerobic Bacteria: A large group of anaerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the Gram-staining method.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Vibrio: A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Vibrio cholerae O139: Strains of VIBRIO CHOLERAE containing O ANTIGENS group 139. This strain emerged in India in 1992 and caused a CHOLERA epidemic.Enterotoxins: Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.BangladeshColony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Intestinal Secretions: Fluids originating from the epithelial lining of the intestines, adjoining exocrine glands and from organs such as the liver, which empty into the cavity of the intestines.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Sulfur-Reducing Bacteria: A group of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that is able to oxidize acetate completely to carbon dioxide using elemental sulfur as the electron acceptor.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Toxins, Biological: Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose: An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Gammaproteobacteria: A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Proteobacteria: A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.Sanitation: The development and establishment of environmental conditions favorable to the health of the public.Bacteroides: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 22.214.171.124.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Betaproteobacteria: A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised of chemoheterotrophs and chemoautotrophs which derive nutrients from decomposition of organic material.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Ileum: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cytophaga: A genus of gram-negative gliding bacteria found in SOIL; HUMUS; and FRESHWATER and marine habitats.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Immunity, Mucosal: Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Fimbriae, Bacterial: Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Virulence Factors, Bordetella: A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Gangliosides: A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)Antibiosis: A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Epidemics: Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Eubacterium: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of man and animals, animal and plant products, infections of soft tissue, and soil. Some species may be pathogenic. No endospores are produced. The genus Eubacterium should not be confused with EUBACTERIA, one of the three domains of life.Quorum Sensing: A phenomenon where microorganisms communicate and coordinate their behavior by the accumulation of signaling molecules. A reaction occurs when a substance accumulates to a sufficient concentration. This is most commonly seen in bacteria.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Classical Swine Fever: An acute, highly contagious disease affecting swine of all ages and caused by the CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER VIRUS. It has a sudden onset with high morbidity and mortality.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Pertussis Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Environmental Microbiology: The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Pasteurella multocida: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria normally found in the flora of the mouth and respiratory tract of animals and birds. It causes shipping fever (see PASTEURELLOSIS, PNEUMONIC); HEMORRHAGIC BACTEREMIA; and intestinal disease in animals. In humans, disease usually arises from a wound infection following a bite or scratch from domesticated animals.Immunoglobulin A, Secretory: The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Actinobacteria: Class of BACTERIA with diverse morphological properties. Strains of Actinobacteria show greater than 80% 16S rDNA/rRNA sequence similarity among each other and also the presence of certain signature nucleotides. (Stackebrandt E. et al, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1997) 47:479-491)Mouth: The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Corynebacterium: A genus of asporogenous bacteria that is widely distributed in nature. Its organisms appear as straight to slightly curved rods and are known to be human and animal parasites and pathogens.Bacterial Load: Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Mice, Inbred BALB CSalmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Fimbriae Proteins: Proteins that are structural components of bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) or sex pili (PILI, SEX).Deltaproteobacteria: A group of PROTEOBACTERIA represented by morphologically diverse, anaerobic sulfidogens. Some members of this group are considered bacterial predators, having bacteriolytic properties.Jejunum: The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.Vibrio cholerae non-O1: A strain of the VIBRIO CHOLERAE bacteria belonging to serogroup non-O1, infecting humans and other PRIMATES. It is related to VIBRIO CHOLERAE O1, but causes a disease less severe than CHOLERA. Eating raw shellfish contaminated with the bacteria results in GASTROENTERITIS.Gram-Negative Aerobic Rods and Cocci: A group of gram-negative bacteria consisting of rod- and coccus-shaped cells. They are both aerobic (able to grow under an air atmosphere) and microaerophilic (grow better in low concentrations of oxygen) under nitrogen-fixing conditions but, when supplied with a source of fixed nitrogen, they grow as aerobes.Listeria monocytogenes: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Bacteroidetes: A phylum of bacteria comprised of three classes: Bacteroides, Flavobacteria, and Sphingobacteria.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cholera Morbus: An old term that is no longer used in the scientific literature. Cholera morbus refers to acute GASTROENTERITIS occurring in summer or autumn; characterized by severe cramps, diarrhea, and vomiting.Flagella: A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Chlorobi: A phylum of anoxygenic, phototrophic bacteria including the family Chlorobiaceae. They occur in aquatic sediments, sulfur springs, and hot springs and utilize reduced sulfur compounds instead of oxygen.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Probiotics: Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Blood Bactericidal Activity: The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.Guinea-Bissau: A republic in western Africa, south of SENEGAL and west of GUINEA. Its capital is Bissau.Plankton: Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.Fusobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of humans and other animals. No endospores are formed. Some species are pathogenic and occur in various purulent or gangrenous infections.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Flavobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in SOIL and WATER. Its organisms are also found in raw meats, MILK and other FOOD, hospital environments, and human clinical specimens. Some species are pathogenic in humans.Actinomycetales: An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.Gram-Positive Cocci: Coccus-shaped bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Metagenome: A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.Lactobacillaceae: A family of gram-positive bacteria found regularly in the mouth and intestinal tract of man and other animals, in food and dairy products, and in fermenting vegetable juices. A few species are highly pathogenic.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.PeptidoglycanSulfur: An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Adhesins, Bacterial: Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Adenylate Cyclase Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by virulent BORDETELLA organisms. It is a bifunctional protein with both ADENYLYL CYCLASES and hemolysin components.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Pseudoalteromonas: A genus of GRAM-NEGATIVE AEROBIC BACTERIA of marine origin. Many species were formerly classified under ALTEROMONAS.Streptococcus mutans: A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Bacteroidaceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria found primarily in the intestinal tracts and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Its organisms are sometimes pathogenic.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Nucleoside Diphosphate SugarsNitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Waste Disposal, Fluid: The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.Bifidobacterium: A rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-acid-fast, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium that is a genus of the family Bifidobacteriaceae, order Bifidobacteriales, class ACTINOBACTERIA. It inhabits the intestines and feces of humans as well as the human vagina.Germ-Free Life: Animals not contaminated by or associated with any foreign organisms.
The bacterium's natural habitat is brackish or saltwater. Some strains of V. cholerae cause the disease cholera. V. cholerae is ... Vibrio cholerae bacteria Diagram of the bacterium, V. cholerae Microscope slide with a sample of "colera asiaticus", prepared ... In 2002, the WHO deemed that the case fatality ratio for cholera was about 3.95%. When visiting areas with epidemic cholera, ... quintdaily (3 August 2017). "Vibrio Cholera Starts Spreading In India - QuintDaily". Copepods and cholera in untreated water ...
This bacterium is linked to two types of gastroenteritis. The first type is a disease similar to cholera, which causes rice- ... This bacterium can be found in fresh or brackish water. It can survive in aerobic and anaerobic environments, and can digest ... A. hydrophila bacteria are Gram-negative, straight rods with rounded ends (bacilli to coccibacilli shape) usually from 0.3 to ... "The Bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila from Lizards of the genus Anolis in Puerto Rico". Archived October 31, 2004, at the Wayback ...
History of emerging infectious diseases
Vibrio cholera bacteria are transmitted through contaminated water. Once ingested, the bacteria colonizes the intestinal tract ... The bacterium was first reported in 1849 by Gabriel Pouchet, who discovered it in stools from patients with cholera, but he did ... Infection with the bacteria Helicobacter pylori is the cause of most stomach ulcers. The discovery is generally credited to ... Many viruses, bacteria, protozoa, fungi, helminthes and prions are identified as a confirmed or potential pathogen. In the ...
Cholera morbus is a historical term that was used to refer to gastroenteritis rather than specifically cholera. Gastroenteritis ... If food becomes contaminated with bacteria and remains at room temperature for a period of several hours, the bacteria multiply ... The oral cholera vaccine has been found to be 50-60% effective over 2 years. Gastroenteritis is usually an acute and self- ... In children, bacteria are the cause in about 15% of cases, with the most common types being Escherichia coli, Salmonella, ...
The bacteria Vibrio cholerae produces a multimeric toxin called the cholera toxin. The secreted toxin attaches to the surface ... When the cholera patient is given a solution containing water, sodium and glucose, the SGLT1 receptor will reabsorb sodium and ... Besides its function in the physiology of the brain, GM1 acts as the site of binding for both Cholera toxin and E. coli heat- ... This will replace the water and electrolyte loss in the cholera-induced diarrhea. Because of GM1's close role in neurotrophic ...
1854 in science
Filippo Pacini, an Italian anatomist, discovers Vibrio cholerae, the bacterium that causes cholera. Louis Pasteur begins ... April-May - Dr John Snow traces the source of one outbreak of cholera in London (which kills 500) to a single water pump, ... Frerichs, Ralph R. (2001-08-05). "Who first discovered Vibrio cholera?". UCLA School of Public Health. Archived from the ... Pacini's 1854 publication was titled "Osservazioni microscopiche e deduzioni patologiche sul cholera asiático" ("Microscopical ...
The bacterium can be found in birds, cats, dogs, rabbits, cattle, and pigs. In birds, P. multocida causes avian or fowl cholera ... The P. multocida serotype-1 is most associated with avian cholera in North America, but the bacterium does not linger in ... P. multocida strains that cause fowl cholera in poultry typically belong to the serovars 1, 3, and 4. In the wild, fowl cholera ... The bacteria may also cross the blood-brain barrier and cause meningitis. P. multocida expresses a range of virulence factors ...
Cholera is a diarrheal disease that is caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. V. cholerae has been a popular bacterium for ... The cholera outbreak happened right after the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, which caused critical infrastructure damage, leading to ... Whole genome sequencing of V. cholerae revealed that there was one single point source of the cholera outbreak in Haiti and it ... Before the MINUSTAH troops from Nepal were sent to Haiti, a cholera outbreak had just occurred in Nepal. In the original ...
Hemedigestion is seen with the cholera-causing bacteria, Vibrio cholerae. Ryan, Kenneth J.; Ray, C. George. "Chapter 25: ... This is the nonspecific killing of blood cells by metabolic by-products of bacteria. This can be seen on a blood agar plate, ... Streptolysin, an exotoxin, is the enzyme produced by the bacteria which causes the complete lysis of red blood cells. There are ... Alpha hemolysis is caused by hydrogen peroxide produced by the bacterium, oxidizing hemoglobin producing the green oxidized ...
Ernest Hanbury Hankin
He noted that "It is seen that the unboiled water of the Ganges kills the cholera germ in less than 3 hours. The same water, ... 1890) "On a Bacteria-killing Globulin", Proceedings of the Royal Society B 48:93. (1891) "On Immunity (read before the Congress ... Hankin E H. (1896). "L'action bactericide des eaux de la Jumna et du Gange sur le vibrion du cholera". Annales de l'Institut ... Working mainly in India, he studied malaria, cholera and other diseases. He is often considered as among the first to detect ...
Proline-Rich Coiled Coil 1
Timeline of biotechnology
1881 - Louis Pasteur develops vaccines against bacteria that cause cholera and anthrax in chickens. 1885 - Louis Pasteur and ... 6000 BCE - Yogurt and cheese made with lactic acid-producing bacteria by various people. 4000 BCE - Egyptians bake leavened ... 1982 - Humulin, Genentech's human insulin drug produced by genetically engineered bacteria for the treatment of diabetes, is ... 1877 - Robert Koch develops a technique for staining bacteria for identification. 1878 - Walther Flemming discovers chromatin ...
Horses infected with the bacteria may develop arthritis. The bacteria also cause pneumonia in cattle and various infections in ... Pasteurella was first described around 1880 and thought to be associated with chicken cholera and hemorrhagic septicemia in ... "Micrococcus gallicidus" was the first scientific name used for these bacteria. For a short time, the bacteria were unofficially ... The bacteria are normally isolated from the oral cavities and respiratory tracts of these animals. P. canis biotype 1 was shown ...
Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius
Pittman, who first gave this bacteria its modern name, felt that these bacteria had enough dissimilarities to be considered a ... Under the German Cholera Commission of Egypt, Koch studied 50 patients in Egypt who were suffering from Egyptian eye disease. ... These bacteria are curious in that they are phylogenetically one species but differ phenotypically; they share the same ... Today, the issue remains unresolved, although scientists have put in a lot of effort to classify this bacteria. So far, no one ...
There are a variety of bacteria which employ bAREs in infection: cholera of vibrio cholera; heat-labile enterotoxin of E.Coli; ... For examples, cholera and heat-labile enterotoxin target the α-subunit of Gs of heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins. As the α- ... It is also the basis for the toxicity of bacterial compounds such as cholera toxin, diphtheria toxin, and others. The first ... Histone code Cell signaling PARP-1 Cholera toxin NAD+ ADP-ribosyltransferase Pertussis toxin Post-translational modification ...
Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH)
Environmental issues in Haiti
Cholera has become one of the leading issues facing Haiti, and its recurrence is largely due to Haiti's poor sanitation system ... Environmental reservoirs are environmental sources where the bacterium can survive between outbreaks of the disease. There is ... A Cholera epidemic was reported in Haiti in October, 2010 after the infection was brought to the country by peacekeeping troops ... Both improving sanitation and monitoring potential environmental reservoirs are necessary to reduce the spread of Cholera ...
Richard Friedrich Johannes Pfeiffer
In 1894 he found that live cholera bacteria could be injected without ill effects into guinea pigs previously immunised against ... cholera, and that blood plasma from these animals added to live cholera bacteria caused them to become motionless and to lyse. ... He discovered the specific bacteria-dissolving immune bodies in cholera and typhus. The British pathologist Almroth Wright is ... which they nevertheless referred to as an atypical bacterium called Bacterium pneumosintes), other researchers could not ...
Sambhu Nath De
In 1959 De was the first to demonstrate that cholera bacteria secrete enterotoxin. This discovery eventually promoted research ... An experimental study of the action of cholera toxin. J. Pathol. Bacteriol. 63: 707-717, 1951. De, S. N. Cholera: its pathology ... His choice of cholera as his field of interest was remarkably appropriate to his setting. To this problem De brought a ... Garfield, E. Mapping cholera research and the impact of Shambu Nath De of Calcutta. Current Contents 14: 3-11, 1986. Reproduced ...
Health in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Etiology: Cholera is an acute diarrheal illness that caused by the gram-negative bacteria Vibrio cholerae. Cholera is most ... Exposure Assessment of Cholera in the DRC: The cholera burden of disease is often difficult to estimate because of lack of ... Cholera results in severe watery diarrhea. Severe cholera can cause significant fluid and electrolyte loss, and ultimately, it ... Global Burden of Disease: Cholera is endemic in some regions of the DRC, which means that there have been reported cholera ...
Short linear motif
The KDEL motif of the bacteria encoded cholera toxin mediates cell entry of the cholera toxin. Linear motif mediated protein- ... Pathogenic bacteria also mimic host motifs (as well as having their own motifs), however, not to the same extent as the ... "Targeting of cholera toxin and Escherichia coli heat labile toxin in polarized epithelia: Role of COOH-terminal KDEL". The ...
... most cholera bacteria and other pathogens are removed. It has been demonstrated to greatly reduce cholera infections in poor ... Safe Saris - Bangladesh NSF Director Colwell Fights Spread of Cholera with Saris Sari filter stops cholera, with photo. ICDDR,B ... February 2003). "Reduction of cholera in Bangladeshi villages by simple filtration". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 100 (3): 1051-5. ... Cheesecloth Sieve Filtration Moss J (January 27, 2003). "Cloth Filters Fight Cholera". Development Report. Voice of America. ...
... and can convert harmless bacteria into dangerous pathogens. Bacteria like Escherichia coli O157:H7 gain the majority of their ... causative agent of cholera); Clostridium perfringens (common causative agent of food poisoning as well as gas gangrene) and ... Gram-negative bacteria secrete a variety of virulence factors at host-pathogen interface, via membrane vesicle trafficking as ... Some bacteria, such as Streptococcus pyogenes, are able to break down the host's immunoglobulins using proteases. Viruses also ...
The bacterium Salmonella most commonly infects humans via consumption of undercooked eggs. Disk batteries, also called button ... Diseases transmitted via the fecal-oral route include hepatitis A, polio, and cholera. Some pathogenic organisms are typically ... bacteria, and parasites. Most commonly, this takes place via the faecal-oral route. An intermediate step is often involved, ...
Tutaleni Housing Project
Effects of global warming on human health
... carrying the cholera bacteria, which then contaminate drinking water, causing cholera outbreaks. As flooding increases there is ... As the nitrogen and phosphorus levels in the oceans increase, the cholera bacteria that lives within zooplankton emerge from ... As a result, water temperature increases which allows bacteria to flourish. The abundant bacteria produce carbon dioxide and ... causing the cholera bacteria to multiply rapidly. Toxic algae blooms (red tides) are the result of a changing and warming ...
Once the bacteria gets introduced into a population of susceptible birds, an outbreak of acute avian cholera follows. Infected ... Fowl cholera is also called avian cholera, avian pasteurellosis, avian hemorrhagic septicemia.  ... Epizootiology of Avian Cholera in Wildfowl. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. Chicken Cholera was Observed by Louis pasteur by luck ... Fowl cholera in the Merck Veterinary Manual. References. *^ K.R. Rhoades and R.B. Rimler, Avian pasteurellosis, in " ...
Salmonella - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Bacteria from the genus Salmonella can cause diseases, such as diarrhea, cholera and typhus. These bacteria are zoonotic, ... The bacteria are generally passed on to humans by eating or drinking food of animal origin which has the bacteria in it, mainly ... Salmonella is a genus of bacteria. It is a major cause of illness throughout the world. ...
Artificial induction of immunity
Anthrax is now known to be caused by a bacterium, and rabies is known to be caused by a virus. The microscopes of the time ... For example, a toxoid might be attached to a polysaccharide from the capsule of the bacteria responsible for most lobar ... such as a bacterium, a virus, or a prion. At present, the science to understand this process is available but not the ... could reasonably be expected to show bacteria, but imaging of viruses had to wait until the development of electron microscopes ...
Strains of bacteria and viruses from many different countries are sent to the Institute's reference center for identification. ... using the cholera vibrio, discovered ten years before by Robert Koch, as an antigen, Richard F. J. Pfeiffer introduced it in ... The anti-diphtheria serum which was able to agglutinate the bacteria and neutralize the toxin was supplied by a horse ... Together they were able to immunize guinea pigs by inoculating them with heat-treated dead bacteria, calling into question the ...
Urinary tract infection
Rates of asymptomatic bacteria in the urine among men over 75 are between 7-10%. Asymptomatic bacteria in the urine occurs ... The most common cause of infection is Escherichia coli, though other bacteria or fungi may rarely be the cause. Risk factors ... Those who have bacteria in the urine but no symptoms should not generally be treated with antibiotics. This includes those ... While bacteria is commonly present in the urine of older males this does not appear to affect the risk of urinary tract ...
If bacteria do not remain in one area but spread through the bloodstream, the infection is called sepsis and can be rapid and ... Intravenous technology stems from studies on cholera treatment in 1831 by Dr Thomas Latta of Leith. ... This helps to slow the growth of bacteria which could reach the bloodstream by traveling under the skin along the outside of ... This reduces the risk of infection, since bacteria from the skin surface are not able to travel directly into the vein. These ...
He was one of the first scientists to focus on the isolation of bacteria in pure culture. This gave rise to the germ theory, a ... Following on from this, in 1857 Louis Pasteur also designed vaccines against several diseases such as anthrax, fowl cholera and ... Some bacteria are able to form biofilms by adhering to surfaces on implanted devices such as catheters and prostheses and ... Antibiotic resistance tests: bacteria in the culture on the left are sensitive to the antibiotics contained in the white, paper ...
ව්යාධිජනක - විකිපීඩියා
Appendix (anatomy) - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Recent work shows the appendix is a safe place for useful bacteria when illness flushes those bacteria from the rest of the ... This reservoir of gut flora could then serve to repopulate the digestive system following a bout of dysentery or cholera. ... This enables it to host bacteria specific for cellulose breakdown. Early man's ancestor may have also relied upon this system ...
Cholera): 1000-100,000,000 bacteria cells Typically, stomach acids can kill bacteria below the infectious dosing rage for a ... 500 bacteria cells Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A strep throat): 1000 bacteria cells Salmonella: varies by strain, 100-1 ... 10 bacteria cells Hepatitis A: 10-100 virus particles Norovirus (commonly called 'a stomach bug'): 10-100 virus particles ...
It has been estimated that average-sized bacteria contain about 2 million proteins per cell (e.g. E. coli and Staphylococcus ... Ribbon diagram of a mouse antibody against cholera that binds a carbohydrate antigen ... Eukaryotes have 15,000, bacteria have 3,200, archaea have 2,400, and viruses have 42 proteins on average coded in their ... The average size of a protein increases from Archaea to Bacteria to Eukaryote (283, 311, 438 residues and 31, 34, 49 kDa ...
Toussaint isolated the bacteria that caused chicken cholera (later named Pasteurella in honour of Pasteur) in 1879 and gave ... Chicken cholera. Pasteur's later work on diseases included work on chicken cholera. He received cultures from Jean Joseph Henri ... Pasteur cultivated bacteria from the blood of animals infected with anthrax. When he inoculated animals with the bacteria, ... Pasteur and Thuillier incorrectly described the bacterium as a figure-eight shape. Roux described the bacterium as stick-shaped ...
Once the cholera bacteria reach the intestinal wall, they no longer need the flagella to move. The bacteria stop producing the ... "Cholera's seven pandemics". CBC. 9 May 2008. Retrieved 15 July 2018.. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ... Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. Symptoms may range from ... Cholera - Vibrio cholerae infection-Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. *. "Cholera". Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (11th ...
Saline was believed to have originated during the Indian Blue cholera pandemic that swept across Europe in 1831. William Brooke ... saline stimulates the washing of the nasopharynx and has an effect on the nasal pathogenic bacteria. This has been used in ... O'Shaugnessy, WB (1831). "Proposal for a new method of treating the blue epidemic cholera by the injection of highly-oxygenated ... proposed in an article to medical journal The Lancet to inject cholera people with highly oxygenated salts to treat the " ...
... such as cholera toxin in pathogenic bacteria for example Vibrio cholerae) from across the interior (cytoplasm or cytosol) of a ... It is like a molecular syringe through which a bacterium (e.g. certain types of Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia, Vibrio) can ... In gram-negative bacteria. Main article: Bacterial secretion system. Secretion is not unique to eukaryotes alone - it is ... Secretion in gram-positive bacteria. Main article: Bacterial secretion system. In some Staphylococcus and Streptococcus ...
ಕುಷ್ಠರೋಗ - ವಿಕಿಪೀಡಿಯ
Vibrio cholerae - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
... the bacterium Haemophilus influenzae. The circular chromosome contains 1,830,137 bases and its publication in the journal ... "Use of automated sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-generated amplicons to identify three types of cholera toxin subunit ... and Maclyn McCarty demonstrating that purified DNA could change one strain of bacteria into another. This was the first time ... "The methylomes of six bacteria". Nucleic Acids Research. 40 (22): 11450-62. doi:10.1093/nar/gks891. PMC 3526280 . PMID ...
This helps the bacteria to evade the immune system and survive for a limited time in the cells. A cholera-like enterotoxin was ... Campylobacter (meaning "curved bacteria") is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria. Campylobacter typically appear comma or s- ... Bacteria. Eukaryota. (Supergroup. Plant. Hacrobia. Heterokont. Alveolata. Rhizaria. Excavata. Amoebozoa. Opisthokonta Animal. ... The bacterium's main reservoir is poultry; humans can contract the disease from eating food contaminated with Campylobacter ...
Biological weapon - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Cholera. Could be spread by contaminating water supplies. Shigella dysenteriae;. Some species of Escherichia coli. Dysentery ... Number of bacteria needed to infect a person is one - the lowest known to manp.67. Can live on surfaces for 60 days, in ... Vibrio cholerae (cholera). Contaminated food & water. Japan to attack China. 2001. Bacillus anthraces (anthrax). Mailed ... A biological weapon is a weapon that delivers toxins or pathogens (like bacteria or viruses), with the goal of making people ...
ಟೆಂಪ್ಲೇಟು:Central nervous system navs - ವಿಕಿಪೀಡಿಯ
Antibiotics only work for bacteria and do not affect viruses. Antibiotics work by slowing down the multiplication of bacteria ... Diarrheal diseases are caused by many different organisms, including cholera, botulism, and E. coli to name a few. See also: ... Pathogenic bacteria Pathophysiology. There is a general chain of events that applies to infections. The chain of ... Some colonizing bacteria, such as Corynebacteria sp. and viridans streptococci, prevent the adhesion and colonization of ...
위키백과:모든 언어의 위키백과마다 꼭 있어야 하는 문서 목록/확장판/생물학 및 의과학 - 위키백과, 우리 모두의 백과사전
Vibrio cholerae, which causes cholera, was the bacterium of choice, and was used in China in Baoshan in 1942, and in northern ... Lam, Kevin; Thu, Kelsie; Tsang, Michelle; Moore, Margo; Gries, Gerhard (2009). "Bacteria on housefly eggs, Musca domestica, ... cholera, salmonellosis, bacillary dysentery, tuberculosis, anthrax, ophthalmia, and pyogenic cocci, making them ... too few bacteria are on the external surface of the flies (except perhaps for Shigella) to cause infection, so the main routes ...
Cholera toxin is an infectious toxin composed of a protein complex that is secreted by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. Some ... For the cholera toxin, the principal glycolipid receptor for the cholera toxin is ganglioside GM1. After endocytosis to the ... Cholera toxin, pertussis toxin, and shiga toxin all have their targets in the cytosol of the cell. After their B subunit binds ... Cholera toxin, shiga toxin, and SubAB toxin all have B subunits that are made up of five identical protein components, meaning ...
Bacteria usually acquire resistance to tetracycline from horizontal transfer of a gene that either encodes an efflux pump or a ... cholera, brucellosis, plague, malaria, and syphilis. It is taken by mouth. ... The mechanism of action for the antibacterial effect of tetracyclines relies on disrupting protein translation in bacteria, ... This is because bacteria actively pump tetracycline into their cytoplasm, even against a concentration gradient, whereas ...
Scientists Reveal How Cholera Bacterium Gains A Foothold In The Gut - Redorbit
Scientists Reveal How Cholera Bacterium Gains A Foothold In The Gut. by editor ... cholera uses to gain this foothold. To be able to grow in the intestine the bacterium harvests and then eats a sugar, called ... A team of biologists at the University of York has made an important advance in our understanding of the way cholera attacks ... The leader of the research in York, Dr Gavin Thomas, said: "This work continues our discoveries of how bacteria that grow in ...
The cholera bacterium's interplay with water - Healthcanal.com
The cholera bacteriums interplay with water. Last Updated February 12, 2017. by Healthcanal Staff ... The cholera bacterium (Vibrio cholerae) is common in waters all over the world, particularly in mouths of water and along ... Variations of the bacterium without the intestinal poison that cause the lethal cholera, can instead lead to other illnesses, e ... The dissertation shows that PrtV could tie to the membrane blisters from the cholera bacterium, but only if components on the ...
Cholera bacteria stab and poison enemies at predictable rates | EurekAlert! Science News
Bacteria that stab and poison for defense and conquest are charted using math equations that apply to phase separation of ... First of all, most microbiologists think cholera bacteria use the harpoons to kill competing bacteria and not to destroy human ... which switches the harpoon function on in cholera bacteria, could be given along with assassin bacteria to trigger their ... Cholera bacteria are commonly found in water attached with other microbes to the shells of crabs and tiny krill, and people who ...
Warming seas linked to rise in cholera bacteria in Europe and US | New Scientist
An increase in cholera infections has been linked to rising sea temperatures, and the disease is spreading into cooler regions ... Warming seas linked to rise in cholera bacteria in Europe and US. ... Warming oceans caused by climate change may be leading to an increase in cholera and other infections caused by Vibrio bacteria ... Vibrio cholerae bacteria like it hot, and can cause cholera. James Cavallini/Science Photo Library ...
Robert Koch Identifies the Bacteria that Cause Anthrax, Tuberculosis, and Cholera | Encyclopedia.com
1905 Source for information on Robert Koch Identifies the Bacteria that Cause Anthrax, Tuberculosis, and Cholera: Medicine, ... Robert Koch Identifies the Bacteria that Cause Anthrax, Tuberculosis, and CholeraPresentation Speech for the Nobel Prize in ... Home Science Medical magazines Robert Koch Identifies the Bacteria that Cause Anthrax, Tuberculosis, and Cholera ... Robert Koch Identifies the Bacteria that Cause Anthrax, Tuberculosis, and Cholera. Presentation Speech for the Nobel Prize in ...
Dartmouth researchers describe how the cholera bacteria becomes infectious - ScienceBlog.com
... the bacteria that causes cholera. Buried within ToxT, the researchers were surprised to find a fatty acid that appears to ... inhibit ToxT, which prevents the bacteria from causing cholera. ... which prevents the bacteria from causing cholera. Cholera, ... Home Earth, Energy & Environment Dartmouth researchers describe how the cholera bacteria becomes infectious ... Dartmouth researchers describe how the cholera bacteria becomes infectious. February 12, 2010. ...
Researchers Describe How Cholera Bacteria Becomes Infectious
... which prevents the bacteria from causing cholera. Cholera, which causes acute diarrhea, can be life-threatening, and, according ... the bacteria that causes cholera. Buried within ToxT, the researchers were surprised to find a fatty acid that appears to ... to the World Health Organization, cholera remains a serious threat to global health. ... which prevents the bacteria from causing cholera. Cholera, which causes acute diarrhea, can be life-threatening, and, according ...
Cholera bacteria infect more effectively with a simple twist of shape | EurekAlert! Science News
The findings could lead to new treatments for cholera that target the bacterias ability to change shape or penetrate the gut. ... Princeton University researchers have discovered that the bacteria behind the life-threatening disease cholera initiates ... The bacteria that cause the life-threatening disease cholera may initiate infection by coordinating a wave of mass ... Cholera bacteria infect more effectively with a simple twist of shape. Princeton University ...
New toxin in Cholera bacteria discovered - Healthcanal.com
The structure and function of a previously unknown toxin in the cholera bacteria Vibrio cholera has been discovered by ... The structure and function of a previously unknown toxin in the cholera bacteria Vibrio cholera has been discovered by ... Focusing on Cholera Hotspots Could Cut Africas Cholera Burden in Half. *Halting the spread of cholera through a neighborhood ... New toxin in Cholera bacteria discovered. Last Updated July 4, 2018. by Healthcanal Staff ...
Cholera Toxin beta Rabbit anti-Bacteria, Biotin, Polyclonal, Invitrogen | Fisher Scientific
Cholera Toxin beta Rabbit anti-Bacteria, Biotin, Polyclonal, Invitrogen 1 mL; Biotin ... Cholera toxin (sometimes abbreviated to CTX, Ctx, or CT) is a protein complex secreted by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. CTX is ... The beta subunit of cholera toxin binds to a GM1-ganglioside receptor which is widely accepted to initiate toxin action by ... The PA1-73190 antibody reacts with Cholera toxin beta subunit. PA1-73190 has been successfully used in ELISA applications. The ...
Scientists Find a Predatory Device in the Cholera Bacterium | Infection Control Today
This mechanism, known as horizontal gene transfer, allows the cholera bacterium to become more virulent by absorbing the ... EPFL scientists have now demonstrated that V. cholerae uses a tiny spear to stab and kill neighboring bacteria -- even of its ... Cholera is caused when the bacterium Vibrio cholerae infects the small intestine. The disease is characterized by acute watery ... Scientists Find a Predatory Device in the Cholera Bacterium. Cholera is caused when the bacterium Vibrio cholerae infects the ...
In zebrafish, the cholera bacterium sets off a surprising flush
... a 200-percent increase in the strength of intestinal contractions soon after exposure to the cholera-causing bacterium Vibrio ... In zebrafish, the cholera bacterium sets off a surprising flush. April 3, 2018, University of Oregon ... Membrane vesicles released by bacteria may play different roles during infection. September 18, 2017 Bacteria release membrane- ... Researchers work towards pharmacological targets for cholera. January 20, 2011 Just over a year after the earthquake in Haiti ...
Phys.org - cholera bacteria(... continued page 2)
Killing for DNA: A predatory device in the cholera bacterium. Cholera is caused when the bacterium Vibrio cholerae infects the ... Cholera bacteria infect more effectively with a simple twist of shape. The bacteria that cause the life-threatening disease ... all of which specifically kill cholera bacteria, prevents infection and cholera-like symptoms in animal model experiments, ... Cholera bacteria stab and poison enemies at predictable rates. The enemies were thrown together, so the killing began. ...
Genomes of cholera bacteria from Haiti confirm epidemic originated from single source
Genomes of cholera bacteria »Haiti »Nepalese »V. cholerae »evolutionary analysis »fingerprinting »genetic material »genome ... Further reports about: , Genomes of cholera bacteria , Haiti , Nepalese , V. cholerae , evolutionary analysis , fingerprinting ... Genomes of cholera bacteria from Haiti confirm epidemic originated from single source. 02.07.2013 ... The strain of cholera that has sickened thousands in Haiti came from a single source and was not repeatedly introduced to the ...
Using Engineered Gut Bacteria to Prevent Cholera
To investigate the possibility of using commensal bacteria as signal mediators for inhibiting the disease cholera (caused by ... www.synbioproject.org/cpi/applications/using-engineered-gut-bacteria-to-prevent-cholera/ ... Engineered bacteria introduced to the digestive system of lab mice was shown to increase the survival rate of the mice exposed ... We found that pretreatment of mice for 8 hours with commensal bacteria engineered to express CAI-1 (Nissle-cqsA) greatly ...
Cholera bacteria show adaptability to changing environments
Understanding the behavior of cholera bacteria between epidemics and how the pathogen moves between different environments ... Cholera bacteria can live as free-swimming individuals (above) or form colonies called biofilms (below).. The deadly bacterium ... Cholera outbreaks occur when environmental conditions allow the bacteria to contaminate sources of drinking water. "Cholera is ... Many kinds of bacteria form biofilms, which act as bacterial shields, making cells harder to kill and more tolerant of ...
GMO Cholera Bacteria to Be Released in Australia, Canada, U.S. - Global ResearchGlobal Research - Centre for Research on...
Cholera (KOL-er-a) is an illness that results from infection of the large intestine by Vibrio cholerae bacteria. It can cause ... GMO Cholera Bacteria to Be Released in Australia, Canada, U.S.. By Christina Sarich ... has received an application for a license from PaxVax to release their modified cholera bacteria on the population via vaccines ... Love in the Time of Cholera, written by Gabriel García Márquez is one of my favorite books of all times, but were I to be ...
Cholera bacterium increasing in toxicity, ministry warns | Health | Thanh Nien Daily
The bacterium that has been causing cholera in Vietnam since 2007 is growing more toxic and dangerous, the Ministry of Health ... Health Cholera bacterium increasing in toxicity, ministry warns facebook google+ twitter search ... The bacterium that has been causing cholera in Vietnam since 2007 is growing more toxic and dangerous, the Ministry of Health ... This year Vietnam has recorded 69 cholera cases in nine provinces and cities, including Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, deputy ...
Cholera bacteria infect more effectively with a simple twist of shape
Princeton University researchers have discovered that the bacteria behind the life-threatening disease cholera initiates ... Cholera bacteria infect more effectively with a simple twist of shape. January 12, 2017. The bacteria that cause the life- ... Related Bacteria Articles:. Conducting shell for bacteria. Under anaerobic conditions, certain bacteria can produce electricity ... How bacteria hunt other bacteria. A bacterial species that hunts other bacteria has attracted interest as a potential ...
Phage therapy to prevent cholera infections - and possibly those caused by other deadly bacteria
A new strategy to prevent cholera infections is a cocktail of live virus. ... Cholera kills fast, and outbreaks are common in war-torn regions and after natural disasters where clean water is scarce. ... Cholera outbreaks occur worldwide. In the case of cholera, which is caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, prevention is ... By acting fast, phages can eliminate the cholera bacteria from the gut in a targeted manner. That is important because cholera ...
How the Cholera Bacterium Survives Water Predators | myScience / News / Wire - News in Brief
The cholera-causing bacterium, Vibrio cholerae , is commonly found in aquatic environments, such as oceans, ponds, and rivers. ... EPFL scientists have deciphered mechanisms that help the cholera bacterium to survive grazing predators in aquatic environments ... The cholera-causing bacterium, Vibrio cholerae , is commonly found in aquatic environments, such as oceans, ponds, and rivers. ... myscience.ch › news › wire - news in brief › How the cholera bacterium survives water predators ...
Engineers Develop a Probiotic Mix of Bacteria to Treat Cholera
MIT engineers have developed a probiotic mix of natural and engineered bacteria to diagnose and treat cholera, an intestinal ... MIT engineers have developed a probiotic mix of natural and engineered bacteria to diagnose and treat cholera, an intestinal ... Engineers Develop a Probiotic Mix of Bacteria to Treat Cholera TOPICS:BioengineeringHealthMedicineMIT ... To create their "living diagnostic" for cholera, the researchers chose a strain of bacteria called Lactococcus lactis, which is ...
Cholera Dynamics and Oral Cholera Vaccination Impact Postdoc - JHU | Microbiology Microbes Bacteria Information and Links -...
... the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health is looking for a postdoctoral fellow to work on projects related to cholera ... Postdoctoral Position in Cholera Dynamics and Oral Cholera Vaccination Impact Johns Hopkins University Baltimore, Maryland, U.S ... Cholera Dynamics and Oral Cholera Vaccination Impact Postdoc - JHU Postdoctoral Position in Cholera Dynamics and Oral Cholera ... it is highly connected to ongoing cholera control work throughout the world through the Global Taskforce for Cholera Control, ...
Pandemic cholera is naturally resistant to antibiotics: Scientists have discovered it is different than other drug-resistant...
Tags: antibiotic resistance, bacteria, bacterial infection, badhealth, cholera, Diseases, drug-resistant bacteria, El Tor ... An enzyme found in the bacterium is able to remodel its cell wall to match the peptides. This gives the bacteria resistance to ... the bacteria primarily responsible for cholera) was because of the difference in how its enzyme responded to antibiotics, as ... Natural News) Cholera is dubbed as the first "global pandemic," and for good reason - the disease has spawned seven pandemics ...
Scientists find how cholera bacterium use a hooked appendix for various purposes - Interfaith News
Scientists find how cholera bacterium use a hooked appendix for various purposes. * Post author By Kate Robinson ... Scientists find how cholera bacterium use a hooked appendix for various purposes - November 15, 2019 ... Now, however, researchers have managed to directly observe the pili in live cholera bacteria using a technique called cysteine ... Vibrio cholerae is the bacterium that causes cholera: it infects the small intestine and causes diarrhoea and dehydration. This ...
Cocktail of bacteria-killing viruses prevents cholera infection
... cholera bacteria must acquire mutations in these receptors, which cause the bacteria to become less infectious. ... cholera bacteria must acquire mutations in these receptors, which cause the bacteria to become less infectious.. ... all of which specifically kill cholera bacteria, prevents infection and cholera-like symptoms in animal model experiments, ... Cocktail of bacteria-killing viruses prevents cholera infection. THE HANS INDIA , Feb 04,2017 , 05:26 AM IST ...
bacteria tagged stories - MIT Technology Review
Controlling cholera with microbes. Engineered bacteria can prevent, diagnose, and treat infections. ... How Much Force Do Bacteria Produce? Its Now Been Measured. The results suggest that bacteria could one day be harnessed as ... A Pill Filled with Bacteria Instead of Drugs. Delivering healthy bacteria in a pill could help patients harboring out-of- ... The Fridge Laser That Detects Bacteria Crawling All Over Food. Spotting the bacteria that causes food poisoning has always been ...
Probiotics to Ambush Disease-Causing Gut Bacteria on the Anvil
... tactics are being developed by scientists from University of Adelaide in a bid to fool disease-causing gut bacteria that often ... Cholera. Cholera is an infection of the small intestine and is caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... Amazing Benefits of Gut Bacteria. The bacteria that live in the gut offer numerous health benefits such as synthesis of vitamin ... Probiotics to Ambush Disease-Causing Gut Bacteria on the Anvil. by Rajashri on September 9, 2009 at 9:58 PM Diet & Nutrition ...
bacterium cholera | Kada News Magazine
Cholera | pathology | Britannica.com
Cholera, an acute infection of the small intestine caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae and characterized by extreme ... Cholera has often risen to epidemic proportions in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, particularly in India and ... Cholera, an acute infection of the small intestine caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae and characterized by extreme ... The cholera bacterium and toxin. Vibrio cholerae is a member of the family Vibrionaceae, which includes three medically ...
Pathogenic bacteriaEpidemicsPrevent choleraDehydrationTyphoidVirusesBacterialSmall intestineInfectionsVibrio CholeraSymptomsBacillusHumansGenesOutbreak of choleraAntibioticsBacterium'sVaccinePandemicInfectsSevereResearchersInfectWorld's2017IntestineStrainAfricaMicroorganismsStaphylococcusDrug-resistantEscherichiaTypes of bacteriaScientistsMicrobesNeisseriaResistanceImproved sanitationTuberculosisPlagueHarmlessVibriosHarmful bacteriaResistantProbioticColiGermsHelicobacter
- An advantage of this approach to treatment is that the pathogenic bacteria are unlikely to develop a resistance to it, as that would destroy the basic mechanism by which they cause disease. (medindia.net)
- Pathogenic bacteria that invade an animal's bloodstream can use any of a number of mechanisms to evade the host's immune system , including the formation of long lipopolysaccharide chains to provide resistance to a group of serum immune proteins, called complement , that normally retard the bacterium. (britannica.com)
- Many pathogenic bacteria produce toxins that assist them in invading the host. (britannica.com)
- To better understand these symbiotic activities in V. fischeri , and to begin to identify features common to beneficial and pathogenic bacteria, we sequenced the genome of strain ES114, the model light-organ symbiont of the squid Euprymna scolopes ( 9 ). (pnas.org)
- Biomedical engineers at Duke University have demonstrated that at least 25 percent of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria found in clinical settings are capable of spreading their resistance directly to other bacteria. (news-medical.net)
- Anti-adhesion agents can rinse pathogenic bacteria out from the body without destroying them, so there is no danger of producing drug-resistant bacteria. (laboratoryequipment.com)
- Here, we review the main pathogenic bacteria found in Oreochromis niloticus culture operations and options for controlling the appearance of bacterial pathogens in aquaculture production . (omicsonline.org)
- In order to provide novel targets for antivirulence therapy, and to reveal the phylogeny of the mART toxin family, R. Fieldhouse, Ph.D. student, developed an in silico strategy for identifying new mARTs from the sequenced genomes of pathogenic bacteria (7). (uoguelph.ca)
- This result indicates that "Nepalese isolates are the closest relatives to the Haiti strain identified to date, even when placed into a phylogeny with a larger collection of isolates representing recent cholera epidemics," write the authors. (innovations-report.com)
- The deadly bacterium behind cholera epidemics spends only a fraction of its life infecting humans. (ucsc.edu)
- In the past two centuries, seven pandemics (global epidemics) of cholera have carried the disease to countries around the world. (britannica.com)
- Widespread epidemics of cholera and plague reduced populations of humans in some areas of the world by more than one-third. (britannica.com)
- Current vaccines against cholera can take weeks to induce immunity, which limits the effectiveness of vaccination campaigns during cholera epidemics that often explode within several days. (genengnews.com)
- Unless the water is purified with chlorine, epidemics of such diseases as cholera, hepatitis, and typhoid could occur. (thirdworldtraveler.com)
- The exciting thing about this finding is that we might be able to use a small, natural molecule to treat and/or prevent cholera. (scienceblog.com)
- The researchers had hoped to further engineer L. lactis so that it could treat or prevent cholera infections. (scitechdaily.com)
- In tests in mice, the researchers found that this probiotic mixture could successfully prevent cholera infections from developing and could also treat existing infections. (scitechdaily.com)
- How to prevent Cholera? (traveldoc.co.za)
- Since the outbreak began, campaigns and community volunteers across the country have been trying to spread the message of how to prevent cholera, she said, including how to clean water, to wash food before eating it and to take general hygienic measures. (traveldoc.co.za)
- Each year, millions of people worldwide develop cholera, resulting in thousands of deaths, primarily from dehydration. (eurekalert.org)
- This cholera patient is drinking oral rehydration solution in order to counteract his cholera-induced dehydration. (theconversation.com)
- A person with severe dehydration due to cholera causing sunken eyes and wrinkled hands and skin. (wikipedia.org)
- Cholera is a disease caused by bacteria that produce a watery diarrhea that can rapidly lead to dehydration. (yahoo.com)
- Cholera symptoms and signs include a rapid onset of copious, smelly diarrhea that resembles rice water and may lead to signs of dehydration. (yahoo.com)
- Cholera is an infectious disease that causes severe watery diarrhea, which can lead to dehydration and even death if untreated. (yahoo.com)
- Cholera causes severe diarrhea and dehydration. (yahoo.com)
- Cholera symptoms and signs include a rapid onset of copious, smelly diarrhea that resembles rice water and may lead to signs of dehydration (for example, vomiting , wrinkled skin, low blood pressure , dry mouth , rapid heart rate). (medicinenet.com)
- Resistance, however, equally compromises the management of acute respiratory infections, sexually transmitted diseases, and diseases spread by the fecal-oral route, such as typhoid fever, cholera, dysentery, and other diarrheal diseases, which are the focus of this perspective. (cdc.gov)
- Typhoid fever is caused by the bacterium Salmonella Typhi . (cbc.ca)
- Eg:- cold, cough, typhoid, cholera etc. ii) Chronic disease :- are diseases which lasts for a long time and has long term drastic effect on health. (slideshare.net)
- Eg :- common cold, chicken pox, mumps, measles, typhoid, cholera, tuberculosis, malaria, AIDS etc. iv) Non-infectious diseases (Non-communicable diseases) :- are diseases which are not spread from an infected person to a healthy person. (slideshare.net)
- Viruses attack and infect a bacterium. (theconversation.com)
- But what about using these bacteria-killing viruses - bacteriophages - to prevent infections in the first place? (theconversation.com)
- The findings are the first to demonstrate the potential efficacy of bacteria-killing viruses known as bacteriophages, or phages-as an orally administered preventive therapy against an acute gastrointestinal bacterial disease. (thehansindia.com)
- The unusual characteristics of these abundant, bacteria-killing viruses could lead to evolutionary insights. (mit.edu)
- Most coliform bacteria are harmless but their presence indicate the possible presence of disease causing bacteria, viruses or parasites from sources such as raw sewage. (usu.edu)
- The disadvantage is extreme susceptibility to respiratory infections caused by a wide range of bacteria, viruses and fungi. (fao.org)
- The vast amount of types of bacteria and viruses and fungi that we see in everyday life don't hurt us at all. (webmd.com)
- The two main types of infectious organisms are bacteria and viruses. (factmonster.com)
- Bacteria and viruses, including human and wildlife pathogens, can reach estuaries and coastal water through sewage and runoff from terrestrial sources. (nsf.gov)
- bacteria and viruses (germs) and fungi and parasites . (ca.gov)
- Meningitis caused by bacteria and viruses that usually live inside us antibiotics, corticosteroids, fever reducers. (prezi.com)
- The leader of the research in York, Dr Gavin Thomas, said: "This work continues our discoveries of how bacteria that grow in our body exploit sialic acid for their survival and help us to take forward our efforts to design chemicals to inhibit these processes in different bacterial pathogens. (redorbit.com)
- Many kinds of bacteria form biofilms, which act as bacterial shields, making cells harder to kill and more tolerant of environmental fluctuations. (ucsc.edu)
- Now, PaxVax is looking to Australian government officials to conduct a clinical trial of a genetically modified live bacterial vaccine against cholera. (globalresearch.ca)
- These phages function by targeting bacterial surface receptors normally involved in infectiousness, making them ideal therapeutic candidates-to develop resistance, cholera bacteria must acquire mutations in these receptors, which cause the bacteria to become less infectious. (thehansindia.com)
- There are approximately ten times as many bacterial cells in the human flora of bacteria as there are human cells in the body, with large numbers of bacteria on the skin and as gut flora. (medicalxpress.com)
- It develops without the characteristic bacterial flagellum, a single appendix that gives its motility to the bacteria. (spainsnews.com)
- Cholera is a bacterial disease usually spread through contaminated water. (yahoo.com)
- It was once thought that a filamentous structure on the surface of bacteria, called type IV pilus, was important for bacterial attachment, but its detailed adhesion mechanism was not known. (laboratoryequipment.com)
- That means that the genes of a virus were integrated into the bacterial genome and made the bacteria pathogenic. (wikipedia.org)
- Recent evidence exposes an impending catastrophe involving bacterial resistance to the present regime of antibiotics and an industry pipeline that is ill-equipped to provide new compounds, especially since the emergence of multi-drug resistant bacteria (1). (uoguelph.ca)
- Thus, we are now uniquely poised to develop inhibitors of mART toxins for use as therapeutics in the treatment of bacterial pathogens and to characterize toxins from a wide-range of medically relevant bacteria. (uoguelph.ca)
- Variations of the bacterium without the intestinal poison that cause the lethal cholera, can instead lead to other illnesses, e.g. ear infections, and have lately been in the attention for causing severe wound infections. (healthcanal.com)
- Warming oceans caused by climate change may be leading to an increase in cholera and other infections caused by Vibrio bacteria, according to more than 50 years of data on climate and populations of ocean microbes. (newscientist.com)
- Several species can cause dangerous infections in humans, including cholera and food poisoning. (newscientist.com)
- But the bacteria experience fluctuations in salinity both in their aquatic habitat and during human infections. (ucsc.edu)
- Knowing how the pathogen passes through freshwater versus salty water may help to expose the dynamics of cholera infections, she said. (ucsc.edu)
- Our goal was to use synthetic biology to develop an inexpensive means to detect and diagnose as well as suppress or treat cholera infections," says Collins, who is the senior author of the study. (scitechdaily.com)
- The MIT team is now exploring the possibility of using this approach to combat other microbes, such as Clostridium difficile, which causes gastrointestinal infections, and bacteria known as enterococci, which can cause many types of infections. (scitechdaily.com)
- Engineered bacteria can prevent, diagnose, and treat infections. (technologyreview.com)
- Diversionary tactics are being developed by scientists from University of Adelaide in a bid to fool disease-causing gut bacteria that often lead to infections, such as cholera. (medindia.net)
- New strategy could enable existing drugs to kill bacteria that cause chronic infections. (mit.edu)
- What are the non-cholera vibrio infections? (brainscape.com)
- Minocycline Hydrochloride Capsules, USP Rx only To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of minocycline hydrochloride capsules, USP and other antibacterial drugs, minocycline hydrochloride capsules, USP should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria. (nih.gov)
- Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia) is a species having tolerance to low water quality and disease, yet in recent years its cultivation has been faced with problems related to infections with bacteria such as Aeromonas spp. (omicsonline.org)
- A bacterium that causes eye infections and pelvic inflammatory disease. (mcsweeneys.net)
- Tetracycline has been shown to be active against most isolates of the following bacteria, both in vitro and in clinical infections as described in the INDICATIONS AND USAGE section of the package insert. (nih.gov)
- The potential of the probe for specific identification and differentiation of P. multocida was further detected in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded lung tissues from experimental fowl cholera in chickens and infections in pigs. (asm.org)
- The test was replicable and reproducible and is recommended as a supplementary test for diagnosis and as a tool in pathogenesis studies of fowl cholera and respiratory tract infections in pigs due to P. multocida . (asm.org)
- The structure and function of a previously unknown toxin in the cholera bacteria Vibrio cholera has been discovered by scientists at Umeå University, Sweden. (healthcanal.com)
- Cholera is caused by ingestion of _Vibrio cholera_ bacteria, which are spread through water or food that is contaminated with faeces. (traveldoc.co.za)
- There are many types (strains) of the Vibrio cholera bacteria. (yahoo.com)
- Vibrio cholera, the bacterium that causes cholera has two life cycles: one in the environment and one in humans. (yahoo.com)
- Cholera is caused by a bacterium, vibrio cholera. (reuters.com)
- It is transmitted by eating or drinking food or liquids contaminated with fecal matter containing vibrio cholera, the statement said. (reuters.com)
- Left untreated, cholera kills 40% of its victims, sometimes within hours of the onset of symptoms. (theconversation.com)
- Family members typically experience cholera symptoms themselves two to three days after the initial household member became sick. (theconversation.com)
- Seriously ill patients are highly effective transmitters of cholera, but persons with mild or no symptoms are more likely to travel, thereby also playing a crucial role in the spread of the disease. (britannica.com)
- Up to 80 percent of people with cholera don't have symptoms, but they are still capable of spreading it. (traveldoc.co.za)
- These symptoms usually start suddenly, half a day to five days after ingestion of the bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
- What are the symptoms of cholera? (yahoo.com)
- related to: What are the symptoms of cholera? (yahoo.com)
- Nov 03, 2020 · Symptoms of cholera can be mild to severe. (yahoo.com)
- A person is no longer contagious for cholera when they have no cholera symptoms and no detectable Vibrio bacteria in their stools. (medicinenet.com)
- Only about one in 10 people infected with cholera develop the typical signs and symptoms. (medicinenet.com)
- Surprisingly, most people infected with cholera don't experience symptoms, although the bacteria is present in their system for 7 to 14 days. (pbs.org)
- 3. Records of the illness probably date back to the time of the classical physicians Hippocrates and Galen who described afflictions with symptoms similar to cholera. (pbs.org)
- Koch also investigated an outbreak of cholera in Egypt, and a later Indian outbreak, where his research implicated a comma-shaped bacillus as the cause of the disease. (encyclopedia.com)
- Abstract: The main objective of this experiment is to investigate the effect of different types of antibiotics on bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. (brightkite.com)
- It is reasonable to assume that some of the properties of the bacterium that causes illness for humans was originally developed to resist environment-related factors. (healthcanal.com)
- Conceivably, specially engineered assassin bacteria friendly to humans could kill harmful bacteria while sparing hordes of microbes that keep people healthy. (eurekalert.org)
- In humans, cholera is among the world's most deadly diseases, killing as many as 140,000 persons a year, according to World Health Organization statistics. (phys.org)
- There, the bacterium has evolved formidable skills to ensure its survival, growth, and occasional transmission to humans, especially in endemic areas of the globe. (myscience.ch)
- Although most bacteria are beneficial or even necessary for life on Earth , a few are known for their detrimental impact on humans. (britannica.com)
- None of the Archaea are currently considered to be pathogens, but animals, including humans, are constantly bombarded and inhabited by large numbers and varieties of Bacteria. (britannica.com)
- Other bacteria that can infect humans include staphylococcal bacteria (primarily Staphylococcus aureus ), which can infect the skin to cause boils (furuncles), the bloodstream to cause septicemia (blood poisoning), the heart valves to cause endocarditis , or the bones to cause osteomyelitis . (britannica.com)
- It is a bacterium that is found in the intestines of humans and other warm blooded animals. (usu.edu)
- Bacteria in the small intestines of mice and humans can travel to other organs and trigger an autoimmune response, according to a new study. (futurity.org)
- The genus includes some important pathogens of humans (e.g. the causal agent of cholera), fish, and shellfish. (encyclopedia.com)
- that is, secreted proteins serve as molecular bridges that bind both type IV pili on the surface of the bacteria and intestinal epithelial cells in humans. (laboratoryequipment.com)
- It's sister, the bacterium that causes 10% of pneumonia cases in humans. (mcsweeneys.net)
- Many pigs carry the bacteria that cause balantidiasis and it can be passed from pigs to humans. (cbc.ca)
- What they found was that the tiny spear is not only part of V. cholerae's natural survival system, but it also contributed to the transfer of genes that could make the bacterium more resistant to threats, even to antibiotics. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- Were the bacteria gaining or losing genes that could impact the course of disease? (innovations-report.com)
- Did they gain genes from other bacteria in the environment? (innovations-report.com)
- The Haiti strains also have a limited ability to acquire new genes through the process of transformation, by which genetic material is picked up from other bacteria or from the environment. (innovations-report.com)
- Yildiz and Shikuma found more than 300 cholera genes that respond to changes in salinity, many of which Yildiz and others had previously linked to the pathogen's deadliness. (ucsc.edu)
- The marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri is best known as the specific symbiont in the light-emitting organs of certain squids and fishes ( 1 ), where it produces luminescence by expressing the lux operon, a small cluster of genes found in several of the Vibrionaceae. (pnas.org)
- The researchers also hamstrung the bacteria so that they wouldn't be able to swap genes easily and pick up toxic capabilities from other bugs. (genengnews.com)
- Although it lacks the genes that code for the cholera toxin, it does have isolated pathogenic elements, which could have caused the diarrheal process of the soldier. (spainsnews.com)
- Researchers have been able to identify and track the exchange of genes among bacteria that allow them to become resistant to drugs, according to a new study published today in eLife. (news-medical.net)
- The second chromosome is determined to be different from a plasmid or megaplasmid due to the inclusion of housekeeping and other essential genes in the genome, including essential genes for metabolism, heat-shock proteins, and 16S rRNA genes, which are ribosomal subunit genes used to track evolutionary relationships between bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
- Seven virulence genes were identified ctx A, tox R, zot , ace , rfb O1, tcp A and omp W. Moreover, the cholera isolated strains were found sensitive to most antibiotic but resistant to nalidixic acid. (scirp.org)
- Perhaps if we could splice the genes of cholera and a polar bear we could balance out this whole biodiversity upheaval thing. (pbs.org)
Outbreak of cholera3
- The earthquake in January 2010 killed tens of thousands of Haitians, and it was followed several months later by an outbreak of cholera, a disease that had never before been documented in Haiti. (innovations-report.com)
- There hasn't been a major outbreak of cholera in the US. (globalresearch.ca)
- The teams used whole genome sequencing to study the bacteria circulating during the 1991-1998 outbreak of cholera in the country. (dailymailindia.com)
- By contrast, the antibiotics we use today vanquish harmful and helpful bacteria alike. (eurekalert.org)
- This approach, as opposed to killing bacteria outright, could help curtail the growing problem of bacteria becoming resistant to antibiotics. (eurekalert.org)
- Discovered a little more than 100 years ago , bacteriophages, or phages, are generating renewed interest as potential weapons to fight bacteria that are resistant to multiple antibiotics - the so-called superbugs. (theconversation.com)
- Bacteria have not disappeared as infectious agents, however, since they continue to evolve, creating increasingly virulent strains and acquiring resistance to many antibiotics. (britannica.com)
- The sequencing of its genome shows that the bacteria that made that military man sick is different from those that have caused the last cholera pandemics, he already had resistance to antibiotics and has mutated in all this time that has been saved. (spainsnews.com)
- In the absence of antibiotics, still to be discovered, the soldiers were vaccinated against cholera, like these Austrians in the trenches. (spainsnews.com)
- 2788 words - 11 pages statement Do antibiotics have the same effect on killing different types of bacteria? (brightkite.com)
- Researchers in Britain are reporting that they have found a way to prevent bacteria from forming the "wall" that prevents antibiotics from attacking them . (slashdot.org)
- With the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans as host for the cholera bacterium, the dissertation shows that the enzyme PrtV is neccessary to kill the worm and is also important for the bacterium's resistance to other natural enemies, e.g. unicellular organisms (ciliates and flagellates). (healthcanal.com)
- PaxVax plans an intentional release of a genetically modified cholera vaccine and we're all supposed to be excited - even thankful for it? (globalresearch.ca)
- Several "sites" planned for the GM cholera vaccine are in Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia, & Victoria, though it's not specified where exactly. (globalresearch.ca)
- The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends CVD 103-HgR vaccine for adult travelers (age 18-64 years) to an area of active cholera transmission. (traveldoc.co.za)
- New probiotic and vaccine-based interventions have been shown to suppress cholera in animal models, indicated two research articles, both of which appeared June 13 in the journal Science Translational Medicine . (genengnews.com)
- The vaccine consists of harmless, lab-designed bacteria don't cause cholera. (genengnews.com)
- The vaccine against E. gallinarum was a specific approach, as vaccinations against other bacteria we investigated did not prevent mortality and autoimmunity," he notes. (futurity.org)
- The vaccine was delivered through injection in muscle to avoid targeting other bacteria that reside in the gut. (futurity.org)
- A single dose vaccine is available for those traveling to an area were cholera is common. (wikipedia.org)
- Her lab tested different strains of the bacterium from all over the world, most of which have been implicated in the 7th cholera pandemic, which began in Indonesia in the 1960's, spread rapidly to Asia, Europe, and Latin America, and still affects populations today. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- Natural News ) Cholera is dubbed as the first "global pandemic," and for good reason - the disease has spawned seven pandemics around the world, and is still considered a threat to public health, according to the World Health Organization (WHO) . (naturalnews.com)
- Dr. Caveat, I understand the bacterium is mutating to a potentially pandemic. (123helpme.com)
- Severe cholera, without treatment, kills about half of affected individuals. (wikipedia.org)
- Frequent bowel movement and severe vomiting is seen in Cholera patients. (yahoo.com)
- In endemic areas, 75% of cases are asymptomatic, 20% are mild to moderate, and 2-5% are severe forms such as cholera gravis. (wikipedia.org)
- Georgia Tech researchers applied to the bacteria existing physics equations developed to precisely describe the interactions of atoms and molecules. (eurekalert.org)
- Buried within ToxT, the researchers were surprised to find a fatty acid that appears to inhibit ToxT, which prevents the bacteria from causing cholera. (scienceblog.com)
- CrvA expression is activated by quorum sensing and increases as the population density of bacteria grows, the researchers found. (eurekalert.org)
- The bacteria may use quorum sensing to alert one another that their environment has changed from water -- where the rod shape is advantageous -- to a host's gut, the researchers reported. (eurekalert.org)
- The researchers grew these bacteria on chitin surfaces that simulated their natural habitat on crustaceans. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- To create their "living diagnostic" for cholera, the researchers chose a strain of bacteria called Lactococcus lactis, which is safe for human consumption and is used in the production of cheese and buttermilk. (scitechdaily.com)
- The engineered version of L. lactis does not produce enough lactic acid to kill cholera microbes, so the researchers combined the engineered bacteria with the unmodified version to create a probiotic mixture that can both detect and treat cholera. (scitechdaily.com)
- With regard to this particular characteristic of these bacteria, a group of researchers carried out research published in Nature Microbiology , a study that obtained important new information on how bacteria colonize surfaces and how they distinguish the individuals around them, considered fundamental biological issues. (interfaithnews.net)
- The idea is that bacteria can throw these long ropes, hook onto something and rewind it to themselves," reports David Adams, one of the researchers. (interfaithnews.net)
- Now, however, researchers have managed to directly observe the pili in live cholera bacteria using a technique called cysteine labeling. (interfaithnews.net)
- In the new study, researchers have shown how they had added molecular mimics of these host cell receptors onto the surface of harmless bacteria capable of surviving in the human gut. (medindia.net)
- Despite a single, unchanging food source in the form of a liquid meal replacement shake, bacteria in the gut are unpredictable, researchers find. (mit.edu)
- With either approach, the researchers were able to suppress growth of the bacterium in the tissues and blunt its effects on the immune system. (futurity.org)
- The researchers found that the altered long-filaments become entangled, providing an advantage that allows the bacteria to quickly colonize nutrient-rich particles in seawater. (business-standard.com)
- The discovery of a new way that bacteria form groups on surfaces can, however, help researchers understand more about how bacteria act and associate. (business-standard.com)
- Researchers engineered friendly bacteria (dots in the bottom half of the image) to produce a protein that triggers intestinal epithelial cells (top, highlighted in blue) to produce insulin. (technologyreview.com)
- The researchers created a strain of nonpathogenic E. coli bacteria that produce a protein called GLP-1. (technologyreview.com)
- In the new research, researchers fed the bacteria to diabetic mice. (technologyreview.com)
- Recently, the United Nations was under fire and is being sued for gross negligence for bringing Cholera to Haiti in the world's worst outbreak of the bacteria. (globalresearch.ca)
- in all, there are approximately five nonillion (5×1030) bacteria on Earth, forming much of the world's biomass. (medicalxpress.com)
- Colonization of the intestine is difficult for incoming bacteria as they have to be highly competitive to gain a foothold among the trillions of other bacteria already in situ. (redorbit.com)
- To be able to grow in the intestine the bacterium harvests and then eats a sugar, called sialic acid, that is present on the surface of our gut cells. (redorbit.com)
- Knowing the strategies by which the bacterium is able to invade the intestine can open doors to therapies that might disrupt these paths," said corresponding author Raghuveer Parthasarathy, a professor of physics at the University of Oregon, whose imaging and analysis techniques were used in the study. (phys.org)
- According to Professor James Paton, bacteria produce toxins that damage human tissues when they bind to complex sugar receptors displayed on the surface of cells in the host's intestine. (medindia.net)
- John March , a biochemical engineer at Cornell University, in Ithaca, NY, and his collaborators decided to re-create this essential circuit using the existing signaling system between the epithelial cells lining the intestine and the millions of healthy bacteria that normally reside in the gut. (technologyreview.com)
- The strain of cholera that has sickened thousands in Haiti came from a single source and was not repeatedly introduced to the island over the past three years as some have thought, according to a new study published in mBio®, the online open-access journal of the American Society for Microbiology. (innovations-report.com)
- In their study, which was published in the Journal of Biological Chemistry , they explained how the enzyme from the El Tor strain had a "different mechanism of action" than other proteins that have been studied in bacteria. (naturalnews.com)
- Our aim was to also identify factors that may have evolved to be decisive for the environmental impact of the bacterium in competition with other microorganisms and for survival where there are predatory organisms. (healthcanal.com)
- Probiotics are live microorganisms that resemble the good bacteria in our gut. (medindia.net)
- bacterium )[α] are a large group of unicellular microorganisms. (medicalxpress.com)
- Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that differ from all other organisms (the eukaryotes) in lacking a true nucleus and organelles such as mitochondria, chloroplasts, and lysosomes. (thefreedictionary.com)
- This finding confirms, for the authors, that bacteria carry their whole lives defending themselves from other microorganisms. (spainsnews.com)
- Bacteria are microorganisms containing no nucleus with a cell wall composed of peptidoglycan, a protein-sugar molecule. (brightkite.com)
- It also indicated that vended foods are potential reservoir for the spread of emerging multiple drug resistant bacteria strains that pose threat to public health. (scirp.org)
- This is really important because drug-resistant bacteria is a global health problem. (slashdot.org)
- This covers nothing of the most concerning drug resistant bacteria, but merely offers a way to make some bacteria vulnerable to drugs that they were not vulnerable to before. (slashdot.org)
- The purpose of this activity is to use electrochemistry techniques to generate colloidal silver and then utilize the colloidal silver to determine if the growth of the bacteria Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Escherichia coli can be inhibited. (nisenet.org)
- In this paper we employ a discrete-diffusion modeling framework to examine a system inspired by the nano-ecology experiments on the bacterium Escherichia coli reported upon in Keymer et al. (aimsciences.org)
Types of bacteria2
- This weapon is called the "type VI secretion system" (T6SS) and is known to exist in many types of bacteria. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- The oral cavities, intestinal tract, and skin are colonized by enormous numbers of specific types of bacteria that are adapted to life in those habitats. (britannica.com)
- Scientists at York, led by Dr Gavin Thomas in the University´s Department of Biology, have investigated one of the important routes that V. cholera uses to gain this foothold. (redorbit.com)
- The scientists found that the flagellum of this bacterium not only is used as the mechanism for motility but also for the release of the MakA toxin. (healthcanal.com)
- A group of pathogenic marine bacteria, responsible for many more deaths worldwide each year than sharks, reside within Sydney Harbour, UTS scientists have found. (phys.org)
- Scientists have even found biofilms riding through the water on tiny crustaceans called copepods, as well as in stool samples from cholera patients. (ucsc.edu)
- EPFL scientists have deciphered mechanisms that help the cholera bacterium to survive grazing predators in aquatic environments. (myscience.ch)
- The probiotic intervention, developed by a team of scientists based at MIT, consists of a mix of natural and engineered Lactococcus bacteria. (genengnews.com)
- Serendipitously, however, the team discovered that unmodified L. lactis can actually kill cholera microbes by producing lactic acid, a natural byproduct of their metabolism. (scitechdaily.com)
- March's microbes are one of a number of new strains being developed to treat disease, including bacteria designed to fight cavities, produce vitamins and treat lactose intolerance. (technologyreview.com)
- This gives the bacteria resistance to the effects of CAMPs. (naturalnews.com)
- In this article, "Probiotic Strains Detect and Suppress Cholera in Mice," Collins and colleagues describe their probiotic-based strategy to promote colonization resistance and point-of-need diagnosis of cholera. (genengnews.com)
- 20 deaths), E. coli O157 contamination of food (500 deaths annually in the U.S.), Salmonella-induced food poisoning such as contamination of vegetables (4 million U.S. cases/y), and the emergence of multi-drug resistance bacteria (5), clearly warrants the need to search for novel antimicrobials. (uoguelph.ca)
- Many bacteria build up an outer defence which is important for their survival and drug resistance. (slashdot.org)
- TB is caused mainly by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis which often initiates in the respiratory tract. (aimsciences.org)
- i) Through air :- Common cod, Tuberculosis, Pneumonia etc. ii) Through water :- Cholera, Amoebic dysentery etc. iii) Through vectors :Mosquitoes :- Malaria, Dengue, Yellow fever etc. (slideshare.net)
- Many harmless bacteria use it, too. (eurekalert.org)
- The vast majority of the bacteria in the body are rendered harmless by the protective effects of the immune system, and a few are beneficial. (medicalxpress.com)
- These normal flora are harmless or even helpful, protecting their host by interference with the growth of harmful bacteria. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Some bacteria can also form spores , dehydrated forms that are relatively resistant to heat, cold, lack of water, toxic chemicals, and radiation. (thefreedictionary.com)
- However, the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria has become a social issue, so the development of new treatment methods is sought after. (laboratoryequipment.com)
- The article also uses MRSA, which is gram positive, as their prime example of resistant bacteria. (slashdot.org)
- We initially developed this technology to prevent disease caused by strains of E. coli bacteria that produce Shiga toxin. (medindia.net)
- Coliform bacteria, including E. coli , are common microscopic organisms. (usu.edu)
- We demonstrated that type IV pili on the surface of the bacteria were not sufficient for ETEC adherence to intestinal epithelial cells, and that proteins secreted by E.coli were also necessary. (laboratoryequipment.com)
- The same silver that is in jewelry can kill germs, fungus and bacteria. (nisenet.org)
- Germs and Bacteria: How Clean Should We Be? (webmd.com)
- 674 words - 3 pages I chose to do the effects of different disinfectants on bacteria because I have always wondered if disinfectants such as Clorox, Lysol, and hand sanitizer actually kill 99.9 percent of germs. (brightkite.com)
- The stomach ulcer bacterium Helicobacter pylori is not transmit. (bio-medicine.org)
- The stomach ulcer bacterium Helicobacter pylori is not transmitted through drinking water as previously thought, but rather through vomit and possibly faeces. (bio-medicine.org)
- The research team analysed the drinking water, lake water and wastewater in an area in Dhaka in Bangladesh, where the bacterium Helicobacter pylori is very common. (bio-medicine.org)
- The results show that while the diarrhoea bacterium ETEC is often present in the drinking water, Helicobacter pylori is not. (bio-medicine.org)
- We analysed vomit and diarrhoea from cholera patients, and found large amounts of active Helicobacter pylori . (bio-medicine.org)