Rhodopsins found in the PURPLE MEMBRANE of halophilic archaea such as HALOBACTERIUM HALOBIUM. Bacteriorhodopsins function as an energy transducers, converting light energy into electrochemical energy via PROTON PUMPS.
A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.
Products or parts of products used to detect, manipulate, or analyze light, such as LENSES, refractors, mirrors, filters, prisms, and OPTICAL FIBERS.
A species of halophilic archaea found in salt lakes. Some strains form a PURPLE MEMBRANE under anaerobic conditions.
A genus of HALOBACTERIACEAE whose growth requires a high concentration of salt. Binary fission is by constriction.
Measurement of the index of refraction (the ratio of the velocity of light or other radiation in the first of two media to its velocity in the second as it passes from one into the other).
Functionally and structurally differentiated, purple-pigmented regions of the cytoplasmic membrane of some strains of Halobacterium halobium. The membrane develops under anaerobic conditions and is made almost entirely of the purple pigment BACTERIORHODOPSINS. (From Singleton & Sainsbury Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A carotenoid constituent of visual pigments. It is the oxidized form of retinol which functions as the active component of the visual cycle. It is bound to the protein opsin forming the complex rhodopsin. When stimulated by visible light, the retinal component of the rhodopsin complex undergoes isomerization at the 11-position of the double bond to the cis-form; this is reversed in "dark" reactions to return to the native trans-configuration.
Condensation products of aromatic amines and aldehydes forming azomethines substituted on the N atom, containing the general formula R-N:CHR. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The research and development of ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES for such medical applications as diagnosis, therapy, research, anesthesia control, cardiac control, and surgery. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
Electrical devices that are composed of semiconductor material, with at least three connections to an external electronic circuit. They are used to amplify electrical signals, detect signals, or as switches.
The techniques used to produce molecules exhibiting properties that conform to the demands of the experimenter. These techniques combine methods of generating structural changes with methods of selection. They are also used to examine proposed mechanisms of evolution under in vitro selection conditions.
Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.
Graphic representations, especially of the face, of real persons, usually posed, living or dead. (From Thesaurus for Graphic Materials II, p540, 1995)
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
Integral membrane proteins that transport protons across a membrane. This transport can be linked to the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. What is referred to as proton pump inhibitors frequently is about POTASSIUM HYDROGEN ATPASE.

Location of a cation-binding site in the loop between helices F and G of bacteriorhodopsin as studied by 13C NMR. (1/1144)

The high-affinity cation-binding sites of bacteriorhodopsin (bR) were examined by solid-state 13C NMR of samples labeled with [3-13C]Ala and [1-13C]Val. We found that the 13C NMR spectra of two kinds of blue membranes, deionized (pH 4) and acid blue at pH 1.2, were very similar and different from that of the native purple membrane. This suggested that when the surface pH is lowered, either by removal of cations or by lowering the bulk pH, substantial change is induced in the secondary structure of the protein. Partial replacement of the bound cations with Na+, Ca2+, or Mn2+ produced additional spectral changes in the 13C NMR spectra. The following conclusions were made. First, there are high-affinity cation-binding sites in both the extracellular and the cytoplasmic regions, presumably near the surface, and one of the preferred cation-binding sites is located at the loop between the helix F and G (F-G loop) near Ala196, consistent with the 3D structure of bR from x-ray diffraction and cryoelectron microscopy. Second, the bound cations undergo rather rapid exchange (with a lifetime shorter than 3 ms) among various types of cation-binding sites. As expected from the location of one of the binding sites, cation binding induced conformational alteration of the F-G interhelical loop.  (+info)

Distortion of the L-->M transition in the photocycle of the bacteriorhodopsin mutant D96N: a time-resolved step-scan FTIR investigation. (2/1144)

The D96N mutant of bacteriorhodopsin has often been taken as a model system to study the M intermediate of the wild type photocycle due to the long life time of the corresponding intermediate of the mutant. Using time-resolved step-scan FTIR spectroscopy in combination with a sample changing wheel we investigated the photocycle of the mutant with microsecond time resolution. Already after several microseconds an intermediate similar to the MN state is observed, which contrasts with the M state of the wild type protein. At reduced hydration M and N intermediates similar to those of wild type BR can be detected. These results have a bearing on the interpretation of the photocycle of this mutant. A mechanism is suggested for the fast rise of MN which provides some insight into the molecular events involved in triggering the opening of the cytosolic channel also of the wild type protein.  (+info)

Molecular modeling of mu opioid receptor and receptor-ligand interaction. (3/1144)

AIM: To construct the 3D structural model of mu opioid receptor (mu OR) and study the interaction between mu OR and fentanyl derivatives. METHODS: The 3D structure of mu OR was modeled using the bacteriorhodopsin (bRh) as a template, in which the alignments of transmembrane (TM) of bRh and mu OR were achieved by scoring the alignment between the amino acid sequence of mu OR and the structure of bRh. The fentanyl derivatives were docked into the 7 helices of mu OR and the binding energies were calculated. RESULTS: (1) The receptor-ligand interaction models were obtained for fentanyl derivatives. (2) In these models, the fundamental binding sites were possibly Asp147 and His297. The negatively charged oxygen of Asp147 and the positively charged ammonium group of ligand formed the potent electrostatic and hydrogen-binding interactions. Whereas the interactions between the positively charged nitrogen of His297 and the carbonyl oxygen of ligand were weak. In addition, there were some pi-pi interactions between the receptor and the ligand. (3) The binding energies of the receptor-ligand complexes had a good correlation with the analgesic activities (-lg ED50) of the fentanyl derivatives. CONCLUSION: This model is helpful for understanding the receptor-ligand interaction and for designing novel mu OR selective ligands.  (+info)

Molecular modeling of interaction between delta opioid receptor and 3-methylfentanylisothiocyanate. (4/1144)

AIM: To construct a 3D structural model of delta opioid receptor (delta OR) and study its interaction with 3-methylfentanylisothiocyanate (SuperFIT). METHODS: Using the bacteriohodopsin as a template, the 3D structure of delta OR was modeled; SuperFIT was docked into its inside. RESULTS: The interaction model between delta OR and (3R, 4S)-SuperFIT was achieved, in which the important binding sites possibly were Asp128, Ser106, Phe104, Tyr308, and Pro315. Asp128 formed the electrostatic and hydrogen-binding interactions with the protonated nitrogen on piperidine of the ligand. Ser106 formed the electrostatic interaction with the N atom of isothiocyano group of the ligand; whereas Phe104, Tyr308, and Pro315 formed the hydrophobic interactions with the S atom of isothiocyano group. In addition, there were some other interactions between delta OR and the ligand. CONCLUSION: The residues Phe104, Tyr308, Pro315, and Ser106 of delta OR are crucial to the delta selectivity of the ligand, which is beneficial for designing novel delta-selective ligand.  (+info)

Interpretation of the spatial charge displacements in bacteriorhodopsin in terms of structural changes during the photocycle. (5/1144)

We have recently introduced a method, made possible by an improved orienting technique using a combination of electric and magnetic fields, that allows the three-dimensional detection of the intramolecular charge displacements during the photocycle of bacteriorhodopsin. This method generates electric asymmetry, a prerequisite for the detection of electric signal on the macroscopic sample, in all three spatial dimensions. Purple membrane fragments containing bacteriorhodopsin were oriented so that their permanent electric dipole moment vectors were perpendicular to the membrane plane and pointed in the same direction. The resulting cylindrical symmetry was broken by photoselection, i. e., by flash excitation with low intensity linearly polarized light. From the measured electric signals, the three-dimensional motion of the electric charge center in the bacteriorhodopsin molecules was calculated for the first 400 microseconds. Simultaneous absorption kinetic recording provided the time-dependent concentrations of the intermediates. Combining the two sets of data, we determined the discrete dipole moments of intermediates up to M. When compared with the results of current molecular dynamics calculations, the data provided a decisive experimental test for selecting the optimal theoretical model for the proton transport and should eventually lead to a full description of the mechanism of the bacteriorhodopsin proton pump.  (+info)

Simulation analysis of the retinal conformational equilibrium in dark-adapted bacteriorhodopsin. (6/1144)

In dark-adapted bacteriorhodopsin (bR) the retinal moiety populates two conformers: all-trans and (13,15)cis. Here we examine factors influencing the thermodynamic equilibrium and conformational transition between the two forms, using molecular mechanics and dynamics calculations. Adiabatic potential energy mapping indicates that whereas the twofold intrinsic torsional potentials of the C13==C14 and C15==N16 double bonds favor a sequential torsional pathway, the protein environment favors a concerted, bicycle-pedal mechanism. Which of these two pathways will actually occur in bR depends on the as yet unknown relative weight of the intrinsic and environmental effects. The free energy difference between the conformers was computed for wild-type and modified bR, using molecular dynamics simulation. In the wild-type protein the free energy of the (13,15)cis retinal form is calculated to be 1.1 kcal/mol lower than the all-trans retinal form, a value within approximately kBT of experiment. In contrast, in isolated retinal the free energy of the all-trans state is calculated to be 2.1 kcal/mol lower than (13,15)cis. The free energy differences are similar to the adiabatic potential energy differences in the various systems examined, consistent with an essentially enthalpic origin. The stabilization of the (13,15)cis form in bR relative to the isolated retinal molecule is found to originate from improved protein-protein interactions. Removing internal water molecules near the Schiff base strongly stabilizes the (13,15)cis form, whereas a double mutation that removes negative charges in the retinal pocket (Asp85 to Ala; Asp212 to Ala) has the opposite effect.  (+info)

Chloride ion binding to bacteriorhodopsin at low pH: an infrared spectroscopic study. (7/1144)

Bacteriorhodopsin (bR) and halorhodopsin (hR) are light-induced ion pumps in the cell membrane of Halobacterium salinarium. Under normal conditions bR is an outward proton transporter, whereas hR is an inward Cl- transporter. There is strong evidence that at very low pH and in the presence of Cl-, bR transports Cl- ions into the cell, similarly to hR. The chloride pumping activity of bR is connected to the so-called acid purple state. To account for the observed effects in bR a tentative complex counterion was suggested for the protonated Schiff base of the retinal chromophore. It would consist of three charged residues: Asp-85, Asp-212, and Arg-82. This quadruplet (including the Schiff base) would also serve as a Cl- binding site at low pH. We used Fourier transform infrared difference spectroscopy to study the structural changes during the transitions between the normal, acid blue, and acid purple states. Asp-85 and Asp-212 were shown to participate in the transitions. During the normal-to-acid blue transition, Asp-85 protonates. When the pH is further lowered in the presence of Cl-, Cl- binds and Asp-212 also protonates. The binding of Cl- and the protonation of Asp-212 occur simultaneously, but take place only when Asp-85 is already protonated. It is suggested that HCl is taken up in undissociated form in exchange for a neutral water molecule.  (+info)

Time-resolved absorption and photothermal measurements with sensory rhodopsin I from Halobacterium salinarum. (8/1144)

An expansion accompanying the formation of the first intermediate in the photocycle of transducer-free sensory rhodopsin I (SRI) was determined by means of time-resolved laser-induced optoacoustic spectroscopy. For the native protein (SRI-WT), the absolute value of the expansion is approximately 5.5 mL and for the mutant SRI-D76N, approximately 1.5 mL per mol of phototransformed species (in 0.5 M NaCl), calculated by using the formation quantum yield for the first intermediate (S610) of Phi610 = 0.4 +/- 0.05 for SRI-WT and 0.5 +/- 0.05 for SRI-D76N, measured by laser-induced optoacoustic spectroscopy and by laser flash photolysis. The similarity in Phi610 and in the determined value of the energy level of S610, E610 = (142 +/- 12) kJ/mol for SRI-WT and SRI-D76N indicates that Asp76 is not directly involved in the first step of the phototransformation. The increase with pH of the magnitude of the structural volume change for the formation of S610 in SRI-WT and in SRI-D76N upon excitation with 580 nm indicates also that amino acids other than Asp76, and other than those related to the Schiff base, are involved in the process. The difference in structural volume changes as well as differences in the activation parameters for the S610 decay should be attributed to differences in the rigidity of the cavity surrounding the chromophore. Except for the decay of the first intermediate, which is faster than in the SRI-transducer complex, the rate constants of the photocycle for transducer-free SRI in detergent suspension are strongly retarded with respect to wild-type membranes (this comparison should be done with great care because the preparation of both samples is very different).  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of Asp85 replacement by Thr on the conformation, surface electric properties and stability of bacteriorhodopsin. AU - Taneva, Stefka G.. AU - Gõi, Felix M.. AU - Tuparev, Nikolai P.. AU - Petkanchin, Ivana. AU - Dér, A.. AU - Muga, Arturo. PY - 2002/9/25. Y1 - 2002/9/25. N2 - The role of Asp85 in maintaining bacteriorhodopsin structure has been analyzed by infrared spectroscopy, electric light scattering and differential scanning calorimetry. In comparison with the wild type bacteriorhodopsin, the mutant protein D85T shows a different conformation, electric dipole moments and decreased thermal stability. The conformational rearrangements affect both the transmembrane helices and the extramembranous protein segments. Both electric dipoles - the permanent dipole moment and the electric polarizability - have drastically lower values for the membranes containing D85T variant of bacteriorhodopsin. Therefore, this single amino acid mutation not only changes bacteriorhodopsin ...
The primary processes of the photochemical cycle of light-adapted bacteriorhodopsin (BR) were studied by various experimental techniques with a time resolution of 5 × 10-13 s. The following results were obtained. (a) After optical excitation the first excited singlet state S1 of bacteriorhodopsin is observed via its fluorescence and absorption properties. The population of the excited singlet state decays with a lifetime τ1 of ~0.7 ps (430 ± 50 fs) (52). (b) With the same time constant the first ground-state intermediate J builds up. Its absorption spectrum is red-shifted relative to the spectrum of BR by ~30 nm. (c) The second photoproduct K, which appears with a time constant of τ2 = 5 ps shows a red-shift of 20 nm, relative to the peak of BR. Its absorption remains constant for the observation time of 300 ps. (d) Upon suspending bacteriorhodopsin in D2O and deuterating the retinal Schiff base at its nitrogen (lysine 216), the same photoproducts J and K are observed. The relaxation time ...
The vibrational dynamics of the retinal chromophore all-trans-to-13-cis photoisomerization in bacteriorhodopsin has been studied with mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy at high time resolution (about 200 femtoseconds). After photoexcitation of light-adapted bacteriorhodopsin, the transient infrared absorption was probed in a broad spectral region, including vibrations with dominant C-C, C=C, and C=NH stretching mode amplitude. All photoproduct modes, especially those around 1190 reciprocal-centimeters that are indicative for a 13-cis configuration of the chromophore, rise with a time constant of ∼0.5 picosecond. The results presented give direct vibrational-spectroscopic evidence for the isomerization taking place within 0.5 picosecond, as has been suggested by previous optical femtosecond time-resolved experiments but questioned recently by picosecond time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy experiments. ...
Chemical exchange of hydrogen atoms is the basis for many biological processes, including energy conversion from light into chemical potentials. In a recent collaborative study of the SFB 1078 under the direction of Hartmut Oschkinat (B1), Peter Hegemann (B1, B2) and Roland R. Netz (C1), proton exchange was detected and characterized in the light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin, a well-established model system for protonation dynamics studies. The work, published in the new open access journal Communications Biology of the Nature Publishing Group, revealed that reversible proton translocation occurs even in the dark-state of the protein, involving the retinal Schiff base and D85 exchanging protons with H2O. The authors find evidence of an active site proton cage and possible proton transfer via R82. The experimental observations have been corroborated by theoretical approaches, further extending the general understanding of proton exchange in proteins.. Friedrich, D., Brünig, F. N., ...
Biological molecules and assemblies, such as the photochemical reaction center, are capable of capturing light with good quantum efficiency and transforming it into chemical energy. If properly exploited, such assemblies have potential applications as biomolecule information processing units.. Bacteriorhodopsin, from the purple membrane bacterium Halobacterium halobium, is one such system that has been studied extensively and has been commercialized into optical holographic memories (Birge 1995). In the bacterium, the protein bacteriorhodopsin self-assembles into ordered lipid patches. The protein absorbs light and undergoes a cycle involving a complex series of intermediates, resulting in a proton being pumped across the membrane. It was information developed from understanding the basic science behind the way that bacteriorhodopsin works that led to the use of bacteriorhodopsin as a biomolecule information processing unit. To be used for information storage, the protein is placed under ...
The transmembrane electrochemical proton gradient is a key source of cellular energy. Bacteriorhodopsin (bR), the simplest and most studied proton pump, moves protons from low to high concentration by harnessing light energy, creating the transmembrane el
1DZE: Crystal Structure of the M Intermediate of Bacteriorhodopsin: Allosteric Structural Changes Mediated by Sliding Movement of a Transmembrane Helix
Heyes CD, EL-Sayed MA. Proton transfer reactions in native and deionized bacteriorhodopsin upon delipidation and monomerization. Biophysical journal [Internet]. 2003 ;85(1):426-434. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3495(03)74487-7 ...
SWISS-MODEL Template Library (SMTL) entry for 5h2l.1. A three dimensional movie of structural changes in bacteriorhodopsin: structure obtained 5.25 us after photoexcitation
3-Fluoro-DL-tyrosine can be used to study how halogenated tyrosines affect proteins such as bacteriorhodopsin, microvillar enzymes, and β-galactosidases.
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Classical planning is the problem of finding a sequence of actions, from a given initial state to some goal state. While, in generalized planning, a plan is a solution to a set of planning problems, which belong to the ...
Bacteriorhodopsins are a large family of seven-helical transmembrane proteins that function as light-driven proton pumps. Here, we present the crystal structure of a new member of the family, Haloarcula marismortui bacteriorhodopsin I (HmBRI) D94N mutant, at the resolution of 2.5 Å. While the HmBRI retinal-binding pocket and proton donor site are similar to those of other archaeal proton pumps, its proton release region is extended and contains additional water molecules. The proteins fold is reinforced by three novel inter-helical hydrogen bonds, two of which result from double substitutions relative to Halobacterium salinarum bacteriorhodopsin and other similar proteins. Despite the expression in Escherichia coli and consequent absence of native lipids, the protein assembles as a trimer in crystals. The unique extended loop between the helices D and E of HmBRI makes contacts with the adjacent protomer and appears to stabilize the interface. Many lipidic hydrophobic tail groups are discernible in the
A substantial number of spontaneous bacterio-opsin mutants of Halobacterium halobium are the result of insertion elements up to 1400 bp upstream of the bacterio-opsin (bop) gene. The nucleotide sequence of 1800 bp upstream of the bop gene has been determined. There is a 1118 bp open reading frame (ORF) located within this region which is transcribed and which coincides with the distribution of insertion elements upstream of the bop gene in Bop mutants. Therefore, we propose that there is a gene (brp gene) 526 bp upstream of the bop gene. This putative gene is transcribed in the opposite direction as the bop gene and could encode a protein of 37,500 D (359 amino acids) with a codon usage similar to bacterio-opsin. The 5 terminus of the brp transcript has been determined. The brp transcript and the bop mRNA are complementary for 13 residues near their 5 termini and both transcripts start at or near the initiating codon of the gene. Both transcripts could form similar hairpin loop structures at ...
Biological light-driven proton pumps use light to move protons across a cell membrane, creating a proton gradient. Although photochromic compounds such as spiropyrans can reversibly convert between two structures with differing pKa values, spiropyrans have not been used to generate either a light-driven proton pump or an electrical current. Here, we report an artificial light-harvesting system based on a supported liquid membrane doped with a spiropyran. Irradiating the membrane with ultraviolet light induces a ring-opening reaction, converting spiropyran to merocyanine, whereas irradiation with visible light induces the reverse reaction. When the membrane is irradiated with ultraviolet and visible light on opposite sides, H+ is taken up by merocyanine, carried through the polymeric membrane and released on the other side. We show that this system produces a light-induced proton flux, an electrical current with an efficiency of ~0.12%, an open-circuit voltage of ~210 mV and a membrane gradient of ~3.6
Heyes CD, Wang J, Sanii LS, EL-Sayed MA. Fourier transform infrared study of the effect of different cations on bacteriorhodopsin protein thermal stability. Biophysical journal [Internet]. 2002 ;82(3):1598-1606. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3495(02)75511-2 ...
0070]Bacteriorhodopsin (purple membrane) has been incorporated in liposomes using sonication. The lipid mixture used was 4:1 DOPE: EggPC. DOPE has been shown to increase the incorporation of bacteriorhodopsin (bR). 10 mM pH buffer was used so that we could see the change in pH due to bacteriorhodopsin. After gelation, a few drops of buffer were added to the sample if the pH was not stable, for example due to improper contact with the pH electrode. The pH levels of gels containing the bR-incorporated lipsomes before and after light exposure were measured and compared with the pH levels of blank-liposomes in gel before and after light exposure. Light with a yellow light filter was shined for 30 sec and a break for 60 sec was given. This was due to the fact that the blank-liposome gel in buffer was showing a slight decrease in pH, which was suspected to be due to a heat effect. The pH levels of the blank returned to baseline after exposure to light, whereas the pH levels of the bR-incorporated ...
The story behind optogenetics is a story of convergence of two seemingly unrelated fields: microbial microbiology and neuroscience. In 1971, Walther Stoeckenius and Dieter Oesterhelt discovered the transmembrane protein bacteriorhodopsin (BR) that is capable of moving ions in the presence of light. BR is highly expressed in haloarcheal membranes while a similar transmembrane protein proteorhodopsin (PR) is expressed in eubacteria. In 1977, Matsuno-Yagi and Mukohata described the ion pump channel halorhodopsin which displaces extracellular chloride ions in to the cell. As these discoveries were happening in the background, a growing desire to effectively control the neurons was ever -prevalent. During this period, neuroscientist adopted the idea that cognitive processes were distributed in various localizations of the cortex. This fact evident when lesions in specific areas would lead to loss of a specific process. Even fMRIs and PET solidified this point, but, even with these high-tech ...
The story behind optogenetics is a story of convergence of two seemingly unrelated fields: microbial microbiology and neuroscience. In 1971, Walther Stoeckenius and Dieter Oesterhelt discovered the transmembrane protein bacteriorhodopsin (BR) that is capable of moving ions in the presence of light. BR is highly expressed in haloarcheal membranes while a similar transmembrane protein proteorhodopsin (PR) is expressed in eubacteria. In 1977, Matsuno-Yagi and Mukohata described the ion pump channel halorhodopsin which displaces extracellular chloride ions in to the cell. As these discoveries were happening in the background, a growing desire to effectively control the neurons was ever -prevalent. During this period, neuroscientist adopted the idea that cognitive processes were distributed in various localizations of the cortex. This fact evident when lesions in specific areas would lead to loss of a specific process. Even fMRIs and PET solidified this point, but, even with these high-tech ...
1BCT: Three-dimensional structure of proteolytic fragment 163-231 of bacterioopsin determined from nuclear magnetic resonance data in solution.
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Parent Directory - phylogenetictree.jpg 20-Jul-2014 00:42 24K phylogenetictree-t.jpg 20-Jul-2014 00:42 7.0K Bacteriorhodopsin/ 20-Jul-2014 00:42 - Archaeacells.htm 20-Jul-2014 00:42 965 ...
Die Erfindung betrifft einen Testträger zur analytischen Bestim mung eines Bestandteils einer Körperflüssigkeit mit einer Basis schicht und mindestens zwei flachen im Ausgangszustand des Test trägers vor Durchführung einer Bestimmung voneinander getrennten, jedoch durch externe Manipulation in Kontakt zueinander bringbaren Testschichten. The invention relates to a test carrier for the analytical Bestim mung a component of a body fluid with a base layer and at least two flat in the initial state of the test carrier prior to making a determination on separate, but mutually by external manipulation can be brought into contact test layers. Während früher im klinischen Labor die Konzentration beispiels weise der Bestandteile des Blutes praktisch ausschließlich mit Hilfe flüssiger Reagenzien bestimmt wurde, haben in jüngerer Zeit sogenannte trägergebundene Tests zunehmend an Bedeutung gewonnen. While earlier in the clinical laboratory, the concentration example, the components of the blood ...
Berlin-via-Portugal singer/producer and core member of the WEDIDIT crew, PURPLE dropped the 2nd single off his debut LP Silence & Remorse forthcoming on
Pill with imprint A P 30 4 is Purple, Round and has been identified as Sudal-12 chewable 4 mg / 30 mg. It is supplied by Atley Pharmaceuticals.
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A group of microbial retinal proteins most closely related to the proton pump xanthorhodopsin has a novel sequence motif and a novel function. Instead of, or in addition to, proton transport, they perform light-driven sodium ion transport, as reported for one representative of this group (KR2) from Krokinobacter. In this paper, we examine a similar protein, GLR from Gillisia limnaea, expressed in Escherichia coli, which shares some properties with KR2 but transports only Na +. The absorption spectrum of GLR is insensitive to Na + at concentrations of ≤3 M. However, very low concentrations of Na + cause profound differences in the decay and rise time of photocycle intermediates, consistent with a switch from a Na +-independent to a Na +-dependent photocycle (or photocycle branch) at ~60 μM Na +. The rates of photocycle steps in the latter, but not the former, are linearly dependent on Na + concentration. This suggests that a high-affinity Na + binding site is created transiently after ...
In a general description of the various ion transport modes found for halobacterial retinal proteins (Haupts et al., 1997), the transport mechanism is represented by a sequence of six principal reaction steps: retinal isomerization to 13‐cis or all‐trans (either photochemical, designated as I*, or thermal, I), ion translocation to or from the Schiff base (T) and switch of the Schiff base accessibility towards the EC or CP side (S). Within this framework, the anion transport mechanism of wild type HR, taking into consideration the results on specific mutants, can be described as follows (Figure 7): in the initial state, the substrate anion occupies a binding site constituted by R108 and T111, also interacting with the protonated Schiff base (Walter and Braiman, 1994), and the Schiff base is accessible for ions from the EC side. (1) Light‐induced isomerization (I*) is followed by (2) translocation of this anion towards the Schiff base (T), where it is located in the HR520 intermediate state ...
Author: Laso-Pérez, R. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2016-11-17; Open Access; Keywords: Archaeal physiology; Metabolomics; Environmental microbiology|br/|; Title: Thermophilic archaea activate butane via alkyl-coenzyme M formation.
Pure extracellular serine protease was isolated from the culture filtrate of Halobacterium halobium by bacitracin-Sepharose affinity chromatography. The enzyme activity was completely and irreversibly lost if the NaCl concentration fell below 2 M. The protease consists of one polypeptide chain with a molecular weight of 41,000. It is characteristically enriched in Asx and Glx content, whereas the level of basic amino acids in the enzyme molecule is unusually low. The protease shows a preference for leucine in the carboxylic side of the scissile bond of the substrate, cleaving the B-chain of oxidized bovine insulin only at the Leu15-Tyr16 bond and liberating p-nitroaniline from L-pyroglutamyl-L-alanyl-L-alanyl-L-leucine-p-nitroanilide. ...
The flagship monthly journal of SPIE, |i|Optical Engineering|/i| (OE) publishes peer-reviewed papers reporting on research and development in all areas of optics, photonics, and imaging science and engineering.
Adrenodoxin, Escherichia Coli, Kinetics, Molecular Cloning, Point Mutation, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Protein Binding, Recombinant Proteins, Structure-Activity ...
The protonation state of embedded charged residues in transmembrane proteins (TMPs) can control the onset of protein function. It is understood that interactions between an embedded charged residue and other charged or polar residues in the moiety would influence its pKa, but how the surrounding environment in which the TMP resides affects the pKa of these residues is unclear.
Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) and Quinsigamond Community College (QCC) have been awarded a $4 million grant by the Commonwealth of Massachuset
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The way bacteriorhodopsin generates a proton gradient in Archaea is through a proton pump. The proton pump relies on proton ... In bacteriorhodopsin, the proton pump is activated by absorption of photons of 568 nm wavelength which leads to isomerization ... Finally, bacteriorhodopsin returns to its resting state when Asp85 releases its proton to Glu204.[16][17] ... Diagram of the conformational shift in retinal that initiates proton pumping in bacteriorhodopsin. ...
Lanyi JK (2004). "Bacteriorhodopsin". Annual Review of Physiology. 66: 665-88. doi:10.1146/annurev.physiol.66.032102.150049. ... In the Halobacteria, light-activated ion pumps like bacteriorhodopsin and halorhodopsin generate ion gradients by pumping ions ... "Molecular mechanism of vectorial proton translocation by bacteriorhodopsin". Nature. 406 (6796): 653-57. Bibcode:2000Natur.406 ...
Bacteriorhodopsin is a light-driven proton pump and is used by Archaea, most notably in Halobacteria. Light is absorbed by a ... The energy required for the proton pumping reaction may come from light (light energy; bacteriorhodopsins), electron transfer ( ...
"Unfolding pathways of individual bacteriorhodopsins". Science. 288 (5463): 143-6. Bibcode:2000Sci...288..143O. doi:10.1126/ ...
Alignment of bacteriorhodopsins with the yeast sequence YRO2". Pharm. Res. 14 (11): 1533-41. doi:10.1023/a:1012166015402. PMID ...
After the middle of the 1970s, his lab studied the biochemistry of bacteriorhodopsin, a membrane protein that converts light ... Wildenauer, D.; Khorana, H. G. (1977). "The preparation of lipid-depleted bacteriorhodopsin". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta ( ...
Prokhorenko, V. I. (2006-09-01). "Coherent Control of Retinal Isomerization in Bacteriorhodopsin". Science. 313 (5791): 1257- ...
... known today as bacteriorhodopsin. The first bacteriorhodopsin turned out to be of archaeal origin, from Halobacterium salinarum ... Bacteriorhodopsin also lacks the omega loop structure that has been observed at the N-terminus of the structures of several ... Bacteriorhodopsin pumps one Cl− ion, from the extracellular medium into the cytosol, per photon absorbed. Although the ions ... They differ from bacteriorhodopsin in that the claret membrane, in which they are expressed, includes bacterioruberin, a second ...
... by a mechanism similar to that of bacteriorhodopsin. As in bacteriorhodopsin, the retinal chromophore of proteorhodopsin is ... Bacteriorhodopsin was discovered in 1971 and named in 1973 and is currently only known to exist in the archea domain, not ... Bacteriorhodopsin and Halorhodopsin both only exist in the Archea domain whereas proteorhodopsin spans bacteria, archea, and ... In comparison with its better-known archaeal homolog bacteriorhodopsin, most of the active site residues of known importance to ...
"Coherent Control of Retinal Isomerization in Bacteriorhodopsin". Science. 313 (5791): 1257-1261. Bibcode:2006Sci...313.1257P. ...
Pyroglutamate is found in many proteins including bacteriorhodopsin. N-terminal glutamic acid and glutamine residues can ...
2. Spin labeling of bacteriorhodopsin mutants at unique cysteines". Biochemistry. 28 (19): 7806-7812. doi:10.1021/bi00445a042. ... Spin Labeling of Bacteriorhodopsin Mutants". Science. 248 (4959): 1088-192. Bibcode:1990Sci...248.1088A. doi:10.1126/science. ...
Large blooms appear reddish, from the pigment bacteriorhodopsin. This pigment is used to absorb light, which provides energy to ...
They are also infused with bacteriorhodopsin, allowing photosynthesis. It is now possible for a human being to lie on the ...
All-trans-retinal is also an essential component of microbial, opsins such as bacteriorhodopsin, channelrhodopsin, and ... Waschuk, Stephen A.; Bezerra, Arandi G.; Shi, Lichi; Brown, Leonid S. (2005). "Leptosphaeria rhodopsin: Bacteriorhodopsin-like ... "All-trans to 13-cis retinal isomerization in light-adapted bacteriorhodopsin at acidic pH". Journal of Photochemistry and ...
Another case for this mechanism is Bacteriorhodopsin proton pump. Here the light induced change in the molecular volume is ... "Photoinduced volume changes associated with the early transformations of bacteriorhodopsin: A laser-induced optoacoustic ...
Váró, G.; Eisenstein, L. (1987). "Infrared studies of water induced conformational changes in bacteriorhodopsin". European ... bacteriorhodopsin and rhodopsin. This effort would engage and foster collaborations with scientists including Tom Ebrey, Koiji ...
Among the many kinds of microbial opsins are the proton pumps bacteriorhodopsin (BR) and xanthorhodopsin (xR), the chloride ... Waschuk SA, Bezerra AG, Shi L, Brown LS (May 2005). "Leptosphaeria rhodopsin: bacteriorhodopsin-like proton pump from a ... and bacteriorhodopsin, are used by various bacterial groups to harvest energy from light to carry out metabolic processes using ...
See also bacteriorhodopsin, used in some halobacteria as a light-driven proton pump. Humphries P, Kenna P, Farrar GJ (May 1992 ... Some prokaryotes express proton pumps called bacteriorhodopsins, archaerhodopsins, proteorhodopsins, heliorhodopsins and ... "Characterization of the primary photochemical events in bacteriorhodopsin and rhodopsin". In Lee AG (ed.). Rhodopsin and G- ...
Bacteriorhodopsin functions as a proton pump, whereas halorhodopsin act as a chloride pump. Their functions range from ... Examples are bacterial sensory rhodopsins, channelrhodopsin, bacteriorhodopsin, halorhodopsin, and proteorhodopsin. They act as ... bacterial photosynthesis (bacteriorhodopsin) to driving phototaxis (channelrhodopsins in flagellates). Signal transduction in ...
Stuart JA, Brige RR (1996). "Characterization of the primary photochemical events in bacteriorhodopsin and rhodopsin". In Lee ...
Field of study - photoelectric, electroacoustic and spectroscopic studies of bacteriorhodopsin. From 1999 to 2000, he was a ...
Their photosynthetic pigment, bacteriorhodopsin, is actually opaque to the longer-wavelength ultraviolet (its red color). In ... Bacteriorhodopsins isolated from Halobacterium salinarum have been especially studied for their applications in electronics and ... Particularly, bacteriorhodopsins have been used in holographic storage, optical switching, motion detection, and nanotechnology ... Halobacterium can be identified in bodies of water by the light-detecting pigment bacteriorhodopsin, which not only provides ...
"A transposable element from Halobacterium halobium which inactivates the bacteriorhodopsin gene". Proceedings of the National ...
Bacteriorhodopsin - A proton pump used by Haloarchaea to harvest light energy. Microbial rhodopsin Red edge DasSarma, ... Many Haloarchaea contain the retinal protein, bacteriorhodopsin, in their purple membrane which carries out light-driven proton ...
Lanyi JK (2004). "Bacteriorhodopsin". Annu. Rev. Physiol. 66: 665-88. PMID 14977418. doi:10.1146/annurev.physiol.66.032102. ... "Molecular mechanism of vectorial proton translocation by bacteriorhodopsin". Nature 406 (6796): 653-7. PMID 10949309. doi: ...
After bacteriorhodopsin, halorhodopsin may be the best type I (microbial) opsin studied. Peak absorbance of the halorhodopsin ... Its properties are similar to those of bacteriorhodopsin, and these two light-driven ion pumps transport cations and anions in ...
The first electron crystallographic protein structure to achieve atomic resolution was bacteriorhodopsin, determined by Richard ... "Model for the structure of bacteriorhodopsin based on high-resolution electron cryo-microscopy". J Mol Biol. 213 (4): 899-929. ...
It is similar to and probably originated from bacteriorhodopsin (see below: under #Archaea). Bacterial chlorophyll b has been ... Halobacteria use the pigment bacteriorhodopsin which acts directly as a proton pump when exposed to light. CHLOROPHYLLS, JECFA ...
Bacteriorhodopsin is a protein used by Archaea, most notably by haloarchaea, a class of the Euryarchaeota. It acts as a proton ... Bacteriorhodopsin is a light-driven proton pump. It is the retinal molecule that changes its isomerization state from all-trans ... Both rhodopsin and bacteriorhodopsin belong to the 7TM receptor family of proteins, but rhodopsin is a G protein-coupled ... Bacteriorhodopsin has a broad excitation spectrum. For a detection wavelength between 700 and 800 nm, it has an appreciable ...
... bacteriorhodopsin, in which light energy is absorbed by retinal, a form of vitamin A, to activate a proton (hydrogen ion). ... Other articles where Bacteriorhodopsin is discussed: bacteria: 16S rRNA analysis: …it uses a single protein, ... it uses a single protein, bacteriorhodopsin, in which light energy is absorbed by retinal, a form of vitamin A, to activate a ...
A pigmented protein embedded in the cell membrane of the bacteria Halobacterium halobium and other photosynthetic species of bacteria. The protein trans...
Unfolding Pathways of Individual Bacteriorhodopsins. By F. Oesterhelt, D. Oesterhelt, M. Pfeiffer, A. Engel, H. E. Gaub, D. J. ... Unfolding Pathways of Individual Bacteriorhodopsins. By F. Oesterhelt, D. Oesterhelt, M. Pfeiffer, A. Engel, H. E. Gaub, D. J. ... We chose bacteriorhodopsin (BR), a light-driven proton pump, because it represents one of the most extensively studied membrane ... Individual bacteriorhodopsin molecules were first localized and then extracted from the membrane; the remaining vacancies were ...
BACTERIORHODOPSIN1-[2,6,10.14-Tetramethyl-Hexadecan-16-Yl]-2-[2,10,14-Trimethylhexadecan-16-Yl]glycerol2,10,23-Trimethyl-TetracosaneRetinal
Make research projects and school reports about Bacteriorhodopsin easy with credible articles from our FREE, online ... bacteriorhodopsin A protein pigment found in certain species of bacteria of the genus Halobacterium. Bacteriorhodopsin is ... Bacteriorhodopsin is composed of seven α-helix segments, which span the membrane and are joined together by short amino-acid ... bacteriorhodopsin A Dictionary of Biology © A Dictionary of Biology 2004, originally published by Oxford University Press 2004. ...
... and their international colleagues have studied the crystallization of molecules of the membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin. The ... Bacteriorhodopsin crystals consume their smaller counterparts The scientists have demonstrated that the larger crystals of the ... In their paper, the authors studied the growth of crystals of bacteriorhodopsin (which was used as a model protein of any ... Bacteriorhodopsin crystals consume their smaller counterparts. Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology ...
Bacteriorhodopsin. A, B. 249. Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1. Mutation(s): 1 Gene Names: bop, VNG_1467G. ... Here we show that we can engineer a transition between distinct distorted helix conformations in bacteriorhodopsin with a ...
Bacteriorhodopsin, is a prototypical alpha-helical transmembrane protein that acts as a proton pump after photoinitiated ...
The study of bacteriorhodopsin (BR) and the elucidation of its function as a light driven proton pump, is only one of many ...
We investigate the effect of this nonlinearity on the result of the correlation process in a bacteriorhodopsin-based DAJFT ... Films made of the halobacterial photochrome bacteriorhodopsin (BR) can be used in a number of holographic real-time ... Ralph Thoma, Michael Dratz, Norbert A. Hampp, "All-optical nonlinear holographic correlation using bacteriorhodopsin films," ... Ralph Thoma, Michael Dratz, Norbert A. Hampp, "All-optical nonlinear holographic correlation using bacteriorhodopsin films," ...
Bacteriorhodopsins function as an energy transducers, converting light energy into electrochemical energy via PROTON PUMPS. ... Bacteriorhodopsins. Known as: Bacteriorhodopsin, Bacteriorhodopsins [Chemical/Ingredient] Rhodopsins found in the PURPLE ... Unfolding pathways of individual bacteriorhodopsins.. *F. Oesterhelt, D. Oesterhelt, M. Pfeiffer, A. Engel, H. Gaub, D. Müller ... Electron-crystallographic refinement of the structure of bacteriorhodopsin.. *N. Grigorieff, T. Ceska, K. Downing, J. Baldwin, ...
Crystallographic Structures of the M and N Intermediates of Bacteriorhodopsin: Assembly of a Hydrogen-Bonded Chain of Water ... Description: Bacteriorhodopsin protein , Length: 249 No structure alignment results are available for 1P8U.A explicitly.. It is ...
Zinth, Wolfgang; Dobler, J.; Franz, F. A.; Kaiser, Wolfgang (1988): The primary steps of photosynthesis in bacteriorhodopsin. ...
Perturbation Effects On The Tryptophan Fluorescence In Bacteriorhodopsin Author(s): Du-Jeon Jang; M. A. El-Sayed ... The picosecond fluorescence kinetics of tryptophan residues in bacteriorhodopsin (bR) and some perturbed analogues are measured ...
bacteriorhodopsin;. PCA,. principal component analysis;. PCR,. photocycling ratio;. SM,. self-modeling;. SP,. stoichiometric ... On light excitation, bacteriorhodopsin (BR), the light-driven proton pump in the cell membrane of Halobacterium salinarium, ... Stoichiometric constraints, valid until the onset of the recovery of bleached bacteriorhodopsin at the end of the photocycle, ... Intermediate spectra and photocycle kinetics of the Asp96 -, Asn mutant bacteriorhodopsin determined by singular value ...
Time-Resolved Ultraviolet Resonance Raman of Protein Structural Changes in The KI-Intermediate Of Bacteriorhodopsin. Shoji ... spectra of transient intermediates in the bacteriorhodopsin (BR) photocycle, we developed a new UVRR spectrometer. A home-made ...
Femtosecond Infrared Spectroscopy of Bacteriorhodopsin Chromophore Isomerization Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a ... Femtosecond Infrared Spectroscopy of Bacteriorhodopsin Chromophore Isomerization. By Johannes Herbst, Karsten Heyne, Rolf ... Femtosecond Infrared Spectroscopy of Bacteriorhodopsin Chromophore Isomerization. By Johannes Herbst, Karsten Heyne, Rolf ... The vibrational dynamics of the retinal chromophore all-trans-to-13-cis photoisomerization in bacteriorhodopsin has been ...
... microwave radiation was found to affect the bacteriorhodopsin (BR) structure in films at a 30% relative humidity.... ... Keywords: bacteriorhodopsin dark-light adaptation optical spectroscopy FTIR difference spectroscopy microwave radiation ... Microwave-Induced Structural Changes in Bacteriorhodopsin: Studies by Optical and Fourier Transform Infrared Difference ... microwave radiation was found to affect the bacteriorhodopsin (BR) structure in films at a 30% relative humidity. This study is ...
d) Upon suspending bacteriorhodopsin in D2O and deuterating the retinal Schiff base at its nitrogen (lysine 216), the same ... a) After optical excitation the first excited singlet state S1 of bacteriorhodopsin is observed via its fluorescence and ... The primary processes of the photochemical cycle of light-adapted bacteriorhodopsin (BR) were studied by various experimental ... Early picosecond events in the photo cycle of Bacteriorhodopsin. In: Biophysical Journal, No. 46: pp. 651-662 ...
1992 Diffraction efficiency of bacteriorhodopsin films for holography containing bacteriorhodopsin wildtype BRWT and its ... 1975 Bacteriorhodopsin: a trans-membrane pump containing α-helix. J. Mol. Biol. 93, 139-142. doi:10.1016/0022-2836(75)90124-2 ( ... 2001 Bacteriorhodopsin. Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 11, 415-419. doi:10.1016/S0959-440X(00)00226-8 (doi:10.1016/S0959-440X(00) ... 1975 Bacteriorhodopsin: a light-driven proton pump in Halobacterium halobium. Biophys. J. 15, 955-962. doi:10.1016/S0006-3495( ...
Compare and contrast the 7TM helix proteins rhodopsin and bacteriorhodopsin at the molecular and cellular levels. Rhodopsin and ... 7TM Helix Protein Rhodopsin and Bacteriorhodopsin Comparison. Print Reference this Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by ... Bacteriorhodopsin is a prokaryotic protein present in archaea. It is a light-dependent proton pump which is used to carry out ... Bacteriorhodopsin is formed of the protein bacterio-opsin which is bound to all-trans-retinal in a covalent and reversible ...
In bacteriorhodopsin (bR), the effects of the protein environment are crucial to assure high rate and outstanding bond ... In bacteriorhodopsin (bR), the effects of the protein environment are crucial to assure high rate and outstanding bond ... Title Solvent effects on the ultrafast dynamics of the retinal chromophore of bacteriorhodopsin ... Solvent effects on the ultrafast dynamics of the retinal chromophore of bacteriorhodopsin ...
"Diffraction efficiency of bacteriorhodopsin films for holography containing bacteriorhodopsin wildtype BRWT and its variants ... "Diffraction efficiency of bacteriorhodopsin films for holography containing bacteriorhodopsin wildtype BRWT and its variants ... "Diffraction efficiency of bacteriorhodopsin films for holography containing bacteriorhodopsin wildtype BRWT and its variants ... "Diffraction efficiency of bacteriorhodopsin films for holography containing bacteriorhodopsin wildtype BRWT and its variants ...
Bacteriorhodopsin (bR) is a light-driven proton pump that is activated by a buried all-,i,trans,/i, retinal chromophore being ... Bacteriorhodopsin: Structural Insights Revealed Using X-Ray Lasers and Synchrotron Radiation Cecilia Wickstrand 1 , Przemyslaw ... Bacteriorhodopsin: Structural Insights Revealed Using X-Ray Lasers and Synchrotron Radiation Cecilia Wickstrand et al. Annu Rev ... Bacteriorhodopsin (bR) is a light-driven proton pump that is activated by a buried all-trans retinal chromophore being ...
Off-the-shelf functional and pure Bacteriorhodopsin protein produced as described above is now available for sale in our ... to stabilize already solubilized and purified Bacteriorhodopsin (bR). The protein was obtained from commercial source and then ...
Hidden dynamics in the unfolding of bacteriorhodopsin revealed by ultrafast cantilevers. Event Details. Event Dates: Tuesday, ... to reexamine the unfolding of the model membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin. Numerous new intermediates were detected, with many ...
Bacteriorhodopsin (bR), the simplest and most studied proton pump, moves protons from low to high concentration by harnessing ... Bacteriorhodopsin (bR), the simplest and most studied proton pump, moves protons from low to high concentration by harnessing ... Proton transfers in the bacteriorhodopsin photocycle. Biochimica et biophysica acta 1757(8): 1012-1018.. Song YF, Mao JJ, ... Molecular Mechanism of Long-range Proton Translocation by Bacteriorhodopsin. The transmembrane electrochemical proton gradient ...
Phenomenological characterization of bacteriorhodopsin-D85N photocycle Doğan A. Timuçin and John D. Downie. J. Opt. Soc. Am. B ... Elements of a unique bacteriorhodopsin neural network architecture Dan Haronian and Aaron Lewis. Appl. Opt. 30(5) 597-608 (1991 ... Monolithically integrated bacteriorhodopsin-GaAs field-effect transistor photoreceiver Pallab Bhattacharya, Jian Xu, Gyorgy ... With the help of a streak camera, the luminescence time of bacteriorhodopsin has been measured to be ≤ 2 psec. ...
Bacteriorhodopsin (BR) is a retinal protein that is a light-driven proton pump and has an important role in photosynthesis in ... Evaluation of Immobilized Bacteriorhodopsins Function by Laser Irridiation. Article 6, Volume 1, Issue 2, Autumn 2015, Page ... Bacteriorhodopsin (BR) is a retinal protein that is a light-driven proton pump and has an important role in photosynthesis in ... 17] L.M. Shamansky, K.M. Luong, D. Han, E.L. Chroniser, Photohnduced Kinetics of Bacteriorhodopsin in a Dried Xerogel Glass. ...
  • Bacteriorhodopsin is a 27 kDa integral membrane protein usually found in two-dimensional crystalline patches known as "purple membrane", which can occupy almost 50% of the surface area of the archaeal cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • A group of biophysicists from Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT) and their international colleagues have studied the crystallization of molecules of the membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin. (eurekalert.org)
  • We used atomic force microscopy with modified ultrashort cantilevers, optimized for 1-microsecond resolution, to reexamine the unfolding of the model membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin. (colorado.edu)
  • Bacteriorhodopsin is a membrane protein that harvests the energy content from light to transport protons out of the cell against a transmembrane potential. (psi.ch)
  • The determination of the intermediate state structures of the bacteriorhodopsin photocycle has lead to an unprecedented level of understanding of the catalytic process exerted by a membrane protein. (ac.be)
  • To that end, the scientists at Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois, U.S., have turned to biology, assembling a nanostructure made of titanium dioxide and a membrane protein called bacteriorhodopsin. (eurekalert.org)
  • As a membrane protein, bacteriorhodopsin belongs in a cell membrane and so is quite at home in a nanodisc, which is an amazing structure designed to preserve natural protein structure. (eurekalert.org)
  • H. salinarum express the membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin which acts as a light-driven proton pump. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteriorhodopsin, is a prototypical alpha-helical transmembrane protein that acts as a proton pump after photoinitiated isomerization of its retinal chromophore. (osu.edu)
  • The vibrational dynamics of the retinal chromophore all-trans-to-13-cis photoisomerization in bacteriorhodopsin has been studied with mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy at high time resolution (about 200 femtoseconds). (sciencemag.org)
  • Both rhodopsin and bacteriorhodopsin contain a retinal chromophore, although the two chromophores are not identical and rather, are isomers of each other. (ukessays.com)
  • Bacteriorhodopsin (bR) is a light-driven proton pump that is activated by a buried all- trans retinal chromophore being photoisomerized to a 13- cis conformation. (nih.gov)
  • Cleavage of the signal peptide, the first 13 amino acids at the N-terminus, and the conversion of residue Gln14 to pyroglutamate Removal of residue Asp262 at the C-terminus Bacteriorhodopsin molecule is purple and is most efficient at absorbing green light (in the wavelength range 500-650 nm). (wikipedia.org)
  • The conductance increases exponentially with temperature increase with an activation energy of 47 meV, comparable to the charging energy of a bacteriorhodopsin molecule. (elsevier.com)
  • We apply our method to the recovery of the structure of the bacteriorhodopsin molecule (bR) to a resolution of 7 Å using experimental data obtained from two-dimensional purple membrane crystals. (nih.gov)
  • This argues for the interactions of Asp115 with Leu87 (via water molecule) and Thr90 as key elements for the effective and vectorial proton path between Asp96 and the SB, in the cytoplasmic half of bacteriorhodopsin. (uab.cat)
  • The role of Asp85 in maintaining bacteriorhodopsin structure has been analyzed by infrared spectroscopy, electric light scattering and differential scanning calorimetry. (elsevier.com)
  • Therefore, we applied visible and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) microspectroscopy with microsecond time resolution to compare the photoreaction of a single bacteriorhodopsin crystal to that of bacteriorhodopsin residing in the native purple membrane. (ac.be)
  • We describe an application of SVD-SM (analogous to PCA-SM) to the determination of the spectra of the intermediates in the bacteriorhodopsin photocycle. (pnas.org)
  • To obtain high quality time-resolved ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) spectra of transient intermediates in the bacteriorhodopsin (BR) photocycle, we developed a new UVRR spectrometer. (hindawi.com)
  • Both rhodopsin and bacteriorhodopsin belong to the 7TM receptor family of proteins, but rhodopsin is a G protein-coupled receptor and bacteriorhodopsin is not. (wikipedia.org)
  • We chose bacteriorhodopsin (BR), a light-driven proton pump, because it represents one of the most extensively studied membrane proteins ( 22 , 23 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • In this review, we highlight the use of directed evolution to optimize photoactive proteins, with an emphasis on bacteriorhodopsin (BR), for device applications. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Compare and contrast the 7TM helix proteins rhodopsin and bacteriorhodopsin at the molecular and cellular levels. (ukessays.com)
  • The BioScope Resolve has also been able to obtain submolecular resolution of membrane proteins such as bacteriorhodopsin, or bR, using PeakForce Tapping - as shown in the image below. (bruker.com)
  • Crystallization of Two Membrane Proteins: Bacteriorhodopsin and Photosynthetic Reaction Centres. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • Site-Directed Hydrophobic Labeling of Membrane Proteins: NBD-Modification of Bacteriorhodopsin. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • Bacteriorhodopsin belongs to the microbial rhodopsin family. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, the functions of rhodopsin and bacteriorhodopsin are different, and there is limited similarity in their amino acid sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rhodopsin and bacteriorhodopsin both belong to the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) family. (ukessays.com)
  • Both rhodopsin and bacteriorhodopsin maximally absorb light of the wavelength around 500nm which is the green colour range. (ukessays.com)
  • Rhodopsin exists as a monomer within the membrane of rod cells whereas bacteriorhodopsin in its wild type state is in a trimer of 3 identical protein chains each rotated 120° relative to the others. (ukessays.com)
  • Bacteriorhodopsin and rhodopsin have no detectable sequence homology to one another, however due to the similarity of their tertiary structures it is believed they are evolutionarily related. (ukessays.com)
  • Part II examines primary visual processes, including kinetic experimental work on rhodopsin and bacteriorhodopsin, and theoretical concepts on primary events in vision. (elsevier.com)
  • The picosecond fluorescence kinetics of tryptophan residues in bacteriorhodopsin (bR) and some perturbed analogues are measured to study the different tryptophan environments and their changes upon metal cation removal, partial delipidation, retinal removal, and M412 trapping. (spie.org)
  • A. Matveetz, S. V. Chekalin, and A. V. Sharkov, "Molecular dynamics of primary photoprocesses in bacteriorhodopsin: subpicosecond study of absorption and luminescence kinetics," J. Opt. (osapublishing.org)
  • 17] L.M. Shamansky, K.M. Luong, D. Han, E.L. Chroniser, Photohnduced Kinetics of Bacteriorhodopsin in a Dried Xerogel Glass. (bmmj.org)
  • Time-resolved microspectroscopy on a single crystal of bacteriorhodopsin reveals lattice-induced differences in the photocycle kinetics. (ac.be)
  • it uses a single protein, bacteriorhodopsin, in which light energy is absorbed by retinal, a form of vitamin A, to activate a proton (hydrogen ion). (britannica.com)
  • However, among the most promising approaches, and the focus of this particular web page, is 3-Dimensional Optical RAM storage using the light sensitive protein bacteriorhodopsin. (final-yearproject.com)
  • Photochrome Transmembrane Protein Bacteriorhodopsin from Purple Membranes of Halobacterium Halobium. (iiste.org)
  • The hydration and dynamics of purple membranes (PM) containing the bacteriorhodopsin (BR) triple mutant D96G/F171C/F219L were investigated by neutron diffraction coupled with H(2)O/D(2)O exchange and by energy-resolved neutron scattering. (mysciencework.com)
  • Abstract -Using optical and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) difference spectroscopy, microwave radiation was found to affect the bacteriorhodopsin (BR) structure in films at a 30% relative humidity. (springer.com)
  • abstract = "The photocycle of dried bacteriorhodopsin, pretreated in a 0.3 M HCl solution, was studied. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "Fourier transform infrared and UV fourth-derivative spectroscopies were used to study the secondary structure of bacteriorhodopsin and its chymotryptic and one of the sodium borohydride fragments dissolved in chloroform-methanol (1:1, v/v), 0.1 M LiClO4. (uab.cat)
  • abstract = "The behavior of the D115A mutant was analyzed by time-resolved UV-Vis and Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies, aiming to clarify the role of Asp115 in the intra-protein signal transductions occurring during the bacteriorhodopsin photocycle. (uab.cat)
  • Combined quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) calculations and molecular dynamics simulations of bacteriorhodopsin (bR) in the membrane matrix have been carried out to determine the factors that make significant contributions to the opsin shift. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Molecular modeling of the retinal analogs and bacteriorhodopsin allowed enhanced visualization of the structures and predictions of potentially labeled amino acids . (musc.edu)
  • A functional protein of bacteriorhodopsin has been employed for an approach to develop molecular single-electron transistors. (elsevier.com)
  • Both electric dipoles - the permanent dipole moment and the electric polarizability - have drastically lower values for the membranes containing D85T variant of bacteriorhodopsin. (elsevier.com)
  • Bacteriorhodopsin is a photosensitive protein that is part of the membranes of some microbial cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • Bacteriorhodopsin (BR) is a retinal protein that is a light-driven proton pump and has an important role in photosynthesis in archaebacterium Halobacterium salinarum. (bmmj.org)
  • Purple membrane contains crystalline patches of a retinal protein called bacteriorhodopsin. (metu.edu.tr)
  • The method, singular value decomposition with self-modeling (SVD-SM), is tested on simulated difference spectra designed to mimic the photocycle of the Asp-96 → Asn mutant of bacteriorhodopsin. (pnas.org)
  • Proton channel hydration and dynamics of a bacteriorhodopsin triple mutant with an M-state-like conformation. (mysciencework.com)
  • In comparison with the wild type bacteriorhodopsin, the mutant protein D85T shows a different conformation, electric dipole moments and decreased thermal stability. (elsevier.com)
  • Bacteriorhodopsin: a light-driven proton pump in Halobacterium Halobium. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Bacteriorhodopsin is a photochemically active protein found in the purple membrane of the bacteria Halobacterium salinarium, which was known as Halobacterium halobium. (final-yearproject.com)
  • In the early 1970s, researchers identified bacteriorhodopsin as a light-activated ion pump and the first of what was to become an expanding palette of so-called microbial opsins. (genengnews.com)
  • Bacteriorhodopsin is composed of seven α-helix segments, which span the membrane and are joined together by short amino-acid chains. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Here we show that we can engineer a transition between distinct distorted helix conformations in bacteriorhodopsin with a single-point mutation. (rcsb.org)
  • Bacteriorhodopsin has a broad excitation spectrum. (wikipedia.org)
  • On light excitation, bacteriorhodopsin (BR), the light-driven proton pump in the cell membrane of Halobacterium salinarium , exhibits a series of spectrally distinct metastable intermediates labeled as J, K, L, M, N, and O before returning to the initial state (BR) (for reviews, see refs. (pnas.org)
  • a) After optical excitation the first excited singlet state S1 of bacteriorhodopsin is observed via its fluorescence and absorption properties. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Bacteriorhodopsin is a protein used by Archaea, most notably by haloarchaea, a class of the Euryarchaeota. (wikipedia.org)
  • By expressing bacteriorhodopsin, the archaea cells are able to synthesise ATP in the absence of a carbon source. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteriorhodopsin is a prokaryotic protein present in archaea. (ukessays.com)
  • As arqueas ( Archaea , do grego ἀρχαῖα 'os antigos') son un grupo de microorganismos unicelulares de morfoloxía procariótica (sen núcleo nin, en xeral, orgánulos membranosos internos), que forman un dos tres grandes dominios dos seres vivos, e que son diferentes das bacterias . (wikipedia.org)
  • As Archaea divídense en cinco filos recoñecidos, pero pénsase que poden haber máis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteriorhodopsin (bR), the simplest and most studied proton pump, moves protons from low to high concentration by harnessing light energy, creating the transmembrane electrochemical gradient (Lanyi 2006). (jbsdonline.com)
  • Sunlight causes bacteriorhodopsin to pump protons out of the cell, which enables the cell to synthesize energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate. (eurekalert.org)
  • In addition, bacteriorhodopsin performed its usual function of translocating protons, which were reduced yielding hydrogen thanks to the presence of the platinum catalyst. (eurekalert.org)
  • Films made of the halobacterial photochrome bacteriorhodopsin (BR) can be used in a number of holographic real-time applications. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Therefore, this single amino acid mutation not only changes bacteriorhodopsin function, converting the protein into a halorhodopsin-like chloride pump, but it also alters its overall conformation and surface electric state. (elsevier.com)
  • The objective of these studies was to further defme the amino acids of bacteriorhodopsin in close proximity to the ring end of retinal by labeling them using a retinal analog modified to contain a photoactivatable group . (musc.edu)
  • These initial studies indicated the utility of mass spectrometry in identification of labeled amino acids.Analysis of the three available tritiated , photoactivatable retinal analogs that formed acceptable bacteriorhodopsin analog pigments by two different techniques showed no significant labeling of bacteriorhodopsin . (musc.edu)
  • ATP synthesis by the F0F1 ATP synthase from thermophilic Bacillus PS3 reconstituted into liposomes with bacteriorhodopsin: 2. (vtt.fi)
  • Recently, we developed a concise method for quantitatively evaluating lipid-MP interactions and applied it to bacteriorhodopsin (bR), a halobacterial MP that forms trimers and acts as a light-driven proton pump. (elsevier.com)
  • Activation and translocation of bacteriorhodopsin are considered to be fast, but proton dissociation and association steps are considered to be slow. (metu.edu.tr)
  • The results of this work indicate that the specific interactions existing between the transmembrane segments induce different types of helical conformations in native bacteriorhodopsin. (uab.cat)
  • It was demonstrated that this was the maximal ΔpH attainable at 40°C in reconstituted proteoliposomes, due to the feedback inhibition of bacteriorhodopsin by the proton gradient it generates. (vtt.fi)
  • Pavale, Hanmant M. (1997) Photoactive bacteriorhodopsin variants Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 49 (1). (ias.ac.in)
  • Reconstitutions with mixtures of native and impaired bacteriorhodopsin (Asp96→Asn mutated bacteriorhodopsin) further demonstrated that this increase in the coupling efficiency could not be related to protein-protein interactions but rather to bacteriorhodopsin donating H + to the ATP synthase. (vtt.fi)
  • Inada, M , Kinoshita, M & Matsumori, N 2019, ' Archaeal Glycolipid S-TGA-1 Is Crucial for Trimer Formation and Photocycle Activity of Bacteriorhodopsin ', ACS Chemical Biology . (elsevier.com)
  • The atomic resolution capabilities of FastScan BioAFM are demonstrated in this image of Bacteriorhodopsin trimer structure. (bruker.com)
  • Bacteriorhodopsin was soon joined by halorhodopsin and channelrhodopsin. (genengnews.com)
  • bacteriorhodopsin A protein pigment found in certain species of bacteria of the genus Halobacterium . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Bacteriorhodopsin is responsible for a unique method of harnessing the energy of sunlight for use by the bacteria. (encyclopedia.com)
  • [ 13 ] Brock iniciárase en 1969 no campo da bioloxía dos hipertermófilos co descubrimento de Thermus aquaticus , que non é unha arquea senón unha bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a natural purple membrane, bacteria use bacteriorhodopsin to harvest energy from light. (anl.gov)
  • Bacteriorhodopsin is a light-driven proton pump. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study of bacteriorhodopsin (BR) and the elucidation of its function as a light driven proton pump, is only one of many examples. (spie.org)
  • The light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin occurs naturally as two-dimensional crystals. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Bacteriorhodopsin (BR) is a 7-alpha helical, transmembrane protein that acts as a light-driven proton pump. (mh-hannover.de)
  • Bacteriorhodopsin -- the proton pump -- doubled up as an antenna. (eurekalert.org)
  • Ralph Thoma , Michael Dratz, Norbert A. Hampp , "All-optical nonlinear holographic correlation using bacteriorhodopsin films," Optical Engineering 34(5), (1 May 1995). (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • The correlation between the rate of ATP synthesis and light-induced proton flux was investigated in proteoliposomes reconstituted with bacteriorhodopsin and ATP synthase from thermophilic Bacillus PS3. (vtt.fi)
  • Increasing the amount of negatively charged phospholipids in the proteoliposomes also increased the coupling efficiency between bacteriorhodopsin and ATP synthase at a constant transmembrane pH gradient. (vtt.fi)
  • Furthermore, ATP synthase activities induced by ΔpH/ΔΨ transitions were independent of bacteriorhodopsin or anionic lipid levels. (vtt.fi)
  • These observations were interpreted as indicating that, in bacteriorhodopsin/ATP synthase, proteoliposomes, a localized pathway for coupling light-driven H + transport by bacteriorhodopsin to ATP synthesis by F 0 F 1 might exist under specific experimental conditions. (vtt.fi)
  • This is why we use the nanodiscs - they mimic the biological membrane which normally supports bacteriorhodopsin and enables its function," Rozhkova said. (anl.gov)
  • This led to the successful expression of synthetic bacteriorhodopsin across the nanodiscs. (anl.gov)
  • Assisted by MIPT material scientists, the researchers obtained nanodiscs 10 nanometers in diameter, with bacteriorhodopsin nested within. (eurekalert.org)
  • The experiments characterize the development of all the stages of the initial conformation of bacteriorhodopsin (BR) from the excited state BR* through primary photoproduct J to the intermediate K . (osapublishing.org)
  • Upon illumination, bacteriorhodopsin undergoes a reversible photoreaction in which a proton is released on one side of the membrane and a proton is bound on the other side, thus resulting in an electro-chemical gradient across the membrane. (metu.edu.tr)
  • After photoexcitation of light-adapted bacteriorhodopsin, the transient infrared absorption was probed in a broad spectral region, including vibrations with dominant C-C, C=C, and C=NH stretching mode amplitude. (sciencemag.org)
  • Mass spectrometric analysis of cleavage fragments of bacteriorhodopsin identified 49% of the protein . (musc.edu)
  • Bacteriorhodopsin is synthesized as a protein precursor, known as bacterio-opsin, which is extensively modified after translation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteriorhodopsin is formed of the protein bacterio-opsin which is bound to all-trans-retinal in a covalent and reversible manner. (ukessays.com)
  • The objective of this program is to characterize the two-dimensional crystalline structure of bacteriorhodopsin (BR) as a template into which various nonbiological chromophores can be intercalated. (sbir.gov)
  • Bacteriorhodopsin is a light-driven H+ ion transporter found in some haloarchaea, most notably Halobacterium salinarum (formerly known as syn. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteriorhodopsin is similar to vertebrate rhodopsins, the pigments that sense light in the retina. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteriorhodopsin A membrane-bound protein manufactured by the halophilic (salt-resistant) archaebacterium Halobacterium salinarum that exploits light energy to make ATP without the involvement of chlorophyll-like pigments. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The primary processes of the photochemical cycle of light-adapted bacteriorhodopsin (BR) were studied by various experimental techniques with a time resolution of 5 × 10-13 s. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Solid-state 13 C MAS NMR spectra were obtained for dark-adapted bacteriorhodopsin (bR) labeled with [4′− 13 C]Tyr. (elsevier.com)
  • The techniques of FTIR difference spectroscopy and site‐directed mutagenesis have been combined to investigate the role of individual tyrosine side chains in the proton‐pumping mechanism of bacteriorhodopsin (bR). (syr.edu)