Rhodopsins found in the PURPLE MEMBRANE of halophilic archaea such as HALOBACTERIUM HALOBIUM. Bacteriorhodopsins function as an energy transducers, converting light energy into electrochemical energy via PROTON PUMPS.
Devices capable of receiving data, retaining data for an indefinite or finite period of time, and supplying data upon demand.
A genus of HALOBACTERIACEAE whose growth requires a high concentration of salt. Binary fission is by constriction.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
Functionally and structurally differentiated, purple-pigmented regions of the cytoplasmic membrane of some strains of Halobacterium halobium. The membrane develops under anaerobic conditions and is made almost entirely of the purple pigment BACTERIORHODOPSINS. (From Singleton & Sainsbury Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A species of halophilic archaea found in salt lakes. Some strains form a PURPLE MEMBRANE under anaerobic conditions.
Genes that cause the epigenotype (i.e., the interrelated developmental pathways through which the adult organism is realized) to switch to an alternate cell lineage-related pathway. Switch complexes control the expression of normal functional development as well as oncogenic transformation.
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.
Products or parts of products used to detect, manipulate, or analyze light, such as LENSES, refractors, mirrors, filters, prisms, and OPTICAL FIBERS.
Measurement of the index of refraction (the ratio of the velocity of light or other radiation in the first of two media to its velocity in the second as it passes from one into the other).
A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A carotenoid constituent of visual pigments. It is the oxidized form of retinol which functions as the active component of the visual cycle. It is bound to the protein opsin forming the complex rhodopsin. When stimulated by visible light, the retinal component of the rhodopsin complex undergoes isomerization at the 11-position of the double bond to the cis-form; this is reversed in "dark" reactions to return to the native trans-configuration.
Condensation products of aromatic amines and aldehydes forming azomethines substituted on the N atom, containing the general formula R-N:CHR. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The research and development of ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES for such medical applications as diagnosis, therapy, research, anesthesia control, cardiac control, and surgery. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Electrical devices that are composed of semiconductor material, with at least three connections to an external electronic circuit. They are used to amplify electrical signals, detect signals, or as switches.
The techniques used to produce molecules exhibiting properties that conform to the demands of the experimenter. These techniques combine methods of generating structural changes with methods of selection. They are also used to examine proposed mechanisms of evolution under in vitro selection conditions.
Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.
Graphic representations, especially of the face, of real persons, usually posed, living or dead. (From Thesaurus for Graphic Materials II, p540, 1995)
Integral membrane proteins that transport protons across a membrane. This transport can be linked to the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. What is referred to as proton pump inhibitors frequently is about POTASSIUM HYDROGEN ATPASE.

Location of a cation-binding site in the loop between helices F and G of bacteriorhodopsin as studied by 13C NMR. (1/1144)

The high-affinity cation-binding sites of bacteriorhodopsin (bR) were examined by solid-state 13C NMR of samples labeled with [3-13C]Ala and [1-13C]Val. We found that the 13C NMR spectra of two kinds of blue membranes, deionized (pH 4) and acid blue at pH 1.2, were very similar and different from that of the native purple membrane. This suggested that when the surface pH is lowered, either by removal of cations or by lowering the bulk pH, substantial change is induced in the secondary structure of the protein. Partial replacement of the bound cations with Na+, Ca2+, or Mn2+ produced additional spectral changes in the 13C NMR spectra. The following conclusions were made. First, there are high-affinity cation-binding sites in both the extracellular and the cytoplasmic regions, presumably near the surface, and one of the preferred cation-binding sites is located at the loop between the helix F and G (F-G loop) near Ala196, consistent with the 3D structure of bR from x-ray diffraction and cryoelectron microscopy. Second, the bound cations undergo rather rapid exchange (with a lifetime shorter than 3 ms) among various types of cation-binding sites. As expected from the location of one of the binding sites, cation binding induced conformational alteration of the F-G interhelical loop.  (+info)

Distortion of the L-->M transition in the photocycle of the bacteriorhodopsin mutant D96N: a time-resolved step-scan FTIR investigation. (2/1144)

The D96N mutant of bacteriorhodopsin has often been taken as a model system to study the M intermediate of the wild type photocycle due to the long life time of the corresponding intermediate of the mutant. Using time-resolved step-scan FTIR spectroscopy in combination with a sample changing wheel we investigated the photocycle of the mutant with microsecond time resolution. Already after several microseconds an intermediate similar to the MN state is observed, which contrasts with the M state of the wild type protein. At reduced hydration M and N intermediates similar to those of wild type BR can be detected. These results have a bearing on the interpretation of the photocycle of this mutant. A mechanism is suggested for the fast rise of MN which provides some insight into the molecular events involved in triggering the opening of the cytosolic channel also of the wild type protein.  (+info)

Molecular modeling of mu opioid receptor and receptor-ligand interaction. (3/1144)

AIM: To construct the 3D structural model of mu opioid receptor (mu OR) and study the interaction between mu OR and fentanyl derivatives. METHODS: The 3D structure of mu OR was modeled using the bacteriorhodopsin (bRh) as a template, in which the alignments of transmembrane (TM) of bRh and mu OR were achieved by scoring the alignment between the amino acid sequence of mu OR and the structure of bRh. The fentanyl derivatives were docked into the 7 helices of mu OR and the binding energies were calculated. RESULTS: (1) The receptor-ligand interaction models were obtained for fentanyl derivatives. (2) In these models, the fundamental binding sites were possibly Asp147 and His297. The negatively charged oxygen of Asp147 and the positively charged ammonium group of ligand formed the potent electrostatic and hydrogen-binding interactions. Whereas the interactions between the positively charged nitrogen of His297 and the carbonyl oxygen of ligand were weak. In addition, there were some pi-pi interactions between the receptor and the ligand. (3) The binding energies of the receptor-ligand complexes had a good correlation with the analgesic activities (-lg ED50) of the fentanyl derivatives. CONCLUSION: This model is helpful for understanding the receptor-ligand interaction and for designing novel mu OR selective ligands.  (+info)

Molecular modeling of interaction between delta opioid receptor and 3-methylfentanylisothiocyanate. (4/1144)

AIM: To construct a 3D structural model of delta opioid receptor (delta OR) and study its interaction with 3-methylfentanylisothiocyanate (SuperFIT). METHODS: Using the bacteriohodopsin as a template, the 3D structure of delta OR was modeled; SuperFIT was docked into its inside. RESULTS: The interaction model between delta OR and (3R, 4S)-SuperFIT was achieved, in which the important binding sites possibly were Asp128, Ser106, Phe104, Tyr308, and Pro315. Asp128 formed the electrostatic and hydrogen-binding interactions with the protonated nitrogen on piperidine of the ligand. Ser106 formed the electrostatic interaction with the N atom of isothiocyano group of the ligand; whereas Phe104, Tyr308, and Pro315 formed the hydrophobic interactions with the S atom of isothiocyano group. In addition, there were some other interactions between delta OR and the ligand. CONCLUSION: The residues Phe104, Tyr308, Pro315, and Ser106 of delta OR are crucial to the delta selectivity of the ligand, which is beneficial for designing novel delta-selective ligand.  (+info)

Interpretation of the spatial charge displacements in bacteriorhodopsin in terms of structural changes during the photocycle. (5/1144)

We have recently introduced a method, made possible by an improved orienting technique using a combination of electric and magnetic fields, that allows the three-dimensional detection of the intramolecular charge displacements during the photocycle of bacteriorhodopsin. This method generates electric asymmetry, a prerequisite for the detection of electric signal on the macroscopic sample, in all three spatial dimensions. Purple membrane fragments containing bacteriorhodopsin were oriented so that their permanent electric dipole moment vectors were perpendicular to the membrane plane and pointed in the same direction. The resulting cylindrical symmetry was broken by photoselection, i. e., by flash excitation with low intensity linearly polarized light. From the measured electric signals, the three-dimensional motion of the electric charge center in the bacteriorhodopsin molecules was calculated for the first 400 microseconds. Simultaneous absorption kinetic recording provided the time-dependent concentrations of the intermediates. Combining the two sets of data, we determined the discrete dipole moments of intermediates up to M. When compared with the results of current molecular dynamics calculations, the data provided a decisive experimental test for selecting the optimal theoretical model for the proton transport and should eventually lead to a full description of the mechanism of the bacteriorhodopsin proton pump.  (+info)

Simulation analysis of the retinal conformational equilibrium in dark-adapted bacteriorhodopsin. (6/1144)

In dark-adapted bacteriorhodopsin (bR) the retinal moiety populates two conformers: all-trans and (13,15)cis. Here we examine factors influencing the thermodynamic equilibrium and conformational transition between the two forms, using molecular mechanics and dynamics calculations. Adiabatic potential energy mapping indicates that whereas the twofold intrinsic torsional potentials of the C13==C14 and C15==N16 double bonds favor a sequential torsional pathway, the protein environment favors a concerted, bicycle-pedal mechanism. Which of these two pathways will actually occur in bR depends on the as yet unknown relative weight of the intrinsic and environmental effects. The free energy difference between the conformers was computed for wild-type and modified bR, using molecular dynamics simulation. In the wild-type protein the free energy of the (13,15)cis retinal form is calculated to be 1.1 kcal/mol lower than the all-trans retinal form, a value within approximately kBT of experiment. In contrast, in isolated retinal the free energy of the all-trans state is calculated to be 2.1 kcal/mol lower than (13,15)cis. The free energy differences are similar to the adiabatic potential energy differences in the various systems examined, consistent with an essentially enthalpic origin. The stabilization of the (13,15)cis form in bR relative to the isolated retinal molecule is found to originate from improved protein-protein interactions. Removing internal water molecules near the Schiff base strongly stabilizes the (13,15)cis form, whereas a double mutation that removes negative charges in the retinal pocket (Asp85 to Ala; Asp212 to Ala) has the opposite effect.  (+info)

Chloride ion binding to bacteriorhodopsin at low pH: an infrared spectroscopic study. (7/1144)

Bacteriorhodopsin (bR) and halorhodopsin (hR) are light-induced ion pumps in the cell membrane of Halobacterium salinarium. Under normal conditions bR is an outward proton transporter, whereas hR is an inward Cl- transporter. There is strong evidence that at very low pH and in the presence of Cl-, bR transports Cl- ions into the cell, similarly to hR. The chloride pumping activity of bR is connected to the so-called acid purple state. To account for the observed effects in bR a tentative complex counterion was suggested for the protonated Schiff base of the retinal chromophore. It would consist of three charged residues: Asp-85, Asp-212, and Arg-82. This quadruplet (including the Schiff base) would also serve as a Cl- binding site at low pH. We used Fourier transform infrared difference spectroscopy to study the structural changes during the transitions between the normal, acid blue, and acid purple states. Asp-85 and Asp-212 were shown to participate in the transitions. During the normal-to-acid blue transition, Asp-85 protonates. When the pH is further lowered in the presence of Cl-, Cl- binds and Asp-212 also protonates. The binding of Cl- and the protonation of Asp-212 occur simultaneously, but take place only when Asp-85 is already protonated. It is suggested that HCl is taken up in undissociated form in exchange for a neutral water molecule.  (+info)

Time-resolved absorption and photothermal measurements with sensory rhodopsin I from Halobacterium salinarum. (8/1144)

An expansion accompanying the formation of the first intermediate in the photocycle of transducer-free sensory rhodopsin I (SRI) was determined by means of time-resolved laser-induced optoacoustic spectroscopy. For the native protein (SRI-WT), the absolute value of the expansion is approximately 5.5 mL and for the mutant SRI-D76N, approximately 1.5 mL per mol of phototransformed species (in 0.5 M NaCl), calculated by using the formation quantum yield for the first intermediate (S610) of Phi610 = 0.4 +/- 0.05 for SRI-WT and 0.5 +/- 0.05 for SRI-D76N, measured by laser-induced optoacoustic spectroscopy and by laser flash photolysis. The similarity in Phi610 and in the determined value of the energy level of S610, E610 = (142 +/- 12) kJ/mol for SRI-WT and SRI-D76N indicates that Asp76 is not directly involved in the first step of the phototransformation. The increase with pH of the magnitude of the structural volume change for the formation of S610 in SRI-WT and in SRI-D76N upon excitation with 580 nm indicates also that amino acids other than Asp76, and other than those related to the Schiff base, are involved in the process. The difference in structural volume changes as well as differences in the activation parameters for the S610 decay should be attributed to differences in the rigidity of the cavity surrounding the chromophore. Except for the decay of the first intermediate, which is faster than in the SRI-transducer complex, the rate constants of the photocycle for transducer-free SRI in detergent suspension are strongly retarded with respect to wild-type membranes (this comparison should be done with great care because the preparation of both samples is very different).  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of Asp85 replacement by Thr on the conformation, surface electric properties and stability of bacteriorhodopsin. AU - Taneva, Stefka G.. AU - Gõi, Felix M.. AU - Tuparev, Nikolai P.. AU - Petkanchin, Ivana. AU - Dér, A.. AU - Muga, Arturo. PY - 2002/9/25. Y1 - 2002/9/25. N2 - The role of Asp85 in maintaining bacteriorhodopsin structure has been analyzed by infrared spectroscopy, electric light scattering and differential scanning calorimetry. In comparison with the wild type bacteriorhodopsin, the mutant protein D85T shows a different conformation, electric dipole moments and decreased thermal stability. The conformational rearrangements affect both the transmembrane helices and the extramembranous protein segments. Both electric dipoles - the permanent dipole moment and the electric polarizability - have drastically lower values for the membranes containing D85T variant of bacteriorhodopsin. Therefore, this single amino acid mutation not only changes bacteriorhodopsin ...
The primary processes of the photochemical cycle of light-adapted bacteriorhodopsin (BR) were studied by various experimental techniques with a time resolution of 5 × 10-13 s. The following results were obtained. (a) After optical excitation the first excited singlet state S1 of bacteriorhodopsin is observed via its fluorescence and absorption properties. The population of the excited singlet state decays with a lifetime τ1 of ~0.7 ps (430 ± 50 fs) (52). (b) With the same time constant the first ground-state intermediate J builds up. Its absorption spectrum is red-shifted relative to the spectrum of BR by ~30 nm. (c) The second photoproduct K, which appears with a time constant of τ2 = 5 ps shows a red-shift of 20 nm, relative to the peak of BR. Its absorption remains constant for the observation time of 300 ps. (d) Upon suspending bacteriorhodopsin in D2O and deuterating the retinal Schiff base at its nitrogen (lysine 216), the same photoproducts J and K are observed. The relaxation time ...
The vibrational dynamics of the retinal chromophore all-trans-to-13-cis photoisomerization in bacteriorhodopsin has been studied with mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy at high time resolution (about 200 femtoseconds). After photoexcitation of light-adapted bacteriorhodopsin, the transient infrared absorption was probed in a broad spectral region, including vibrations with dominant C-C, C=C, and C=NH stretching mode amplitude. All photoproduct modes, especially those around 1190 reciprocal-centimeters that are indicative for a 13-cis configuration of the chromophore, rise with a time constant of ∼0.5 picosecond. The results presented give direct vibrational-spectroscopic evidence for the isomerization taking place within 0.5 picosecond, as has been suggested by previous optical femtosecond time-resolved experiments but questioned recently by picosecond time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy experiments. ...
Chemical exchange of hydrogen atoms is the basis for many biological processes, including energy conversion from light into chemical potentials. In a recent collaborative study of the SFB 1078 under the direction of Hartmut Oschkinat (B1), Peter Hegemann (B1, B2) and Roland R. Netz (C1), proton exchange was detected and characterized in the light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin, a well-established model system for protonation dynamics studies. The work, published in the new open access journal Communications Biology of the Nature Publishing Group, revealed that reversible proton translocation occurs even in the dark-state of the protein, involving the retinal Schiff base and D85 exchanging protons with H2O. The authors find evidence of an active site proton cage and possible proton transfer via R82. The experimental observations have been corroborated by theoretical approaches, further extending the general understanding of proton exchange in proteins.. Friedrich, D., Brünig, F. N., ...
Biological molecules and assemblies, such as the photochemical reaction center, are capable of capturing light with good quantum efficiency and transforming it into chemical energy. If properly exploited, such assemblies have potential applications as biomolecule information processing units.. Bacteriorhodopsin, from the purple membrane bacterium Halobacterium halobium, is one such system that has been studied extensively and has been commercialized into optical holographic memories (Birge 1995). In the bacterium, the protein bacteriorhodopsin self-assembles into ordered lipid patches. The protein absorbs light and undergoes a cycle involving a complex series of intermediates, resulting in a proton being pumped across the membrane. It was information developed from understanding the basic science behind the way that bacteriorhodopsin works that led to the use of bacteriorhodopsin as a biomolecule information processing unit. To be used for information storage, the protein is placed under ...
Th?e atomic structure of the light-driven ion pump bacteriorhodopsin and the surrounding lipid matrix was determined by X-ray diffraction of crystals grown in cubic lipid phase. In the extracellular region, an extensive three-dimensional hydrogen-bonded network of protein residues and seven water mo …
The transmembrane electrochemical proton gradient is a key source of cellular energy. Bacteriorhodopsin (bR), the simplest and most studied proton pump, moves protons from low to high concentration by harnessing light energy, creating the transmembrane el
1DZE: Crystal Structure of the M Intermediate of Bacteriorhodopsin: Allosteric Structural Changes Mediated by Sliding Movement of a Transmembrane Helix
Heyes CD, EL-Sayed MA. Proton transfer reactions in native and deionized bacteriorhodopsin upon delipidation and monomerization. Biophysical journal [Internet]. 2003 ;85(1):426-434. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3495(03)74487-7 ...
SWISS-MODEL Template Library (SMTL) entry for 5h2l.1. A three dimensional movie of structural changes in bacteriorhodopsin: structure obtained 5.25 us after photoexcitation
3-Fluoro-DL-tyrosine can be used to study how halogenated tyrosines affect proteins such as bacteriorhodopsin, microvillar enzymes, and β-galactosidases.
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Classical planning is the problem of finding a sequence of actions, from a given initial state to some goal state. While, in generalized planning, a plan is a solution to a set of planning problems, which belong to the ...
Bacteriorhodopsins are a large family of seven-helical transmembrane proteins that function as light-driven proton pumps. Here, we present the crystal structure of a new member of the family, Haloarcula marismortui bacteriorhodopsin I (HmBRI) D94N mutant, at the resolution of 2.5 Å. While the HmBRI retinal-binding pocket and proton donor site are similar to those of other archaeal proton pumps, its proton release region is extended and contains additional water molecules. The proteins fold is reinforced by three novel inter-helical hydrogen bonds, two of which result from double substitutions relative to Halobacterium salinarum bacteriorhodopsin and other similar proteins. Despite the expression in Escherichia coli and consequent absence of native lipids, the protein assembles as a trimer in crystals. The unique extended loop between the helices D and E of HmBRI makes contacts with the adjacent protomer and appears to stabilize the interface. Many lipidic hydrophobic tail groups are discernible in the
A substantial number of spontaneous bacterio-opsin mutants of Halobacterium halobium are the result of insertion elements up to 1400 bp upstream of the bacterio-opsin (bop) gene. The nucleotide sequence of 1800 bp upstream of the bop gene has been determined. There is a 1118 bp open reading frame (ORF) located within this region which is transcribed and which coincides with the distribution of insertion elements upstream of the bop gene in Bop mutants. Therefore, we propose that there is a gene (brp gene) 526 bp upstream of the bop gene. This putative gene is transcribed in the opposite direction as the bop gene and could encode a protein of 37,500 D (359 amino acids) with a codon usage similar to bacterio-opsin. The 5 terminus of the brp transcript has been determined. The brp transcript and the bop mRNA are complementary for 13 residues near their 5 termini and both transcripts start at or near the initiating codon of the gene. Both transcripts could form similar hairpin loop structures at ...
Biological light-driven proton pumps use light to move protons across a cell membrane, creating a proton gradient. Although photochromic compounds such as spiropyrans can reversibly convert between two structures with differing pKa values, spiropyrans have not been used to generate either a light-driven proton pump or an electrical current. Here, we report an artificial light-harvesting system based on a supported liquid membrane doped with a spiropyran. Irradiating the membrane with ultraviolet light induces a ring-opening reaction, converting spiropyran to merocyanine, whereas irradiation with visible light induces the reverse reaction. When the membrane is irradiated with ultraviolet and visible light on opposite sides, H+ is taken up by merocyanine, carried through the polymeric membrane and released on the other side. We show that this system produces a light-induced proton flux, an electrical current with an efficiency of ~0.12%, an open-circuit voltage of ~210 mV and a membrane gradient of ~3.6
Heyes CD, Wang J, Sanii LS, EL-Sayed MA. Fourier transform infrared study of the effect of different cations on bacteriorhodopsin protein thermal stability. Biophysical journal [Internet]. 2002 ;82(3):1598-1606. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3495(02)75511-2 ...
0070]Bacteriorhodopsin (purple membrane) has been incorporated in liposomes using sonication. The lipid mixture used was 4:1 DOPE: EggPC. DOPE has been shown to increase the incorporation of bacteriorhodopsin (bR). 10 mM pH buffer was used so that we could see the change in pH due to bacteriorhodopsin. After gelation, a few drops of buffer were added to the sample if the pH was not stable, for example due to improper contact with the pH electrode. The pH levels of gels containing the bR-incorporated lipsomes before and after light exposure were measured and compared with the pH levels of blank-liposomes in gel before and after light exposure. Light with a yellow light filter was shined for 30 sec and a break for 60 sec was given. This was due to the fact that the blank-liposome gel in buffer was showing a slight decrease in pH, which was suspected to be due to a heat effect. The pH levels of the blank returned to baseline after exposure to light, whereas the pH levels of the bR-incorporated ...
The story behind optogenetics is a story of convergence of two seemingly unrelated fields: microbial microbiology and neuroscience. In 1971, Walther Stoeckenius and Dieter Oesterhelt discovered the transmembrane protein bacteriorhodopsin (BR) that is capable of moving ions in the presence of light. BR is highly expressed in haloarcheal membranes while a similar transmembrane protein proteorhodopsin (PR) is expressed in eubacteria. In 1977, Matsuno-Yagi and Mukohata described the ion pump channel halorhodopsin which displaces extracellular chloride ions in to the cell. As these discoveries were happening in the background, a growing desire to effectively control the neurons was ever -prevalent. During this period, neuroscientist adopted the idea that cognitive processes were distributed in various localizations of the cortex. This fact evident when lesions in specific areas would lead to loss of a specific process. Even fMRIs and PET solidified this point, but, even with these high-tech ...
The story behind optogenetics is a story of convergence of two seemingly unrelated fields: microbial microbiology and neuroscience. In 1971, Walther Stoeckenius and Dieter Oesterhelt discovered the transmembrane protein bacteriorhodopsin (BR) that is capable of moving ions in the presence of light. BR is highly expressed in haloarcheal membranes while a similar transmembrane protein proteorhodopsin (PR) is expressed in eubacteria. In 1977, Matsuno-Yagi and Mukohata described the ion pump channel halorhodopsin which displaces extracellular chloride ions in to the cell. As these discoveries were happening in the background, a growing desire to effectively control the neurons was ever -prevalent. During this period, neuroscientist adopted the idea that cognitive processes were distributed in various localizations of the cortex. This fact evident when lesions in specific areas would lead to loss of a specific process. Even fMRIs and PET solidified this point, but, even with these high-tech ...
1BCT: Three-dimensional structure of proteolytic fragment 163-231 of bacterioopsin determined from nuclear magnetic resonance data in solution.
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Parent Directory - phylogenetictree.jpg 20-Jul-2014 00:42 24K phylogenetictree-t.jpg 20-Jul-2014 00:42 7.0K Bacteriorhodopsin/ 20-Jul-2014 00:42 - Archaeacells.htm 20-Jul-2014 00:42 965 ...
https://inspirehep.net/literature/892684 Inspire Record 892684 DOI 10.17182/hepdata.62222 https://doi.org/10.17182/hepdata.62222 We study the processes e+e- --, K+ K- pi+pi-gamma, K+ K- pi0pi0gamma, and K+ K- K+ K-gamma, where the photon is radiated from the initial state. About 84000, 8000, and 4200 fully reconstructed events, respectively, are selected from 454 fb-1 of BaBar data. The invariant mass of the hadronic final state defines the \epem center-of-mass energy, so that the K+ K- pi+pi- data can be compared with direct measurements of the e+e- --, K+ K- pi+pi- reaction. No direct measurements exist for the e+e- --, K+ K-pi0pi0 or e+e- --, K+ K-K+ K- reactions, and we present an update of our previous result with doubled statistics. Studying the structure of these events, we find contributions from a number of intermediate states, and extract their cross sections. In particular, we perform a more detailed study of the e+e- --, phi(1020)pipigamma reaction, and confirm the presence of the ...
Die Erfindung betrifft einen Testträger zur analytischen Bestim mung eines Bestandteils einer Körperflüssigkeit mit einer Basis schicht und mindestens zwei flachen im Ausgangszustand des Test trägers vor Durchführung einer Bestimmung voneinander getrennten, jedoch durch externe Manipulation in Kontakt zueinander bringbaren Testschichten. The invention relates to a test carrier for the analytical Bestim mung a component of a body fluid with a base layer and at least two flat in the initial state of the test carrier prior to making a determination on separate, but mutually by external manipulation can be brought into contact test layers. Während früher im klinischen Labor die Konzentration beispiels weise der Bestandteile des Blutes praktisch ausschließlich mit Hilfe flüssiger Reagenzien bestimmt wurde, haben in jüngerer Zeit sogenannte trägergebundene Tests zunehmend an Bedeutung gewonnen. While earlier in the clinical laboratory, the concentration example, the components of the blood ...
Berlin-via-Portugal singer/producer and core member of the WEDIDIT crew, PURPLE dropped the 2nd single off his debut LP Silence & Remorse forthcoming on
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A group of microbial retinal proteins most closely related to the proton pump xanthorhodopsin has a novel sequence motif and a novel function. Instead of, or in addition to, proton transport, they perform light-driven sodium ion transport, as reported for one representative of this group (KR2) from Krokinobacter. In this paper, we examine a similar protein, GLR from Gillisia limnaea, expressed in Escherichia coli, which shares some properties with KR2 but transports only Na +. The absorption spectrum of GLR is insensitive to Na + at concentrations of ≤3 M. However, very low concentrations of Na + cause profound differences in the decay and rise time of photocycle intermediates, consistent with a switch from a Na +-independent to a Na +-dependent photocycle (or photocycle branch) at ~60 μM Na +. The rates of photocycle steps in the latter, but not the former, are linearly dependent on Na + concentration. This suggests that a high-affinity Na + binding site is created transiently after ...
In a general description of the various ion transport modes found for halobacterial retinal proteins (Haupts et al., 1997), the transport mechanism is represented by a sequence of six principal reaction steps: retinal isomerization to 13‐cis or all‐trans (either photochemical, designated as I*, or thermal, I), ion translocation to or from the Schiff base (T) and switch of the Schiff base accessibility towards the EC or CP side (S). Within this framework, the anion transport mechanism of wild type HR, taking into consideration the results on specific mutants, can be described as follows (Figure 7): in the initial state, the substrate anion occupies a binding site constituted by R108 and T111, also interacting with the protonated Schiff base (Walter and Braiman, 1994), and the Schiff base is accessible for ions from the EC side. (1) Light‐induced isomerization (I*) is followed by (2) translocation of this anion towards the Schiff base (T), where it is located in the HR520 intermediate state ...
Author: Laso-Pérez, R. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2016-11-17; Open Access; Keywords: Archaeal physiology; Metabolomics; Environmental microbiology|br/|; Title: Thermophilic archaea activate butane via alkyl-coenzyme M formation.
Pure extracellular serine protease was isolated from the culture filtrate of Halobacterium halobium by bacitracin-Sepharose affinity chromatography. The enzyme activity was completely and irreversibly lost if the NaCl concentration fell below 2 M. The protease consists of one polypeptide chain with a molecular weight of 41,000. It is characteristically enriched in Asx and Glx content, whereas the level of basic amino acids in the enzyme molecule is unusually low. The protease shows a preference for leucine in the carboxylic side of the scissile bond of the substrate, cleaving the B-chain of oxidized bovine insulin only at the Leu15-Tyr16 bond and liberating p-nitroaniline from L-pyroglutamyl-L-alanyl-L-alanyl-L-leucine-p-nitroanilide. ...
Molecular organization and dynamics in protein-rich membranes have been studied by investigating transport (diffusion-concentration product) of molecular oxygen at various locations in reconstituted membranes of bacteriorhodopsin (BR) and L-alpha-dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine. Oxygen transport was evaluated by monitoring the bimolecular collision of molecular oxygen with four types of nitroxide lipid spin labels placed at various locations in the membrane. The collision rate was estimated from the spin-lattice relaxation times (T1s) measured at various oxygen partial pressures by analyzing the short-pulse saturation recovery ESR signals. CD spectra and decay of polarized flash-induced photodichroism of bacteriorhodopsin indicated that BR molecules are monomers in reconstituted membranes with a lipid/BR molar ratio of 80 (80-rec) and are 25% monomers and 75% trimers plus oligomers of trimers when the lipid/BR ratio is 40 (40-rec). In the 80-rec, the lipid environment is homogeneous on a ...
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The flagship monthly journal of SPIE, |i|Optical Engineering|/i| (OE) publishes peer-reviewed papers reporting on research and development in all areas of optics, photonics, and imaging science and engineering.
Adrenodoxin, Escherichia Coli, Kinetics, Molecular Cloning, Point Mutation, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Protein Binding, Recombinant Proteins, Structure-Activity ...
The protonation state of embedded charged residues in transmembrane proteins (TMPs) can control the onset of protein function. It is understood that interactions between an embedded charged residue and other charged or polar residues in the moiety would influence its pKa, but how the surrounding environment in which the TMP resides affects the pKa of these residues is unclear.
Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) and Quinsigamond Community College (QCC) have been awarded a $4 million grant by the Commonwealth of Massachuset
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A post-doctoral position is available immediately in the laboratory of Dr Joe Cockburn, at the Astbury Centre, University of Leeds, UK to perform structure-function studies on ciliary proteins.. The position is funded by The Wellcome Trust and is available immediately for a period of 24 months. The start date is flexible but must be before September 2017.. The deadline for applications is Monday 16th January 2017.. More information about the position and how to apply can be found here. ...
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In thermodynamic, an irreversible process is defined as a process that cannot be reversed, the process cannot return both the system and the surroundings to their original conditions. During irreversible process, the entropy of the system increases rapidly and it cannot be reduced back to its initial value. During the irreversible process the various states of the system on the path of change from initial state to final state are not in equilibrium with each other. There are many factors that make a process irreversible, they include:. ...
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The way bacteriorhodopsin generates a proton gradient in Archaea is through a proton pump. The proton pump relies on proton ... In bacteriorhodopsin, the proton pump is activated by absorption of photons of 568 nm wavelength which leads to isomerization ... Finally, bacteriorhodopsin returns to its resting state when Asp85 releases its proton to Glu204.[16][17] ... Diagram of the conformational shift in retinal that initiates proton pumping in bacteriorhodopsin. ...
Lanyi JK (2004). "Bacteriorhodopsin". Annual Review of Physiology. 66: 665-88. doi:10.1146/annurev.physiol.66.032102.150049. ... In the Halobacteria, light-activated ion pumps like bacteriorhodopsin and halorhodopsin generate ion gradients by pumping ions ... "Molecular mechanism of vectorial proton translocation by bacteriorhodopsin". Nature. 406 (6796): 653-57. Bibcode:2000Natur.406 ...
Bacteriorhodopsin is a light-driven proton pump and is used by Archaea, most notably in Halobacteria. Light is absorbed by a ... The energy required for the proton pumping reaction may come from light (light energy; bacteriorhodopsins), electron transfer ( ...
"Unfolding pathways of individual bacteriorhodopsins". Science. 288 (5463): 143-6. Bibcode:2000Sci...288..143O. doi:10.1126/ ...
After the middle of the 1970s, his lab studied the biochemistry of bacteriorhodopsin, a membrane protein that converts light ... Wildenauer, D.; Khorana, H. G. (1977). "The preparation of lipid-depleted bacteriorhodopsin". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta ( ...
Prokhorenko, V. I. (2006-09-01). "Coherent Control of Retinal Isomerization in Bacteriorhodopsin". Science. 313 (5791): 1257- ...
... known today as bacteriorhodopsin. The first bacteriorhodopsin turned out to be of archaeal origin, from Halobacterium salinarum ... Bacteriorhodopsin also lacks the omega loop structure that has been observed at the N-terminus of the structures of several ... Bacteriorhodopsin pumps one Cl− ion, from the extracellular medium into the cytosol, per photon absorbed. Although the ions ... They differ from bacteriorhodopsin in that the claret membrane, in which they are expressed, includes bacterioruberin, a second ...
"Coherent Control of Retinal Isomerization in Bacteriorhodopsin". Science. 313 (5791): 1257-1261. Bibcode:2006Sci...313.1257P. ...
Lanyi JK (2004). "Bacteriorhodopsin". Annu. Rev. Physiol. 66: 665-88. PMID 14977418. doi:10.1146/annurev.physiol.66.032102. ... "Molecular mechanism of vectorial proton translocation by bacteriorhodopsin". Nature 406 (6796): 653-7. PMID 10949309. doi: ...
Pyroglutamate is found in many proteins including bacteriorhodopsin. N-terminal glutamic acid and glutamine residues can ...
2. Spin labeling of bacteriorhodopsin mutants at unique cysteines". Biochemistry. 28 (19): 7806-7812. doi:10.1021/bi00445a042. ... Spin Labeling of Bacteriorhodopsin Mutants". Science. 248 (4959): 1088-192. Bibcode:1990Sci...248.1088A. doi:10.1126/science. ...
They are also infused with bacteriorhodopsin, allowing photosynthesis. It is now possible for a human being to lie on the ...
Large blooms appear reddish, from the pigment bacteriorhodopsin. This pigment is used to absorb light, which provides energy to ...
Another case for this mechanism is Bacteriorhodopsin proton pump. Here the light induced change in the molecular volume is ... "Photoinduced volume changes associated with the early transformations of bacteriorhodopsin: A laser-induced optoacoustic ...
Among the many kinds of microbial opsins are the proton pumps bacteriorhodopsin (BR) and xanthorhodopsin (xR), the chloride ... Waschuk SA, Bezerra AG, Shi L, Brown LS (May 2005). "Leptosphaeria rhodopsin: bacteriorhodopsin-like proton pump from a ... and bacteriorhodopsin, are used by various bacterial groups to harvest energy from light to carry out metabolic processes using ...
See also bacteriorhodopsin, used in some halobacteria as a light-driven proton pump. Humphries P, Kenna P, Farrar GJ (May 1992 ... Some prokaryotes express proton pumps called bacteriorhodopsins, archaerhodopsins, proteorhodopsins, heliorhodopsins and ... "Characterization of the primary photochemical events in bacteriorhodopsin and rhodopsin". In Lee AG (ed.). Rhodopsin and G- ...
Bacteriorhodopsin functions as a proton pump, whereas halorhodopsin act as a chloride pump. Their functions range from ... Examples are bacterial sensory rhodopsins, channelrhodopsin, bacteriorhodopsin, halorhodopsin, and proteorhodopsin. They act as ... bacterial photosynthesis (bacteriorhodopsin) to driving phototaxis (channelrhodopsins in flagellates). Signal transduction in ...
Stuart JA, Brige RR (1996). "Characterization of the primary photochemical events in bacteriorhodopsin and rhodopsin". In Lee ...
Field of study - photoelectric, electroacoustic and spectroscopic studies of bacteriorhodopsin. From 1999 to 2000, he was a ...
Lanyi JK (2004). "Bacteriorhodopsin". Annu. Rev. Physiol. 66: 665-88. doi:10.1146/annurev.physiol.66.032102.150049. PMID ... Bacteriorhodopsin from Halobacterium salinarum. The retinol cofactor and residues involved in proton transfer are shown as ball ... In the Halobacteria, light-activated ion pumps like bacteriorhodopsin and halorhodopsin generate ion gradients by pumping ions ... Subramaniam S; Henderson R (August 2000). "Molecular mechanism of vectorial proton translocation by bacteriorhodopsin". Nature ...
Lanyi JK (2004). "Bacteriorhodopsin". Annu. Rev. Physiol. 66: 665-88. PMID 14977418. doi:10.1146/annurev.physiol.66.032102. ... Subramaniam S, Henderson R (2000). "Molecular mechanism of vectorial proton translocation by bacteriorhodopsin". Nature 406 ( ...
Their photosynthetic pigment, bacteriorhodopsin, is actually opaque to the longer-wavelength ultraviolet (its red color). In ... Bacteriorhodopsins isolated from Halobacterium salinarum have been especially studied for their applications in electronics and ... Particularly, bacteriorhodopsins have been used in holographic storage, optical switching, motion detection, and nanotechnology ... Halobacterium can be identified in bodies of water by the light-detecting pigment bacteriorhodopsin, which not only provides ...
"A transposable element from Halobacterium halobium which inactivates the bacteriorhodopsin gene". Proceedings of the National ...
Bacteriorhodopsin - A proton pump used by Haloarchaea to harvest light energy. Microbial rhodopsin Red edge DasSarma, ... Many Haloarchaea contain the retinal protein, bacteriorhodopsin, in their purple membrane which carries out light-driven proton ...
After bacteriorhodopsin, halorhodopsin may be the best type I (microbial) opsin studied. Peak absorbance of the halorhodopsin ... Its properties are similar to those of bacteriorhodopsin, and these two light-driven ion pumps transport cations and anions in ...
The first electron crystallographic protein structure to achieve atomic resolution was bacteriorhodopsin, determined by Richard ... "Model for the structure of bacteriorhodopsin based on high-resolution electron cryo-microscopy". J Mol Biol. 213 (4): 899-929. ...
It is similar to and probably originated from bacteriorhodopsin (see below: under #Archaea). Bacterial chlorophyll b has been ... Halobacteria use the pigment bacteriorhodopsin which acts directly as a proton pump when exposed to light. CHLOROPHYLLS, JECFA ...
For example, the "unfolded" bacteriorhodopsin in SDS micelles has four transmembrane α-helices folded, while the rest of the ... Bacteriorhodopsin-like proteins including rhodopsin (see also opsin) Bacterial photosynthetic reaction centres and photosystems ... There are relatively few examples of the successful refolding experiments, as for bacteriorhodopsin. In vivo, all such proteins ...
These short pulses allowed studies to be done in bacteriorhodopsin, organic dyes and semiconductor films." From 1995 to 1999 he ... Direct observation of the femtosecond excited state cis-trans isomerization in bacterio rhodopsin. Science. vol. 240, p. 777. ...
A pigmented protein embedded in the cell membrane of the bacteria Halobacterium halobium and other photosynthetic species of bacteria. The protein trans...
... bacteriorhodopsin, in which light energy is absorbed by retinal, a form of vitamin A, to activate a proton (hydrogen ion). ... Other articles where Bacteriorhodopsin is discussed: bacteria: 16S rRNA analysis: …it uses a single protein, ... it uses a single protein, bacteriorhodopsin, in which light energy is absorbed by retinal, a form of vitamin A, to activate a ...
Unfolding Pathways of Individual Bacteriorhodopsins. By F. Oesterhelt, D. Oesterhelt, M. Pfeiffer, A. Engel, H. E. Gaub, D. J. ... Unfolding Pathways of Individual Bacteriorhodopsins. By F. Oesterhelt, D. Oesterhelt, M. Pfeiffer, A. Engel, H. E. Gaub, D. J. ... We chose bacteriorhodopsin (BR), a light-driven proton pump, because it represents one of the most extensively studied membrane ... Individual bacteriorhodopsin molecules were first localized and then extracted from the membrane; the remaining vacancies were ...
... * Purple membrane from Halobacterium. Halobium * Bistable red/green switch * In protein coat ... heres an ad from a couple weeks ago by a company in West Germany offering bacteriorhodopsin for sale, listing under ...
BACTERIORHODOPSIN1-[2,6,10.14-Tetramethyl-Hexadecan-16-Yl]-2-[2,10,14-Trimethylhexadecan-16-Yl]glycerol2,10,23-Trimethyl-TetracosaneRetinal
bacteriorhodopsin synonyms, bacteriorhodopsin pronunciation, bacteriorhodopsin translation, English dictionary definition of ... bacteriorhodopsin. n. A pigmented membrane protein found in extremely halophilic archaea of the genus Halobacterium that ... Bacteriorhodopsin - definition of bacteriorhodopsin by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/bacteriorhodopsin ... bacteriorhodopsin. Also found in: Medical, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. bac·te·ri·o·rho·dop·sin. (băk-tîr′ē-ō-rō-dŏp′sĭn) ...
Make research projects and school reports about Bacteriorhodopsin easy with credible articles from our FREE, online ... bacteriorhodopsin A protein pigment found in certain species of bacteria of the genus Halobacterium. Bacteriorhodopsin is ... Bacteriorhodopsin is composed of seven α-helix segments, which span the membrane and are joined together by short amino-acid ... bacteriorhodopsin A Dictionary of Biology © A Dictionary of Biology 2004, originally published by Oxford University Press 2004. ...
... and their international colleagues have studied the crystallization of molecules of the membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin. The ... Bacteriorhodopsin crystals consume their smaller counterparts The scientists have demonstrated that the larger crystals of the ... In their paper, the authors studied the growth of crystals of bacteriorhodopsin (which was used as a model protein of any ... Bacteriorhodopsin crystals consume their smaller counterparts. Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology ...
Bacteriorhodopsin. A, B. 249. Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1. Mutation(s): 1 Gene Names: bop, VNG_1467G. ... Here we show that we can engineer a transition between distinct distorted helix conformations in bacteriorhodopsin with a ...
Bacteriorhodopsin, is a prototypical alpha-helical transmembrane protein that acts as a proton pump after photoinitiated ...
... e atomic structure of the light-driven ion pump bacteriorhodopsin and the surrounding lipid matrix was determined by X-ray ... Structure of bacteriorhodopsin at 1.55 A resolution J Mol Biol. 1999 Aug 27;291(4):899-911. doi: 10.1006/jmbi.1999.3027. ... Th?e atomic structure of the light-driven ion pump bacteriorhodopsin and the surrounding lipid matrix was determined by X-ray ...
The study of bacteriorhodopsin (BR) and the elucidation of its function as a light driven proton pump, is only one of many ...
We investigate the effect of this nonlinearity on the result of the correlation process in a bacteriorhodopsin-based DAJFT ... Films made of the halobacterial photochrome bacteriorhodopsin (BR) can be used in a number of holographic real-time ... Ralph Thoma, Michael Dratz, Norbert A. Hampp, "All-optical nonlinear holographic correlation using bacteriorhodopsin films," ... Ralph Thoma, Michael Dratz, Norbert A. Hampp, "All-optical nonlinear holographic correlation using bacteriorhodopsin films," ...
Bacteriorhodopsins function as an energy transducers, converting light energy into electrochemical energy via PROTON PUMPS. ... Bacteriorhodopsins. Known as: Bacteriorhodopsin, Bacteriorhodopsins [Chemical/Ingredient] Rhodopsins found in the PURPLE ... Unfolding pathways of individual bacteriorhodopsins.. *F. Oesterhelt, D. Oesterhelt, M. Pfeiffer, A. Engel, H. Gaub, D. Müller ... Electron-crystallographic refinement of the structure of bacteriorhodopsin.. *N. Grigorieff, T. Ceska, K. Downing, J. Baldwin, ...
Crystallographic Structures of the M and N Intermediates of Bacteriorhodopsin: Assembly of a Hydrogen-Bonded Chain of Water ... Description: Bacteriorhodopsin protein , Length: 249 No structure alignment results are available for 1P8U.A explicitly.. It is ...
Perturbation Effects On The Tryptophan Fluorescence In Bacteriorhodopsin Author(s): Du-Jeon Jang; M. A. El-Sayed ... The picosecond fluorescence kinetics of tryptophan residues in bacteriorhodopsin (bR) and some perturbed analogues are measured ...
bacteriorhodopsin;. PCA,. principal component analysis;. PCR,. photocycling ratio;. SM,. self-modeling;. SP,. stoichiometric ... On light excitation, bacteriorhodopsin (BR), the light-driven proton pump in the cell membrane of Halobacterium salinarium, ... Stoichiometric constraints, valid until the onset of the recovery of bleached bacteriorhodopsin at the end of the photocycle, ... Intermediate spectra and photocycle kinetics of the Asp96 -, Asn mutant bacteriorhodopsin determined by singular value ...
Time-Resolved Ultraviolet Resonance Raman of Protein Structural Changes in The KI-Intermediate Of Bacteriorhodopsin. Shoji ... spectra of transient intermediates in the bacteriorhodopsin (BR) photocycle, we developed a new UVRR spectrometer. A home-made ...
Femtosecond Infrared Spectroscopy of Bacteriorhodopsin Chromophore Isomerization Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a ... Femtosecond Infrared Spectroscopy of Bacteriorhodopsin Chromophore Isomerization. By Johannes Herbst, Karsten Heyne, Rolf ... Femtosecond Infrared Spectroscopy of Bacteriorhodopsin Chromophore Isomerization. By Johannes Herbst, Karsten Heyne, Rolf ... The vibrational dynamics of the retinal chromophore all-trans-to-13-cis photoisomerization in bacteriorhodopsin has been ...
... microwave radiation was found to affect the bacteriorhodopsin (BR) structure in films at a 30% relative humidity.... ... Keywords: bacteriorhodopsin dark-light adaptation optical spectroscopy FTIR difference spectroscopy microwave radiation ... Microwave-Induced Structural Changes in Bacteriorhodopsin: Studies by Optical and Fourier Transform Infrared Difference ... microwave radiation was found to affect the bacteriorhodopsin (BR) structure in films at a 30% relative humidity. This study is ...
d) Upon suspending bacteriorhodopsin in D2O and deuterating the retinal Schiff base at its nitrogen (lysine 216), the same ... a) After optical excitation the first excited singlet state S1 of bacteriorhodopsin is observed via its fluorescence and ... The primary processes of the photochemical cycle of light-adapted bacteriorhodopsin (BR) were studied by various experimental ... Early picosecond events in the photo cycle of Bacteriorhodopsin. In: Biophysical Journal, No. 46: pp. 651-662 ...
1992 Diffraction efficiency of bacteriorhodopsin films for holography containing bacteriorhodopsin wildtype BRWT and its ... 1975 Bacteriorhodopsin: a trans-membrane pump containing α-helix. J. Mol. Biol. 93, 139-142. doi:10.1016/0022-2836(75)90124-2 ( ... 2001 Bacteriorhodopsin. Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 11, 415-419. doi:10.1016/S0959-440X(00)00226-8 (doi:10.1016/S0959-440X(00) ... 1975 Bacteriorhodopsin: a light-driven proton pump in Halobacterium halobium. Biophys. J. 15, 955-962. doi:10.1016/S0006-3495( ...
In bacteriorhodopsin (bR), the effects of the protein environment are crucial to assure high rate and outstanding bond ... In bacteriorhodopsin (bR), the effects of the protein environment are crucial to assure high rate and outstanding bond ... Title Solvent effects on the ultrafast dynamics of the retinal chromophore of bacteriorhodopsin ... Solvent effects on the ultrafast dynamics of the retinal chromophore of bacteriorhodopsin ...
"Diffraction efficiency of bacteriorhodopsin films for holography containing bacteriorhodopsin wildtype BRWT and its variants ... "Diffraction efficiency of bacteriorhodopsin films for holography containing bacteriorhodopsin wildtype BRWT and its variants ... "Diffraction efficiency of bacteriorhodopsin films for holography containing bacteriorhodopsin wildtype BRWT and its variants ... "Diffraction efficiency of bacteriorhodopsin films for holography containing bacteriorhodopsin wildtype BRWT and its variants ...
Bacteriorhodopsin (bR) is a light-driven proton pump that is activated by a buried all-,i,trans,/i, retinal chromophore being ... Bacteriorhodopsin: Structural Insights Revealed Using X-Ray Lasers and Synchrotron Radiation Cecilia Wickstrand 1 , Przemyslaw ... Bacteriorhodopsin: Structural Insights Revealed Using X-Ray Lasers and Synchrotron Radiation Cecilia Wickstrand et al. Annu Rev ... Bacteriorhodopsin (bR) is a light-driven proton pump that is activated by a buried all-trans retinal chromophore being ...
Off-the-shelf functional and pure Bacteriorhodopsin protein produced as described above is now available for sale in our ... to stabilize already solubilized and purified Bacteriorhodopsin (bR). The protein was obtained from commercial source and then ...
Hidden dynamics in the unfolding of bacteriorhodopsin revealed by ultrafast cantilevers. Event Details. Event Dates: Tuesday, ... to reexamine the unfolding of the model membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin. Numerous new intermediates were detected, with many ...
Bacteriorhodopsin (BR) is a retinal protein that is a light-driven proton pump and has an important role in photosynthesis in ... Evaluation of Immobilized Bacteriorhodopsins Function by Laser Irridiation. Article 6, Volume 1, Issue 2, Autumn 2015, Page ... Bacteriorhodopsin (BR) is a retinal protein that is a light-driven proton pump and has an important role in photosynthesis in ... 17] L.M. Shamansky, K.M. Luong, D. Han, E.L. Chroniser, Photohnduced Kinetics of Bacteriorhodopsin in a Dried Xerogel Glass. ...
Bacteriorhodopsin (bR), the simplest and most studied proton pump, moves protons from low to high concentration by harnessing ... Bacteriorhodopsin (bR), the simplest and most studied proton pump, moves protons from low to high concentration by harnessing ... Proton transfers in the bacteriorhodopsin photocycle. Biochimica et biophysica acta 1757(8): 1012-1018.. Song YF, Mao JJ, ... Molecular Mechanism of Long-range Proton Translocation by Bacteriorhodopsin. The transmembrane electrochemical proton gradient ...
14-Fluoro-Bacteriorhodopsin Gelatin Films for Dynamic Holography Recording. Elena Korchemskaya, Nikolai Burykin, Angel de Lera ... The first dynamic holography recording using 14-fluoro-(14-F) bacteriorhodopsin (BR) gelatin films has been achieved. 14-F BR ... Elena Korchemskaya, Nikolai Burykin, Angel de Lera, Rosana Alvarez, Sergey Pirutin, Anna Druzhko "14-Fluoro-Bacteriorhodopsin ... "14-Fluoro-Bacteriorhodopsin Gelatin Films for Dynamic Holography Recording," Photochemistry and Photobiology 81(4), 920-923, (1 ...
  • however, the functions of rhodopsin and bacteriorhodopsin are different, and there is limited similarity in their amino acid sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both rhodopsin and bacteriorhodopsin belong to the 7TM receptor family of proteins, but rhodopsin is a G protein-coupled receptor and bacteriorhodopsin is not. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compare and contrast the 7TM helix proteins rhodopsin and bacteriorhodopsin at the molecular and cellular levels. (ukessays.com)
  • Rhodopsin and bacteriorhodopsin both belong to the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) family. (ukessays.com)
  • Both rhodopsin and bacteriorhodopsin maximally absorb light of the wavelength around 500nm which is the green colour range. (ukessays.com)
  • Both rhodopsin and bacteriorhodopsin contain a retinal chromophore, although the two chromophores are not identical and rather, are isomers of each other. (ukessays.com)
  • Part II examines primary visual processes, including kinetic experimental work on rhodopsin and bacteriorhodopsin, and theoretical concepts on primary events in vision. (elsevier.com)
  • Bacteriorhodopsin, is a prototypical alpha-helical transmembrane protein that acts as a proton pump after photoinitiated isomerization of its retinal chromophore. (osu.edu)
  • The vibrational dynamics of the retinal chromophore all-trans-to-13-cis photoisomerization in bacteriorhodopsin has been studied with mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy at high time resolution (about 200 femtoseconds). (sciencemag.org)
  • The principal energetic processes generating the functional proton pump of bacteriorhodopsin happen by means of complicated molecular powerful events after excitation from the retinal chromophore in to the Franck-Condon state. (ly2090314.com)
  • Bacteriorhodopsin is a light-driven H+ ion transporter found in some haloarchaea, most notably Halobacterium salinarum (formerly known as syn. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteriorhodopsin A membrane-bound protein manufactured by the halophilic (salt-resistant) archaebacterium Halobacterium salinarum that exploits light energy to make ATP without the involvement of chlorophyll-like pigments. (encyclopedia.com)
  • bacteriorhodopsin A protein pigment found in certain species of bacteria of the genus Halobacterium . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Bacteriorhodopsin: a light-driven proton pump in Halobacterium Halobium. (semanticscholar.org)
  • On light excitation, bacteriorhodopsin (BR), the light-driven proton pump in the cell membrane of Halobacterium salinarium , exhibits a series of spectrally distinct metastable intermediates labeled as J, K, L, M, N, and O before returning to the initial state (BR) (for reviews, see refs. (pnas.org)
  • Bacteriorhodopsin (BR) is a retinal protein that is a light-driven proton pump and has an important role in photosynthesis in archaebacterium Halobacterium salinarum. (bmmj.org)
  • Bacteriorhodopsin is a photochemically active protein found in the purple membrane of the bacteria Halobacterium salinarium, which was known as Halobacterium halobium. (final-yearproject.com)
  • Photochrome Transmembrane Protein Bacteriorhodopsin from Purple Membranes of Halobacterium Halobium. (iiste.org)
  • Abstract -Using optical and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) difference spectroscopy, microwave radiation was found to affect the bacteriorhodopsin (BR) structure in films at a 30% relative humidity. (springer.com)
  • abstract = "The photocycle of dried bacteriorhodopsin, pretreated in a 0.3 M HCl solution, was studied. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "Fourier transform infrared and UV fourth-derivative spectroscopies were used to study the secondary structure of bacteriorhodopsin and its chymotryptic and one of the sodium borohydride fragments dissolved in chloroform-methanol (1:1, v/v), 0.1 M LiClO4. (uab.cat)
  • abstract = "The techniques of FTIR difference spectroscopy and site‐directed mutagenesis have been combined to investigate the role of individual tyrosine side chains in the proton‐pumping mechanism of bacteriorhodopsin (bR). (syr.edu)
  • abstract = "The behavior of the D115A mutant was analyzed by time-resolved UV-Vis and Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies, aiming to clarify the role of Asp115 in the intra-protein signal transductions occurring during the bacteriorhodopsin photocycle. (uab.cat)
  • abstract = "Arginine-82 (R82) of bacteriorhodopsin (bR) has long been recognized as an important residue due to its absolute conservation in the archaeal rhodopsins and the effects of R82 mutations on the photocycle and proton release. (syr.edu)
  • We chose bacteriorhodopsin (BR), a light-driven proton pump, because it represents one of the most extensively studied membrane proteins ( 22 , 23 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • The BioScope Resolve has also been able to obtain submolecular resolution of membrane proteins such as bacteriorhodopsin, or bR, using PeakForce Tapping - as shown in the image below. (bruker.com)
  • The role of Asp85 in maintaining bacteriorhodopsin structure has been analyzed by infrared spectroscopy, electric light scattering and differential scanning calorimetry. (elsevier.com)
  • Therefore, we applied visible and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) microspectroscopy with microsecond time resolution to compare the photoreaction of a single bacteriorhodopsin crystal to that of bacteriorhodopsin residing in the native purple membrane. (ac.be)
  • We describe an application of SVD-SM (analogous to PCA-SM) to the determination of the spectra of the intermediates in the bacteriorhodopsin photocycle. (pnas.org)
  • To obtain high quality time-resolved ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) spectra of transient intermediates in the bacteriorhodopsin (BR) photocycle, we developed a new UVRR spectrometer. (hindawi.com)
  • Using this type of cryo-EM, we analyzed the structure of bacteriorhodopsin , which was analyzed for the first time by Henderson and Unwin, pioneers in electron crystallography, (17) together with the loop regions and lipid molecules at a resolution of 3.0 [Angstrom]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • For instance, light-activated excitation of rhodopsin ( bacteriorhodopsin ) molecules, involved in the hyperpolarization process of the cell membrane, can either generate nerve impulses, ATP synthesis, or regulate embryogenesis [1-5]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A group of biophysicists from Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT) and their international colleagues have studied the crystallization of molecules of the membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin. (eurekalert.org)
  • CD spectra and decay of polarized flash-induced photodichroism of bacteriorhodopsin indicated that BR molecules are monomers in reconstituted membranes with a lipid/BR molar ratio of 80 (80-rec) and are 25% monomers and 75% trimers plus oligomers of trimers when the lipid/BR ratio is 40 (40-rec). (mcw.edu)
  • Cleavage of the signal peptide, the first 13 amino acids at the N-terminus, and the conversion of residue Gln14 to pyroglutamate Removal of residue Asp262 at the C-terminus Bacteriorhodopsin molecule is purple and is most efficient at absorbing green light (in the wavelength range 500-650 nm). (wikipedia.org)
  • The conductance increases exponentially with temperature increase with an activation energy of 47 meV, comparable to the charging energy of a bacteriorhodopsin molecule. (elsevier.com)
  • This argues for the interactions of Asp115 with Leu87 (via water molecule) and Thr90 as key elements for the effective and vectorial proton path between Asp96 and the SB, in the cytoplasmic half of bacteriorhodopsin. (uab.cat)
  • In this review, we highlight the use of directed evolution to optimize photoactive proteins, with an emphasis on bacteriorhodopsin (BR), for device applications. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The picosecond fluorescence kinetics of tryptophan residues in bacteriorhodopsin (bR) and some perturbed analogues are measured to study the different tryptophan environments and their changes upon metal cation removal, partial delipidation, retinal removal, and M412 trapping. (spie.org)
  • A. Matveetz, S. V. Chekalin, and A. V. Sharkov, "Molecular dynamics of primary photoprocesses in bacteriorhodopsin: subpicosecond study of absorption and luminescence kinetics," J. Opt. (osapublishing.org)
  • 17] L.M. Shamansky, K.M. Luong, D. Han, E.L. Chroniser, Photohnduced Kinetics of Bacteriorhodopsin in a Dried Xerogel Glass. (bmmj.org)
  • Time-resolved microspectroscopy on a single crystal of bacteriorhodopsin reveals lattice-induced differences in the photocycle kinetics. (ac.be)
  • Tunable photocycle kinetics of a hybrid bacteriorhodopsin/quantum dot " by Terianna J. Wax, Jordan A. Greco et al. (tsinghuajournals.com)
  • Terianna J. Wax,Jordan A. Greco,Shutang Chen,Nicole L. Wagner,Jing Zhao,Robert R. Birge, Tunable photocycle kinetics of a hybrid bacteriorhodopsin/quantum dot system. (tsinghuajournals.com)
  • Bacteriorhodopsin (bR), the simplest and most studied proton pump, moves protons from low to high concentration by harnessing light energy, creating the transmembrane electrochemical gradient (Lanyi 2006). (jbsdonline.com)
  • Bacteriorhodopsin is a membrane protein that harvests the energy content from light to transport protons out of the cell against a transmembrane potential. (psi.ch)
  • Bacteriorhodopsin harvests light to pump protons across an energy transducing biological membrane, a second mechanism by which sunlight is converted into chemical energy in living cells. (gu.se)
  • it uses a single protein, bacteriorhodopsin, in which light energy is absorbed by retinal, a form of vitamin A, to activate a proton (hydrogen ion). (britannica.com)
  • In another innovative approach, artificially prepared vesicles known as liposomes were assembled on a quartz crystal microbalance via layer-by-layer growth using the membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin as a binding reagent. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We used atomic force microscopy with modified ultrashort cantilevers, optimized for 1-microsecond resolution, to reexamine the unfolding of the model membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin. (colorado.edu)
  • However, among the most promising approaches, and the focus of this particular web page, is 3-Dimensional Optical RAM storage using the light sensitive protein bacteriorhodopsin. (final-yearproject.com)
  • One such system includes quantum dots (QDs) coupled with the photoactive protein, bacteriorhodopsin (BR), which has been explored in developing enhanced photovoltaic devices. (tsinghuajournals.com)
  • H. salinarum express the membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin which acts as a light-driven proton pump. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bashford, "pK[alpha] calculations suggest storage of an excess proton in a hydrogen-bonded water network in bacteriorhodopsin ," Journal of Molecular Biology, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Characterization of proline-containing alpha-helix (helix F model of bacteriorhodopsin ) by molecular dynamics studies. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Combined quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) calculations and molecular dynamics simulations of bacteriorhodopsin (bR) in the membrane matrix have been carried out to determine the factors that make significant contributions to the opsin shift. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Molecular modeling of the retinal analogs and bacteriorhodopsin allowed enhanced visualization of the structures and predictions of potentially labeled amino acids . (musc.edu)
  • A functional protein of bacteriorhodopsin has been employed for an approach to develop molecular single-electron transistors. (elsevier.com)
  • Molecular organization and dynamics in bacteriorhodopsin-rich reconstituted membranes: discrimination of lipid environments by the oxygen transport parameter using a pulse ESR spin-labeling technique. (mcw.edu)
  • Molecular organization and dynamics in protein-rich membranes have been studied by investigating transport (diffusion-concentration product) of molecular oxygen at various locations in reconstituted membranes of bacteriorhodopsin (BR) and L-alpha-dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine. (mcw.edu)
  • Bacteriorhodopsin has a broad excitation spectrum. (wikipedia.org)
  • a) After optical excitation the first excited singlet state S1 of bacteriorhodopsin is observed via its fluorescence and absorption properties. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • These initial studies indicated the utility of mass spectrometry in identification of labeled amino acids.Analysis of the three available tritiated , photoactivatable retinal analogs that formed acceptable bacteriorhodopsin analog pigments by two different techniques showed no significant labeling of bacteriorhodopsin . (musc.edu)
  • Several modifications are suggested that should increase the likelihood of success for photo affinity labeling of bacteriorhodopsin with subsequent analysis by mass spectrometry . (musc.edu)
  • The hydration and dynamics of purple membranes (PM) containing the bacteriorhodopsin (BR) triple mutant D96G/F171C/F219L were investigated by neutron diffraction coupled with H(2)O/D(2)O exchange and by energy-resolved neutron scattering. (mysciencework.com)
  • Both electric dipoles - the permanent dipole moment and the electric polarizability - have drastically lower values for the membranes containing D85T variant of bacteriorhodopsin. (elsevier.com)
  • Bacteriorhodopsin is composed of seven α-helix segments, which span the membrane and are joined together by short amino-acid chains. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Here we show that we can engineer a transition between distinct distorted helix conformations in bacteriorhodopsin with a single-point mutation. (rcsb.org)
  • Helix deformation is coupled to vectorial proton transport in the photocycle of bacteriorhodopsin, Nature 406 , 645-648 (2000). (gu.se)
  • Pavale, Hanmant M. (1997) Photoactive bacteriorhodopsin variants Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 49 (1). (ias.ac.in)
  • Purple membrane contains crystalline patches of a retinal protein called bacteriorhodopsin. (metu.edu.tr)
  • The method, singular value decomposition with self-modeling (SVD-SM), is tested on simulated difference spectra designed to mimic the photocycle of the Asp-96 → Asn mutant of bacteriorhodopsin. (pnas.org)
  • Proton channel hydration and dynamics of a bacteriorhodopsin triple mutant with an M-state-like conformation. (mysciencework.com)
  • In comparison with the wild type bacteriorhodopsin, the mutant protein D85T shows a different conformation, electric dipole moments and decreased thermal stability. (elsevier.com)
  • Solid-state 13 C MAS NMR spectra were obtained for dark-adapted bacteriorhodopsin (bR) labeled with [4′− 13 C]Tyr. (elsevier.com)
  • Bacteriorhodopsin is a protein used by Archaea, most notably by haloarchaea, a class of the Euryarchaeota. (wikipedia.org)
  • By expressing bacteriorhodopsin, the archaea cells are able to synthesise ATP in the absence of a carbon source. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteriorhodopsin is a prokaryotic protein present in archaea. (ukessays.com)
  • As arqueas ( Archaea , do grego ἀρχαῖα 'os antigos') son un grupo de microorganismos unicelulares de morfoloxía procariótica (sen núcleo nin, en xeral, orgánulos membranosos internos), que forman un dos tres grandes dominios dos seres vivos, e que son diferentes das bacterias . (wikipedia.org)
  • As Archaea divídense en cinco filos recoñecidos, pero pénsase que poden haber máis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Films made of the halobacterial photochrome bacteriorhodopsin (BR) can be used in a number of holographic real-time applications. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Therefore, this single amino acid mutation not only changes bacteriorhodopsin function, converting the protein into a halorhodopsin-like chloride pump, but it also alters its overall conformation and surface electric state. (elsevier.com)
  • The objective of these studies was to further defme the amino acids of bacteriorhodopsin in close proximity to the ring end of retinal by labeling them using a retinal analog modified to contain a photoactivatable group . (musc.edu)
  • Th?e atomic structure of the light-driven ion pump bacteriorhodopsin and the surrounding lipid matrix was determined by X-ray diffraction of crystals grown in cubic lipid phase. (nih.gov)
  • Recently, we developed a concise method for quantitatively evaluating lipid-MP interactions and applied it to bacteriorhodopsin (bR), a halobacterial MP that forms trimers and acts as a light-driven proton pump. (elsevier.com)
  • Furthermore, ATP synthase activities induced by ΔpH/ΔΨ transitions were independent of bacteriorhodopsin or anionic lipid levels. (vtt.fi)
  • ATP synthesis by the F0F1 ATP synthase from thermophilic Bacillus PS3 reconstituted into liposomes with bacteriorhodopsin: 2. (vtt.fi)
  • The cytoplasmic surface of bacteriorhodopsin is characterized by a group of carboxylates that function as a proton attractive domain [Checover, S., Nachliel, E., Dencher, N. A., and Gutman, M. (1997) Biochemistry 36, 13919-13928]. (nih.gov)
  • The nine stages are: bR + photon → K ⇌ L ⇌ M1 ⇌ M2 ⇌ M2' ⇌ N ⇌ N' ⇌ O ⇌ bR Bacteriorhodopsin in the ground state absorbs a photon and the retinal changes isomerization from all-trans 15-anti to the strained 13-cis 15-anti in the K state. (wikipedia.org)
  • In bacteriorhodopsin (bR), the effects of the protein environment are crucial to assure high rate and outstanding bond selectivity of isomerization. (epfl.ch)
  • Aborted double bicycle-pedal isomerization with hydrogen bond breaking is the primary event of bacteriorhodopsin proton pumping. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Retinal isomerization in bacteriorhodopsin captured by a femtosecond x-ray laser. (gu.se)
  • Activation and translocation of bacteriorhodopsin are considered to be fast, but proton dissociation and association steps are considered to be slow. (metu.edu.tr)
  • Mass spectrometric analysis of cleavage fragments of bacteriorhodopsin identified 49% of the protein . (musc.edu)
  • Eight potentially photoactivatable retinal analogs were characterized and thoroughly examined as bacteriorhodopsin analog pigments thus identifying those analogs that were most similar to the native retinal . (musc.edu)
  • The previously published reports of labeling of bacteriorhodopsin were evaluated suggesting that only one** of the retinal analogs was in the retinal binding site . (musc.edu)
  • The results of this work indicate that the specific interactions existing between the transmembrane segments induce different types of helical conformations in native bacteriorhodopsin. (uab.cat)
  • It was demonstrated that this was the maximal ΔpH attainable at 40°C in reconstituted proteoliposomes, due to the feedback inhibition of bacteriorhodopsin by the proton gradient it generates. (vtt.fi)
  • Bacteriorhodopsin (BR) is a 7-alpha helical, transmembrane protein that acts as a light-driven proton pump. (mh-hannover.de)
  • Reconstitutions with mixtures of native and impaired bacteriorhodopsin (Asp96→Asn mutated bacteriorhodopsin) further demonstrated that this increase in the coupling efficiency could not be related to protein-protein interactions but rather to bacteriorhodopsin donating H + to the ATP synthase. (vtt.fi)
  • Rhodopsin exists as a monomer within the membrane of rod cells whereas bacteriorhodopsin in its wild type state is in a trimer of 3 identical protein chains each rotated 120° relative to the others. (ukessays.com)
  • Inada, M , Kinoshita, M & Matsumori, N 2019, ' Archaeal Glycolipid S-TGA-1 Is Crucial for Trimer Formation and Photocycle Activity of Bacteriorhodopsin ', ACS Chemical Biology . (elsevier.com)
  • The atomic resolution capabilities of FastScan BioAFM are demonstrated in this image of Bacteriorhodopsin trimer structure. (bruker.com)
  • First individual bacteriorhodopsin monomers were partially unfolded and extracted from the purple membrane by pulling at the C-terminal end with an AFM tip. (monash.edu)
  • Bacteriorhodopsin and rhodopsin have no detectable sequence homology to one another, however due to the similarity of their tertiary structures it is believed they are evolutionarily related. (ukessays.com)
  • The determination of the intermediate state structures of the bacteriorhodopsin photocycle has lead to an unprecedented level of understanding of the catalytic process exerted by a membrane protein. (ac.be)
  • Ralph Thoma , Michael Dratz, Norbert A. Hampp , "All-optical nonlinear holographic correlation using bacteriorhodopsin films," Optical Engineering 34(5), (1 May 1995). (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • The correlation between the rate of ATP synthesis and light-induced proton flux was investigated in proteoliposomes reconstituted with bacteriorhodopsin and ATP synthase from thermophilic Bacillus PS3. (vtt.fi)
  • Increasing the amount of negatively charged phospholipids in the proteoliposomes also increased the coupling efficiency between bacteriorhodopsin and ATP synthase at a constant transmembrane pH gradient. (vtt.fi)
  • These observations were interpreted as indicating that, in bacteriorhodopsin/ATP synthase, proteoliposomes, a localized pathway for coupling light-driven H + transport by bacteriorhodopsin to ATP synthesis by F 0 F 1 might exist under specific experimental conditions. (vtt.fi)
  • The experiments characterize the development of all the stages of the initial conformation of bacteriorhodopsin (BR) from the excited state BR* through primary photoproduct J to the intermediate K . (osapublishing.org)
  • Upon illumination, bacteriorhodopsin undergoes a reversible photoreaction in which a proton is released on one side of the membrane and a proton is bound on the other side, thus resulting in an electro-chemical gradient across the membrane. (metu.edu.tr)
  • The primary processes of the photochemical cycle of light-adapted bacteriorhodopsin (BR) were studied by various experimental techniques with a time resolution of 5 × 10-13 s. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • After photoexcitation of light-adapted bacteriorhodopsin, the transient infrared absorption was probed in a broad spectral region, including vibrations with dominant C-C, C=C, and C=NH stretching mode amplitude. (sciencemag.org)
  • Bacteriorhodopsin belongs to the microbial rhodopsin family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microbial rhodopsins function as phototaxis receptors (sensory rhodopsin), light-driven proton or chloride ion transporters ( bacteriorhodopsin and halorhodopsin) [2, 3, 5, 6, 8]. (thefreedictionary.com)

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